Science.gov

Sample records for acreage environment specifications

  1. Vibration Response Predictions for Heavy Panel Mounted Components from Panel Acreage Environment Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Phillip; Frady, Greg; Duvall, Lowery; Fulcher, Clay; LaVerde, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of new launch vehicles in the Aerospace industry often relies on response measurements taken from previously developed vehicles during various stages of liftoff and ascent, and from wind tunnel models. These measurements include sound pressure levels, dynamic pressures in turbulent boundary layers and accelerations. Rigorous statistical scaling methods are applied to the data to derive new environments and estimate the performance of new skin panel structures. Scaling methods have proven to be reliable, particularly for designs similar to the vehicles used as the basis for scaling, and especially in regions of smooth acreage without exterior protuberances or heavy components mounted to the panel. To account for response attenuation of a panel-mounted component due to its apparent mass at higher frequencies, the vibroacoustics engineer often reduces the acreage vibration according to a weight ratio first suggested by Barrett. The accuracy of the reduction is reduced with increased weight of the panel-mounted component, and does not account for low-frequency amplification of the component/panel response as a system. A method is proposed that combines acreage vibration from scaling methods with finite element analysis to account for the frequency-dependent dynamics of heavy panel-mounted components. Since the acreage and mass-loaded skins respond to the same dynamic input pressure, such pressure may be eliminated in favor of a frequency-dependent scaling function applied to the acreage vibration to predict the mass-loaded panel response. The scaling function replaces the Barrett weight ratio, and contains all of the dynamic character of the loaded and unloaded skin panels. The solution simplifies for spatially uncorrelated and fully correlated input pressures. Since the prediction uses finite element models of the loaded and unloaded skins, a rich suite of response data are available to the design engineer, including interface forces, stress and strain

  2. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology: Results from Acreage and Integrated Seams Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2016-01-01

    This invited talk will give a brief overview of the integrated heat-shield system design that requires seams and the extreme environment conditions that HEEET should be demonstrated to be capable of thermal performance without fail. We have tested HEEET across many different facilities and at conditions that are extreme. The presentation will highlight the performance of both the acreage as well as integrated seam at these conditions. The Invite talks are 10 min and hence this presentation will be short.

  3. Determining crop acreage estimates for specific winter crops using shape attributes from sequential MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potgieter, A. B.; Lawson, K.; Huete, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    There are increasing societal and plant industry demands for more accurate, objective and near real-time crop production information to meet both economic and food security concerns. The advent of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite platform has augmented the capability of satellite-based applications to monitor large agricultural areas at acceptable pixel scale, cost and accuracy. Fitting parametric profiles to growing season vegetation index time series reduces the volume of data and provides simple quantitative parameters that relates to crop phenology (sowing date, flowering). In this study, we modelled various Gaussian profiles to time sequential MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) images over winter crops in Queensland, Australia. Three simple Gaussian models were evaluated in their effectiveness to identify and classify various winter crop types and coverage at both pixel and regional scales across Queensland's main agricultural areas. Equal to or greater than 93% classification accuracies were obtained in determining crop acreage estimates at pixel scale for each of the Gaussian modelled approaches. Significant high to moderate correlations (log-linear transformation) were also obtained for determining total winter crop (R2 = 0.93) areas as well as specific crop acreage for wheat (R2 = 0.86) and barley (R2 = 0.83). Conversely, it was much more difficult to predict chickpea acreage (R2 ≤ 0.26), mainly due to very large uncertainties in survey data. The quantitative approach utilised here further had additional benefits of characterising crop phenology in terms of length of growing season and providing regression diagnostics of how well the fitted profiles matched the EVI time series. The Gaussian curve models utilised here are novel in application and therefore will enhance the use and adoption of remote sensing technologies in targeted agricultural application. With innate simplicity and accuracies comparable to other

  4. 7 CFR 718.102 - Acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1412 of this title must report the acreage of fruits and vegetables planted for harvest on a farm... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.102 Acreage reports. (a) In order to be eligible for...

  5. 7 CFR 718.102 - Acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1412 of this title must report the acreage of fruits and vegetables planted for harvest on a farm... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.102 Acreage reports. (a) In order to be eligible for...

  6. 7 CFR 718.102 - Acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS... accurate information as required by these provisions. (b)(1) Participants in the programs governed by part... must report the acreage planted to a commodity for harvest for which a marketing assistance loan...

  7. 43 CFR 3901.20 - Acreage limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acreage limitations. 3901.20 Section 3901.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage...

  8. 7 CFR 718.107 - Acreages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... area delineated on an aerial photograph or within a GIS, such acreage will be recognized by the county... boundaries not visible on the aerial photograph are established from data furnished by the producer,...

  9. 25 CFR 172.1 - Acreage designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRAINAGE WORKS OF MIDDLE RIO GRANDE CONSERVANCY DISTRICT, NEW MEXICO § 172.1 Acreage designated. Pursuant... Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District of New Mexico and the United States under date of December 14...

  10. 7 CFR 718.108 - Measuring acreage including skip row acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS... production planting techniques. (d) The Deputy Administrator has the discretionary authority to allow row...

  11. 7 CFR 718.111 - Notice of measured acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of measured acreage. 718.111 Section 718.111... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.111 Notice of measured acreage. Notice of measured acreage shall be provided by FSA and mailed to the farm operator. This notice shall constitute...

  12. 7 CFR 718.111 - Notice of measured acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of measured acreage. 718.111 Section 718.111... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.111 Notice of measured acreage. Notice of measured acreage shall be provided by FSA and mailed to the farm operator. This notice shall constitute...

  13. 7 CFR 718.111 - Notice of measured acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of measured acreage. 718.111 Section 718.111... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.111 Notice of measured acreage. Notice of measured acreage shall be provided by FSA and mailed to the farm operator. This notice shall constitute...

  14. 7 CFR 718.111 - Notice of measured acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of measured acreage. 718.111 Section 718.111... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.111 Notice of measured acreage. Notice of measured acreage shall be provided by FSA and mailed to the farm operator. This notice shall constitute...

  15. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation of prevented planted acreage. 760.815....815 Calculation of prevented planted acreage. (a) When determining losses under this part, prevented..., or NAP covered crops, as applicable, disaster payments under this part for prevented planted acreage...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prevented planting acreage. 1437.201 Section 1437.201... Determining Coverage for Prevented Planted Acreage § 1437.201 Prevented planting acreage. (a) In addition to... determining losses under this section: (1) Producers must be prevented from planting more than 35 percent of...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.66 - Acreage and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acreage and production reports. 1412.66 Section 1412... Reduction in Payments § 1412.66 Acreage and production reports. (a) As a condition of eligibility for... production, no later than the acreage reporting date for the crop in the year immediately following the...

  18. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prevented planted and failed acreage. 718.103 Section... APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.103 Prevented planted and failed acreage. (a) Prevented planting is the inability to plant an eligible crop with proper...

  19. 7 CFR 1412.66 - Acreage and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acreage and production reports. 1412.66 Section 1412... Reduction in Payments § 1412.66 Acreage and production reports. (a) As a condition of eligibility for... under subpart G of this part, must accurately submit a report of production, no later than the acreage...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.66 - Acreage and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acreage and production reports. 1412.66 Section 1412... Reduction in Payments § 1412.66 Acreage and production reports. (a) As a condition of eligibility for... under subpart G of this part, must accurately submit a report of production, no later than the acreage...

  1. LACIE large area acreage estimation. [United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A sample wheat acreage for a large area is obtained by multiplying its small grains acreage estimate as computed by the classification and mensuration subsystem by the best available ratio of wheat to small grains acreages obtained from historical data. In the United States, as in other countries with detailed historical data, an additional level of aggregation was required because sample allocation was made at the substratum level. The essential features of the estimation procedure for LACIE countries are included along with procedures for estimating wheat acreage in the United States.

  2. LACIE large area acreage estimation. [United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A sample wheat acreage for a large area is obtained by multiplying its small grains acreage estimate as computed by the classification and mensuration subsystem by the best available ratio of wheat to small grains acreages obtained from historical data. In the United States, as in other countries with detailed historical data, an additional level of aggregation was required because sample allocation was made at the substratum level. The essential features of the estimation procedure for LACIE countries are included along with procedures for estimating wheat acreage in the United States.

  3. Estimating Genotype- and Environment-Specific Heritabilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The advantages of computing genotype- and environment-specific heritabilities are discussed. A statistical approach is used in which logvariances of both genotype by environment interaction and error are modeled as random variables. Resulting estimators of variances are weighted averages of a pool...

  4. 43 CFR 4110.4-2 - Decrease in land acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decrease in land acreage. 4110.4-2 Section 4110.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.4-2 Decrease in land acreage. (a) Where there is a decrease in public...

  5. 43 CFR 4110.4-1 - Additional land acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional land acreage. 4110.4-1 Section 4110.4-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.4-1 Additional land acreage. When lands outside designated allotments...

  6. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  7. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  8. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... failed acreage. (a) Prevented planting is the inability to plant an eligible crop with proper equipment... the crop; (2) Occurred before the final planting date for the crop in the applicable crop year or, in... the producer's intent to plant the crop acreage and possession of, or access to, resources to plant...

  9. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... saltwater intrusion of an irrigation supply resulting from drought conditions. (h) For NAP covered crops..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760... planted acreage will be considered separately from planted acreage of the same crop. (b) For insured crops...

  10. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 Through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  11. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  12. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 Through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  13. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  15. Specification of ISS Plasma Environment Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Neergaard, Linda F.; Bui, Them H.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Barsamian, H.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Quantifying spacecraft charging risks and associated hazards for the International Space Station (ISS) requires a plasma environment specification for the natural variability of ionospheric temperature (Te) and density (Ne). Empirical ionospheric specification and forecast models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model typically only provide long term (seasonal) mean Te and Ne values for the low Earth orbit environment. This paper describes a statistical analysis of historical ionospheric low Earth orbit plasma measurements from the AE-C, AE-D, and DE-2 satellites used to derive a model of deviations of observed data values from IRI-2001 estimates of Ne, Te parameters for each data point to provide a statistical basis for modeling the deviations of the plasma environment from the IRI model output. Application of the deviation model with the IRI-2001 output yields a method for estimating extreme environments for the ISS spacecraft charging analysis.

  16. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  17. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  18. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  19. Specification of the ISS Plasma Environment Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Neergaard, Linda F.; Bui, Them H.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Barsamian, H.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the spacecraft charging risks and corresponding hazards for the International Space Station (ISS) requires a plasma environment specification describing the natural variability of ionospheric temperature (Te) and density (Ne). Empirical ionospheric specification and forecast models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model typically only provide estimates of long term (seasonal) mean Te and Ne values for the low Earth orbit environment. Knowledge of the Te and Ne variability as well as the likelihood of extreme deviations from the mean values are required to estimate both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of potentially hazardous spacecraft charging environments for a given ISS construction stage and flight configuration. This paper describes the statistical analysis of historical ionospheric low Earth orbit plasma measurements used to estimate Ne, Te variability in the ISS flight environment. The statistical variability analysis of Ne and Te enables calculation of the expected frequency of Occurrence of any particular values of Ne and Te, especially those that correspond to possibly hazardous spacecraft charging environments. The database used in the original analysis included measurements from the AE-C, AE-D, and DE-2 satellites. Recent work on the database has added additional satellites to the database and ground based incoherent scatter radar observations as well. Deviations of the data values from the IRI estimated Ne, Te parameters for each data point provide a statistical basis for modeling the deviations of the plasma environment from the IRI model output. This technique, while developed specifically for the Space Station analysis, can also be generalized to provide ionospheric plasma environment risk specification models for low Earth orbit over an altitude range of 200 km through approximately 1000 km.

  20. Ion specificity of macromolecules in crowded environments.

    PubMed

    Song, Wangqin; Liu, Lvdan; Liu, Guangming

    2015-08-07

    Macromolecular crowding plays a significant role in the solubility and stability of biomacromolecules. In this work, the thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) has been employed as a model system to study the specific ion effects on the solubility of macromolecules in crowded environments of dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Our study demonstrates that crowding agents can interact with either anions or PNIPAM chains. The chaotropic anion SCN(-) interacts with dextran but does not interact with PEG. Both Cl(-) and CH3COO(-) do not interact with dextran and PEG. On the other hand, dextran can interact with PNIPAM as a hydrogen-bond donor, whereas PEG interacts with PNIPAM as a hydrogen-bond acceptor. The salting-in effect exerted by SCN(-) on PNIPAM is weakened in the crowded environment of dextran but is strengthened in the crowded environment of PEG due to the distinct anion-crowder interactions. In parallel, the salting-out effect generated by Cl(-) and CH3COO(-) on PNIPAM is weakened by the crowding of dextran but is strengthened by the crowding of PEG because of the different macromolecule-crowder interactions. Our study reveals that the ion specificity of macromolecules is altered significantly changing from dilute solutions to crowded environments.

  1. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a farm...

  2. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a farm...

  3. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a farm...

  4. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a farm...

  5. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a farm...

  6. Measurement of irrigated acreage in Western Kansas from LANDSAT images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keene, K.M.; Conley, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past four decades, irrigated acreage in western Kansas has increased rapidly. Optimum utilization of vital groundwater supplies requires implementation of long-term water-management programs. One important variable in such programs is up-to-date information on acreage under irrigation. Conventional ground survey methods of estimating irrigated acreage are too slow to be of maximum use in water-management programs. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT images permits more rapid measurement of irrigated acreage, but procedures are tedious and still relatively slow. For example, using a LANDSAT false-color composite image in areas of western Kansas with few landmarks, it is impossible to keep track of fields by examination under low-power microscope. Irrigated fields are more easily delineated on a photographically enlarged false-color composite and are traced on an overlay for measurement. Interpretation and measurement required 6 weeks for a four-county (3140 mi2, 8133 km2) test area. Video image-analysis equipment permits rapid measurement of irrigated acreage. Spectral response of irrigated summer crops in western Kansas on MSS band 5 (visible red, 0.6-0.7 ??m) images is low in contrast to high response from harvested and fallow fields and from common soil types. Therefore, irrigated acreage in western Kansas can be uniquely discriminated by video image analysis. The area of irrigated crops in a given area of view is measured directly. Sources of error are small in western Kansas. After preliminary preparation of the images, the time required to measure irrigated acreage was 1 h per county (average area, 876 ml2 or 2269 km2). ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. Evaluation of vibration specifications for acoustic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Zeronian, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    To properly design any structure, it is necessary to determine the effects of various environments, vibration, and shock on that surface. Usually the environment which has the worst effect will be used as the design criteria for comparison with the static (yield or ultimate) material allowables. Analyzing the same structure under all of the various environments can be time consuming and costly. A method was devised previously to allow for various environments to be compared to each other to select the highest load or acceleration producing environment. A technique which extends the above method and allows an additional environment, acoustic vibration, to be compared with sine, random vibration and shock environments is introduced. Furthermore, these techniques enable all dynamic environments to be added together so only a single stress analysis of the structure is needed for combined environments.

  8. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... planting crop acreage after the final planting date and during the late planting period, as determined by... planting date, production will be assigned equal to 5 percent of expected production of the applicable late... planting date, production will be assigned equal to 5 percent of expected production of the applicable late...

  9. Supply of Private Acreage for Recreational Deer Hunting in Georgia

    Treesearch

    Neelam C. Poudyal; J. M. Bowker; Gary T. Green; Michael A. Tarrant

    2012-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence the supply of private acreage for lease hunting has become increasingly important to sustaining hunting. Improving on existing studies that mostly utilized landowners’ responses from contingent surveys, we adopted a different approach to this question by analyzing 2009 market data from Georgia counties. Results from multivariate...

  10. 7 CFR 400.654 - Application and acreage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... programs, as specified in § 400.655, a producer must obtain at least catastrophic risk protection on all crops of economic significance, if catastrophic risk protection is available in the county, unless the..., Insurance Implementation § 400.654 Application and acreage report. (a) To participate in catastrophic risk...

  11. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by providing documentation of field preparation, seed purchase and any other information that shows... acreage, the area that is prevented from being planted has insufficient soil moisture for germination of seed and progress toward crop maturity because of a prolonged period of dry weather, as determined by...

  12. Evaluation of classification procedures for estimating wheat acreage in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, L. M.; Register, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the results of experiments which were performed to evaluate procedures for estimating wheat acreage in intensive test sites (ITS's) in Kansas. An analyst/interpreter (AI) selected and labeled fields from Landsat-1 satellite imagery. Statistics were generated for each selected ITS, and the imagery was classified using a maximum likelihood classifier. Various components of the classification process were tested.

  13. 43 CFR 3901.30 - Computing acreage holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computing acreage holdings. 3901.30 Section 3901.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions...

  14. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. 929.110... CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN... Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. (a) Sales or transfers of cranberry acreage shall be reported by...

  15. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. 929.110... CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN... Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. (a) Sales or transfers of cranberry acreage shall be reported by...

  16. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. 929.110... CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN... Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. (a) Sales or transfers of cranberry acreage shall be reported by...

  17. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. 929.110... CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN... Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. (a) Sales or transfers of cranberry acreage shall be reported by...

  18. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. 929.110... CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN... Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage. (a) Sales or transfers of cranberry acreage shall be reported by...

  19. Helicopter Maritime Environment Trainer: Software Product Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Manual [Reference k] 1. Set computer’s BIOS to a standard setup, disabling the cache where the Ethernet card resides (not necessary on plug and...within MatrixX are called the “Systembuild Catalog Browser” and the “Systembuild Simulation” window. To get to the catalogue browser, the user must...Systembuild catalogue browser window will now appear. This environment is very similar to the standard Microsoft Windows explorer and it allows the user to

  20. Research on rice acreage estimation in fragmented area based on decomposition of mixed pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Li, Q. Z.; Lei, F.; Du, X.; Wei, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    Rice acreage estimation is a key aspect to guarantee food security and also important to support government agricultural subsidy system. In this paper, we explored a sophisticated method to improve rice estimation accuracy at county scale and we developed our approach with China Environment Satellite HJ-1A/B data in Hunan Province, a fragmented area with complex rice cropping patterns. Our approach improved the estimation accuracy by combing supervised and unsupervised classification upon decomposition of mixed pixels model, and the rice estimation results, validated by ground survey data, showed a close relationship (RMSE~3.40) with survey figures, the estimated accuracy (EA) reached 83.74% at county level according to the sub-pixel method, and the accuracy can be increased about 12% compared to the pure-pixel method. The results suggest that decomposition of mixed pixels method has great significance to the improvement of rice acreage estimation accuracy, and can be used in mountainous and broken planting area.

  1. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for sugar...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for sugar...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for sugar...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for sugar...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for sugar...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  16. Econometric analysis of the factors influencing forest acreage trends in the southeast.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    1986-01-01

    Econometric models of changes in land use acreages in the Southeast by physiographic region have been developed by pooling cross-section and time series data. Separate acreage equations have been estimated for the three major private forestland owner classes and the three major classes of nonforest land use. Observations were drawn at three or four different points in...

  17. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted. 760.814 Section 760.814 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760.814 Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented...

  18. 77 FR 74166 - Report of Acreage, Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... prevented from planting an eligible crop as a result of natural disasters. Eligible crops are commercial... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Report of Acreage, Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance... for the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). The Report of Acreage form is being...

  19. It's all in the numbers: acreage tallies and environmental program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dale, Lisa; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly, performance measurement is being used to hold federal agencies accountable, represent environmental progress, and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental programs. The need to track measurable outputs has created a tendency to present programmatic progress solely by quantifiable data, despite the inherent complexity of natural resource management. Wetlands and fire management programs are two specific environmental arenas that have come to overemphasize the tracking of acreage numbers to validate existing policy direction. In both of these arenas, we find the definition and categorization of "countable" acres to be inconsistent and unreliable. We explore this systemic flaw for both wetlands and fire programs and describe its implications for environmental policy and natural resource management more broadly. We conclude with recommendations for improved performance measurement in these arenas.

  20. Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  1. Tropical aquatic Archaea show environment-specific community composition.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Cardoso, Alexander M; Coutinho, Felipe H; Lima, Joyce L; Pinto, Leonardo H; Albano, Rodolpho M; Clementino, Maysa M; Martins, Orlando B; Vieira, Ricardo P

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria.

  2. Family Environments, Specific Relationships, and General Perceptions of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; And Others

    Current family relationships not only form an important part of most people's social networks but also influence global perceptions of social support. Using multiple regression techniques, this study investigated the roles of students' perceptions of their family environment and the quality of specific student-parent relationships in predicting…

  3. The Cognitive Agents Specification Language and Verification Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S.; Lespérance, Y.; Levesque, H. J.

    The Cognitive Agents Specification Language (CASL) is a framework for specifying multiagent systems. It has a mix of declarative and procedural components to facilitate the specification and verification of complex multiagent systems. In this chapter, we describe CASL and a verification environment (CASLve) for it based on the PVS verification system. We give an example of a multiagent meeting scheduler application specified with CASL. To illustrate the verification system, we discuss a proof we carried out in it, namely, that all bounded-loop CASL specifications terminate.

  4. ADA Integrated Environment I Computer Program Development Specification. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    ORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET L DTIC ocT 70A 4,.. RADC-TR-81-358, Vol II (of seven) Interim Report December 1981 ADA INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT I...TYPE OF 11EP1ORT & 109R1O0 COVCRRO Interim Report ADA INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT I COMPUTER 15 Sep 80 - 15 Mar 81 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICATION a...PERFORMINGs O’qG. REPORT NIUMOER N/A 7. AUTHOR(#) 11- CONTRACT OR GRANT NUIUECRI F30602-80-C-0291 9. PERFORM0111ING ORGANIZATION NAME ANO ADORESS 10

  5. Estimating acreage by double sampling using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pont, F.; Horwitz, H.; Kauth, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Double sampling techniques employing LANDSAT data for estimating the acreage of corn and soybeans was investigated and evaluated. The evaluation was based on estimated costs and correlations between two existing procedures having differing cost/variance characteristics, and included consideration of their individual merits when coupled with a fictional 'perfect' procedure of zero bias and variance. Two features of the analysis are: (1) the simultaneous estimation of two or more crops; and (2) the imposition of linear cost constraints among two or more types of resource. A reasonably realistic operational scenario was postulated. The costs were estimated from current experience with the measurement procedures involved, and the correlations were estimated from a set of 39 LACIE-type sample segments located in the U.S. Corn Belt. For a fixed variance of the estimate, double sampling with the two existing LANDSAT measurement procedures can result in a 25% or 50% cost reduction. Double sampling which included the fictional perfect procedure results in a more cost effective combination when it is used with the lower cost/higher variance representative of the existing procedures.

  6. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  7. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  8. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  9. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  10. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  11. General multiyear aggregation technology: Methodology and software documentation. [estimating seasonal crop acreage proportions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, T. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A general methodology is presented for estimating a stratum's at-harvest crop acreage proportion for a given crop year (target year) from the crop's estimated acreage proportion for sample segments from within the stratum. Sample segments from crop years other than the target year are (usually) required for use in conjunction with those from the target year. In addition, the stratum's (identifiable) crop acreage proportion may be estimated for times other than at-harvest in some situations. A by-product of the procedure is a methodology for estimating the change in the stratum's at-harvest crop acreage proportion from crop year to crop year. An implementation of the proposed procedure as a statistical analysis system routine using the system's matrix language module, PROC MATRIX, is described and documented. Three examples illustrating use of the methodology and algorithm are provided.

  12. The use of Landsat data to inventory cotton and soybean acreage in North Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Faust, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if Landsat data could be used to improve the accuracy of the estimation of cotton acreage. A linear classification algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm were used for computer classification of the area, and the classification was compared with ground truth. The classification accuracy for some fields was greater than 90 percent; however, the overall accuracy was 71 percent for cotton and 56 percent for soybeans. The results of this research indicate that computer analysis of Landsat data has potential for improving upon the methods presently being used to determine cotton acreage; however, additional experiments and refinements are needed before the method can be used operationally.

  13. Economic evaluation of crop acreage estimation by multispectral remote sensing. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderscheid, L. V.; Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Myers, W.; Safir, G.; Ilhardt, D.; Morgenstern, J. P.; Sarno, J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photointerpretation of S190A and S190B imagery showed significantly better resolution with the S190B system. A small tendancy to underestimate acreage was observed. This averaged 6 percent and varied with field size. The S190B system had adequate resolution for acreage measurement but the color film did not provide adequate contrast to allow detailed classification of ground cover from imagery of a single date. In total 78 percent of the fields were correctly classified but with 56 percent correct for the major crop, corn.

  14. Interacting domain-specific languages with biological problem solving environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cickovski, Trevor M.

    Iteratively developing a biological model and verifying results with lab observations has become standard practice in computational biology. This process is currently facilitated by biological Problem Solving Environments (PSEs), multi-tiered and modular software frameworks which traditionally consist of two layers: a computational layer written in a high level language using design patterns, and a user interface layer which hides its details. Although PSEs have proven effective, they still enforce some communication overhead between biologists refining their models through repeated comparison with experimental observations in vitro or in vivo, and programmers actually implementing model extensions and modifications within the computational layer. I illustrate the use of biological Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) as a middle-level PSE tier to ameliorate this problem by providing experimentalists with the ability to iteratively test and develop their models using a higher degree of expressive power compared to a graphical interface, while saving the requirement of general purpose programming knowledge. I develop two radically different biological DSLs: XML-based BIOLOGO will model biological morphogenesis using a cell-centered stochastic cellular automaton and translate into C++ modules for an object-oriented PSE C OMPUCELL3D, and MDLab will provide a set of high-level Python libraries for running molecular dynamics simulations, using wrapped functionality from the C++ PSE PROTOMOL. I describe each language in detail, including its its roles within the larger PSE and its expressibility in terms of representable phenomena, and a discussion of observations from users of the languages. Moreover I will use these studies to draw general conclusions about biological DSL development, including dependencies upon the goals of the corresponding PSE, strategies, and tradeoffs.

  15. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  16. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  17. Evaluation of LISS-III and AWiFS sensor data for wheat acreage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S. B.; Bairagi, G. D.; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Crop acreage estimation is important for advanced planning and taking various policy decisions. The present study was carried out in Indore district using AWiFS sensor satellite data from sowing to maturity period as well as single date LISS-III sensor satellite data of maximum vegetation growth stage of wheat crop. The technique used for single date LISS-III data classification is complete enumeration approach based on supervised classification. While Multi-date AWiFS data classification technique is based on two-stage classification of multi-date dataset by unsupervised Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA). The acreage estimated using the LISS- III sensor data is 98.41 000'ha while using AWiFS sensor data is 105.70 000'ha. It was found that LISS - III results shows -6.89 percent underestimation as compared to AWiFS estimates. The comparison of both (LISS-III and AWiFS) sensor's acreage estimates with the actual acreage data (viz. 97.20 000'ha) shows that higher spatial resolution (LISS-III) sensor satellite data have more accuracy than low spatial resolution (AWiFS) sensor.

  18. 76 FR 42590 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563; Improving Common Acreage Reporting Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... information multiple times; and (3) Acreage reporting is inefficient and does not use Geographic Information... Comprehensive Information Management System (CIMS), which compiles common producer, program, and land... information from their farm management and precision agriculture systems for reporting production, planted and...

  19. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases...

  20. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases...

  1. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases...

  2. 43 CFR 3206.16 - Is there any acreage which is not chargeable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is there any acreage which is not chargeable? 3206.16 Section 3206.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  3. 43 CFR 3206.13 - What is the maximum acreage I may hold?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the maximum acreage I may hold? 3206.13 Section 3206.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  4. 7 CFR 718.104 - Late-filed and revised acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS... considered timely filed, if both of the following apply: (1) The crop or identifiable crop residue is in the... determined by FSA; and (2) Actual crop or residue is present in the field. (d) Revised reports shall be filed...

  5. 7 CFR 718.104 - Late-filed and revised acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS... considered timely filed, if both of the following apply: (1) The crop or identifiable crop residue is in the... determined by FSA; and (2) Actual crop or residue is present in the field. (d) Revised reports shall be filed...

  6. 76 FR 70407 - Report of Acreage, Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... eligible crop as a result of natural disasters. Eligible crops are commercial crops or other agricultural... Disaster Assistance Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION... associated with the report of acreage for the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)....

  7. Specification of the Surface Charging Environment with SHIELDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V.; Delzanno, G. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Godinez, H. C.; Jeffery, C. A.; Lawrence, E. C.; Meierbachtol, C.; Moulton, J. D.; Vernon, L.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Brito, T.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Yu, Y.; Albert, J.; Birn, J.; Borovsky, J.; Denton, M.; Horne, R. B.; Lemon, C.; Markidis, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Young, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. "space weather", remains a big space physics challenge. A recently funded project through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and microscale. Important physics questions related to rapid particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms and substorms as well as plasma waves are investigated. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics, and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. In addition to physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites are developed. Simulations with the SHIELDS framework of the near-Earth space environment where operational satellites reside are presented. Further model development and the organization of a "Spacecraft Charging Environment Challenge" by the SHIELDS project at LANL in collaboration with the NSF Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Workshop and the multi-agency Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) to assess the accuracy of SCE predictions are discussed.

  8. A specification of 3D manipulation in virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. Augustine; Furuta, Richard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the modeling of three basic kinds of 3-D manipulations in the context of a logical hand device and our virtual panel architecture. The logical hand device is a useful software abstraction representing hands in virtual environments. The virtual panel architecture is the 3-D component of the 2-D window systems. Both of the abstractions are intended to form the foundation for adaptable 3-D manipulation.

  9. Ada Integrated Environment II Computer Program Development Specification. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    No. 6, Part 2, July-August 1978. 18. Rochkind, M. J., The Source Code Control System, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-i, December 1975...TRACT (Continue an, reere side It noleearel and identfir &Y block number) The Ada Integrated Environment (AIE) consists of a set of software tools...intended to support design, development and maintenance of embedded computer software . A significant portion of an AIE includes software systems and

  10. Development of rotation sample designs for the estimation of crop acreages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycthuan-Lee, T. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The idea behind the use of rotation sample designs is that the variation of the crop acreage of a particular sample unit from year to year is usually less than the variation of crop acreage between units within a particular year. The estimation theory is based on an additive mixed analysis of variance model with years as fixed effects, (a sub t), and sample units as a variable factor. The rotation patterns are decided upon according to: (1) the number of sample units in the design each year; (2) the number of units retained in the following years; and (3) the number of years to complete the rotation pattern. Different analytic formulae for the variance of (a sub t) and the variance comparisons in using a complete survey of the rotation patterns.

  11. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  12. Can the amount of corn acreage predict fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation levels in nearby cotton?

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2009-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L., and a significant, but more sporadic, pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies showed that the cotton infestations primarily involve a fall armyworm subpopulation known as the "corn-strain" for which corn is the preferred host plant. It was suggested that the fall armyworm infesting cotton originated in corn and spread into secondary hosts as their numbers increased. In this study, high positive correlations were found between corn acreage and fall armyworm infestation levels in cotton. These occurred between areas that are either geographically close or along plausible migration pathways. Formulae were derived from scatter plot and linear regression analysis that can predict infestation levels in cotton based on corn acreage. The implications of these results for describing and predicting fall armyworm population movements are discussed.

  13. 43 CFR 402.2 - What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage. 402.2 Section 402.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.2 What lands may be sold; method of sal...

  14. 43 CFR 402.2 - What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage. 402.2 Section 402.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.2 What lands may be sold; method of...

  15. 43 CFR 402.2 - What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage. 402.2 Section 402.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.2 What lands may be sold; method of...

  16. 43 CFR 402.2 - What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What lands may be sold; method of sale; limit of acreage. 402.2 Section 402.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.2 What lands may be sold; method of...

  17. Cell type-specific properties and environment shape tissue specificity of cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Martin H.; Serrano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest mysteries in cancer research remains why mutations in certain genes cause cancer only at specific sites in the human body. The poor correlation between the expression level of a cancer gene and the tissues in which it causes malignant transformations raises the question of which factors determine the tissue-specific effects of a mutation. Here, we explore why some cancer genes are associated only with few different cancer types (i.e., are specific), while others are found mutated in a large number of different types of cancer (i.e., are general). We do so by contrasting cellular functions of specific-cancer genes with those of general ones to identify properties that determine where in the body a gene mutation is causing malignant transformations. We identified different groups of cancer genes that did not behave as expected (i.e., DNA repair genes being tissue specific, immune response genes showing a bimodal specificity function or strong association of generally expressed genes to particular cancers). Analysis of these three groups demonstrates the importance of environmental impact for understanding why certain cancer genes are only involved in the development of some cancer types but are rarely found mutated in other types of cancer. PMID:26856619

  18. SLS-SPEC-159 Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE) Revision D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    This document is derived from the former National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) document CxP 70023, titled "The Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE), Revision C." The original document has been modified to represent updated Design Reference Missions (DRMs) for the NASA Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Programs. The DSNE completes environment-related specifications for architecture, system-level, and lower-tier documents by specifying the ranges of environmental conditions that must be accounted for by NASA ESD Programs. To assure clarity and consistency, and to prevent requirements documents from becoming cluttered with extensive amounts of technical material, natural environment specifications have been compiled into this document. The intent is to keep a unified specification for natural environments that each Program calls out for appropriate application. This document defines the natural environments parameter limits (maximum and minimum values, energy spectra, or precise model inputs, assumptions, model options, etc.), for all ESD Programs. These environments are developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (MSFC organization code: EV44). Many of the parameter limits are based on experience with previous programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program. The parameter limits contain no margin and are meant to be evaluated individually to ensure they are reasonable (i.e., do not apply unrealistic extreme-on-extreme conditions). The natural environments specifications in this document should be accounted for by robust design of the flight vehicle and support systems. However, it is understood that in some cases the Programs will find it more effective to account for portions of the environment ranges by operational mitigation or acceptance of risk in accordance with an appropriate program risk management plan and/or hazard analysis process. The DSNE is not intended

  19. Two phase sampling for wheat acreage estimation. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Hay, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A two phase LANDSAT-based sample allocation and wheat proportion estimation method was developed. This technique employs manual, LANDSAT full frame-based wheat or cultivated land proportion estimates from a large number of segments comprising a first sample phase to optimally allocate a smaller phase two sample of computer or manually processed segments. Application to the Kansas Southwest CRD for 1974 produced a wheat acreage estimate for that CRD within 2.42 percent of the USDA SRS-based estimate using a lower CRD inventory budget than for a simulated reference LACIE system. Factor of 2 or greater cost or precision improvements relative to the reference system were obtained.

  20. The Role of Scaffolding in CSCL in General and in Specific Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdú, N.; Sanuy, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse if virtual forums set up in an environment specifically designed to improve collaborative learning can effectively influence students' discourse quality and learning when compared with those forums set up in a general environment. Following a coding schema based upon the set of scaffolds offered in the Knowledge…

  1. The Role of Scaffolding in CSCL in General and in Specific Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdú, N.; Sanuy, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse if virtual forums set up in an environment specifically designed to improve collaborative learning can effectively influence students' discourse quality and learning when compared with those forums set up in a general environment. Following a coding schema based upon the set of scaffolds offered in the Knowledge…

  2. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  3. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  4. Crop acreage estimation using a Landsat-based estimator as an auxiliary variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Houston, A. G.; Lundgren, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of improving upon the ground survey estimates of crop acreages by utilizing Landsat data is addressed. Three estimators, called regression, ratio, and stratified ratio, are studied for bias and variance, and their relative efficiencies are compared. The approach is to formulate analytically the estimation problem that utilizes ground survey data, as collected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Landsat data, which provide complete coverage for an area of interest, and then to conduct simulation studies. It is shown over a wide range of parametric conditions that the regression estimator is the most efficient unless there is a low correlation between the actual and estimated crop acreages in the sampled area segments, in which case the ratio and stratified ratio estimators are better. Furthermore, it is seen that the regression estimator is potentially biased due to estimating the regression coefficient from the training sample segments. Estimation of the variance of the regression estimator is also investigated. Two variance estimators are considered, the large sample variance estimator and an alternative estimator suggested by Cochran. The large sample estimate of variance is found to be biased and inferior to the Cochran estimate for small sample sizes.

  5. Specification of requirements for the virtual environment for reactor applications simulation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, S. M.; Pytel, M.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the United States Dept. of Energy initiated a research and development effort to develop modern modeling and simulation methods that could utilize high performance computing capabilities to address issues important to nuclear power plant operation, safety and sustainability. To respond to this need, a consortium of national laboratories, academic institutions and industry partners (the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors - CASL) was formed to develop an integrated Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) modeling and simulation capability. A critical element for the success of the CASL research and development effort was the development of an integrated set of overarching requirements that provides guidance in the planning, development, and management of the VERA modeling and simulation software. These requirements also provide a mechanism from which the needs of a broad array of external CASL stakeholders (e.g. reactor / fuel vendors, plant owner / operators, regulatory personnel, etc.) can be identified and integrated into the VERA development plans. This paper presents an overview of the initial set of requirements contained within the VERA Requirements Document (VRD) that currently is being used to govern development of the VERA software within the CASL program. The complex interdisciplinary nature of these requirements together with a multi-physics coupling approach to realize a core simulator capability pose a challenge to how the VRD should be derived and subsequently revised to accommodate the needs of different stakeholders. Thus, the VRD is viewed as an evolving document that will be updated periodically to reflect the changing needs of identified CASL stakeholders and lessons learned during the progress of the CASL modeling and simulation program. (authors)

  6. Irrigated acreage in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season. [Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Jaynes, R. A.; Landgraf, K. F.; Clark, L. D., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The irrigated cropland in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season was inventoried from satellite imagery. LANDSAT color infrared images (scale 1:125,000) were examined for early, mid, and late summer dates, and acreage was estimated by use of township/section overlays. The total basin acreage was estimated to be 573,435 acres, with individual state totals as follows: Idaho 234,370 acres; Utah 265,505 acres; and Wyoming 73,560 acres. As anticipated, wetland areas intermingled among cropland appears to have produced an over-estimation of irrigated acreage. According to a 2% random sample of test sites evaluated by personnel from the Soil Conservation Service such basin-wide over-estimation is 7.5%; individual counties deviate significantly from the basin-wide figure, depending on the relative amount of wetland areas intermingled with cropland.

  7. Perceived neighborhood environment and walking for specific purposes among elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeru; Ohya, Yumiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Takamiya, Tomoko; Kamada, Masamitsu; Okada, Shinpei; Oka, Kohichiro; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Nakaya, Tomoki; Sallis, James F; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has revealed the importance of neighborhood environment as a determinant of physical activity. However, evidence among elderly adults is limited. This study examined the association between perceived neighborhood environment and walking for specific purposes among Japanese elderly adults. This population-based, cross-sectional study enrolled 1921 participants (age: 65-74 years, men: 51.9%). Neighborhood environment (International Physical Activity Questionnaire Environmental Module) and walking for specific purposes (ie, transportation or recreation) were assessed by self-report. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with individuals at level 1 and neighborhoods at level 2 were conducted to examine the association between environment and walking, after adjustment for potential confounders. Access to exercise facilities, social environment, and aesthetics were associated with total neighborhood walking. Odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.23 (1.00-1.51), 1.39 (1.14-1.71), and 1.48 (1.21-1.81), respectively. Regarding walking for specific purposes, social environment and aesthetics were consistent correlates of both transportation walking and recreational walking. Environmental correlates differed by specific types of walking and by sex. Transportation walking significantly correlated with a greater variety of environmental attributes. Sex differences were observed, especially for transportation walking. Bicycle lanes, crime safety, traffic safety, aesthetics, and household motor vehicles were significant correlates among men, while access to shops, access to exercise facilities, and social environment were important among women. Specific environment-walking associations differed by walking purpose and sex among elderly adults. Social environment and aesthetics were consistent correlates of both transportation walking and recreational walking. Improving these environmental features might be effective in promoting physical activity among elderly Japanese.

  8. SLS-SPEC-159 Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE) Revision E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The DSNE completes environment-related specifications for architecture, system-level, and lower-tier documents by specifying the ranges of environmental conditions that must be accounted for by NASA ESD Programs. To assure clarity and consistency, and to prevent requirements documents from becoming cluttered with extensive amounts of technical material, natural environment specifications have been compiled into this document. The intent is to keep a unified specification for natural environments that each Program calls out for appropriate application. This document defines the natural environments parameter limits (maximum and minimum values, energy spectra, or precise model inputs, assumptions, model options, etc.), for all ESD Programs. These environments are developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (MSFC organization code: EV44). Many of the parameter limits are based on experience with previous programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program. The parameter limits contain no margin and are meant to be evaluated individually to ensure they are reasonable (i.e., do not apply unrealistic extreme-on-extreme conditions). The natural environments specifications in this document should be accounted for by robust design of the flight vehicle and support systems. However, it is understood that in some cases the Programs will find it more effective to account for portions of the environment ranges by operational mitigation or acceptance of risk in accordance with an appropriate program risk management plan and/or hazard analysis process. The DSNE is not intended as a definition of operational models or operational constraints, nor is it adequate, alone, for ground facilities which may have additional requirements (for example, building codes and local environmental constraints). "Natural environments," as the term is used here, refers to the environments that are not the result of intended human activity or intervention. It

  9. Prosthesis-User-in-the-Loop: a user-specific biomechanical modeling and simulation environment.

    PubMed

    Wojtusch, J; Beckerle, P; Christ, O; Wolff, K; von Stryk, O; Rinderknecht, S; Vogt, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel biomechanical modeling and simulation environment with an emphasis on user-specific customization is presented. A modular modeling approach for multi-body systems allows a flexible extension by specific biomechanical modeling elements and enables an efficient application in dynamic simulation and optimization problems. A functional distribution of model description and model parameter data in combination with standardized interfaces enables a simple and reliable replacement or modification of specific functional components. The user-specific customization comprises the identification of anthropometric model parameters as well as the generation of a virtual three-dimensional character. The modeling and simulation environment is associated with Prosthesis-User-in-the-Loop, a hardware simulator concept for the design and optimization of lower limb prosthetic devices based on user experience and assessment. For a demonstration of the flexibility and capability of the modeling and simulation environment, an exemplary application in context of the hardware simulator is given.

  10. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

  11. Niger, with new oil legislation, offers little drilled acreage for exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneton, A. )

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports on the Ministry of Mines and Energy of Niger has released acreage in East Niger to the international oil industry. Four blocks will be opened in a first step with no fixed time schedule for offers. The blocks are largely underexplored and are near significant oil indications. Niger, between Algeria and Nigeria, represents a transitional link between North Africa and Central Africa. The Republic of Niger, with the exception of its capital Niamey, is sparsely populated with 7 million people on a 1.3 million sq mile territory. Easy communications exist with neighboring Nigeria, Mali, and Chad. The arid climate allows for year round working conditions and easy access to opened areas.

  12. Irrigated acreage and other land uses on the Snake River Plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Goodell, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Prompted by the need for a current, accurate, and repeatable delineation of irrigated acreage on the Snake River Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Idaho Department of Water Resources Image Analysis Facility and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to delineate 1980 land use form Landsat data. Irrigated acreage data were needed as input to groundwater flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in a study of the regional aquifer system underlying the Snake River Plain. Single-date digital multispectral scanner data analyzed to delineate land-use classes. Source of irrigation water (surface water, ground water, and combined) was determined from county maps of 1975 water-related land use, data from previous investigations, and field checking. Surface-water diversions for irrigation on the Snake River Plain began in the 1840's. With the stimulus of Federal aid authorized by the Desert Land Act, Carey Act, and Reclamation Act, irrigated area increased rapidly in the early 1900's. By 1929, 2.2 million acres were irrigated. Ground water became and important source of irrigation water after World War II. In 1980, about 3.1 million acres of the Snake River Plain were irrigate: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million with ground water, and 0.1 million with combined surface and ground water. About 5.2 million acres (half of the plain) are undeveloped rangeland, 1.0 million acres (one-tenth) are classified as barren. The remaining land is a mixture of dryland agriculture, water bodies, wetland, forests, and urban areas.

  13. Impacts of prior land use and increased corn acreage on life cycle assessment of net greenhouse gas flux

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the increased demand for corn ethanol, farmers are expected to plant the largest corn acreage in the United States since 1944. One of the main reasons for producing corn ethanol is the reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with gasoline. However, quantifying the offset of GHG emission...

  14. Expansion of the Protein Repertoire in Newly Explored Environments: Human Gut Microbiome Specific Protein Families

    PubMed Central

    Ellrott, Kyle; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Li, Weizhong; Wooley, John C.; Godzik, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit particular environments must be able to perform molecular functions that provide them with a competitive advantage to thrive in those environments. As most molecular functions are performed by proteins and are conserved between related proteins, we can expect that organisms successful in a given environmental niche would contain protein families that are specific for functions that are important in that environment. For instance, the human gut is rich in polysaccharides from the diet or secreted by the host, and is dominated by Bacteroides, whose genomes contain highly expanded repertoire of protein families involved in carbohydrate metabolism. To identify other protein families that are specific to this environment, we investigated the distribution of protein families in the currently available human gut genomic and metagenomic data. Using an automated procedure, we identified a group of protein families strongly overrepresented in the human gut. These not only include many families described previously but also, interestingly, a large group of previously unrecognized protein families, which suggests that we still have much to discover about this environment. The identification and analysis of these families could provide us with new information about an environment critical to our health and well being. PMID:20532204

  15. Being Nature: Interspecies Articulation as a Species-Specific Practice of Relating to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2013-01-01

    Rather than categorically teaching us ways to be less anthropocentric, environmental education could be about educating us of the ways in which we already are nature as human animals. In this paper, one species-specific practice of human relating to environment--interspecies articulation--is argued as one way of being nature. Interspecies…

  16. Using Content-Specific Interest To Evaluate Contemporary Science Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Daniel T.; And Others

    This paper describes a framework for studying and evaluating learning environments which contextualize school science content within a larger real-world scientific endeavor, such as carrying on a space mission. A central feature of this framework is its incorporation of recent research on content-specific personal interest. This framework was…

  17. Being Nature: Interspecies Articulation as a Species-Specific Practice of Relating to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2013-01-01

    Rather than categorically teaching us ways to be less anthropocentric, environmental education could be about educating us of the ways in which we already are nature as human animals. In this paper, one species-specific practice of human relating to environment--interspecies articulation--is argued as one way of being nature. Interspecies…

  18. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    were compared with Bureau of Estimation Statistics (BES). Out of these five different methods, wheat area that was estimated by spatial modeling and programming on visual basics has been found quite near to Bureau of Estimation Statistics (BES). But for hilly region, maximum fields were going in shadow region, so it was difficult to estimate accurate result, so frequency distribution curve method has been used and frequency range has been decided to discriminate wheat pixels from other pixels in hilly region, digitized those regions and result shows good result. For yield estimation, an algorithm has been developed by using soil characteristics i.e. texture, depth, drainage, temperature, rainfall and historical yield data. To get the production estimation, estimated yield multiplied by acreage of crop per hectare. Result shows deviation for acreage estimation from BES is around 3.28 %, 2.46 %, 3.45 %, 1.56 %, 1.2 % and 1.6 % (estimation not declared till now by state Agriculture dept. For the year 2013-14) estimation and deviation for production estimation is around 4.98 %, 3.66 % 3.21 % , 3.1 % NA and 2.9 % for the consecutive above mentioned years i.e. 2008-09, 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14. The estimated data has been provided to State Agriculture department for their use. To forecast production before harvest facilitate the formulation of workable marketing strategies leading to better export/import of crop in the state, which will help to lead better economic condition of the state. Yield estimation would help agriculture department in assessment of productivity of land for specific crop. Pre-harvest wheat acreage/production estimation, is useful to facilitate the reliable and timely estimates and enable the administrators and planners to take strategic decisions on import-export policy matters and trade negotiations.

  19. Yeast Growth Plasticity Is Regulated by Environment-Specific Multi-QTL Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Aatish; Yadav, Anupama; Zhu, Chenchen; Gagneur, Julien; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Bhanot, Gyan; Sinha, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    For a unicellular, non-motile organism like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, carbon sources act both as nutrients and as signaling molecules and consequently affect various fitness parameters including growth. It is therefore advantageous for yeast strains to adapt their growth to carbon source variation. The ability of a given genotype to manifest different phenotypes in varying environments is known as phenotypic plasticity. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that drive plasticity in growth, two growth parameters (growth rate and biomass) were measured in a published dataset from meiotic recombinants of two genetically divergent yeast strains grown in different carbon sources. To identify QTL contributing to plasticity across pairs of environments, gene–environment interaction mapping was performed, which identified several QTL that have a differential effect across environments, some of which act antagonistically across pairs of environments. Multi-QTL analysis identified loci interacting with previously known growth affecting QTL as well as novel two-QTL interactions that affect growth. A QTL that had no significant independent effect was found to alter growth rate and biomass for several carbon sources through two-QTL interactions. Our study demonstrates that environment-specific epistatic interactions contribute to the growth plasticity in yeast. We propose that a targeted scan for epistatic interactions, such as the one described here, can help unravel mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity. PMID:24474169

  20. Specific rhizobacterial resources: characterization and comparative analysis from contrasting coastal environments of Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the rhizobacterial distribution from two coasts, which show contrasting climates and geographical and geological characteristics, to secure specific microbial resources. Furthermore, rhizobacteria were characterized and the results were comparatively analyzed with reference to the characteristics of two coastal environments. For this purpose, three representative halophyte species communities native to the Dokdo Islands and the East Sea coast of Korea were selected. Partial identification of rhizobacteria showed a clear difference between each sampling site and halophyte. Furthermore, isolates were characterized by their growth properties under NaCl or pH gradients related with previous geographical, geological, and climatic studies of the Dokdo Islands and the East Sea coast. A high proportion of the East Sea isolates showed halotolerance, but a high proportion of Dokdo isolates shared halophilic traits. Meanwhile, a higher proportion of East Sea isolates grew at a wider range of pH values than those of the Dokdo Islands. The results of our study suggest that unique rhizobacterial resources developed under specific rhizospheric conditions derived from halophytes interacting with their specific environment, even within the same coastal halophytic species. Therefore, this study proposes the necessity of securing characterized and unique microbial resources to apply to specific environments for the purpose of recovering and restoring sand dunes or salt-damaged agricultural lands. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Interactions between DRD4 and Developmentally Specific Environments in Alcohol Dependence Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marie D.; Harden, K. Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Social experiences may moderate genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Consistent with this hypothesis, Park, Sher, Todorov, and Heath (2011) previously reported interactions between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and developmentally specific environments in the etiology of AD symptoms during emerging and young adulthood. Using a longitudinal cohort of n = 367 White participants followed from ages 18–27 we examine a series of similar interactions between DRD4 and developmentally sensitive contexts including childhood adversity and work and family roles. In contrast to previous results, we observed no significant interactions between DRD4 and childhood adversity. Overall, results further highlight the need for longitudinal studies of gene × environment interaction in the behavioral sciences and the difficulty of identifying candidate gene × environment interaction effects that are consistent across studies. PMID:26595480

  2. Interactions between DRD4 and developmentally specific environments in alcohol-dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Marie D; Harden, K Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2015-11-01

    Social experiences may moderate genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Consistent with this hypothesis, Park, Sher, Todorov, and Heath (2011) previously reported interactions between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and developmentally specific environments in the etiology of AD symptoms during emerging and young adulthood. Using a longitudinal cohort of n = 367 White participants followed from ages 18 to 27 years, we examine a series of similar interactions between DRD4 and developmentally sensitive contexts including childhood adversity and work and family roles. In contrast to previous results, we observed no significant interactions between DRD4 and childhood adversity. Overall, results further highlight the need for longitudinal studies of Gene × Environment interaction in the behavioral sciences and the difficulty of identifying candidate Gene × Environment interaction effects that are consistent across studies.

  3. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Idaho and Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of temporal overlays, equal and unequal prior probabilities, and independent test data are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributed are summarized: (1) Results in Missouri where temporal overlays were made, show that temporal information improved the overall classification by 10%. (2) The dates were not optimum that were overlaid. (3) Data analysis in both Missouri and Idaho indicates that the use of prior probabilities improves the overall classification rates by at least 10% overusing the assumption that the crops are all equally likely. (4) Using both procedures together indicates that overall performance can be improved by 20% over one data and equal prior probabilities. (5) Idaho data has banding problems that may have caused serious problems in the crop classification. (6) The twelve crop types in Idaho seem to be quite similar spectrally, and hence, classification is quite difficult. (7) ERTS may not contain enough information to have perfect classification, but the data may still be useful for making crop acreage estimates. (8) Remotely sensed data could be used with a regression estimator if there is a correlation between ground data and classification results. (9) Remotely sensed data could be used with a double sample model.

  4. Tissue-specific sequence and structural environments of lysine acetylation sites.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Nermin Pinar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2015-07-01

    Lysine acetylation is a widespread reversible post-translational modification that regulates a broad spectrum of biological activities across various cellular compartments, cell types, tissues, and disease states. While compartment-specific trends in lysine acetylation have recently been investigated, its tissue-specific preferences remain unexplored. Here we present a comprehensive tissue-based analysis of sequence and structural features of lysine acetylation sites (LASs) based on the recent experimental data of Lundby et al. (2012). We show that acetylated substrates are characterized by tissue-specific motifs both in linear amino acid sequence and in spatial environments. We further demonstrate that the general tendency of LASs to reside in ordered regions and, specifically, in α-helices, is also subject to tissue specific variation. In line with previous findings we show that LASs are generally more evolutionarily conserved than non-LASs, especially in proteins with known function and in structurally regular regions. On the other hand, as revealed by metabolic pathway analysis, LASs have diverse cellular functions in different tissues and are frequently associated with tissue-specific protein domains. These findings may imply the existence of tissue-specific lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crop Acreage Estimation: Landsat TM and Resourcesat-1 AWiFS Sensor Assessment of the Mississippi River Delta, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boryan, Claire; Johnson, Dave; Craig, Mike; Seffrin, Bob; Mueller, RIck

    2007-01-01

    AWiFs data are appropriate for crop acreage estimation over large, spectrally homogenous, crop areas such as the Mid-West, the Delta and the Northern Great Plains. Regression and Kappa statistics for soybean, corn, cotton, rice and sorghum produced using both the Landsat TM and AWiFS data are very similar. AWiFS data appear to be a suitable alternative or supplement to Landsat TM data for production of NASS'Cropland Data Layer product.

  6. Alcohol-specific rules, personality and adolescents' alcohol use: a longitudinal person-environment study.

    PubMed

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Deković, Maja; Meeus, Wim; Vermulst, Ad A

    2007-07-01

    To examine the bi-directional associations between providing alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' alcohol use. Further, to explore person-environment interactions, we tested whether Big Five personality traits moderate the assumed association between providing alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' alcohol use. Longitudinal data (three waves in 2 years) from 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (aged 13-16 years) were used for the analyses. Analyses were conducted on four samples: a group of older adolescents and a group of younger adolescents who already consumed alcohol, and a group of older and younger adolescents who were not drinking at baseline measurement. In general, results of structural equation modelling showed that providing clear alcohol-specific rules lowers the likelihood of drinking initiation, regardless of the age of the youngsters. Once adolescents have established a drinking pattern, the impact of parental alcohol-specific rules declined or even disappeared. Finally, the Big Five personality traits did not moderate the association between providing alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' alcohol involvement. In sum, in particular during the initiation phase of drinking, parents could prevent the drinking of their offspring, regardless of the age or personality of their youngsters, by providing clear alcohol-specific rules.

  7. Environment-specific noise suppression for improved speech intelligibility by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-06-01

    Attempts to develop noise-suppression algorithms that can significantly improve speech intelligibility in noise by cochlear implant (CI) users have met with limited success. This is partly because algorithms were sought that would work equally well in all listening situations. Accomplishing this has been quite challenging given the variability in the temporal/spectral characteristics of real-world maskers. A different approach is taken in the present study focused on the development of environment-specific noise suppression algorithms. The proposed algorithm selects a subset of the envelope amplitudes for stimulation based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel. Binary classifiers, trained using data collected from a particular noisy environment, are first used to classify the mixture envelopes of each channel as either target-dominated (SNR>or=0 dB) or masker-dominated (SNR<0 dB). Only target-dominated channels are subsequently selected for stimulation. Results with CI listeners indicated substantial improvements (by nearly 44 percentage points at 5 dB SNR) in intelligibility with the proposed algorithm when tested with sentences embedded in three real-world maskers. The present study demonstrated that the environment-specific approach to noise reduction has the potential to restore speech intelligibility in noise to a level near to that attained in quiet.

  8. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  9. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  10. Specific and sensitive detection of Alcaligenes species from an agricultural environment.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Miyo; Niwa, Masumi; Nishimura, Norihiro

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR assay to specifically detect and quantify the genus Alcaligenes in samples from the agricultural environment, such as vegetables and farming soils, was developed. The minimum detection sensitivity was 106 fg of pure culture DNA, corresponding to DNA extracted from two cells of Alcaligenes faecalis. To evaluate the detection limit of A. faecalis, serially diluted genomic DNA from this organism was mixed with DNA extracted from soil and vegetables and then a standard curve was constructed. It was found that Alcaligenes species are present in the plant phytosphere at levels 10(2)-10(4) times lower than those in soil. The approach presented here will be useful for tracking or quantifying species of the genus Alcaligenes in the agricultural environment.

  11. Specification and correlation of the sine vibration environment for Viking '75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. E.; Trummel, M.; Wada, B. K.; Pohlen, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Two Viking spacecraft will be individually launched on a new Titan IIIE/Centaur D-1T launch vehicle in August 1975. The method for the establishment of spacecraft sine vibration test levels prior to availability of any Titan IIIE/Centaur D-1T flight data by use of both computer simulations and data from previous Titan and Atlas Centaur vehicles is described. The specification level is compared with actual flight data obtained from a proof flight launch of the Titan IIIE/Centaur D-1T and a Viking dynamic simulator in January 1974. An objective of the proof flight launch was to obtain estimates of the flight loads and environments. The criteria used to minimize the structural weight that would result from an unmodified application of a sine test environment are described.

  12. [Ecological environment of cultivated Astragali radix and market specification of prepared slices].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kunzi; Liu, Jing; Hong, Hao; Guo, Baolin; Cai, Shaoqing; Chen, Hubiao

    2010-05-01

    Astragali Radix is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. The exhaustion of wild Astragali Radix has made cultivated Astragali Radix possess the commercial market of Astragali Radix. So the ecological environment of cultivated Astragali Radix should be investigated through field survey. Through investigation, we found that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus are cultivated in Hengshan mountain of Shanxi province, Longnan of Gansu province, south of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai provinces. A. membranaceus var. mongholicus is almost planted on the plain, except in Shanxi province it grows on the sunny side of the mountain. What is more, soil type, elevation, annual temperature and annual rainfall of these locations are different. So the ecological environments of cultivated location of Astragali Radix are different from each other. A. membranaceus is wild in Heilongjiang and northeast of Inner Mongolia, but the resource is drying up. It is also planted in few places of the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei, Gansu, but cultivated scope of A. membranaceus is smaller than A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.. So A. membranaceus var. mongholicus possesses large part of Astragali Radix market. In market, there exists no unified specification fro slices of Astragali Radix, and specification of prepared slices will influence the contents of chemical components. Through investigation, different kind of prepared slices can be collected and compared, this provides evidences for quality control of prepared slices. Through investigation, five different specifications of prepared slices were found in market. The distributions of some specification of prepared slices are specified, like transverseprepared slices prepared from A. membranaceus only found in Heilongjiang province. Transverse prepared slices possess half part of prepared slice market, and can be used to identify original plant of Astragali Radix. So transverse prepared slices

  13. High Resolution Millimeter Wave Inspecting of the Orbiter Acreage Heat Tiles of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Khakovsky, S.; Zoughi, r.; Hepburn, F.

    2007-01-01

    Presence of defects such as disbonds, delaminations, impact damage, in thermal protection systems can significantly reduce safety of the Space Shuttle and its crew. The physical cause of Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure was a breach in its thermal protection system, caused by a piece of external tank insulating foam separating from the external tank and striking the leading edge of the left wing of the orbiter. There is an urgent need for a rapid, robust and life-circle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) technique capable of inspecting the external tank insulating foam as well as the orbiter's protective (acreage) heat tiles and its fuselage prior and subsequent to a launch. Such a comprehensive inspection technique enables NASA to perform life-cycle inspection on critical components of the orbiter and its supporting hardware. Consequently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center initiated an investigation into several potentially viable NDT techniques for this purpose. Microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods have shown great potential to achieve these goals. These methods have been successfully used to produce images of the interior of various complex, thick and thin external tank insulating foam structures for real focused reflectometer at operating frequency from 50-100 GHz and for synthetic aperture techniques at Ku-band (12-18 GHz) and K-band (18-26 GHz). Preliminary results of inspecting heat tile specimens show that increasing resolution of the measurement system is an important issue. This paper presents recent results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting anomalies such as debonds and corrosion in metal substrate in complex multi-sectioned protective heat tile specimens using a real focused 150 GHz (D-band) reflectometer and wide-band millimeter wave holography at 33-50, GHz (Q-band).

  14. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinary team of engineers and computer scientists.

  15. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinary team of engineers and computer scientists.

  16. Plasticity and environment-specific covariances: an investigation of floral-vegetative and within flower correlations.

    PubMed

    Brock, Marcus T; Weinig, Cynthia

    2007-12-01

    , significant correlations were detected between petal traits, pistil length, and petiole length under low R:FR, in contrast to the widely held hypothesis that floral and vegetative traits are genetically independent. Finally, we detected selection for reduced herkogamy in the low R:FR light treatment. The observed correlation between functional trait groups suggest that vegetative plasticity may affect the expression of floral traits in some environments, and that environment-specific constraints may exist on the evolution of floral and vegetative traits.

  17. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    DOE PAGES

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinarymore » team of engineers and computer scientists.« less

  18. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement.

  19. A local chemical environment effect in site-specific Auger spectra of ethyl trifluoroacetate.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, H; Sisourat, N; Lablanquie, P; Penent, F; Palaudoux, J; Andric, L; Eland, J H D; Bučar, K; Žitnik, M; Velkov, Y; Hikosaka, Y; Nakano, M; Shigemasa, E

    2013-01-14

    We have investigated a local chemical environment effect on Auger spectra of ethyl trifluoroacetate (C(4)H(5)F(3)O(2)), using multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy and high-resolution electron spectroscopy. Site-specific KVV Auger spectra for each carbon atom, and for the fluorine and oxygen atoms are presented. The extent of hole localization in the final dicationic states was investigated with the help of theoretical calculations based on a two-hole population analysis. The Auger spectra have been simulated using a statistical approach. It is found that all Auger decays populate mainly localized dicationic states, with the two holes located either on the same fluorine atom or on adjacent fluorine atoms. While the decay of the F 1s hole populates exclusively the former states, the latter class of states is also populated by the decay of the C and O 1s holes.

  20. Movement Dependence and Layer Specificity of Entorhinal Phase Precession in Two-Dimensional Environments

    PubMed Central

    Reifenstein, Eric; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V. M.; Kempter, Richard; Schreiber, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    As a rat moves, grid cells in its entorhinal cortex (EC) discharge at multiple locations of the external world, and the firing fields of each grid cell span a hexagonal lattice. For movements on linear tracks, spikes tend to occur at successively earlier phases of the theta-band filtered local field potential during the traversal of a firing field – a phenomenon termed phase precession. The complex movement patterns observed in two-dimensional (2D) open-field environments may fundamentally alter phase precession. To study this question at the behaviorally relevant single-run level, we analyzed EC spike patterns as a function of the distance traveled by the rat along each trajectory. This analysis revealed that cells across all EC layers fire spikes that phase-precess; indeed, the rate and extent of phase precession were the same, only the correlation between spike phase and path length was weaker in EC layer III. Both slope and correlation of phase precession were surprisingly similar on linear tracks and in 2D open-field environments despite strong differences in the movement statistics, including running speed. While the phase-precession slope did not correlate with the average running speed, it did depend on specific properties of the animal's path. The longer a curving path through a grid-field in a 2D environment, the shallower was the rate of phase precession, while runs that grazed a grid field tangentially led to a steeper phase-precession slope than runs through the field center. Oscillatory interference models for grid cells do not reproduce the observed phenomena. PMID:24959748

  1. Sex-specific effects of developmental environment on reproductive trait expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the expression of reproductive traits provides the raw material upon which sexual selection can act. It is therefore important to understand how key factors such as environmental variation influence the expression of reproductive traits, as these will have a fundamental effect on the evolution of mating systems. It is also important to consider the effects of environmental variation upon reproductive traits in both sexes and to make comparisons with the environment to which the organism is adapted. In this study, we addressed these issues in a systematic study of the effect of a key environmental factor, variation in larval density, on reproductive trait expression in male and female Drosophila melanogaster. To do this, we compared reproductive trait expression when flies were reared under controlled conditions at eight different larval densities that covered a 20-fold range. Then, to place these results in a relevant context, we compared the results to those from flies sourced directly from stock cages. Many reproductive traits were surprisingly insensitive to variation in larval density. A notable exception was nonlinear variation in female fecundity. In contrast, we found much bigger differences in comparisons with flies from stock cages—including differences in body size, latency to mate, copulation duration, fecundity, and male share of paternity in a competitive environment. For a number of traits, even densities of 1000 larvae per vial (125 larvae per mL of food) did not phenocopy stock cage individuals. This study reveals novel patterns of sex-specific sensitivity to environmental variation that will influence the strength of sexual selection. It also illustrates the importance of comparisons with the environment to which individuals are adapted. PMID:22957145

  2. Human polyomavirus: Advantages and limitations as a human-specific viral marker in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Torrey, Jason R; Kitajima, Masaaki

    2016-11-15

    Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) cause persistent infections in organs such as kidney, brain, skin, liver, respiratory tract, etc., and some types of HPyV are constantly excreted in the urine and/or feces of infected and healthy individuals. The use of an enteric virus as an indicator for human sewage/waste contamination in aquatic environments has been proposed; HPyVs are a good candidate since they are routinely found in environmental water samples from different geographical areas with relatively high abundance. HPyVs are highly human specific, having been detected in human waste from all age ranges and undetected in animal waste samples. In addition, HPyVs show a certain degree of resistance to high temperature, chlorine, UV, and low pH, with molecular signals (i.e., DNA) persisting in water for several months. Recently, various concentration methods (electronegative/positive filtration, ultrafiltration, skim-milk flocculation) and detection methods (immunofluorescence assay, cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), integrated cell culture PCR (ICC-PCR), and quantitative PCR) have been developed and demonstrated for HPyV, which has enabled the identification and quantification of HPyV in various environmental samples, such as sewage, surface water, seawater, drinking water, and shellfish. In this paper, we summarize these recent advancements in detection methods and the accumulation of environmental surveillance and laboratory-scale experiment data, and discuss the potential advantages as well as limitations of HPyV as a human-specific viral marker in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  4. The perivascular environment along the vertebral artery governs segment-specific structural and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Boran; Alshareef, Mohammed; Prim, David; Collins, Michael; Kempner, Michael; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Eberth, John F; Rachev, Alexander; Shazly, Tarek

    2016-11-01

    The vertebral arteries (VAs) are anatomically divided into four segments (V1-V4), which cumulatively transport blood flow through neck and ultimately form the posterior circulation of the brain. The vital physiological function of these conduit vessels depends on their geometry, composition and mechanical properties, all of which may vary among the defined arterial segments. Despite their significant role in blood circulation and susceptibility to injury, few studies have focused on characterizing the mechanical properties of VAs, and none have investigated the potential for segmental variation that could arise due to distinct perivascular environments. In this study, we compare the passive mechanical response of the central, juxtaposed arterial segments of porcine VAs (V2 and V3) via inflation-extension mechanical testing. Obtained experimental data and histological measures of arterial wall composition were used to adjust parameters of structure-motivated constitutive models that quantify the passive mechanical properties of each arterial segment and enable prediction of wall stress distributions under physiologic loads and boundary conditions. Our findings reveal significant segmental differences in the arterial wall geometry and structure. Nevertheless, similar wall stress distributions are predicted in these neighboring arterial segments if calculations account for their specific perivascular environments. These findings allow speculation that segmental differences in wall structure and geometry are a consequence of a previously introduced principle of optimal operation of arteries, which ensures effective bearing of physiological load and a favorable mechanical environment for mechanosensitive vascular smooth muscle cells. Among the numerous biomechanical investigations devoted to conduit blood vessels, only a few deal with vertebral arteries. While these studies provide useful information that describes the vessel mechanical response, they do not enable

  5. Identifying specific cues and contexts related to bingeing behavior for the development of effective virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Riva, Giuseppe; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Dakanalis, Antonios; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Forcano, Laura; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Riesco, Nadine; Rus-Calafell, Mar; Sánchez, Isabel; Sanchez-Planell, Luís

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating behavior constitutes a central feature of both bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Cue exposure therapy (CET) has been proposed as an effective intervention. To determine which situations and specific cues trigger higher levels of binge craving and to use the results in the development of virtual reality scenarios in which CET could be applied with BN and BED patients. Participants were 101 outpatients, 50 with BED and 51 with BN, according to DSM-5 criteria, and 63 healthy undergraduate students who completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess binge craving. The likelihood of binge craving in the clinical group was greater when alone at home, during the afternoon/early evening and in the late evening/at night, at weekends, and at dinner time or between meals. Higher levels of craving were produced in the kitchen, bedroom, dining room, and bakery situations. With regard to the specific cues reported, the presence of and access to high calorie food and snacks was the most commonly reported cue. Although some gender differences regarding triggering factors were obtained, no statistical differences were observed between ED subtypes. BN and BED patients showed significantly higher levels of binge craving than controls in all the contexts except when feeling positive affect; in this situation, levels of craving were low in both groups. This information regarding trigger contexts and specific cues can be used to create valid and reliable virtual environments for CET. Indeed, the data from this study may serve to develop a wide range of situations with different levels of binge craving, in which the therapeutic aim is to extinguish conditioned responses and facilitate the generalization of craving extinction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Adapted Regression Estimator Method to Assess the Crop Acreage in Mengcheng County on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdiles, Herve; Dong, Qinghan; Spyratos, Sphyridon; Gallego, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Image classifications including sub pixel analysis are often used to estimate directly the crop acreage, while ground data collected during field surveys play a secondary role. This pixel counting approach often leads to a biased estimation due to non-representative selection of ground data and subjective a-priori knowledge of analysts. Instead regression estimator approach combining remote sensing information with a rigorous ground sampling can result in an accurate assessment of crop acreage. In this study to estimate the maize area, the point frame sampling approach is adapted to the strip-like cropping pattern on the North China Plain. Remote sensing information is used to perform a cost-efficient stratification from which no-agricultural areas are excluded from ground survey. This information is also included in a later stage as an auxiliary estimator in regression analysis. The results showed that the integration of remote sensing information as an auxiliary estimator can improve the confidence of estimation by reducing the variance of the estimates.

  7. Phylogeographical patterns among Mediterranean sepiolid squids and their Vibrio symbionts: environment drives specificity among sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Zamborsky, D J; Nishiguchi, M K

    2011-01-01

    Bobtail squid from the genera Sepiola and Rondeletiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) form mutualistic associations with luminous Gram-negative bacteria (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionaceae) from the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium. Symbiotic bacteria proliferate inside a bilobed light organ until they are actively expelled by the host into the surrounding environment on a diel basis. This event results in a dynamic symbiont population with the potential to establish the symbiosis with newly hatched sterile (axenic) juvenile sepiolids. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity found in populations of sympatric sepiolid squid species and their symbionts by the use of nested clade analysis with multiple gene analyses. Variation found in the distribution of different species of symbiotic bacteria suggests a strong influence of abiotic factors in the local environment, affecting bacterial distribution among sympatric populations of hosts. These abiotic factors include temperature differences incurred by a shallow thermocline, as well as a lack of strong coastal water movement accompanied by seasonal temperature changes in overlapping niches. Host populations are stable and do not appear to have a significant role in the formation of symbiont populations relative to their distribution across the Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, all squid species examined (Sepiola affinis, S. robusta, S. ligulata, S. intermedia, and Rondeletiola minor) are genetically distinct from one another regardless of location and demonstrate very little intraspecific variation within species. These findings suggest that physical boundaries and distance in relation to population size, and not host specificity, are important factors in limiting or defining gene flow within sympatric marine squids and their associated bacterial symbionts in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Multitasking: multiple, domain-specific cognitive functions in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Trawley, Steven; Law, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Multitasking among three or more different tasks is a ubiquitous requirement of everyday cognition, yet rarely is it addressed in research on healthy adults who have had no specific training in multitasking skills. Participants completed a set of diverse subtasks within a simulated shopping mall and office environment, the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). The aim was to investigate how different cognitive functions, such as planning, retrospective and prospective memory, and visuospatial and verbal working memory, contribute to everyday multitasking. Subtasks were chosen to be diverse, and predictions were derived from a statistical model of everyday multitasking impairments associated with frontal-lobe lesions (Burgess, Veitch, de Lacy Costello, & Shallice, 2000b). Multiple regression indicated significant independent contributions from measures of retrospective memory, visuospatial working memory, and online planning, but not from independent measures of prospective memory or verbal working memory. Structural equation modelling showed that the best fit to the data arose from three underlying constructs, with Memory and Planning having a weak link, but with both having a strong directional pathway to an Intent construct that reflected implementation of intentions. Participants who followed their preprepared plan achieved higher scores than those who altered their plan during multitask performance. This was true regardless of whether the plan was efficient or poor. These results substantially develop and extend the Burgess et al. (2000b) model to healthy adults and yield new insight into the poorly understood area of everyday multitasking. The findings also point to the utility of using virtual environments for investigating this form of complex human cognition.

  9. Modeling Mission-Specific Worst-Case Solar Energetic Particle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. The environment during large solar energetic particle events poses the greatest challenge to missions. As a starting point for planning and design, a reference environment must be specified representing the most challenging environment to be encountered during the mission at some confidence level. The engineering challenge is then to find plans and mission design solutions that insure safe and reliable operations in this reference environment. This paper describes progress toward developing a model that provides such reference space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels.

  10. Relationship among yield and plant specific traits on triticale Romanian varieties in Timisoara environment.

    PubMed

    Butnaru, Gallia; Sarac, Ioan; Ciulca, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    The paper assesses the behavior of triticale genotypes in the evolution of the environment in Timisoara area during 2001 - 2011. The triticale varieties and lines were bred in the Eastern part of Romania [RICIC Fundulea] with a different climate pattern than Timisoara. We intended to see the yield evolution during a long period of cultivation [10 years--3 varieties bred before 2000; Group 1] and the new genotypes bred after 2000; Group 2] cultivated during 6 - 2 years. Each year, new different varieties (in total 32) and new lines (in total 78) were also under observation. For 10 years, the best variety from the first Group was Titan [5643.2 ± 710.2 kg/ha; CV% = 39.8]. From the second Group, the highest yield average revealed Haiduc variety [6207.2 ± 715.0 kg/ha; CV% = 34.6. During 3 years of cultivation Nera, Matroz and Negoiu pointed out 7936 kg/ha, 7542 kg/ha and 7266 kg/ha respectively. Nedeea and Oda overpasses 8500 and 7500 kg/ha during 2010 - 2011 respectively. The 2011 agricultural year was improper for cereals. It was affected by high temperature, and small amounts of precipitations. Only 64.16% of the average amounts of precipitation were accumulated. In these conditions the best varieties were Gorun and Haiduc performing 7190 kg/ha and 7058 kg/ha respectively. 40% of the tested varieties yielded less than 4500 kg/ha. From the farmers' point of view the best varieties were Titan and Gorun. In terms of the eight plant traits studied in 2011, the phenotypic similarity [ps] between varieties was variable. According to obtained results, we advise the farmers to compose a complex of varieties that should be proper for their specific environment. The favorable combination for cultivation in a stable environmental condition are Gorun [7190 kg/ha] and Matroz [6863 kg/ha] with ps = 93.23% revealing a high similarity. In an unstable environment, the best variety combination for cultivation are: Titan [6025 kg/ha] and Haiduc [7058 kg/ha] [ps = 49.94%], Titan [6025

  11. Complex Visual Adaptations in Squid for Specific Tasks in Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wen-Sung; Marshall, N. Justin

    2017-01-01

    In common with their major competitors, the fish, squid are fast moving visual predators that live over a great range of depths in the ocean. Both squid and fish show a variety of adaptations with respect to optical properties, receptors and their underlying neural circuits, and these adaptations are often linked to the light conditions of their specific niche. In contrast to the extensive investigations of adaptive strategies in fish, vision in response to the varying quantity and quality of available light, our knowledge of visual adaptations in squid remains sparse. This study therefore undertook a comparative study of visual adaptations and capabilities in a number of squid species collected between 0 and 1,200 m. Histology, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), and depth distributions were used to compare brains, eyes, and visual capabilities, revealing that the squid eye designs reflect the lifestyle and the versatility of neural architecture in its visual system. Tubular eyes and two types of regional retinal deformation were identified and these eye modifications are strongly associated with specific directional visual tasks. In addition, a combination of conventional and immuno-histology demonstrated a new form of a complex retina possessing two inner segment layers in two mid-water squid species which they rhythmically move across a broad range of depths (50–1,000 m). In contrast to their relatives with the regular single-layered inner segment retina live in the upper mesopelagic layer (50–400 m), the new form of retinal interneuronal layers suggests that the visual sensitivity of these two long distance vertical migrants may increase in response to dimmer environments. PMID:28286484

  12. Carbon-14 Specific Activity Model Validation for Biota in Wetland Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T.L.; Sharp, K.J.; Benz, M.L.; Carr, J.; Killey, R.W.D.

    2008-01-15

    In many cases, contaminants, such as radionuclides, can show highly localized spatial distributions in natural systems. Therefore, a key question for environmental assessment and monitoring becomes, how can these localized distributions of contaminants in the environment lead to organism exposure, and ultimately, the potential for effects to receptor biota? To address this question, an important first step is to conduct field surveys at sites of interest to map out the spatial distribution and extent of contaminants in areas that are being occupied and utilized by resident receptor biota. Work can then be conducted to establish predictive relationships between contaminant concentrations in biota tissues and those in environmental media with which biota interact, to gain an understanding of how representative ambient contaminant concentrations are of biota exposure. The objectives of this study were: - To conduct a field survey in a wetland ecosystem to characterize the spatial distribution of carbon- 14 ({sup 14}C), a radionuclide with dynamics in natural systems that can be described using a specific activity model; and - To determine whether {sup 14}C concentrations in environmental media reflect those measured in tissues of resident flora and fauna. A detailed field campaign was carried out in summer 2001 to characterize the spatial distribution and areal coverage of {sup 14}C in Duke Swamp, a wetland ecosystem on Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site that receives {sup 14}C through releases from an up-gradient Waste Management Area (WMA), primarily through groundwater influx. Sampling of surface vegetation (dominantly comprised of Sphagnum moss) was conducted at a total of 69 locations, with complementary sampling of air, soil, fungi, aerial insects, ground-dwelling insects, amphibians, small mammals and snakes being carried out at a subset of five locations with varying {sup 14}C concentrations. Concentrations of {sup 14

  13. ENCOMPASS: A SAGA based environment for the compositon of programs and specifications, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terwilliger, Robert B.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1985-01-01

    ENCOMPASS is an example integrated software engineering environment being constructed by the SAGA project. ENCOMPASS supports the specification, design, construction and maintenance of efficient, validated, and verified programs in a modular programming language. The life cycle paradigm, schema of software configurations, and hierarchical library structure used by ENCOMPASS is presented. In ENCOMPASS, the software life cycle is viewed as a sequence of developments, each of which reuses components from the previous ones. Each development proceeds through the phases planning, requirements definition, validation, design, implementation, and system integration. The components in a software system are modeled as entities which have relationships between them. An entity may have different versions and different views of the same project are allowed. The simple entities supported by ENCOMPASS may be combined into modules which may be collected into projects. ENCOMPASS supports multiple programmers and projects using a hierarchical library system containing a workspace for each programmer; a project library for each project, and a global library common to all projects.

  14. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  15. The Los Alamos dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM) for space weather specification and forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H W; Chen, Yue; Koller, Josef; Henderson, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to assess, quantify, and predict the hazards from the natural space environment and the anthropogenic environment produced by high altitude nuclear explosions (HANE). DREAM was initially developed as a basic research activity to understand and predict the dynamics of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. It uses Kalman filter techniques to assimilate data from space environment instruments with a physics-based model of the radiation belts. DREAM can assimilate data from a variety of types of instruments and data with various levels of resolution and fidelity by assigning appropriate uncertainties to the observations. Data from any spacecraft orbit can be assimilated but DREAM was designed to function with as few as two spacecraft inputs: one from geosynchronous orbit and one from GPS orbit. With those inputs, DREAM can be used to predict the environment at any satellite in any orbit whether space environment data are available in those orbits or not. Even with very limited data input and relatively simple physics models, DREAM specifies the space environment in the radiation belts to a high level of accuracy. DREAM has been extensively tested and evaluated as we transition from research to operations. We report here on one set of test results in which we predict the environment in a highly-elliptical polar orbit. We also discuss long-duration reanalysis for spacecraft design, using DREAM for real-time operations, and prospects for 1-week forecasts of the radiation belt environment.

  16. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked, and that both are influenced by family environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The current study identifies general and substance-specific predictors of comorbid problem behavior, tobacco dependence, and alcohol abuse and dependence. Specifically, we examine the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of origin (ages 10 – 18) and family of cohabitation (ages 27 – 30) on problem behavior and alcohol- and tobacco-specific outcomes at age 33. General environmental factors include family monitoring, conflict, bonding, and involvement. Alcohol environment includes parental alcohol use, parents’ attitudes toward alcohol, and children’s involvement in family drinking. Tobacco-specific environment is assessed analogously. Additionally, analyses include the effect of childhood behavioral disinhibition and control for demographics and initial behavior problems. Analyses were based on 469 participants drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample. Results indicated that (a) environmental factors within the family of origin and the family of cohabitation are both important predictors of problem behavior at age 33; (b) family of cohabitation influences partially mediate the effects of family of origin environments; (c) considerable continuity exists between adolescent and adult general and tobacco (but not alcohol) environments; age 18 alcohol and tobacco use partially mediates these relationships; and (d) childhood behavioral disinhibition, contributed to age 33 outcomes, over and above the effects of family of cohabitation mediators. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:22799586

  17. Incorporating partially identified sample segments into acreage estimation procedures: Estimates using only observations from the current year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sielken, R. L., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Several methods of estimating individual crop acreages using a mixture of completely identified and partially identified (generic) segments from a single growing year are derived and discussed. A small Monte Carlo study of eight estimators is presented. The relative empirical behavior of these estimators is discussed as are the effects of segment sample size and amount of partial identification. The principle recommendations are (1) to not exclude, but rather incorporate partially identified sample segments into the estimation procedure, (2) try to avoid having a large percentage (say 80%) of only partially identified segments, in the sample, and (3) use the maximum likelihood estimator although the weighted least squares estimator and least squares ratio estimator both perform almost as well. Sets of spring small grains (North Dakota) data were used.

  18. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluation the Radiation Environment Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret; Howard, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Hardware design environments for NASA's Constellation Program-the Vision for Space Exploration program to design and build new vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit and the Moon and beyond-have been developed that are necessarily conservative in nature to assure robust hardware design and development required to build space systems which will meet operational goals in a wide range of space environments, This presentation will describe the rationale used to establish the space radiation and plasma design environments specified for a variety of applications including total ionizing radiation dose, dose rate effects, and spacecraft charging and will compare the design environments with "space weather" variability to evaluate the applicability of the design environments and potential vulnerabilities of the system to extreme space weather events.

  19. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)-producing B cells restore antigen (Ag)-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Sun, Ying-Xue; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2015-05-15

    Restoration of the antigen (Ag)-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment is refractory. B cells are involved in immune regulation. Whether B cells facilitate the generation of Ag-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment requires further investigation. This paper aims to elucidate the mechanism by which B cells restore the Ag-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment. In this study, a B cell-deficient mouse model was created by injecting an anti-CD20 antibody. The frequency of tolerogenic dendritic cell (TolDC) was assessed by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) was assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and methylation-specific PCR. The results showed that B cells were required in the generation of the TGF-β-producing TolDCs in mice. B cell-derived TSP1 converted the latent TGF-β to the active TGF-β in DCs, which generated TGF-β-producing TolDCs. Exposure to IL-13 inhibited the expression of TSP1 in B cells by enhancing the TSP1 gene DNA methylation. Treating food allergy mice with Ag-specific immunotherapy and IL-13 antagonists restored the generation of TolDCs and enhanced the effect of specific immunotherapy. In conclusion, B cells play a critical role in the restoration of specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment. Blocking IL-13 in an allergic environment facilitated the generation of TolDCs and enhanced the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy.

  20. 43 CFR 3503.37 - Is there a limit to the acreage of lands I can hold under permits and leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... can hold under permits and leases? 3503.37 Section 3503.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Amounts § 3503.37 Is there a limit to the acreage of lands I can hold under permits and leases? Yes. The... acres to facilitate an economic mine) None. (c) Potassium 2,560 acres 96,000 acres (larger if...

  1. D-WISE: Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment: conceptual specification and proposed evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Raza Abidi, Syed Sibte; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali

    2014-06-01

    To develop and evaluate Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that offers 1) a computerized decision-support system to assist physicians to A) use the Canadian Diabetes Association clinical practice guidelines (CDA CPGs) to recommend evidence-informed interventions; B) offer a computerized readiness assessment strategy to help physicians administer behaviour-change strategies to help patients adhere to disease self-management programs; and 2) a patient-specific diabetes self-management application, accessible through smart mobile devices, that offers behaviour-change interventions to engage patients in self-management. The above-mentioned objectives were pursued through a knowledge management approach that involved 1) Translation of paper-based CDA CPGs and behaviour-change models as computerized decision-support tools that will assist physicians to offer evidence-informed and personalized diabetes management and behaviour-change strategies; 2) Engagement of patients in their diabetes care by generating a diabetes self-management program that takes into account their preferences, challenges and needs; 3) Empowering patients to self-manage their condition by providing them with personalized educational and motivational messages through a mobile self-management application. The theoretical foundation of our research is grounded in behaviour-change models and healthcare knowledge management. We used 1) knowledge modelling to computerize the paper-based CDA CPGs and behaviour-change models, in particular, the behaviour-change strategy elements of A) readiness-to-change assessments; B) motivation-enhancement interventions categorized along the lines of patients' being ready, ambivalent or not ready; and C) self-efficacy enhancement. The CDA CPGs and the behaviour-change models are modelled and computerized in terms of A) a diabetes management ontology that serves as the knowledge resource for all the services offered by D-WISE; B) decision

  2. Colonization strategies of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1: activation of soil-specific genes important for diverse and specific environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common inhabitant of soil and the rhizosphere environment. In addition to potential applications in biocontrol and bioremediation, P. fluorescens is of interest as a model for studying bacterial survival and fitness in soil. A previous study using in vivo expression technology (IVET) identified 22 genes in P. fluorescens Pf0-1 which are up-regulated during growth in Massachusetts loam soil, a subset of which are important for fitness in soil. Despite this and other information on adaptation to soil, downstream applications such as biocontrol or bioremediation in diverse soils remain underdeveloped. We undertook an IVET screen to identify Pf0-1 genes induced during growth in arid Nevada desert soil, to expand our understanding of growth in soil environments, and examine whether Pf0-1 uses general or soil type-specific mechanisms for success in soil environments. Results Twenty six genes were identified. Consistent with previous studies, these genes cluster in metabolism, information storage/processing, regulation, and ‘hypothetical’, but there was no overlap with Pf0-1 genes induced during growth in loam soil. Mutation of both a putative glutamine synthetase gene (Pfl01_2143) and a gene predicted to specify a component of a type VI secretion system (Pfl01_5595) resulted in a decline in arid soil persistence. When examined in sterile loam soil, mutation of Pfl01_5595 had no discernible impact. In contrast, the Pfl01_2143 mutant was not impaired in persistence in sterile soil, but showed a significant reduction in competitive fitness. Conclusions These data support the conclusion that numerous genes are specifically important for survival and fitness in natural environments, and will only be identified using in vivo approaches. Furthermore, we suggest that a subset of soil-induced genes is generally important in different soils, while others may contribute to success in specific types of soil. The importance of glutamine

  3. Using Tele-Coaching to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise Delivered by Secondary Teachers in an Augmented Reality Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, Martha Denton

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of real-time feedback on teacher behavior in an augmented reality simulation environment. Real-time feedback prompts teachers to deliver behavior-specific praise to students in the TeachLivE KU Lab as an evidence-based practice known to decrease disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms. All educators face the…

  4. Using Tele-Coaching to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise Delivered by Secondary Teachers in an Augmented Reality Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, Martha Denton

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of real-time feedback on teacher behavior in an augmented reality simulation environment. Real-time feedback prompts teachers to deliver behavior-specific praise to students in the TeachLivE KU Lab as an evidence-based practice known to decrease disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms. All educators face the…

  5. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  6. Environment-specific amino acid substitution tables: tertiary templates and prediction of protein folds.

    PubMed Central

    Overington, J.; Donnelly, D.; Johnson, M. S.; Sali, A.; Blundell, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    The local environment of an amino acid in a folded protein determines the acceptability of mutations at that position. In order to characterize and quantify these structural constraints, we have made a comparative analysis of families of homologous proteins. Residues in each structure are classified according to amino acid type, secondary structure, accessibility of the side chain, and existence of hydrogen bonds from the side chains. Analysis of the pattern of observed substitutions as a function of local environment shows that there are distinct patterns, especially for buried polar residues. The substitution data tables are available on diskette with Protein Science. Given the fold of a protein, one is able to predict sequences compatible with the fold (profiles or templates) and potentially to discriminate between a correctly folded and misfolded protein. Conversely, analysis of residue variation across a family of aligned sequences in terms of substitution profiles can allow prediction of secondary structure or tertiary environment. PMID:1304904

  7. Domain-specific languages and diagram customization for a concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, B.; Dubos, G.; Banazadeh, P.; Reh, J.; Case, K.; Wang, Y.; Jones, S.; Picha, F.

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are severa

  8. Domain-Specific Languages and Diagram Customization for a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Dubos, Greg; Banazadeh, Payam; Reh, Jonathan; Case, Kelley; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Jones, Susan; Picha, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are several

  9. Domain-Specific Languages and Diagram Customization for a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Dubos, Greg; Banazadeh, Payam; Reh, Jonathan; Case, Kelley; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Jones, Susan; Picha, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are several

  10. Telecommunication system specific to high temperature environment for JAXA Mercury exploration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Tomoaki; Kamata, Yukio; Kawahara, Kousuke; Maejima, Hironori; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2014-02-01

    BepiColombo is the joint Mercury exploration program between JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) and ESA (European Space Agency). MMO (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter) is JAXA's satellite in this program. She requires a telecommunication system that survives a harsh heat environment surrounding Mercury. She will stay in a polar orbit circulating Mercury for a year for continuous observations of Mercury magnetosphere. MMO has an X-band telecommunication system. We newly developed a high gain antenna for the use of her daily operations and wider field of view antennas for critical events. They are ones directly exposed to a high temperature environment of Mercury. The remains of the telecommunication system such as a transponder and a power amplifier were selected from the heritage of our past deep space missions. These instruments are placed inside MMO where a milder environment is expected than the outside. The total telecommunication system has been designed so that it should work through the MMO mission lifetime from the launch in 2016 to the end of the mission in 2025 including an extra year of extension. The system has experienced thermal environmental tests and proved its excellent resistivity to predicted environments. We will discuss these technologies incorporated in MMO and her telecommunication system design.

  11. Seed source may determine field-specific germination and emergence: the source by planting environment interaction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farm environmental characteristics and management practices can result in within-cultivar differences in seed quality. Transgenerational plasticity (effects of the farm environment on offspring, or TGP) can be important in germination and emergence dynamics. We chose two commonly-used cultivars (Lod...

  12. Gender specific gene-environment interactions on laboratory-assessed aggression.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Joiner, Thomas E; Johnson, Frank; Bender, Theodore W

    2006-01-01

    We examined gene-environment interactive effects on aggressive behavior among men and women genotyped (short versus long alleles) for the serotonin transporter gene. Aggressive behavior was indexed via a laboratory paradigm that measured the intensity and duration of shocks delivered to a putative "employee". Half of the participants were exposed to a physical stressor during the procedure (stress) and half were not (no-stress). Participants' physiological responses were gauged via acoustic startle eyeblink reactions (startle reactivity). Results were that men with the homozygous short (s/s) genotype showed increased aggression only under stress, whereas women and men carrying the long allele did not show differences in aggression in stress versus no-stress. However, although stress exposure produced increases in startle reactivity, there were no genotype or gender differences in physiology. These results replicate longitudinal research findings confirming the interactive effects of genes and environment on behavioral reactivity and on the development of externalizing psychopathological syndromes, at least in men.

  13. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Christopher A.; Hoffman, Jackson A.; Trotter, Kevin W.; Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Bennett, Brian D.; Burkholder, Adam B.; Fargo, David C.; Archer, Trevor K.

    2016-01-01

    Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. PMID:27487356

  14. Welfare of apes in captive environments: comments on, and by, a specific group of apes.

    PubMed

    Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Wamba, Kanzi; Wamba, Panbanisha; Wamba, Nyota

    2007-01-01

    Accurately determining the proper captive environment for apes requires adequately assessing the psychological similarities between apes and humans. Scientists currently believe apes lack mental complexity (Millikan, 2006), raising questions concerning the evolution of human culture from ape-like societies (Tomasello, 1999). A long-term cultural study with bonobos suggests less intellectual divergence from humans than currently postulated (Savage-Rumbaugh, 2005). Because humans view apes as mentally limited, some current captive environments may appear idyllic while offering only an illusion of appropriate care, derived from a simplistic view of what apes are, rather than what they might be. This perception of apes determines their handling, which determines their mental development, which perpetuates the prevailing perception. Only breaking this cycle will allow the current perception of apes to change. Their usual captive environment limits any demonstration of culture. However, the bonobo study reveals what ape culture can become, which should affect future welfare considerations for at least those species genetically close to humans (bonobos and chimpanzees). Development of a languaged bonobo culture allows these nonhuman animals to provide their own responses regarding adequate ape welfare.

  15. Ultrasound in the austere environment: a review of the history, indications, and specifications.

    PubMed

    Russell, Travis C; Crawford, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the use of ultrasound has expanded because of its portability, safety, real-time image display, and rapid data collection. Simultaneously, more people are going into the backcountry for enjoyment and employment. Increased deployment for the military and demand for remote medicine services have led to innovative use and study of ultrasound in extreme and austere environments. Ultrasound is effective to rapidly assess patients during triage and evacuation decision making. It is clinically useful for assessment of pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, blunt abdominal trauma, musculoskeletal trauma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, ocular injury, and obstetrics, whereas acute mountain sickness and stroke are perhaps still best evaluated on clinical grounds. Ultrasound performs well in the diverse environments of space, swamp, jungle, mountain, and desert. Although some training is necessary to capture and interpret images, real-time evaluation with video streaming is expected to get easier and cheaper as global communications improve. Although ultrasound is not useful in every situation, it can be a worthwhile tool in the austere or deployed environment.

  16. Intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity and the built environment among Brazilian adults: a best-fit model.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Hino, Adriano A F; Hallal, Pedro C; Pratt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    There is little understanding about which sets of environmental features could simultaneously predict intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Brazilians. The objectives were to identify the environmental correlates for intensity-specific LTPA, and to build the best-fit linear models to predict intensity-specific LTPA among adults of Curitiba, Brazil. Cross sectional study in Curitiba, Brazil (2009, n = 1461). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Assessment Scale were used. Ninety-two perceived environment variables were categorized in 10 domains. LTPA was classified as walking for leisure (LWLK), moderate-intensity leisure-time PA (MLPA), vigorous-intensity leisure-time PA (VLPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time PA (MVLPA). Best fitting linear predictive models were built. Forty environmental variables were correlated to at least 1 LTPA outcome. The variability explained by the 4 best-fit models ranged from 17% (MLPA) to 46% (MVLPA). All models contained recreation areas and aesthetics variables; none included residential density predictors. At least 1 neighborhood satisfaction variable was present in each of the intensity-specific models, but not for overall MVLPA. This study demonstrates the simultaneous effect of sets of perceived environmental features on intensity-specific LTPA among Brazilian adults. The differences found compared with high-income countries suggest caution in generalizing results across settings.

  17. Specification of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere Environment Using Ensemble Kalman Filter with Orthogonal Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, H. C.; Lawrence, E. C.; Higdon, D. M.; Walker, A. C.; Linares, R.; Ridley, A. J.; Koller, J.; Klimenko, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Ionosphere-Thermosphere environment undergoes constant and sometimes dramatic changes due to solar and geomagnetic activity. Furthermore, given that this environment has a significant effect on space infrastructure, such as satellites, it is important to understand the potential changes caused by space weather events. This work presents a case study of four time periods using assimilation methods with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM). The main objective is to analyze the changes in the global upper atmospheric environment caused by extreme space weather events, including the Halloween storm, and analyze the effect on satellite drag and collision uncertainty. In particular, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) assimilation method is applied to GITM and used to incorporate observations from the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) missions. To reduce the introduction of noise into the assimilation results, we use orthogonal transformations in the EnKF to capture the dominant correlations within the model variables. In particular, we use principal component analysis technique to extract the dominant directions of variability and form a basis for an orthogonal transformation. The assimilation is performed in the space spanned by the orthogonal basis and used to adjust the model variables and parameters. The experiments show that key solar parameters, which act as proxy for solar activity, exert a significant influence in the evolution of the total atmospheric density. Furthermore, the results also show the strong correlation that exists between upper atmospheric density and solar activity. That is, the correlation is strong during solar active times, and weak during solar quiet times. Indicating that at active times the sun dominates the changes in the ionosphere-thermosphere, while at quiet times internal processes dominate the evolution of the ionosphere-thermosphere. The work is part of the

  18. Delivering Software Process-Specific Project Courses in Tertiary Education Environment: Challenges and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Guoping; Shao, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The importance of delivering software process courses to software engineering students has been more and more recognized in China in recent years. However, students usually cannot fully appreciate the value of software process courses by only learning methodology and principle in the classroom. Therefore, a process-specific project course was…

  19. Delivering Software Process-Specific Project Courses in Tertiary Education Environment: Challenges and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Guoping; Shao, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The importance of delivering software process courses to software engineering students has been more and more recognized in China in recent years. However, students usually cannot fully appreciate the value of software process courses by only learning methodology and principle in the classroom. Therefore, a process-specific project course was…

  20. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  1. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  2. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  3. Changes in Consumer Attitudes toward Broad-Based and Environment-Specific Sodium Policies—SummerStyles 2012 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Odom, Erika C.; Whittick, Corine; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in consumer attitudes toward broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, and school and workplace cafeterias from the 2012 and 2015 SummerStyle surveys. We used two online, national research panel surveys to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 7845 U.S. adults. Measures included self-reported agreement with broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, school cafeterias, workplace cafeterias, and quick-serve restaurants. Wald Chi-square tests were used to examine the difference between the two survey years and multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. Agreement with broad-based actions to limit sodium in restaurants (45.9% agreed in 2015) and manufactured foods (56.5% agreed in 2015) did not change between 2012 and 2015. From 2012 to 2015, there was a significant increase in respondents that supported environment-specific policies to lower sodium in school cafeterias (80.0% to 84.9%; p < 0.0001), workplace cafeterias (71.2% to 76.6%; p < 0.0001), and quick-serve restaurants (70.8% to 76.7%; p < 0.0001). Results suggest substantial agreement and support for actions to limit sodium in commercially-processed and prepared foods since 2012, with most consumers ready for actions to lower sodium in foods served in schools, workplaces, and quick-serve restaurants. PMID:28777339

  4. Modeling of groundwater draft based on satellite-derived crop acreage estimation over an arid region of northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Bidyut Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Paliwal, Rakesh; Jeyaseelan, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater for agricultural crops puts stress on the sustainability of natural resources in the arid region of Rajasthan state, India. Hydrogeological study of groundwater levels of the study area during the pre-monsoon (May to June), post-monsoon (October to November) and post-irrigation (February to March) seasons of 2004-2005 to 2011-2012 shows a steady decline of groundwater levels at the rate of 1.28-1.68 m/year, mainly due to excessive groundwater draft for irrigation. Due to the low density of the groundwater observation-well network in the study area, assessment of groundwater draft, and thus groundwater resource management, becomes a difficult task. To overcome the situation, a linear groundwater draft model (LGDM) has been developed based on the empirical relationship between satellite-derived crop acreage and the observed groundwater draft for the year 2003-2004. The model has been validated for a decade, during three year-long intervals (2005-2006, 2008-2009 and 2011-2012) using groundwater draft, estimated through a discharge factor method. Further, the estimated draft was validated through observed pumping data from random sampled villages (2011-2012). The results suggest that the developed LGDM model provides a good alternative to the estimation of groundwater draft based on satellite-based crop area in the absence of groundwater observation wells in arid regions of northwest India.

  5. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam and Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and its protective acreage heat tiles. Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing millimeter wave images of the anomalies in SOFI panel and heat tiles. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in two SOFI panels and a set of heat tiles. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The results clearly illustrate the utility of these methods for this purpose.

  6. Determinants of diet quality in pregnancy: sociodemographic, pregnancy-specific, and food environment influences.

    PubMed

    Nash, Danielle M; Gilliland, Jason A; Evers, Susan E; Wilk, Piotr; Campbell, M Karen

    2013-01-01

    To advance the knowledge of determinants of diet quality in pregnancy by focusing on both personal characteristics and the food environment. Cross-sectional study in which participants from the Prenatal Health Project were linked to a geographic dataset by home address. Access to fast food, convenience stores, and grocery stores was measured using a geographic information system (ArcGIS9.3). Pregnant women (n = 2,282) were recruited between 2002 and 2005 in London, Ontario, Canada. Dietary quality was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were calculated with the predictor variables on the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Pregnant women who were born in Canada, common-law, nulliparous, less physically active, smokers, more anxious, or lacking family support had lower diet quality on average. Presence of fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 500 m of participants' homes was not associated with diet quality after controlling for personal variables. The food environment does not seem to have a large influence on diet quality in pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine other potential reasons for low diet quality among pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Indoor environment and cancer: materials specifications in building construction and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Adebamowo, E

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to environmental health hazards is a continuing threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. Though reduction of environmental health hazards is one of the eight aims of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG), this aim has not received the same level of support and attention as the others. Yet it is difficult to envisage how the MDG can be attained without it. It is imperative that every nation, especially developing ones pay more attention to environmental determinants of health and disease in order to improve the quality and quantity of life of their citizens.In this paper, I review some of the building materials specified by architects and other building professionals for the indoor environment (buildings) and their impact on diseases risk, in particular, the risk of cancer. I also discuss the role of building professionals in reducing risk of cancer from exposure to unhealthy indoor environments. Some of these building materials include asbestos roofing materials, lead water pipes, chemicals in paints and granite stones. It is the duty and responsibility of building professionals to become more aware of the health implications of the materials they specify for clients and ensure that these are materials that will not contribute to an increase in the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases.

  8. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  9. Toward domain-specific design environments: Some representation ideas from the telecommunications domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, Sol; Feblowitz, Mark

    1992-01-01

    ACME is an experimental environment for investigating new approaches to modeling and analysis of system requirements and designs. ACME is built on and extends object-oriented conceptual modeling techniques and knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) tools. The most immediate intended use for ACME is to help represent, understand, and communicate system designs during the early stages of system planning and requirements engineering. While our research is ostensibly aimed at software systems in general, we are particularly motivated to make an impact in the telecommunications domain, especially in the area referred to as Intelligent Networks (IN's). IN systems contain the software to provide services to users of a telecommunications network (e.g., call processing services, information services, etc.) as well as the software that provides the internal infrastructure for providing the services (e.g., resource management, billing, etc.). The software includes not only systems developed by the network proprietors but also by a growing group of independent service software providers.

  10. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  11. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  12. A novel approach for determining environment-specific protein costs: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sajitz-Hermstein, Max; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Comprehensive understanding of cellular processes requires development of approaches which consider the energetic balances in the cell. The existing approaches that address this problem are based on defining energy-equivalent costs which do not include the effects of a changing environment. By incorporating these effects, one could provide a framework for integrating ‘omics’ data from various levels of the system in order to provide interpretations with respect to the energy state and to elicit conclusions about putative global energy-related response mechanisms in the cell. Results: Here we define a cost measure for amino acid synthesis based on flux balance analysis of a genome-scale metabolic network, and develop methods for its integration with proteomics and metabolomics data. This is a first measure which accounts for the effect of different environmental conditions. We applied this approach to a genome-scale network of Arabidopsis thaliana and calculated the costs for all amino acids and proteins present in the network under light and dark conditions. Integration of function and process ontology terms in the analysis of protein abundances and their costs indicates that, during the night, the cell favors cheaper proteins compared with the light environment. However, this does not imply that there is squandering of resources during the day. The results from the association analysis between the costs, levels and well-defined expenses of amino acid synthesis, indicate that our approach not only captures the adjustment made at the switch of conditions, but also could explain the anticipation of resource usage via a global energy-related regulatory mechanism of amino acid and protein synthesis. Contact: nikoloski@mpimp-golm.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20823325

  13. Stochastic method for determination of the organ-specific averaged SAR in realistic environments at 950 MHz.

    PubMed

    Thielens, Arno; Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    The organ-specific averaged specific absorption rate (SARosa ) in a heterogeneous human body phantom, the Virtual Family Boy, is determined for the first time in five realistic electromagnetic environments at the Global System for Mobile Communications downlink frequency of 950 MHz. We propose two methods based upon a fixed set of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations for generating cumulative distribution functions for the SARosa in a certain environment: an accurate vectorial cell-wise spline interpolation with an average error lower than 1.8%, and a faster scalar linear interpolation with a maximal average error of 14.3%. These errors are dependent on the angular steps chosen for the FDTD simulations. However, it is demonstrated that both methods provide the same shape of the cumulative distribution function for the studied organs in the considered environments. The SARosa depends on the considered organ and the environment. Two factors influencing the SARosa are investigated for the first time: conductivity over the density ratio of an organ, and the distance of the organ's center of gravity to the body's surface and exterior of the phantom. A non-linear regression with our model provides a correlation of 0.80. The SARosa due to single plane-wave exposure is also investigated; a worst-case single plane-wave exposure is determined for all studied organs and has been compared with realistic SARosa values. There is no fixed worst-case polarization for all organs, and a single plane-wave exposure condition that exceeds 91% of the SARosa values in a certain environment can always be found for the studied organs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The use of MODIS data to derive acreage estimations for larger fields: A case study in the south-western Rostov region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Massart, M.; Savin, I.; Gallego, J.; Rembold, F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent developments in remote sensing technology, in particular improved spatial and temporal resolution, open new possibilities for estimating crop acreage over larger areas. Remotely sensed data allow in some cases the estimation of crop acreage statistics independently of sub-national survey statistics, which are sometimes biased and incomplete. This work focuses on the use of MODIS data acquired in 2001/2002 over the Rostov Oblast in Russia, by the Azov Sea. The region is characterised by large agricultural fields of around 75 ha on average. This paper presents a methodology to estimate crop acreage using the MODIS 16-day composite NDVI product. Particular emphasis is placed on a good quality crop mask and a good quality validation dataset. In order to have a second dataset which can be used for cross-checking the MODIS classification a Landsat ETM time series for four different dates in the season of 2002 was acquired and classified. We attempted to distinguish five different crop types and achieved satisfactory and good results for winter crops. Three hundred and sixty fields were identified to be suitable for the training and validation of the MODIS classification using a maximum likelihood classification. A novel method based on a pure pixel field sampling is introduced. This novel method is compared with the traditional hard classification of mixed pixels and was found to be superior.

  15. The Specification of an Integrated Computer-Aided Ship Design Process in an Academic Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    specifically used by SCADS include a DEC VAX-11/732 mainframe computer, DEC VT-100 text terminals, a Visual-55( qraphics/text terminal and an IMAGEN ...and the original file is saved as NEWNAME.DAT 3--Now plot the image file by typing PRINT/QUE= IMAGEN IMFILE.DAT;a Where (a) is the version number of the...image file. This will plot the image on the Imagen Laser Plotter. 7 -7 it, j"A 6 Since most of the data utilized by SHCP is in the fore of ’offsets

  16. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  17. CARDS: A blueprint and environment for domain-specific software reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallnau, Kurt C.; Solderitsch, Anne Costa; Smotherman, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    CARDS (Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software) exploits advances in domain analysis and domain modeling to identify, specify, develop, archive, retrieve, understand, and reuse domain-specific software components. An important element of CARDS is to provide visibility into the domain model artifacts produced by, and services provided by, commercial computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technology. The use of commercial CASE technology is important to provide rich, robust support for the varied roles involved in a reuse process. We refer to this kind of use of knowledge representation systems as supporting 'knowledge-based integration.'

  18. Different pioneer plant species select specific rhizosphere bacterial communities in a high mountain environment.

    PubMed

    Ciccazzo, Sonia; Esposito, Alfonso; Rolli, Eleonora; Zerbe, Stefan; Daffonchio, Daniele; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities. Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat. To allow for a culture-independent perspective, total environmental DNA was extracted from both rhizosphere and bare soil samples and analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that rhizobacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas bare soil was colonized by Acidobacteria and Clostridia. UniFrac significance calculated on DGGE results confirmed the rhizosphere effect exerted by the 12 species and showed different bacterial communities (P < 0.05) associated with all the plant species. These results pointed out that specific rhizobacterial communities were selected by pioneer plants of different species in a high mountain ecosystem characterized by oligotrophic and harsh environmental conditions, during an early primary succession.

  19. Heterogeneous selection at specific loci in natural environments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weinig, Cynthia; Dorn, Lisa A; Kane, Nolan C; German, Zachary M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Ungerer, Mark C; Toyonaga, Yuko; Mackay, Trudy F C; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2003-09-01

    Genetic variation for quantitative traits is often greater than that expected to be maintained by mutation in the face of purifying natural selection. One possible explanation for this observed variation is the action of heterogeneous natural selection in the wild. Here we report that selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness traits in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana differs among natural ecological settings and genetic backgrounds. At one QTL, the allele that enhanced the viability of fall-germinating seedlings in North Carolina reduced the fecundity of spring-germinating seedlings in Rhode Island. Several other QTL experienced strong directional selection, but only in one site and seasonal cohort. Thus, different loci were exposed to selection in different natural environments. Selection on allelic variation also depended upon the genetic background. The allelic fitness effects of two QTL reversed direction depending on the genotype at the other locus. Moreover, alternative alleles at each of these loci caused reversals in the allelic fitness effects of a QTL closely linked to TFL1, a candidate developmental gene displaying nucleotide sequence polymorphism consistent with balancing selection. Thus, both environmental heterogeneity and epistatic selection may maintain genetic variation for fitness in wild plant species.

  20. Heterogeneous selection at specific loci in natural environments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Weinig, Cynthia; Dorn, Lisa A; Kane, Nolan C; German, Zachary M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Ungerer, Mark C; Toyonaga, Yuko; Mackay, Trudy F C; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variation for quantitative traits is often greater than that expected to be maintained by mutation in the face of purifying natural selection. One possible explanation for this observed variation is the action of heterogeneous natural selection in the wild. Here we report that selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness traits in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana differs among natural ecological settings and genetic backgrounds. At one QTL, the allele that enhanced the viability of fall-germinating seedlings in North Carolina reduced the fecundity of spring-germinating seedlings in Rhode Island. Several other QTL experienced strong directional selection, but only in one site and seasonal cohort. Thus, different loci were exposed to selection in different natural environments. Selection on allelic variation also depended upon the genetic background. The allelic fitness effects of two QTL reversed direction depending on the genotype at the other locus. Moreover, alternative alleles at each of these loci caused reversals in the allelic fitness effects of a QTL closely linked to TFL1, a candidate developmental gene displaying nucleotide sequence polymorphism consistent with balancing selection. Thus, both environmental heterogeneity and epistatic selection may maintain genetic variation for fitness in wild plant species. PMID:14504239

  1. Genetic architecture of metabolic rate: environment specific epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in an insect.

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, Göran; Dowling, Damian K; Eady, Paul; Gay, Laurene; Tregenza, Tom; Tuda, Midori; Hosken, David J

    2010-12-01

    The extent to which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is involved in adaptive evolutionary change is currently being reevaluated. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that mtDNA genes coevolve with the nuclear genes with which they interact to form the energy producing enzyme complexes in the mitochondria. This suggests that intergenomic epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes may affect whole-organism metabolic phenotypes. Here, we use crossed combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear lineages of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and assay metabolic rate under two different temperature regimes. Metabolic rate was affected by an interaction between the mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and the temperature regime. Sequence data suggests that mitochondrial genetic variation has a role in determining the outcome of this interaction. Our genetic dissection of metabolic rate reveals a high level of complexity, encompassing genetic interactions over two genomes, and genotype × genotype × environment interactions. The evolutionary implications of these results are twofold. First, because metabolic rate is at the root of life histories, our results provide insights into the complexity of life-history evolution in general, and thermal adaptation in particular. Second, our results suggest a mechanism that could contribute to the maintenance of nonneutral mtDNA polymorphism. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Phylogenetic Diversity and Environment-Specific Distributions of Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 10 Xylanases in Geographically Distant Soils

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Zhifang; Yao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background Xylan is one of the most abundant biopolymers on Earth. Its degradation is mediated primarily by microbial xylanase in nature. To explore the diversity and distribution patterns of xylanase genes in soils, samples of five soil types with different physicochemical characters were analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings Partial xylanase genes of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 were recovered following direct DNA extraction from soil, PCR amplification and cloning. Combined with our previous study, a total of 1084 gene fragments were obtained, representing 366 OTUs. More than half of the OTUs were novel (identities of <65% with known xylanases) and had no close relatives based on phylogenetic analyses. Xylanase genes from all the soil environments were mainly distributed in Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Dictyoglomi and some fungi. Although identical sequences were found in several sites, habitat-specific patterns appeared to be important, and geochemical factors such as pH and oxygen content significantly influenced the compositions of xylan-degrading microbial communities. Conclusion/Significance These results provide insight into the GH 10 xylanases in various soil environments and reveal that xylan-degrading microbial communities are environment specific with diverse and abundant populations. PMID:22912883

  3. Quantitative genetic analysis of responses to larval food limitation in a polyphenic butterfly indicates environment- and trait-specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Saastamoinen, Marjo; Brommer, Jon E; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2013-01-01

    Different components of heritability, including genetic variance (VG), are influenced by environmental conditions. Here, we assessed phenotypic responses of life-history traits to two different developmental conditions, temperature and food limitation. The former represents an environment that defines seasonal polyphenism in our study organism, the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, whereas the latter represents a more unpredictable environment. We quantified heritabilities using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures within an “Information Theoretical” framework in a full-sib design. Whereas development time, pupal mass, and resting metabolic rate showed no genotype-by-environment interaction for genetic variation, for thorax ratio and fat percentage the heritability increased under the cool temperature, dry season environment. Additionally, for fat percentage heritability estimates increased under food limitation. Hence, the traits most intimately related to polyphenism in B. anynana show the most environmental-specific heritabilities as well as some indication of cross-environmental genetic correlations. This may reflect a footprint of natural selection and our future research is aimed to uncover the genes and processes involved in this through studying season and condition-dependent gene expression. PMID:24223292

  4. Identification of mega-environments and rice genotypes for general and specific adaptation to saline and alkaline stresses in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, P C; Sharma, D K; Ravikiran, K T; Singh, Y P; Mishra, V K; Burman, D; Maji, B; Mandal, S; Sarangi, S K; Gautam, R K; Singh, P K; Manohara, K K; Marandi, B C; Padmavathi, G; Vanve, P B; Patil, K D; Thirumeni, S; Verma, O P; Khan, A H; Tiwari, S; Geetha, S; Shakila, M; Gill, R; Yadav, V K; Roy, S K B; Prakash, M; Bonifacio, J; Ismail, Abdelbagi; Gregorio, G B; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-08-11

    In the present study, a total of 53 promising salt-tolerant genotypes were tested across 18 salt-affected diverse locations for three years. An attempt was made to identify ideal test locations and mega-environments using GGE biplot analysis. The CSSRI sodic environment was the most discriminating location in individual years as well as over the years and could be used to screen out unstable and salt-sensitive genotypes. Genotypes CSR36, CSR-2K-219, and CSR-2K-262 were found ideal across years. Overall, Genotypes CSR-2K-219, CSR-2K-262, and CSR-2K-242 were found superior and stable among all genotypes with higher mean yields. Different sets of genotypes emerged as winners in saline soils but not in sodic soils; however, Genotype CSR-2K-262 was the only genotype that was best under both saline and alkaline environments over the years. The lack of repeatable associations among locations and repeatable mega-environment groupings indicated the complexity of soil salinity. Hence, a multi-location and multi-year evaluation is indispensable for evaluating the test sites as well as identifying genotypes with consistently specific and wider adaptation to particular agro-climatic zones. The genotypes identified in the present study could be used for commercial cultivation across edaphically challenged areas for sustainable production.

  5. Relation of Childhood Home Environment to Cortical Thickness in Late Adolescence: Specificity of Experience and Timing.

    PubMed

    Avants, Brian B; Hackman, Daniel A; Betancourt, Laura M; Lawson, Gwendolyn M; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    What are the long-term effects of childhood experience on brain development? Research with animals shows that the quality of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance both play important roles in shaping lifelong brain structure and function. Human research has so far been limited to the effects of abnormal experience and pathological development. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of in-home measures of childhood experience at ages 4 and 8 and MRI acquired in late adolescence, we were able to relate normal variation in childhood experience to later life cortical thickness. Environmental stimulation at age 4 predicted cortical thickness in a set of automatically derived regions in temporal and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, age 8 experience was not predictive. Parental nurturance was not predictive at either age. This work reveals an association between childhood experience and later brain structure that is specific relative to aspects of experience, regions of brain, and timing.

  6. An Extensible Aspect-Oriented Modeling Environment for Constructing Domain-Specific Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Kamei, Yasutaka

    AspectM, an aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) language, provides not only basic modeling constructs but also an extension mechanism called metamodel access protocol (MMAP) that allows a modeler to modify the metamodel. MMAP consists of metamodel extension points, extension operations, and primitive predicates for navigating the metamodel. Although the notion of MMAP is useful, it needs tool support. This paper proposes a method for implementing a MMAP-based AspectM support tool. It consists of model editor, model weaver, and model verifier. We introduce the notion of edit-time structural reflection and extensible model weaving. Using these mechanisms, a modeler can easily construct domain-specific languages (DSLs). We show a case study using the AspectM support tool and discuss the effectiveness of the extension mechanism provided by MMAP. As a case study, we show a UML-based DSL for describing the external contexts of embedded systems.

  7. Relation of Childhood Home Environment to Cortical Thickness in Late Adolescence: Specificity of Experience and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Avants, Brian B.; Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    What are the long-term effects of childhood experience on brain development? Research with animals shows that the quality of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance both play important roles in shaping lifelong brain structure and function. Human research has so far been limited to the effects of abnormal experience and pathological development. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of in-home measures of childhood experience at ages 4 and 8 and MRI acquired in late adolescence, we were able to relate normal variation in childhood experience to later life cortical thickness. Environmental stimulation at age 4 predicted cortical thickness in a set of automatically derived regions in temporal and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, age 8 experience was not predictive. Parental nurturance was not predictive at either age. This work reveals an association between childhood experience and later brain structure that is specific relative to aspects of experience, regions of brain, and timing. PMID:26509809

  8. Utilizing Computational Probabilistic Methods to Derive Shock Specifications in a Nondeterministic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    FIELD JR.,RICHARD V.; RED-HORSE,JOHN R.; PAEZ,THOMAS L.

    2000-10-25

    One of the key elements of the Stochastic Finite Element Method, namely the polynomial chaos expansion, has been utilized in a nonlinear shock and vibration application. As a result, the computed response was expressed as a random process, which is an approximation to the true solution process, and can be thought of as a generalization to solutions given as statistics only. This approximation to the response process was then used to derive an analytically-based design specification for component shock response that guarantees a balanced level of marginal reliability. Hence, this analytically-based reference SRS might lead to an improvement over the somewhat ad hoc test-based reference in the sense that it will not exhibit regions of conservativeness. nor lead to overtesting of the design.

  9. Environment, dysbiosis, immunity and sex-specific susceptibility: a translational hypothesis for regressive autism pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mezzelani, Alessandra; Landini, Martina; Facchiano, Francesco; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo; De Santis, Barbara; Brera, Carlo; Caroli, Anna Maria; Milanesi, Luciano; Marabotti, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Autism is an increasing neurodevelopmental disease that appears by 3 years of age, has genetic and/or environmental etiology, and often shows comorbid situations, such as gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Autism has also a striking sex-bias, not fully genetically explainable. Our goal was to explain how and in which predisposing conditions some compounds can impair neurodevelopment, why this occurs in the first years of age, and, primarily, why more in males than females. We reviewed articles regarding the genetic and environmental etiology of autism and toxins effects on animal models selected from PubMed and databases about autism and toxicology. Our hypothesis proposes that in the first year of life, the decreasing of maternal immune protection and child immune-system immaturity create an immune vulnerability to infection diseases that, especially if treated with antibiotics, could facilitate dysbiosis and GI disorders. This condition triggers a vicious circle between immune system impairment and increasing dysbiosis that leads to leaky gut and neurochemical compounds and/or neurotoxic xenobiotics production and absorption. This alteration affects the 'gut-brain axis' communication that connects gut with central nervous system via immune system. Thus, metabolic pathways impaired in autistic children can be affected by genetic alterations or by environment-xenobiotics interference. In addition, in animal models many xenobiotics exert their neurotoxicity in a sex-dependent manner. We integrate fragmented and multi-disciplinary information in a unique hypothesis and first disclose a possible environmental origin for the imbalance of male:female distribution of autism, reinforcing the idea that exogenous factors are related to the recent rise of this disease.

  10. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

  11. Evaluation of occupational environment in two textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Raman

    2006-01-01

    Occupational Noise exposure has been linked with a range of negative health effects by various researchers. The resulting injury of occupational hearing loss is also a well recognized and global problem. To protect workers from hearing damage due to noise exposure and other related health effects, a vast store of knowledge has been accumulated till date about its nature, etiology and time course. There is still ignorance, amongst majority of people working in industries in developing and third world countries including India about ill effects of exposure to high values of noise. The study being reported here has been carried out in two textile plants located in Northern Indian state of Punjab. Equivalent sound pressure level L(eq) has been measured in various sections of these plants with the help of a Class-I type digital sound level meter. The noise spectrum has been evaluated with the help of 1/3 octave filter set. A cross sectional study involving 112 workers exposed to different levels of occupational noise has been conducted. The results of the study establish the fact that noise level in certain sections of the plants i.e Loom Shed, Spinning, Ring Frame, TFO Area is more than the acceptable limit of 90 dBA for 8 h exposure stipulated by OSHA. The noise level in other sections like carding, blow room, combing etc., although is less than 90 dB(A), but is quite higher than limits used for assessment of noise for community response. Octave band analysis of the noise shows the presence of high sound level in 4,000 Hz frequency range, which can be a major reason for causing occupational hearing loss. The results of the interview questionnaire which included a number of parameters reveal the following; (i) only 29% workers are aware about the effects of noise on health (ii) 28% workers are using ear protectors (iii) the satisfaction with the working environment is related to noise level, as workers exposed to comparatively less noise level report better

  12. Chemical mixtures: Evaluation of risk for child-specific exposures in a multi-stressor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, H.R. Abadin, H.G.

    2008-11-15

    Evaluating the health impact from exposure to chemical mixtures is multifaceted. One component is exposure. Exposure, and consequently risk assessment for mixtures and chemicals in general, are often viewed in terms of a given exposure to a given population at a given location over a given time period. However, environmental exposures are present throughout human lifetime. As a result, an evaluation of risk must include the distinctive characteristics related to chemical exposures which will impact risk depending upon the particular life stage where exposure occurs. Risks to offspring may be associated with unique exposures in utero, during infancy, childhood, or adolescent periods. For example, exposure of infants to anthropogenic chemicals via breast milk may be of concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) approach to evaluating risks associated with exposure to mixtures of chemicals is presented. In addition to the breast milk issues, indoor exposure to combined air pollutants, drinking water contaminants, and soil and dust contaminants are discussed. The difference between a mixture's risk evaluation for children and adults is in the distinct exposure scenarios resulting from variations in behavior, physiology, and/or pharmacokinetics between adults and children rather than in the method for the specific mixtures evaluation per se.

  13. Specificity of inhibitory KIRs enables NK cells to detect changes in an altered peptide environment.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; de Boer, Rob J; Keşmir, Can

    2017-07-10

    The activity of natural killer (NK) cells is tightly regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors. Inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (iKIRs) survey the surface of target cells by monitoring the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. The binding of iKIRs has been shown to be sensitive to the peptides presented by HLA class I, implying that iKIRs have the ability to detect the changes in the repertoire of peptide-HLA class I complexes (pHLA), a process occurring during viral infection and in tumor cells. To study how the pHLA repertoire changes upon infection, and whether an iKIR is able to detect these changes, we study peptides eluted from cells prior and after infection with measles virus (MV). Remarkably, most changes in the repertoire of potential iKIR ligands are predicted to be caused by the altered expression of self-peptides. We show that an iKIR can detect these changes in the presented peptides only if it is sufficiently specific, e.g., if iKIRs can distinguish between different amino acids in the contact residues (e.g., position 7 and 8). Our analysis further indicates that one single iKIR per host is not sufficient to detect changes in the peptide repertoire, suggesting that a multigene family encoding for different iKIRs is required for successful peptide recognition.

  14. Phylogenetic and Functional Substrate Specificity for Endolithic Microbial Communities in Hyper-Arid Environments.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Robinson, Courtney K; Ma, Bing; Ravel, Jacques; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Casero, M Cristina; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    Under extreme water deficit, endolithic (inside rock) microbial ecosystems are considered environmental refuges for life in cold and hot deserts, yet their diversity and functional adaptations remain vastly unexplored. The metagenomic analyses of the communities from two rock substrates, calcite and ignimbrite, revealed that they were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative distribution of major phyla was significantly different between the two substrates and biodiversity estimates, from 16S rRNA gene sequences and from the metagenomic data, all pointed to a higher taxonomic diversity in the calcite community. While both endolithic communities showed adaptations to extreme aridity and to the rock habitat, their functional capabilities revealed significant differences. ABC transporters and pathways for osmoregulation were more diverse in the calcite chasmoendolithic community. In contrast, the ignimbrite cryptoendolithic community was enriched in pathways for secondary metabolites, such as non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) and polyketides (PK). Assemblies of the metagenome data produced population genomes for the major phyla found in both communities and revealed a greater diversity of Cyanobacteria population genomes for the calcite substrate. Draft genomes of the dominant Cyanobacteria in each community were constructed with more than 93% estimated completeness. The two annotated proteomes shared 64% amino acid identity and a significantly higher number of genes involved in iron update, and NRPS gene clusters, were found in the draft genomes from the ignimbrite. Both the community-wide and genome-specific differences may be related to higher water availability and the colonization of large fissures and cracks in the calcite in contrast to a harsh competition for colonization space and nutrient resources in the narrow pores of the ignimbrite. Together, these results indicated that the habitable architecture of both lithic substrates

  15. Phylogenetic and Functional Substrate Specificity for Endolithic Microbial Communities in Hyper-Arid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Robinson, Courtney K.; Ma, Bing; Ravel, Jacques; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Casero, M. Cristina; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    Under extreme water deficit, endolithic (inside rock) microbial ecosystems are considered environmental refuges for life in cold and hot deserts, yet their diversity and functional adaptations remain vastly unexplored. The metagenomic analyses of the communities from two rock substrates, calcite and ignimbrite, revealed that they were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative distribution of major phyla was significantly different between the two substrates and biodiversity estimates, from 16S rRNA gene sequences and from the metagenomic data, all pointed to a higher taxonomic diversity in the calcite community. While both endolithic communities showed adaptations to extreme aridity and to the rock habitat, their functional capabilities revealed significant differences. ABC transporters and pathways for osmoregulation were more diverse in the calcite chasmoendolithic community. In contrast, the ignimbrite cryptoendolithic community was enriched in pathways for secondary metabolites, such as non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) and polyketides (PK). Assemblies of the metagenome data produced population genomes for the major phyla found in both communities and revealed a greater diversity of Cyanobacteria population genomes for the calcite substrate. Draft genomes of the dominant Cyanobacteria in each community were constructed with more than 93% estimated completeness. The two annotated proteomes shared 64% amino acid identity and a significantly higher number of genes involved in iron update, and NRPS gene clusters, were found in the draft genomes from the ignimbrite. Both the community-wide and genome-specific differences may be related to higher water availability and the colonization of large fissures and cracks in the calcite in contrast to a harsh competition for colonization space and nutrient resources in the narrow pores of the ignimbrite. Together, these results indicated that the habitable architecture of both lithic substrates

  16. Of plasticity and specificity: dialectics of the micro- and macro-environment and the organ phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramray; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of biological form and how it arises is the domain of the developmental biologists; but once the form is achieved, the organ poses a fascinating conundrum for all the life scientists: how are form and function maintained in adult organs throughout most of the life of the organism? That they do appears to contradict the inherently plastic nature of organogenesis during development. How do cells with the same genetic information arrive at, and maintain such different architectures and functions, and how do they keep remembering that they are different from each other? It is now clear that narratives based solely on genes and an irreversible regulatory dynamics cannot answer these questions satisfactorily, and the concept of microenvironmental signaling needs to be added to the equation. During development, cells rearrange and differentiate in response to diffusive morphogens, juxtacrine signals and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These components, which constitute the modular microenvironment, are sensitive to cues from other tissues and organs of the developing embryo as well as from the external macroenvironment. On the other hand, once the organ is formed, these modular constituents integrate and constrain the organ architecture, which ensures structural and functional homeostasis and therefore, organ specificity. We argue here that a corollary of the above is that once the organ architecture is compromised in adults by mutations or by changes in the microenvironment such as aging or inflammation, that organ becomes subjected to the developmental and embryonic circuits in search of a new identity. But since the microenvironment is no longer embryonic, the confusion leads to cancer: hence as we have argued, tumors become new evolutionary organs perhaps in search of an elusive homeostasis. PMID:24678448

  17. Of plasticity and specificity: dialectics of the micro- and macro-environment and the organ phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramray; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-01-01

    The study of biological form and how it arises is the domain of the developmental biologists; but once the form is achieved, the organ poses a fascinating conundrum for all the life scientists: how are form and function maintained in adult organs throughout most of the life of the organism? That they do appears to contradict the inherently plastic nature of organogenesis during development. How do cells with the same genetic information arrive at, and maintain such different architectures and functions, and how do they keep remembering that they are different from each other? It is now clear that narratives based solely on genes and an irreversible regulatory dynamics cannot answer these questions satisfactorily, and the concept of microenvironmental signaling needs to be added to the equation. During development, cells rearrange and differentiate in response to diffusive morphogens, juxtacrine signals and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These components, which constitute the modular microenvironment, are sensitive to cues from other tissues and organs of the developing embryo as well as from the external macroenvironment. On the other hand, once the organ is formed, these modular constituents integrate and constrain the organ architecture, which ensures structural and functional homeostasis and therefore, organ specificity. We argue here that a corollary of the above is that once the organ architecture is compromised in adults by mutations or by changes in the microenvironment such as aging or inflammation, that organ becomes subjected to the developmental and embryonic circuits in search of a new identity. But since the microenvironment is no longer embryonic, the confusion leads to cancer: hence as we have argued, tumors become new evolutionary organs perhaps in search of an elusive homeostasis.

  18. Massive habitat-specific genomic response in D. melanogaster populations during experimental evolution in hot and cold environments.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Ray; Franssen, Susanne U; Kofler, Robert; Orozco-Terwengel, Pablo; Nolte, Viola; Hermisson, Joachim; Schlötterer, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Experimental evolution in combination with whole-genome sequencing (evolve and resequence [E&R]) is a promising approach to define the genotype-phenotype map and to understand adaptation in evolving populations. Many previous studies have identified a large number of putative selected sites (i.e., candidate loci), but it remains unclear to what extent these loci are genuine targets of selection or experimental noise. To address this question, we exposed the same founder population to two different selection regimes-a hot environment and a cold environment-and quantified the genomic response in each. We detected large numbers of putative selected loci in both environments, albeit with little overlap between the two sets of candidates, indicating that most resulted from habitat-specific selection. By quantifying changes across multiple independent biological replicates, we demonstrate that most of the candidate SNPs were false positives that were linked to selected sites over distances much larger than the typical linkage disequilibrium range of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that many of these mid- to long-range associations were attributable to large segregating inversions and confirm by computer simulations that such patterns could be readily replicated when strong selection acts on rare haplotypes. In light of our findings, we outline recommendations to improve the performance of future Drosophila E&R studies which include using species with negligible inversion loads, such as D. mauritiana and D. simulans, instead of D. melanogaster.

  19. ESTROGEN RESPONSES IN KILLIFISH (FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS) FROM POLLUTED AND UNPOLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS ARE SITE- AND GENE-SPECIFIC

    PubMed Central

    Greytak, Sarah R.; Tarrant, Ann M.; Nacci, Diane; Hahn, Mark E.; Callard, Gloria V.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological, ecological, and laboratory-based studies support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment are responsible for developmental and reproductive abnormalities. We have previously described a killifish population resident in a highly polluted Superfund site (New Bedford Harbor, NBH) that shows evidence of exposure to an estrogenic environment and endocrine disruption. Here, we compare NBH with a local reference population (Scorton Creek, SC) for developmental patterns and direct effects of exogenous estradiol on the estrogenic markers, brain cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A2 or AroB), hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg), and hepatic estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). In contrast to our previous observation of elevated ERα in NBH embryos, developmental levels of AroB and Vtg mRNAs did not differ between the two sites, demonstrating that not all estrogen-responsive genes are upregulated in NBH embryos. A dose-response experiment showed that NBH larvae are less responsive (lower maximum induction, as measured by ERα) and less sensitive (higher EC50 for induction, as measured by AroB) to estradiol than SC larvae, changes that would be adaptive in an estrogenic environment. In contrast, induction of Vtg mRNA is similar in the two populations, indicating that the adaptive mechanism is target gene-specific. Based on the lower basal levels of ERα mRNA in several tissues from adult NBH fish vs SC fish (Greytak and Callard, 2007), we predicted estrogen hyporesponsiveness; however, induction of ERα by estradiol exposure in reproductively inactive males did not differ between the two sites. Moreover, AroB was more responsive and Vtg induction was greater (2d) or similar (5d) in NBH as compared to SC males. Worth noting is the high inter-individual variability in estrogen responses of gene targets, especially in NBH killifish, which may indicate evolving preadaptive or adaptive mechanisms. In conclusion, although multi

  20. Estrogen responses in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from polluted and unpolluted environments are site- and gene-specific.

    PubMed

    Greytak, Sarah R; Tarrant, Ann M; Nacci, Diane; Hahn, Mark E; Callard, Gloria V

    2010-08-15

    Epidemiological, ecological, and laboratory-based studies support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment are responsible for developmental and reproductive abnormalities. We have previously described a killifish population resident in a highly polluted Superfund site (New Bedford Harbor, NBH) that shows evidence of exposure to an estrogenic environment and endocrine disruption. Here, we compare NBH with a local reference population (Scorton Creek, SC) for developmental patterns and direct effects of exogenous estradiol on the estrogenic markers, brain cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A2 or AroB), hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg), and hepatic estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha). In contrast to our previous observation of elevated ER alpha in NBH embryos, developmental levels of AroB and Vtg mRNAs did not differ between the two sites, demonstrating that not all estrogen-responsive genes are upregulated in NBH embryos. A dose-response experiment showed that NBH larvae are less responsive (lower maximum induction, as measured by ER alpha) and less sensitive (higher EC(50) for induction, as measured by AroB) to estradiol than SC larvae, changes that would be adaptive in an estrogenic environment. In contrast, induction of Vtg mRNA is similar in the two populations, indicating that the adaptive mechanism is target gene-specific. Based on the lower basal levels of ER alpha mRNA in several tissues from adult NBH fish vs SC fish (Greytak and Callard, 2007), we predicted estrogen hyporesponsiveness; however, induction of ER alpha by estradiol exposure in reproductively inactive males did not differ between the two sites. Moreover, AroB was more responsive and Vtg induction was greater (2d) or similar (5d) in NBH as compared to SC males. Worth noting is the high inter-individual variability in estrogen responses of gene targets, especially in NBH killifish, which may indicate evolving preadaptive or adaptive mechanisms. In conclusion, although

  1. Selective de-repression of germ cell-specific genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts in a permissive epigenetic environment

    PubMed Central

    Sekinaka, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Yohei; Noce, Toshiaki; Niwa, Hitoshi; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play crucial roles on establishment of tissue-specific transcription profiles and cellular characteristics. Direct conversions of fibroblasts into differentiated tissue cells by over-expression of critical transcription factors have been reported, but the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these conversions are still not fully understood. In addition, conversion of somatic cells into germ cells has not yet been achieved. To understand epigenetic mechanisms that underlie germ cell characteristics, we attempted to use defined epigenetic factors to directly convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into germ cells. Here, we successfully induced germ cell-specific genes by inhibiting repressive epigenetic modifications via RNAi or small-molecule compounds. Under these conditions, some tissue-specific genes and stimulus-inducible genes were also induced. Meanwhile, the treatments did not result in genome-wide transcriptional activation. These results suggested that a permissive epigenetic environment resulted in selective de-repression of stimulus- and differentiation-inducible genes including germ cell-specific genes in MEFs. PMID:27608931

  2. Reducing Specific Phobia/Fear in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) through a Virtual Reality Environment Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Maskey, Morag; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with specific fears and phobias one of the most frequent subtypes. Specific fears and phobias can have a serious impact on young people with ASD and their families. In this study we developed and evaluated a unique treatment combining cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with graduated exposure in a virtual reality environment (VRE). Nine verbally fluent boys with an ASD diagnosis and no reported learning disability, aged 7 to 13 years old, were recruited. Each had anxiety around a specific situation (e.g. crowded buses) or stimulus (e.g. pigeons). An individualised scene was recreated in our ‘wrap-around’ VRE. In the VRE participants were coached by a psychologist in cognitive and behavioural techniques (e.g. relaxation and breathing exercises) while the exposure to the phobia/fear stimulus was gradually increased as the child felt ready. Each child received four 20–30 minute sessions. After participating in the study, eight of the nine children were able to tackle their phobia situation. Four of the participants completely overcame their phobia. Treatment effects were maintained at 12 months. These results provide evidence that CBT with VRE can be a highly effective treatment for specific phobia/fear for some young people with ASD. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN58483069. PMID:24987957

  3. Molecular Detection and Environment-Specific Diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 1 β-Glucosidase in Different Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rameshwar; Kumar, Kanika; Singh, Surender; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    β-glucosidase is a crucial element of the microbial cellulose multienzyme complex since it is responsible for the regulation of the entire cellulose hydrolysis process. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to explore the diversity and distribution of glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase genes in three different environmental niches including, Himalayan soil, cow dung and compost by metagenomic approach. Preliminary evaluation through metabolic profiling using BIOLOG based utilization patterns of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur revealed the environment and substrate specific nature of the indigenous microbial population. Furthermore, clonal library selection, screening and sequence analysis revealed that most of the GH1 β-glucosidase proteins had low identities with the available database. Analysis of the distribution of GH1 β-glucosidase gene fragments and β-glucosidase producing microbial community revealed the environment specific nature. The OTUs obtained from Himalayan soil and compost metagenomic libraries were grouped into 19 different genera comprising 6 groups. The cow dung sample displayed the least diversity of GH1 β-glucosidase sequences, with only 14 genera, distributed among three groups- Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The metagenomic study coupled with metabolic profiling of GH1 β-glucosidase illustrated the existence of intricate relationship between the geochemical environmental factors and inherent microbial community. PMID:27790196

  4. Tennesse Forest Acreage Increasing

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1961-01-01

    Tennessee has 13,432,400 acres of commercial fore st land, according to a new suvey of the State's timber resources. All together, these woodIands occupy 51 percent of the total land are a in Tennessee. The estimate includes all forest land that is producing or is capable of producing industrial wood and not withdrawn from timber utilization. An additional 263,...

  5. Specification Tools Environment Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    makes use of several mass storage files. The largest o¥’thes~ will d~termi.ne the costs associated wi ~h REVS fi ]~ storage sine~ the LBL. poljcy for...complementary relationship for each speci- fied relationship which is the converse of that specified relation- ship. ALPHA INPUTS DATA is one of the...representation of the flow graph. Two distinct types of structures have been identi- fied . The first.is the R NET (or SUBNET) structure. It identifies

  6. Evaluation of the use of remote-sensing data to identify crop types and estimate irrigated acreage, Uvalde and Medina counties, Texas, 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, L.H.; Nalley, G.M.; Rettman, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Results were verified using crop acreages reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The total areas for all irrigated crops estimated using remote-sensing data were about 8 percent higher for Uvalde County and about 4 percent higher for Medina County than the areas reported by the ASCS. Irrigated-crop areas subsequently were multiplied by the respective duties of water to calculate the total quantity of water pumped from the aquifer for irrigation. Pumpage did not differ for the two estimates of crop areas for Uvalde County and differed by about 3 percent for Medina County.

  7. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Testing for the Inspection of the Space Shuttle Spray on Foam Insulations (SOFI) and the Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoughi, R.; Kharkovsky, S.; Hepburn, F. L.

    2005-01-01

    The utility of microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods, for testing the Space Shuttle's external he1 tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and the acreage heat tiles has been investigated during the past two years. Millimeter wave NDE techniques are capable of producing internal images of SOFI. This paper presents the results of testing several diverse panels with embedded voids and debonds at millimeter wave frequencies. Additionally, the results of testing a set of heat tiles are also presented. Finally, the attributes of these methods as well as the advantageous features associated with these systems are also provided.

  8. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Testing for the Inspection of the Space Shuttle Spray On Foam Insulation (SOFI) and the Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, R.; Kharkovsky, S.; Hepburn, F. L.

    2006-03-01

    The utility of microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods, for testing the Space Shuttle's external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and the acreage heat tiles has been investigated during the past two years. Millimeter wave NDE techniques are capable of producing internal images of SOFI. This paper presents the results of testing several diverse panels with embedded voids and debonds at millimeter wave frequencies. Additionally, the results of testing a set of heat tiles are also presented. Finally, the attributes of these methods as well as the advantageous features associated with these systems are also provided.

  9. A technical basis to relax the dew point specification for the environment in the vapor space in DWPF canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    This memorandum establishes the technical basis to conclude that relaxing, from 0 C to 20 C, the dew point specification for the atmosphere in the vapor space (free volume) of a DWPF canister will not provide an environment that will cause significant amounts of corrosion induced degradation of the canister wall. The conclusion is based on engineering analysis, experience and review of the corrosion literature. The basic assumptions underlying the conclusion are: (1) the canister was fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel; (2) the corrosion behavior of the canister material, including base metal, fusion zones and heat effected zones, is typified by literature data for, and industrial experience with, 300 series austenitic stainless steels; and (3) the glass-metal crevices created during the pouring operation will not alter the basic corrosion resistance of the steel although such crevices might serve as sites for the initiation of minor amounts of corrosion on the canister wall.

  10. Aβ42 assembles into specific β-barrel pore-forming oligomers in membrane-mimicking environments

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Batiste, Montserrat; Ninot-Pedrosa, Martí; Bayoumi, Mariam; Gairí, Margarida; Maglia, Giovanni; Carulla, Natàlia

    2016-01-01

    The formation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers at the cellular membrane is considered to be a crucial process underlying neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, it is critical to characterize the oligomers that form within a membrane environment. To contribute to this characterization, we have applied strategies widely used to examine the structure of membrane proteins to study the two major Aβ variants, Aβ40 and Aβ42. Accordingly, various types of detergent micelles were extensively screened to identify one that preserved the properties of Aβ in lipid environments—namely the formation of oligomers that function as pores. Remarkably, under the optimized detergent micelle conditions, Aβ40 and Aβ42 showed different behavior. Aβ40 aggregated into amyloid fibrils, whereas Aβ42 assembled into oligomers that inserted into lipid bilayers as well-defined pores and adopted a specific structure with characteristics of a β-barrel arrangement that we named β-barrel pore-forming Aβ42 oligomers (βPFOsAβ42). Because Aβ42, relative to Aβ40, has a more prominent role in AD, the higher propensity of Aβ42 to form βPFOs constitutes an indication of their relevance in AD. Moreover, because βPFOsAβ42 adopt a specific structure, this property offers an unprecedented opportunity for testing a hypothesis regarding the involvement of βPFOs and, more generally, membrane-associated Aβ oligomers in AD. PMID:27621459

  11. Performance specifications for health physics instrumentation: portable instrumentation for use in normal work environments. Part 2. Test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, J.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Selby, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated a draft American National Standards Institute Standard N42.17 (ANSI N42.17) on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation through a project jointly funded by the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The evaluation involved testing a representative cross section of instruments against criteria in the standard. This report presents results of the testing program. A brief history of the project is included in the introduction. The instrumentation tested is described in general terms (i.e., types, ranges); however, no direct relationship between the results and a specific instrument model is made in this report. Testing requirements in ANSI N42.17D4, Revision 1 (May 1985) are summarized and the methods by which the tests are performed are discussed. Brief descriptions of the testing equipment are included in the methods section of the report. More detailed information about the draft standard, testing requirements and procedures, and the test equipment is included in ''Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation - Portable Instrumentation for Use in Normal Work Environments, Part 1: Manual of Testing Procedures.'' Results of testing are given in two formats: test-by-test and instrument-by-instrument. Discussion is included on significant and interesting findings, on comparisons of results from the same type of instruments from same and different manufacturers, and on data grouped by manufacturer. Conclusions are made on the applicability and practicality of the proposed standard and on instrument performance. Changes that have been made to the proposed standard based on findings of the testing program are listed and discussed. 22 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  12. Phylogeographical Patterns among Mediterranean Sepiolid Squids and Their Vibrio Symbionts: Environment Drives Specificity among Sympatric Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zamborsky, D. J.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Bobtail squid from the genera Sepiola and Rondeletiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) form mutualistic associations with luminous Gram-negative bacteria (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionaceae) from the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium. Symbiotic bacteria proliferate inside a bilobed light organ until they are actively expelled by the host into the surrounding environment on a diel basis. This event results in a dynamic symbiont population with the potential to establish the symbiosis with newly hatched sterile (axenic) juvenile sepiolids. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity found in populations of sympatric sepiolid squid species and their symbionts by the use of nested clade analysis with multiple gene analyses. Variation found in the distribution of different species of symbiotic bacteria suggests a strong influence of abiotic factors in the local environment, affecting bacterial distribution among sympatric populations of hosts. These abiotic factors include temperature differences incurred by a shallow thermocline, as well as a lack of strong coastal water movement accompanied by seasonal temperature changes in overlapping niches. Host populations are stable and do not appear to have a significant role in the formation of symbiont populations relative to their distribution across the Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, all squid species examined (Sepiola affinis, S. robusta, S. ligulata, S. intermedia, and Rondeletiola minor) are genetically distinct from one another regardless of location and demonstrate very little intraspecific variation within species. These findings suggest that physical boundaries and distance in relation to population size, and not host specificity, are important factors in limiting or defining gene flow within sympatric marine squids and their associated bacterial symbionts in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21075896

  13. Species specific and environment induced variation of δ13C and δ15N in alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Körner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in plant tissues integrate plant-environment interactions over long periods. In this study, we hypothesized that humid alpine life conditions are narrowing the scope for significant deviations from common carbon, water and nitrogen relations as captured by stable isotope signals. We explored the variation in δ13C and δ15N in 32 plant species from tissue type to ecosystem scale across a suite of locations at c. Two thousand five hundred meter elevation in the Swiss Alps. Foliar δ13C and δ15N varied among species by about 3–4‰ and 7–8‰ respectively. However, there was no overall difference in means of δ13C and δ15N for species sampled in different plant communities or when bulk plant dry matter harvests of different plant communities were compared. δ13C was found to be highly species specific, so that the ranking among species was mostly maintained across 11 habitats. However, δ15N varied significantly from place to place in all species (a range of 2.7‰) except in Fabaceae (Trifolium alpinum) and Juncaceae (Luzula lutea). There was also a substantial variation among individuals of the same species collected next to each other. No difference was found in foliar δ15N of non-legumes, which were either collected next to or away from the most common legume, T. alpinum. δ15N data place Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, just like Fabaceae, in a low discrimination category, well separated from other families. Soil δ15N was higher than in plants and increased with soil depth. The results indicate a high functional diversity in alpine plants that is similar to that reported for low elevation plants. We conclude that the surprisingly high variation in δ13C and δ15N signals in the studied high elevation plants is largely species specific (genetic) and insensitive to obvious environmental cues. PMID:26097487

  14. What if plant functional types conceal species-specific responses to environment? Study on arctic shrub communities.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Patrick; Hoikka, Kristiina; Virtanen, Risto

    2017-06-01

    Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs. Five deciduous species and four evergreen dwarf shrub species were transplanted to be exposed to four levels of winter snow cover across mesotopographic gradients in northern Fennoscandian tundra. The survival and growth of individually tagged shoots were monitored over one year, and the change in cover of shrubs was monitored over four years. Evergreen species showed higher resistance to environmental severity and generally benefitted from higher abundance of neighboring shrubs. Deciduous species exhibited negligible to drastic responses to snow thickness and neighboring shrubs tended to have a negative effect on their performance and survival. Tall shoots of deciduous shrubs survived poorly under the thinnest snow cover. Overall, deciduous and evergreen PFTs showed modest differences in their performances along the gradient. Our results show that deciduous-evergreen leaf phenology categories predict shrub responses to changing environmental conditions only to a limited extent. Our findings highlight strong species-specific responses especially among deciduous shrubs, and a differential role of plant-plant interactions for shrubs. Our results emphasize that distribution patterns of arctic-alpine shrubs and shrub community responses to altered snow regimes depend on species-level plant functional attributes, species interactions and species-specific sensitivities to environmental severity. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Home literacy environment profiles of children with language impairment: associations with caregiver- and child-specific factors.

    PubMed

    Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies suggest a positive relationship between the home literacy environment (HLE) and children's language and literacy skills, yet very little research has focused on the HLE of children with language impairment (LI). Children with LI are at risk for reading difficulties; thus, understanding the nature and frequency of their home literacy interactions is warranted. To identify unique HLE profiles within a large sample of children with LI, and to determine relevant caregiver- and child-specific factors that predict children's profile membership. Participants were 195 kindergarten and first-grade children with LI who were receiving school-based language therapy. Caregivers completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding their child's HLE, and the extent to which their child engaged in shared book reading, were taught about letters, initiated or asked to be read to, and chose to read independently. Caregivers also answered questions regarding the highest level of maternal education, caregiver history of reading difficulties, and caregiver reading habits. Children completed a language and literacy battery in the fall of their academic year. Latent profile analyses indicated a three-profile solution, representing high, average and low frequency of the selected HLE indicators. Multinomial regression further revealed that caregivers' own reading habits influenced children's profile membership, as did child age and language abilities. These results highlight the considerable variability in the frequency of home literacy interactions of children with LI. Future work examining relations between familial reading practices and literacy outcomes for children with LI is warranted. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anubhav; Philip, Nisha; Hughes, Katie R.; Georgiou, Konstantina; MacRae, James I.; Barrett, Michael P.; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design. PMID:28027318

  17. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Diana E; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J; Chiu, May S; Themann, Christa L; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Population-based cohort study. A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women.

  18. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana E.; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J.; Chiu, May S.; Themann, Christa L.; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Design Population-based cohort study. Study sample A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Results Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Conclusions Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women. PMID:25816699

  19. Contextual-specificity of short-delay extinction in humans: Renewal of fear-potentiated startle in a virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ruben P.; Johnson, Linda; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A recent fear-potentiated startle study in rodents suggested that extinction was not context dependent when extinction was conducted after a short delay following acquisition, suggesting that extinction can lead to erasure of fear learning in some circumstances. The main objective of this study was to attempt to replicate these findings in humans by examining the context specificity of short-delay extinction in an ABA renewal procedure using virtual reality environments. A second objective was to examine whether renewal, if any, would be influenced by context conditioning. Subjects underwent differential aversive conditioning in virtual context A, which was immediately followed by extinction in virtual context B. Extinction was followed by tests of renewal in context A and B, with the order counterbalanced across subjects. Results showed that extinction was context dependent. Evidence for renewal was established using fear-potentiated startle as well as skin conductance and fear ratings. In addition, although contextual anxiety was greater in the acquisition context than in the extinction context during renewal, as assessed with startle, context conditioning did not influence the renewal effect. These data do not support the view that extinction conducted shortly after acquisition is context independent. Hence, they do not provide evidence that extinction can lead to erasure of a fear memory established via Pavlovian conditioning. PMID:17412963

  20. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anubhav; Philip, Nisha; Hughes, Katie R; Georgiou, Konstantina; MacRae, James I; Barrett, Michael P; Creek, Darren J; McConville, Malcolm J; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-12-01

    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.

  1. Microbiota and metabolite profiling reveal specific alterations in bacterial community structure and environment in the cystic fibrosis airway during exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Kate B; Alston, Mark; An, Shi-Qi; O'Connell, Oisin J; McCarthy, Yvonne; Swarbreck, David; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Plant, Barry J; Ryan, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Chronic polymicrobial infections of the lung are the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The composition of the microbial flora of the airway alters considerably during infection, particularly during patient exacerbation. An understanding of which organisms are growing, their environment and their behaviour in the airway is of importance for designing antibiotic treatment regimes and for patient prognosis. To this end, we have analysed sputum samples taken from separate cohorts of CF and non-CF subjects for metabolites and in parallel, and we have examined both isolated DNA and RNA for the presence of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts by high-throughput sequencing of amplicon or cDNA libraries. This analysis revealed that although the population size of all dominant orders of bacteria as measured by DNA- and RNA- based methods are similar, greater discrepancies are seen with less prevalent organisms, some of which we associated with CF for the first time. Additionally, we identified a strong relationship between the abundance of specific anaerobes and fluctuations in several metabolites including lactate and putrescine during patient exacerbation. This study has hence identified organisms whose occurrence within the CF microbiome has been hitherto unreported and has revealed potential metabolic biomarkers for exacerbation.

  2. AmoA-Targeted Polymerase Chain Reaction Primers for the Specific Detection and Quantification of Comammox Nitrospira in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pjevac, Petra; Schauberger, Clemens; Poghosyan, Lianna; Herbold, Craig W.; van Kessel, Maartje A. H. J.; Daebeler, Anne; Steinberger, Michaela; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Lücker, Sebastian; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be catalyzed by the concerted activity of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms. Only recently, complete ammonia oxidizers (“comammox”), which oxidize ammonia to nitrate on their own, were identified in the bacterial genus Nitrospira, previously assumed to contain only canonical nitrite oxidizers. Nitrospira are widespread in nature, but for assessments of the distribution and functional importance of comammox Nitrospira in ecosystems, cultivation-independent tools to distinguish comammox from strictly nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira are required. Here we developed new PCR primer sets that specifically target the amoA genes coding for subunit A of the distinct ammonia monooxygenase of comammox Nitrospira. While existing primers capture only a fraction of the known comammox amoA diversity, the new primer sets cover as much as 95% of the comammox amoA clade A and 92% of the clade B sequences in a reference database containing 326 comammox amoA genes with sequence information at the primer binding sites. Application of the primers to 13 samples from engineered systems (a groundwater well, drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment plants) and other habitats (rice paddy and forest soils, rice rhizosphere, brackish lake sediment and freshwater biofilm) detected comammox Nitrospira in all samples and revealed a considerable diversity of comammox in most habitats. Excellent primer specificity for comammox amoA was achieved by avoiding the use of highly degenerate primer preparations and by using equimolar mixtures of oligonucleotides that match existing comammox amoA genes. Quantitative PCR with these equimolar primer mixtures was highly sensitive and specific, and enabled the efficient quantification of clade A and clade B comammox amoA gene copy numbers in environmental samples. The measured relative abundances of comammox Nitrospira, compared to canonical

  3. Branched GDGTs in Lacustrine Environments: Tracing Allochthonous and Autochthonous Sources Using Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Y.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Lehmann, M. F.; Niemann, H.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    allochthonous (i.e., soil) source. Our data demonstrate the great potential of compound-specific C isotope analysis to constrain the origin of brGDGTs in lake sediments, possibly allowing the identification of freshwater environments that are particularly suited for brGDGT-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  4. Faculty Emphases on Alternative Course-Specific Learning Outcomes in Holland's Model Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.; Rocconi, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines variability in the extent to which faculty members in the disciplinary-based academic environments of Holland's theory emphasize different student learning outcomes in their classes and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" versus "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variation in the…

  5. Faculty Emphases on Alternative Course-Specific Learning Outcomes in Holland's Model Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.; Rocconi, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines variability in the extent to which faculty members in the disciplinary-based academic environments of Holland's theory emphasize different student learning outcomes in their classes and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" versus "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variation in the…

  6. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  7. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  8. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  9. A Novel Tool for Specific Detection and Quantification of Chicken/Turkey Parvoviruses To Trace Poultry Fecal Contamination in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Carratalà, Anna; Rusinol, Marta; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Biarnes, Mar; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kern, Anita; Suñen, Ester; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2012-01-01

    Poultry farming may introduce pathogens into the environment and food chains. High concentrations of chicken/turkey parvoviruses were detected in chicken stools and slaughterhouse and downstream urban wastewaters by applying new PCR-based specific detection and quantification techniques. Our results confirm that chicken/turkey parvoviruses may be useful viral indicators of poultry fecal contamination. PMID:22904047

  10. Cell type-specific adaptation of cellular and nuclear volume in micro-engineered 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Alexandra M; Klein, Franziska; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Richter, Benjamin; Striebel, Thomas; Wundari, Bayu G; Autenrieth, Tatjana J; Wegener, Martin; Franz, Clemens M; Bastmeyer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Bio-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) are structurally and mechanically well-defined and ideal for systematically investigating the influence of three-dimensionality and substrate stiffness on cell behavior. Here, we show that different fibroblast-like and epithelial cell lines maintain normal proliferation rates and form functional cell-matrix contacts in DLW-fabricated 3D scaffolds of different mechanics and geometry. Furthermore, the molecular composition of cell-matrix contacts forming in these 3D micro-environments and under conventional 2D culture conditions is identical, based on the analysis of several marker proteins (paxillin, phospho-paxillin, phospho-focal adhesion kinase, vinculin, β1-integrin). However, fibroblast-like and epithelial cells differ markedly in the way they adapt their total cell and nuclear volumes in 3D environments. While fibroblast-like cell lines display significantly increased cell and nuclear volumes in 3D substrates compared to 2D substrates, epithelial cells retain similar cell and nuclear volumes in 2D and 3D environments. Despite differential cell volume regulation between fibroblasts and epithelial cells in 3D environments, the nucleus-to-cell (N/C) volume ratios remain constant for all cell types and culture conditions. Thus, changes in cell and nuclear volume during the transition from 2D to 3D environments are strongly cell type-dependent, but independent of scaffold stiffness, while cells maintain the N/C ratio regardless of culture conditions.

  11. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume IV, The Simulated Maintenance Task Environment (SMTE): A Job Specific Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Kenneth I.; And Others

    The purpose of the simulated maintenance task environment is to provide a means for training and job performance testing of the flight line weapon control systems mechanic/technician for the F-111A aircraft. It provides practice in flight line equipment checkout, troubleshooting, and removal and replacement of line replaceable units in the…

  12. General and Specific Aspects of the Physical Environment: Relationships with Development in Handicapped Children Ages 1 to 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    The relationship between physical environment and child development was examined in five groups of moderately to severely handicapped children (hearing impaired, vision impaired, orthopedically impaired, speech impaired, mentally retarded). The 282 participating children comprised 89 infants (ages 0-3), 108 preschoolers (ages 3-6), and 85…

  13. Home Literacy Environment Profiles of Children with Language Impairment: Associations with Caregiver- and Child-Specific Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambyraja, Sherine R.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies suggest a positive relationship between the home literacy environment (HLE) and children's language and literacy skills, yet very little research has focused on the HLE of children with language impairment (LI). Children with LI are at risk for reading difficulties; thus, understanding the nature and frequency of their…

  14. Sex-Specific Relationships between Route-Learning Strategies and Abilities in a Large-Scale Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jean; McKillop, Erin; Ward, Micheal; L'Hirondelle, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    Spatial theories identify three aspects of the environment that are used to various degrees in route-learning tasks; namely, landmarks, routes, and configurations. Although research has demonstrated sex differences in the relative predominance of each aspect in route-learning strategies, it is unclear how these sex differences correspond to…

  15. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  16. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume IV, The Simulated Maintenance Task Environment (SMTE): A Job Specific Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Kenneth I.; And Others

    The purpose of the simulated maintenance task environment is to provide a means for training and job performance testing of the flight line weapon control systems mechanic/technician for the F-111A aircraft. It provides practice in flight line equipment checkout, troubleshooting, and removal and replacement of line replaceable units in the…

  17. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  18. Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects.

    PubMed

    Duis, Karen; Coors, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Due to the widespread use and durability of synthetic polymers, plastic debris occurs in the environment worldwide. In the present work, information on sources and fate of microplastic particles in the aquatic and terrestrial environment, and on their uptake and effects, mainly in aquatic organisms, is reviewed. Microplastics in the environment originate from a variety of sources. Quantitative information on the relevance of these sources is generally lacking, but first estimates indicate that abrasion and fragmentation of larger plastic items and materials containing synthetic polymers are likely to be most relevant. Microplastics are ingested and, mostly, excreted rapidly by numerous aquatic organisms. So far, there is no clear evidence of bioaccumulation or biomagnification. In laboratory studies, the ingestion of large amounts of microplastics mainly led to a lower food uptake and, consequently, reduced energy reserves and effects on other physiological functions. Based on the evaluated data, the lowest microplastic concentrations affecting marine organisms exposed via water are much higher than levels measured in marine water. In lugworms exposed via sediment, effects were observed at microplastic levels that were higher than those in subtidal sediments but in the same range as maximum levels in beach sediments. Hydrophobic contaminants are enriched on microplastics, but the available experimental results and modelling approaches indicate that the transfer of sorbed pollutants by microplastics is not likely to contribute significantly to bioaccumulation of these pollutants. Prior to being able to comprehensively assess possible environmental risks caused by microplastics a number of knowledge gaps need to be filled. However, in view of the persistence of microplastics in the environment, the high concentrations measured at some environmental sites and the prospective of strongly increasing concentrations, the release of plastics into the environment should be

  19. Associations between the neighbourhood environment characteristics and physical activity in older adults with specific types of chronic conditions: the ALECS cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Zhang, Casper J P; Sit, Cindy H P; Johnston, Janice M; Cheung, Martin M C; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2016-04-21

    Neighbourhood characteristics may influence physical activity (PA), which has positive effects on the health of older adults. Older adults with chronic conditions are less active and possibly more affected by environmental factors than their peers. Understanding neighbourhood characteristics associated with PA specific to older adults with chronic conditions is currently lacking. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between the neighbourhood environment and various forms of PA in older adults with and without visual impairment, hearing impairment, musculoskeletal disease and/or genitourinary disease. Neighbourhood environment and PA data were collected in Hong Kong older adults (N = 909) from 124 preselected neighbourhoods stratified for walkability and socioeconomic status. Generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models with robust standard errors were used to examine associations of perceived neighbourhood environment characteristics, and the moderating effects of having specific chronic conditions, with PA outcomes. Thirteen perceived neighbourhood characteristics were associated with older adults' PA in the expected direction irrespective of their health condition. Nine neighbourhood characteristics had associations with PA that were dependent on hearing impairment, vision impairment, musculoskeletal disease or genitourinary disease. In general, they were stronger in participants with than without a specific chronic condition. Maximizing the potential for PA in older adults who have lower levels of physical functionality due to chronic conditions may require neighbourhood characteristics specific to these groups.

  20. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-03

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans Genomic Response to Soil Bacteria Predicts Environment-Specific Genetic Effects on Life History Traits

    PubMed Central

    Coolon, Joseph D.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Todd, Timothy C.; Carr, Bryanua C.; Herman, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the post-genomic era came a dramatic increase in high-throughput technologies, of which transcriptional profiling by microarrays was one of the most popular. One application of this technology is to identify genes that are differentially expressed in response to different environmental conditions. These experiments are constructed under the assumption that the differentially expressed genes are functionally important in the environment where they are induced. However, whether differential expression is predictive of functional importance has yet to be tested. Here we have addressed this expectation by employing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for the interaction of native soil nematode taxa and soil bacteria. Using transcriptional profiling, we identified candidate genes regulated in response to different bacteria isolated in association with grassland nematodes or from grassland soils. Many of the regulated candidate genes are predicted to affect metabolism and innate immunity suggesting similar genes could influence nematode community dynamics in natural systems. Using mutations that inactivate 21 of the identified genes, we showed that most contribute to lifespan and/or fitness in a given bacterial environment. Although these bacteria may not be natural food sources for C. elegans, we show that changes in food source, as can occur in environmental disturbance, can have a large effect on gene expression, with important consequences for fitness. Moreover, we used regression analysis to demonstrate that for many genes the degree of differential gene expression between two bacterial environments predicted the magnitude of the effect of the loss of gene function on life history traits in those environments. PMID:19503598

  2. Systematic Design of a Learning Environment for Domain-Specific and Domain-General Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiruneh, Dawit Tibebu; Weldeslassie, Ataklti G.; Kassa, Abrham; Tefera, Zinaye; De Cock, Mieke; Elen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying effective instructional approaches that stimulate students' critical thinking (CT) has been the focus of a large body of empirical research. However, there is little agreement on the instructional principles and procedures that are theoretically sound and empirically valid to developing both domain-specific and domain-general CT…

  3. Specification for the Performance, Design, Development and Test Requirements for a Severe Environment Cartridge Recorder. Issue 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    protruding components shall be recessed beneath the outline formed by extending all planar exterior surfaces to their intersection lines. The only...either machining it from solid blanks of aluminium alloy, or by casting it from aluminium alloy. The finished external surfaces shall be orthogonal. (b...design and construction of a prototype which forms the basis for this specification. The AEL Recorder contained most of the mechanical features described

  4. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing Using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for Use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-sq cm/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  5. The value of site-specific information and the environment: technology adoption and pesticide use under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Isik, Murat; Hudson, Darren; Coble, Keith H

    2005-08-01

    Remote sensing technology offers an opportunity to significantly increase the amount of site-specific information about field characteristics such as pest populations. Coupled with variable rate application technologies, this added information has the potential to provide environmental benefits through reduced pesticide applications. However, producers face a complicated adoption decision because output prices and crop yields are uncertain. A model is developed to examine the potential value of remote sensing information to pesticide applications in an option-value framework under uncertainty. Simulations suggest that remote sensing information could decrease pesticide use, but uncertainty and irreversibility are likely to limit technological adoption by farmers. Potential cost-share subsidies are discussed.

  6. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission [1] require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-cm2/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  7. Biotic structure indirectly affects associated prey in a predator-specific manner via changes in the sensory environment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Miranda L; Weissburg, Marc J

    2013-02-01

    Indirect effects, which can be either positive or negative, may be important in areas containing biotic structure, because such structure can provide refuge and habitat, produce additional sensory cues that may attract predators, and modify the sensory landscape in which predator-prey interactions occur. To determine the indirect effects of biotic structure on prey populations, we assessed predation on patches of hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) by large odor-mediated blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and knobbed whelk (Busycon carica) predators at 0, 5, and 10 m from oyster reefs in intertidal salt marshes. Oyster reefs had an overall indirect negative effect on hard clams, with higher predation rates closer to the reef than farther away. Predator-specific patterns of predation showed that blue crabs consumed more clams very close to the reef, whereas whelks consumed more clams at intermediate distances. Laboratory flume experiments suggest that the oyster reef structure creates turbulence that diminishes predator foraging efficiency, particularly in rapidly mobile predators such as blue crabs, but that oyster reef chemicals ameliorate the negative impact of turbulence on foraging success for both predators. Changes in the sensory landscape, in combination with predator perceptual ability, will determine the positive and/or negative impacts of biotic structure on associated prey. Gaining an understanding of the context specificity of positive and negative sensory effects of biotic structure provides insights that are important for developing a predictive framework to assess the magnitude and distribution of indirect interactions in natural communities.

  8. Detection of Fungi in Indoor Environments and Fungus-Specific IgE Sensitization in Allergic Children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between fungal colonization in the house and IgE sensitization to fungi, and to clarify the effects of house care in relation to fungi. Materials and Methods We measured levels of fungi in the houses of 52 allergic children. Of these, 32 children displayed detectable levels of IgE (≥ 0.35 UA/ml) to a combination of fungi (positive group). The remaining 20 children were not sensitized to fungi (negative group). Each fungus-specific IgE level was also measured in sera of the positive group, and a questionnaire-based survey was conducted for daily lifestyles. Results Cladosporium was the most prevalent in the houses. From the 32 sera of the positive group, specific IgE levels ≥ 0.70 UA/ml were most frequently detected in 21 sera for Alternaria. Children in whose houses Alternaria was found displayed higher levels of Alternaria-IgE than those in whose houses where Alternaria was not found. In addition, Alternaria-IgE level was lower for children using an air purifier than for children who were not. Windows were more frequently opened for ventilation in negative-group houses than in positive-group houses. Conclusions The existence of Alternaria might strongly induce IgE sensitization for Alternaria. Using an air purifier and frequently opening windows may minimize fungal sensitization of allergic children. PMID:23283150

  9. Defect sink characteristics of specific grain boundary types in 304 stainless steels under high dose neutron environments

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Busby, Jeremy T.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-09

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 °C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed and benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Furthermore, such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.

  10. Defect sink characteristics of specific grain boundary types in 304 stainless steels under high dose neutron environments

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Busby, Jeremy T.; ...

    2015-03-09

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 °C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed andmore » benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Furthermore, such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.« less

  11. Specificity improvement for network distributed physiologic alarms based on a simple deterministic reactive intelligent agent in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Blum, James M; Kruger, Grant H; Sanders, Kathryn L; Gutierrez, Jorge; Rosenberg, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Automated physiologic alarms are available in most commercial physiologic monitors. However, due to the variability of data coming from the physiologic sensors describing the state of patients, false positive alarms frequently occur. Each alarm requires review and documentation, which consumes clinicians' time, may reduce patient safety through 'alert fatigue' and makes automated physician paging infeasible. To address these issues a computerized architecture based on simple reactive intelligent agent technology has been developed and implemented in a live critical care unit to facilitate the investigation of deterministic algorithms for the improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of physiologic alarms. The initial proposed algorithm uses a combination of median filters and production rules to make decisions about what alarms to generate. The alarms are used to classify the state of patients and alerts can be easily viewed and distributed using standard network, SQL database and Internet technologies. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a 28 day study was conducted in the University of Michigan Medical Center's 14 bed Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Alarms generated by patient monitors, the intelligent agent and alerts documented on patient flow sheets were compared. Significant improvements in the specificity of the physiologic alarms based on systolic and mean blood pressure was found on average to be 99% and 88% respectively. Even through significant improvements were noted based on this algorithm much work still needs to be done to ensure the sensitivity of alarms and methods to handle spurious sensor data due to patient or sensor movement and other influences.

  12. Defect sink characteristics of specific grain boundary types in 304 stainless steels under high dose neutron environments

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-05-01

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 °C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed and benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.

  13. Antibiotic resistance in hospitals: a ward-specific random effect model in a low antibiotic consumption environment.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Magne; Raastad, Ragnhild; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Berild, Dag; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Leegaard, Truls; Monnet, Dominique L; Walberg, Mette; Müller, Fredrik

    2013-04-15

    Association between previous antibiotic use and emergence of antibiotic resistance has been reported for several microorganisms. The relationship has been extensively studied, and although the causes of antibiotic resistance are multi-factorial, clear evidence of antibiotic use as a major risk factor exists. Most studies are carried out in countries with high consumption of antibiotics and corresponding high levels of antibiotic resistance, and currently, little is known whether and at what level the associations are detectable in a low antibiotic consumption environment. We conduct an ecological, retrospective study aimed at determining the impact of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in three hospitals in Norway, a country with low levels of antibiotic use. We construct a sophisticated statistical model to capture such low signals. To reduce noise, we conduct our study at hospital ward level. We propose a random effect Poisson or binomial regression model, with a reparametrisation that allows us to reduce the number of parameters. Inference is likelihood based. Through scenario simulation, we study the potential effects of reduced or increased antibiotic use. Results clearly indicate that the effects of consumption on resistance are present under conditions with relatively low use of antibiotic agents. This strengthens the recommendation on prudent use of antibiotics, even when consumption is relatively low. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Hanene; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ferjani, Raoudha; Fusi, Marco; Soussi, Asma; Mapelli, Francesca; Blilou, Ikram; Borin, Sara; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-08-01

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ester synthesis and hydrolysis in an aqueous environment, and strain specific changes during malolactic fermentation in wine with Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Sumby, Krista M; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Previous work has shown that Oenococcus oeni produces esterases that are capable of hydrolysing artificial substrates. Using SPME-GCMS, this study provides evidence that purified O. oeni esterases have the ability to both synthesise and hydrolyse esters. Two purified esterases (EstA2 and EstB28) synthesised ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate to varying degrees. Both purified esterases hydrolysed ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Once this dual activity was confirmed, malolactic fermentation (MLF) trials were conducted in wine with O. oeni strains that had been previously observed to have either high or low esterase activity against artificial substrates. Strain specific differences were observed and strains with low esterase hydrolysis activity against artificial substrates had a higher level of total esters measured after MLF. The results demonstrate the impact that O. oeni has on wine aroma and relates this to the ester hydrolysis and synthesis abilities of O. oeni strains.

  16. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  17. Human Disturbances, Habitat Characteristics and Social Environment Generate Sex-Specific Responses in Vigilance of Mediterranean Mouflon

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing

  18. Human disturbances, habitat characteristics and social environment generate sex-specific responses in vigilance of Mediterranean mouflon.

    PubMed

    Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing

  19. Optimized Basis Sets for the Environment in the Domain-Specific Basis Set Approach of the Incremental Scheme.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Tony; Hill, J Grant; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-04-21

    Minimal basis sets, denoted DSBSenv, based on the segmented basis sets of Ahlrichs and co-workers have been developed for use as environmental basis sets for the domain-specific basis set (DSBS) incremental scheme with the aim of decreasing the CPU requirements of the incremental scheme. The use of these minimal basis sets within explicitly correlated (F12) methods has been enabled by the optimization of matching auxiliary basis sets for use in density fitting of two-electron integrals and resolution of the identity. The accuracy of these auxiliary sets has been validated by calculations on a test set containing small- to medium-sized molecules. The errors due to density fitting are about 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the basis set incompleteness error of the DSBSenv orbital basis sets. Additional reductions in computational cost have been tested with the reduced DSBSenv basis sets, in which the highest angular momentum functions of the DSBSenv auxiliary basis sets have been removed. The optimized and reduced basis sets are used in the framework of the domain-specific basis set of the incremental scheme to decrease the computation time without significant loss of accuracy. The computation times and accuracy of the previously used environmental basis and that optimized in this work have been validated with a test set of medium- to large-sized systems. The optimized and reduced DSBSenv basis sets decrease the CPU time by about 15.4% and 19.4% compared with the old environmental basis and retain the accuracy in the absolute energy with standard deviations of 0.99 and 1.06 kJ/mol, respectively.

  20. [Living environment and activation of early maladaptive schemas specific to the elderly: Comparative study among 80 individuals].

    PubMed

    Obeid, S; Kazour, F; Kazour, G

    2015-06-01

    Early maladaptive schemas described by Young may be identified in the elderly. They represent models and themes of emotions, memories, thoughts and bodily sensations experienced by the individual. This study aims to evaluate the activation of early maladaptive thoughts in the elderly depending on their living environment. The Young Schema Questionnaire--short form--was administered to 80 elderly individuals (40 living in a nursing home, and 40 in their own home with at least one person). The studied schemas that were most relevant to the elderly were the maladaptive schemas of abandonment, emotional deprivation, mistrust, exclusion, dependency, vulnerability and emotional overcontrol. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to eliminate dementia or depression among individuals. Individuals living in a nursing home, compared to their controls had increased activation of schemas of emotional deprivation (22.5% vs. 7.5%), abandonment (15% vs. 0%), mistrust (32.5% vs. 2.5%), exclusion (7.5% vs. 0%), and emotional overcontrol (25% vs. 2.5%). The activation of maladaptive schemas was significantly elevated in nursing homes for those 5 schemas, while there was no difference in activation between the 2 groups concerning the schemas of dependency and vulnerability. The activation of early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, exclusion, and emotional overcontrol is higher in individuals living in nursing homes compared to a control group of individuals living in their homes with at least one companion. This schema activation may be related to a lack of emotional and family support in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of the human specific Bacteroides genetic marker provides evidence of widespread sewage contamination of stormwater in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Elizabeth P; Vandewalle, Jessica L; Bootsma, Melinda J; McLellan, Sandra L

    2011-08-01

    Human sewage contamination of surface waters is a major human health concern. We found urban stormwater systems that collect and convey runoff from impervious surfaces act as a conduit for sewage originating from breeches in sanitary sewer infrastructure. A total of 828 samples at 45 stormwater outfalls were collected over a four-year period and assessed by culture based methods, PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to test for traditional and alternative indicators of fecal pollution. All outfalls had the HF183 (human) Bacteroides genetic marker detected in at least one sample, suggesting sewage contamination is nearly ubiquitous in the urban environment. However, most outfalls were intermittently positive, ranging from detection in 11%-100% of the samples. Positive results did not correlate with seasonality, rainfall amounts, or days since previous rainfall. Approximately two-thirds of the outfalls had high (>5000 copy number, i.e. CN, per 100 ml) or moderate levels (1000-5000 CN per 100 ml) of the human Bacteroides genetic marker. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci levels did not correlate to human Bacteroides. A total of 66% of all outfall samples had standard fecal indicator levels above 10,000 CFU per 100 ml. A tiered assessment using this benchmark to identify high priority sites would have failed to flag 35% of the samples that had evidence of sewage contamination. In addition, high fecal indicators would have flagged 33% of samples as priority that had low or no evidence of sewage. Enteric virus levels in one outfall with high levels of the human Bacteroides genetic marker were similar to untreated wastewater, which illustrates stormwater can serve as a pathway for pathogen contamination. The major source of fecal pollution at four of five river sites that receive stormwater discharge appeared to be from sewage sources rather than non-human sources based on the ratios of human Bacteroides to total Bacteroides spp. This study shows the feasibility

  2. Inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal-oral route: a consequence of behaviour in a patchy environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Marion, G; Swain, D L; White, P C L; Hutchings, M R

    2009-05-01

    Livestock herbivores are at risk of inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites/pathogens via the faecal-oral route during grazing. Each contact between livestock and faeces in the environment is a potential parasite/pathogen transmission event. Cattle grazing contact with faeces varies in relation to the species depositing the faeces and the distribution of the faeces. We used a foraging model to simulate the grazing behaviour of beef cattle in two grazing systems to compare the relative inter-specific and intra-specific exposure risks to parasites/pathogens. Overall, there is a greater level of intra- vs. inter-specific risk via the faecal-oral route. However, under certain conditions, particularly for microparasite infections, e.g. paratuberculosis in rabbits and bovine tuberculosis in badgers, wildlife may pose a significant exposure risk to parasites/pathogens. These risks can be enhanced when cattle are first turned out onto pasture and in situations where intra-specific variations in wildlife behaviour result in more dispersed defecation patterns.

  3. Development and validation of broad-range qualitative and clade-specific quantitative molecular probes for assessing mercury methylation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Geoff A.; Wymore, Ann M.; King, Andrew J.; Podar, Mircea; Hurt, Jr., Richard A.; Santillan, Eugenio U.; Soren, Ally; Brandt, Craig C.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Wall, Judy D.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2016-07-15

    Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg)-methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability and biogeochemistry is critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB+ strains tested via Sanger sequencing. Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative primers (qPCR) that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88% and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. Here, the resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg-methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB.

  4. Development and validation of broad-range qualitative and clade-specific quantitative molecular probes for assessing mercury methylation in the environment

    DOE PAGES

    Christensen, Geoff A.; Wymore, Ann M.; King, Andrew J.; ...

    2016-07-15

    Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg)-methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability and biogeochemistry is critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB+ strains tested via Sanger sequencing.more » Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative primers (qPCR) that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88% and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. Here, the resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg-methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB.« less

  5. Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Thomas G., Ed.; Wright, Benjamin E., Ed.

    The focus of the 16 essays in this book is the physical environment of learning, specifically the man-made or built environment. The authors contend that educators have tended to overlook the influence of built environments on the learning process--a process not confined to schools, but involving play areas, tree houses, and the city itself. The…

  6. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  7. A Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Sex Pheromone Mixture Increases Trap Catch Relative to a Single Synthesized Component in Specific Environments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Tix, John A; Hlina, Benjamin L; Wagner, C Michael; Siefkes, Michael J; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-03-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10% increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  8. Recent advances in the detection of specific natural organic compounds as carriers for radionuclides in soil and water environments, with examples of radioiodine and plutonium.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Xu, C; Zhang, S; Schwehr, K A; Lin, P; Yeager, C M; Kaplan, D I

    2017-03-09

    Among the key environmental factors influencing the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is natural organic matter (NOM). While this has been known for decades, there still remains great uncertainty in predicting NOM-radionuclide interactions because of lack of understanding of radionuclide interactions with the specific organic moieties within NOM. Furthermore, radionuclide-NOM studies conducted using modelled organic compounds or elevated radionuclide concentrations provide compromised information related to true environmental conditions. Thus, sensitive techniques are required not only for the detection of radionuclides, and their different species, at ambient and/or far-field concentrations, but also for potential trace organic compounds that are chemically binding these radionuclides. GC-MS and AMS techniques developed in our lab are reviewed here that aim to assess how two radionuclides, iodine and plutonium, form strong bonds with NOM by entirely different mechanisms; iodine tends to bind to aromatic functionalities, whereas plutonium binds to N-containing hydroxamate siderophores at ambient concentrations. While low-level measurements are a prerequisite for assessing iodine and plutonium migration at nuclear waste sites and as environmental tracers, it is necessary to determine their in-situ speciation, which ultimately controls their mobility and transport in natural environments. More importantly, advanced molecular-level instrumentation (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI-FTICRMS) were applied to resolve either directly or indirectly the molecular environments in which the radionuclides are associated with the NOM.

  9. Polarizable QM/MM Multiconfiguration Self-Consistent Field Approach with State-Specific Corrections: Environment Effects on Cytosine Absorption Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Quansong; Mennucci, Benedetta; Robb, Michael A; Blancafort, Lluís; Curutchet, Carles

    2015-04-14

    We present the formulation and implementation of a polarizable quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) strategy to describe environment effects in multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations. The strategy is applied to the calculation of the vertical absorption spectrum of cytosine in water. In our approach, mutual polarization of the solute and the solvent is solved self-consistently at the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) level, and the resulting set of charges and dipoles is used to calculate vertical excitation energies using the complete-active-space second-order perturbative (CASPT2) approach and its multistate (MS-CASPT2) variant. In order to treat multiple excited states, we converge the solvent polarization with respect to the state-averaged density of the solute. In order to obtain the final energies, however, we introduce a state-specific correction, where the solvent polarization is recomputed with the density of each state, and demonstrate that this correction brings the excitation energies closer to the values obtained with state-optimized orbitals. Comparison with PCM and nonpolarizable QM/MM calculations shows the importance of specific solute-solvent interactions and environment polarization in describing experiments. Overall, the calculated excitations for the π → π* states in water show good agreement with the experimental spectrum, whereas the n → π* appear at energies above 6 eV, approximately 1 eV higher than in the gas phase. Beyond solvents, the new method will allow studying the impact of heterogeneous biological environments in multiple excited states, as well as the treatment of multichromophoric systems where charge transfer and exciton states play important roles.

  10. Microeukaryotic diversity in the extreme environments of the Iberian Pyrite Belt: a comparison between universal and fungi-specific primer sets, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning.

    PubMed

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2006-07-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt extends from Portugal to Spain and is one of the most important pyrite regions in the world. Its aquatic reservoirs display extreme conditions characterized by low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, the diversity of microeukaryotes was analysed at the abandoned mines of São Domingos (Portugal) and at Rio Tinto (Spain). DNA was extracted from water samples and a set of eukaryotic universal primers directed to the small subunit rRNA genes (rDNA) was used. The amplicons were analysed by molecular cloning and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). In addition, a fungi-specific primer set was also used in TGGE experiments. The fungi-specific primers contributed to a substantial increase in the number of fungal taxa found due, probably, to the relative low density of fungal structures. Several microorganisms, belonging (or closely related) to the ascomycetous yeast Pichia acaciae, the basidiomycetous yeasts Cryptococcus humicola and Cystofilobasidium bisporidii, the green algae Chlamydomonas noctigama and Chlorella protothecoides var. acidicola and some uncultured microeukaryotes were present at both localities, which suggests that specific microorganisms are adapted to the peculiar conditions of the Iberian Pyrite Belt extreme environments. However, in spite of the similarities, a higher algal richness was observed at S. Domingos, whereas for R. Tinto the richness of fungi was more prominent.

  11. Development and Validation of Broad-Range Qualitative and Clade-Specific Quantitative Molecular Probes for Assessing Mercury Methylation in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Geoff A.; Wymore, Ann M.; King, Andrew J.; Podar, Mircea; Hurt, Richard A.; Santillan, Eugenio U.; Soren, Ally; Brandt, Craig C.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Wall, Judy D.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg) methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability, and biogeochemistry, are critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea genomes. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB+ strains tested via Sanger sequencing. Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88%, and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. The resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB. IMPORTANCE The neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) poses a serious risk to human health. MeHg production in nature is associated with anaerobic microorganisms. The

  12. Improved pan-specific MHC class I peptide-binding predictions using a novel representation of the MHC-binding cleft environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, S; Zimic, M; Nielsen, M

    2014-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a key role in cell-mediated immune responses presenting bounded peptides for recognition by the immune system cells. Several in silico methods have been developed to predict the binding affinity of a given peptide to a specific MHC molecule. One of the current state-of-the-art methods for MHC class I is NetMHCpan, which has a core ingredient for the representation of the MHC class I molecule using a pseudo-sequence representation of the binding cleft amino acid environment. New and large MHC-peptide-binding data sets are constantly being made available, and also new structures of MHC class I molecules with a bound peptide have been published. In order to test if the NetMHCpan method can be improved by integrating this novel information, we created new pseudo-sequence definitions for the MHC-binding cleft environment from sequence and structural analyses of different MHC data sets including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), non-human primates (chimpanzee, macaque and gorilla) and other animal alleles (cattle, mouse and swine). From these constructs, we showed that by focusing on MHC sequence positions found to be polymorphic across the MHC molecules used to train the method, the NetMHCpan method achieved a significant increase in the predictive performance, in particular, of non-human MHCs. This study hence showed that an improved performance of MHC-binding methods can be achieved not only by the accumulation of more MHC-peptide-binding data but also by a refined definition of the MHC-binding environment including information from non-human species.

  13. Sex-specific genotype-by-environment interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus: implications for the evolution of signal reliability.

    PubMed

    Weddle, C B; Mitchell, C; Bay, S K; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic traits that convey information about individual identity or quality are important in animal social interactions, and the degree to which such traits are influenced by environmental variation can have profound effects on the reliability of these cues. Using inbred genetic lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, we manipulated diet quality to test how the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of males and females respond across two different nutritional rearing environments. There were significant differences between lines in the CHC profiles of females, but the effect of diet was not quite statistically significant. There was no significant genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic variation in female CHCs are independent of genotype. There was, however, a significant effect of GEI for males, with changes in both signal quantity and content, suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic expression of male CHCs are dependent on genotype. The differential response of male and female CHC expression to variation in the nutritional environment suggests that these chemical cues may be under sex-specific selection for signal reliability. Female CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of identity: high genetic variability, low condition dependence and a high degree of genetic determination. This supports earlier work showing that female CHCs are used in self-recognition to identify previous mates and facilitate polyandry. In contrast, male CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of quality: condition dependence and a relatively higher degree of environmental determination. This suggests that male CHCs are likely to function as cues of underlying quality during mate choice and/or male dominance interactions.

  14. Recent advances in the detection of specific natural organic compounds as carriers for radionuclides in soil and water environments, with examples of radioiodine and plutonium

    DOE PAGES

    Santschi, P. H.; Xu, C.; Zhang, S.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Among the key environmental factors influencing the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is natural organic matter (NOM). While this has been known for decades, there still remains great uncertainty in predicting NOM-radionuclide interactions because of lack of understanding of radionuclide interactions with the specific organic moieties within NOM. Furthermore, radionuclide-NOM studies conducted using modelled organic compounds or elevated radionuclide concentrations provide compromised information related to true environmental conditions. Thus, sensitive techniques are required not only for the detection of radionuclides, and their different species, at ambient and/or far-field concentrations, but also for potential trace organic compounds thatmore » are chemically binding these radionuclides. GC-MS and AMS techniques developed in our lab are reviewed in this paper that aim to assess how two radionuclides, iodine and plutonium, form strong bonds with NOM by entirely different mechanisms; iodine tends to bind to aromatic functionalities, whereas plutonium binds to N-containing hydroxamate siderophores at ambient concentrations. While low-level measurements are a prerequisite for assessing iodine and plutonium migration at nuclear waste sites and as environmental tracers, it is necessary to determine their in-situ speciation, which ultimately controls their mobility and transport in natural environments. Finally and more importantly, advanced molecular-level instrumentation (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI-FTICRMS) were applied to resolve either directly or indirectly the molecular environments in which the radionuclides are associated with the NOM.« less

  15. Imaging of conformational changes of proteins with a new environment-sensitive fluorescent probe designed for site-specific labeling of recombinant proteins in live cells.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, J; Nakajima, T; Sato, M; Ozawa, T; Tohda, K; Umezawa, Y

    2001-07-01

    We demonstrate herein a new method for imaging conformational changes of proteins in live cells using a new synthetic environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, 9-amino-6,8-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one. This fluorescent probe can be attached to recombinant proteins containing four cysteine residues at the i, i + 1, i + 4, and i + 5 positions of an alpha-helix. The specific binding of the fluorescent probe to this 4Cys motif enables fluorescent labeling inside cells by its extracellular administration. The high sensitivity of the fluorophore to its environment enables monitoring of the conformational changes of the proteins in live cells as changes in its fluorescence intensity. The present method was applied to calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+-binding protein that was well-known to expose hydrophobic domains, depending on the Ca2+ concentration. A recombinant CaM fused at its C-terminal with a helical peptide containing a 4Cys motif was labeled with the fluorescent probe inside live cells. The fluorescence intensity changed reversibly depending on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which reflected the conformational change of the recombinant CaM in the live cells.

  16. Coastal Modelling Environment version 1.0: a framework for integrating landform-specific component models in order to simulate decadal to centennial morphological changes on complex coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payo, Andrés; Favis-Mortlock, David; Dickson, Mark; Hall, Jim W.; Hurst, Martin D.; Walkden, Mike J. A.; Townend, Ian; Ives, Matthew C.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Ellis, Michael A.

    2017-07-01

    The ability to model morphological changes on complex, multi-landform coasts over decadal to centennial timescales is essential for sustainable coastal management worldwide. One approach involves coupling of landform-specific simulation models (e.g. cliffs, beaches, dunes and estuaries) that have been independently developed. An alternative, novel approach explored in this paper is to capture the essential characteristics of the landform-specific models using a common spatial representation within an appropriate software framework. This avoid the problems that result from the model-coupling approach due to between-model differences in the conceptualizations of geometries, volumes and locations of sediment. In the proposed framework, the Coastal Modelling Environment (CoastalME), change in coastal morphology is represented by means of dynamically linked raster and geometrical objects. A grid of raster cells provides the data structure for representing quasi-3-D spatial heterogeneity and sediment conservation. Other geometrical objects (lines, areas and volumes) that are consistent with, and derived from, the raster structure represent a library of coastal elements (e.g. shoreline, beach profiles and estuary volumes) as required by different landform-specific models. As a proof-of-concept, we illustrate the capabilities of an initial version of CoastalME by integrating a cliff-beach model and two wave propagation approaches. We verify that CoastalME can reproduce behaviours of the component landform-specific models. Additionally, the integration of these component models within the CoastalME framework reveals behaviours that emerge from the interaction of landforms, which have not previously been captured, such as the influence of the regional bathymetry on the local alongshore sediment-transport gradient and the effect on coastal change on an undefended coastal segment and on sediment bypassing of coastal structures.

  17. Dust specific extinction cross-sections over the Eastern Mediterranean using the BSC-DREAM model and sun photometer data: the case of urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasopoulos, E.; Kokkalis, P.; Amiridis, V.; Liakakou, E.; Perez, C.; Haustein, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, from a MFR sun photometer operating in Athens, were compared with columnar dust loading estimations, from the BSC-DREAM model, during identified dust events, in order to extract the typical specific extinction cross-section for dust over the area. The selected urban environment of Athens provided us with the opportunity to investigate the mixing of dust and urban pollution and to estimate the contribution of the latter. The specific extinction cross-section for dust at 500 nm was found to be equal to σ500*=0.64±0.04 m2 g, typical for medium to large distances from dust sources, with weak wavelength dependence in the visible and near infrared band (0.4-0.9 μm). The model showed a tendency to underpredict AOD levels for increasing values of the Ångström exponent, indicative of fine particles of anthropogenic origin inside the boundary layer. On average we found an AOD under-prediction of 10-15% for Ångström exponents in the range of 0 to 1 and 30-40% in the range of 1 to 2. Additionally, modelled surface concentrations were evaluated against surface PM10 measurements. Model values were lower than measured surface concentrations by 30% which, in conjunction with large scatter, indicated that the effect of the boundary layer anthropogenic contribution to columnar dust loadings is amplified near the ground.

  18. Preexercise urine specific gravity and fluid intake during one-hour running in a thermoneutral environment - a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Altoé, Janaína L; Saldanha, Mônica R; Ferreira, Fabrícia G; Marins, João C B

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity is often used to assess hydration status. Athletes who are hypohydrated prior to exercise tend to ingest more fluid during the exercise, possibly to compensate for their pre exercise fluid deficit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional fluid intake on fluid balance and gastrointestinal tract comfort during 1h running in a thermoneutral environment when athletes followed their habitual fluid and dietary regimes. Sixteen men and sixteen women ingested a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution immediately prior to exercise and then every 15 minutes during two runs, with a consumption rate of 2 mL.kg(-1) (LV, lower volume) or 3 mL.kg(-1) (HV, higher volume) body mass. Urine specific gravity and body mass changes were determined before and after the tests to estimate hydration status. During exercise subjects verbally responded to surveys inquiring about gastrointestinal symptoms, sensation of thirst and ratings of perceived exertion. Plasma glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were also evaluated. Men had higher preexercise urine specific gravity than women (1.025 vs. 1.016 g·mL(-1) HV; and 1.024 vs. 1.017 g·mL(-1) LV) and greater sweat loss (1.21 ± 0.27 L vs. 0.83 ± 0.21 L HV; and 1.18 ± 0.23 L vs. 0.77 ± 0.17 LV). Prevalence of gastrointestinal discomfort increased after 45 min. No significant differences on heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, blood pressure or glycemia was observed with the additional fluid intake. From these results it appears that additional fluid intake reduces body mass loss and thirst sensation. When compared to the men, however, preexercise euhydration was more common in women and an increased fluid intake increases the risk of body mass gain and gastrointestinal discomfort. Key pointsThere seems to be a wide variability in pre-exercise hydration status between male and female and efforts aimed at educating athletes about the importance of pregame hydration must be emphasized

  19. The micro-social risk environment for injection drug use: An event specific analysis of dyadic, situational, and network predictors of injection risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Janulis, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background This study explores the risk environment for drug use by examining injection risk behavior during specific injection episodes. By leveraging multiple observations of injection episodes of participants, the study attempts to move beyond global assessment of environmental variables to simultaneously model within (i.e., event level) as well as between (i.e., individual level) predictors of injection risk. Furthermore, gender is also explored as a potential moderator of the relationship between the association of specific partner characteristics (e.g., having an injection partner who is also a sexual partner) and injection risk behavior. Methods Data is used from the Sexual Acquisition of Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Study (SATHCAP). Multilevel structural equation modeling is utilized to predict within and between variations in underlying injection risk behavior as measured using four indicators of injection risk. Results Results indicated that a number of partner level characteristics (i.e., being emotionally close with the partner, sexual partnership, being a first time partner) and one social situational (i.e., the number of non-injectors present at the injection episode) characteristic predicted event level injection risk behavior. However, the impact of partner characteristics also appears to be moderated by gender of the participants. More specifically, sharing a sexual partnership with an injection partner was more strongly associated with injection risk among females as compared to males and females indicated higher levels of risk when injecting with other females while the partner’s gender showed no significant association with risk for male injectors. Conclusion These results suggest that people who inject drug do report varying levels of risk during different injection episodes and this variation can be explained by partner and situational characteristics. Improved understanding of the social processes surrounding injection episodes

  20. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  1. The micro-social risk environment for injection drug use: An event specific analysis of dyadic, situational, and network predictors of injection risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Janulis, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the risk environment for drug use by examining injection risk behavior during specific injection episodes. By leveraging multiple observations of injection episodes of participants, the study attempts to move beyond global assessment of environmental variables to simultaneously model within (i.e., event level) as well as between (i.e., individual level) predictors of injection risk. Furthermore, gender is also explored as a potential moderator of the relationship between the association of specific partner characteristics (e.g., having an injection partner who is also a sexual partner) and injection risk behavior. Data is used from the Sexual Acquisition of Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Study (SATHCAP). Multilevel structural equation modeling is utilized to predict within and between variations in underlying injection risk behavior as measured using four indicators of injection risk. Results indicated that a number of partner level characteristics (i.e., being emotionally close with the partner, sexual partnership, being a first time partner) and one social situational (i.e., the number of non-injectors present at the injection episode) characteristic predicted event level injection risk behavior. However, the impact of partner characteristics also appears to be moderated by gender of the participants. More specifically, sharing a sexual partnership with an injection partner was more strongly associated with injection risk among females as compared to males and females indicated higher levels of risk when injecting with other females while the partner's gender showed no significant association with risk for male injectors. These results suggest that people who inject drug do report varying levels of risk during different injection episodes and this variation can be explained by partner and situational characteristics. Improved understanding of the social processes surrounding injection episodes is required to further refine harm

  2. Exposure to a farming environment has allergen-specific protective effects on TH2-dependent isotype switching in response to common inhalants.

    PubMed

    Stern, Debra A; Riedler, Josef; Nowak, Dennis; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Swoboda, Ines; Balic, Nadja; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Vrtala, Susanne; Grönlund, Hans; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne; Von Mutius, Erika; Vercelli, Donata

    2007-02-01

    IgE synthesis by human B cells results from allergen-dependent, T(H)2-mediated isotype switching. Exposure to a farming environment protects against IgE responses. We reconstructed allergen-dependent switching patterns in vivo to identify the level or levels at which farm exposure acts to protect against atopy. Serum IgG1 to IgG4 and IgE to grass (rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5), cat (rFel d 1), and mite (rDer p 2) were assessed by means of ELISA in the Allergy and Endotoxin study population (812 children). Farm exposure was defined as currently living on a farm, exposure to stables/farm milk in the first year of life, or both. Farm exposure did not affect allergen-specific IgG2 and IgG3 levels but had complex allergen-specific effects on IgG1, IgG4, and IgE levels. Exposure protected against grass-specific responses at every step along the IgG1/IgG4/IgE switching pathway but had no significant effect on mite responses. Protection from cat responses was concentrated at the IgG1 level. For all allergens, failure to express IgG1 was associated with low prevalence of IgG4 or IgE responses. Notably, coexpression of IgG1, IgG4, and IgE to grass was associated with increased risk of allergic disease and higher IgE levels compared with production of IgG1 and IgE without IgG4, suggesting IgG4 coexpression marks stronger activation of T(H)2-dependent events. The protective effects of farm exposure were confined to T(H)2-dependent IgG1, IgG4, and IgE expression and were allergen and switch stage specific, suggesting that distinct mechanisms regulate individual steps within allergen-induced class switching in vivo. Environmental interventions to prevent IgE expression might need to be tailored to specific allergens.

  3. Disentangling contextual effects on cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal 23-year follow-up study: impact of population density or socioeconomic environment?

    PubMed

    Chaix, Basile; Rosvall, Maria; Lynch, John; Merlo, Juan

    2006-06-01

    Various studies have investigated urban/rural differences in cause-specific mortality. A separate body of literature has analysed effects of socioeconomic environment on mortality. Almost no studies have attempted to disentangle effects of population density and socioeconomic environment on mortality, beyond the effects of individual characteristics. Considering all individuals living in the region of Scania, Sweden, from 1970-93, we performed 10 year mortality follow-ups on (i) individuals aged 55, (ii) individuals aged 65, and (iii) individuals aged 75 years at baseline. Cox multilevel models adjusted for individual factors allowed us to investigate the independent effects of population density and median income in the parish of residence on mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among individuals who had lived in the same parish for at least 10 years prior to mortality follow-up. In females, as in males, after adjustment for individual and contextual socioeconomic status, we found a dose-response association between population density and mortality from lung cancer and COPD in all age groups investigated, and from IHD especially in the youngest age group. Overall, the population density effect was the strongest on lung cancer mortality. Median income had an additional impact only in 2 out of 16 subgroups of age x gender x cause of death. In our region-wide study conducted at the parish level, contextual disparities in mortality were dominated by the population density effect. However, it may be unwise to conclude that truly contextual effects exist on mortality, before identification of plausible mediating processes through which urbanicity may influence mortality risk.

  4. Effects of creating a non-specific, virus-hostile environment in the nasopharynx on symptoms and duration of common cold.

    PubMed

    Hull, D; Rennie, P; Noronha, A; Poore, C; Harrington, N; Fearnley, V; Passàli, D

    2007-04-01

    , runny nose, blocked nose, cough and tired/run-down feeling. Two formulations demonstrated significant effects. A hydroxy methyl propyl cellulose based formulation reduced symptom severity compared with placebo by 17% and a Poloxamer based formulation reduced severity by 21%. Duration of illness was reduced with a hydroxy methyl propyl cellulose based formulation by 1.5 days to 2.4 days (according to the dose) and by a Poloxamer based formulation by 2.5 days. Results of this study suggest that the creation of a non virus-specific, inhibitory environment in the nasopharynx holds promise as an effective method of controlling the severity and duration of the Common Cold.

  5. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    PubMed

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker to indicate PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin H; Hong, Hua S; Mu, Jing L; Lin, Jian Q; Wang, Shong H

    2008-02-15

    In this study, analysis methods for the PAH metabolites of naphthalene (Na), pyrene (Py) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with different benzo-rings (2-4-5 rings respectively) were developed and the metabolism kinetics of Py and BaP in marine fishes were studied. Two PAH metabolites of Na and Py, namely 1-naphthol (1-OH Na) and 1-hydroxy pyrene (1-OH Py), were determined using the fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) method, and the BaP metabolite, 3-hydroxy benzo(a)pyrene (3-OH BaP), was determined using reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The dose- and time-response of Lateolabrax japonicus to Py metabolites and Sparus macrocephalus to BaP metabolites were studied in order to evaluate the use of PAH metabolites as a means of assessing exposure to PAHs. The results showed that both fishes could be induced to metabolize and eliminate their metabolites in vivo with increasing Py and BaP exposure concentrations in seawater. As Py and BaP concentrations increased, metabolite concentrations in the fish bile also increased. A significant dose-response of biliary PAH metabolites was observed after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days for Py and 2, 4 and 7 days for BaP, respectively. These results provide the proof necessary for using PAH metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker or early warning signal of PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

  7. Broader investigation into the external environment of the specific antigen of the infectious agent in epizootiological observation and study of the structure of natural foci of plague.

    PubMed

    Cherchenko, I I; Dyatlov, A I

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of detection of the infectious agent in natural foci of plague can be expanded to some extent by using the method of search for the specific FI capsular antigen of the plague microbe in such objects of the external environment which have not yet been subjected to laboratory analysis and serological analysis in particular. Such objects include soil from the burrow and the substrate of the nest of the rodent as well as the fleas of rodents and regurgitations of birds of prey. The effectivity and suitability of examination of these objects using immuno-adsorption reactions with standard erythrocyte diagnostics (passive haemagglutination reaction, antibody neutralization reaction) were demonstrated experimentally and confirmed under field conditions in various geographical and ecological zones of the Caucasus. Thus in 1971, an earlier unknown natural focus of plague was found in the Mount Elbrus massif by means of serological analysis of the substrate of the nest and of the soil from the burrows of rodents. It can be expected that broadened serological search for the FI antigen of plague will prove useful in the study of the structure of natural foci of plague, in the reconnaissance or retrospective investigation of poorly explored territories and in the solution of some questions concerning the epizootiology of plague, such as the survival of the infectious agent in the inter-epizootic period, telluric plague, etc.

  8. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  9. Development of an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for assessing the fate of α-hexachlorocyclo-hexane in the environment.

    PubMed

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Vogt, Carsten; Gehre, Matthias; Fischer, Anko; Danet, Andrei-Florin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2011-05-30

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is the only chiral isomer of the eight 1,2,3,4,5,6-HCHs and we have developed an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for the evaluation of its fate in the environment. The carbon isotope ratios of the α-HCH enantiomers were determined for a commercially available α-HCH sample using a gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) system equipped with a chiral column. The GC-C-IRMS measurements revealed δ-values of -32.5 ± 0.8‰ and -32.3 ± 0.5‰ for (-) α-HCH and (+) α-HCH, respectively. The isotope ratio of bulk α-HCH was estimated to be -32.4 ± 0.6‰ which was in accordance with the δ-values obtained by GC-C-IRMS (-32.7 ± 0.2‰) and elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) of the bulk α-HCH (-32.1 ± 0.1‰). The similarity of the isotope ratio measurements of bulk α-HCH by EA-IRMS and GC-C-IRMS indicates the accuracy of the chiral GC-C-IRMS method. The linearity of the α-HCH ESIA method shows that carbon isotope ratios can be obtained for a signal size above 100 mV. The ESIA measurements exhibited standard deviations (2σ) that were mostly < ± 0.5‰. In order to test the chiral GC-C-IRMS method, the isotope compositions of individual enantiomers in biodegradation experiments of α-HCH with Clostridium pasteurianum and samples from a contaminated field site were determined. The isotopic compositions of the α-HCH enantiomers show a range of enantiomeric and isotope patterns, suggesting that enantiomeric and isotope fractionation can serve as an indicator for biodegradation and source characterization of α-HCH in the environment.

  10. A Novel Type Pathway-Specific Regulator and Dynamic Genome Environments of a Solanapyrone Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in the Fungus Ascochyta rabiei

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonyong; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.; Peever, Tobin L.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolite genes are often clustered together and situated in particular genomic regions, like the subtelomere, that can facilitate niche adaptation in fungi. Solanapyrones are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi occupying different ecological niches. Full-genome sequencing of the ascomycete Ascochyta rabiei revealed a solanapyrone biosynthesis gene cluster embedded in an AT-rich region proximal to a telomere end and surrounded by Tc1/Mariner-type transposable elements. The highly AT-rich environment of the solanapyrone cluster is likely the product of repeat-induced point mutations. Several secondary metabolism-related genes were found in the flanking regions of the solanapyrone cluster. Although the solanapyrone cluster appears to be resistant to repeat-induced point mutations, a P450 monooxygenase gene adjacent to the cluster has been degraded by such mutations. Among the six solanapyrone cluster genes (sol1 to sol6), sol4 encodes a novel type of Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster transcription factor. Deletion of sol4 resulted in the complete loss of solanapyrone production but did not compromise growth, sporulation, or virulence. Gene expression studies with the sol4 deletion and sol4-overexpressing mutants delimited the boundaries of the solanapyrone gene cluster and revealed that sol4 is likely a specific regulator of solanapyrone biosynthesis and appears to be necessary and sufficient for induction of the solanapyrone cluster genes. Despite the dynamic surrounding genomic regions, the solanapyrone gene cluster has maintained its integrity, suggesting important roles of solanapyrones in fungal biology. PMID:26342019

  11. An online one class support vector machine-based person-specific fall detection system for monitoring an elderly individual in a room environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Yu, Yuanzhang; Rhuma, Adel; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen Raza; Wang, Liang; Chambers, Jonathon A

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel computer vision-based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a home care, assistive living application. Initially, a single camera covering the full view of the room environment is used for the video recording of an elderly person's daily activities for a certain time period. The recorded video is then manually segmented into short video clips containing normal postures, which are used to compose the normal dataset. We use the codebook background subtraction technique to extract the human body silhouettes from the video clips in the normal dataset and information from ellipse fitting and shape description, together with position information, is used to provide features to describe the extracted posture silhouettes. The features are collected and an online one class support vector machine (OCSVM) method is applied to find the region in feature space to distinguish normal daily postures and abnormal postures such as falls. The resultant OCSVM model can also be updated by using the online scheme to adapt to new emerging normal postures and certain rules are added to reduce false alarm rate and thereby improve fall detection performance. From the comprehensive experimental evaluations on datasets for 12 people, we confirm that our proposed person-specific fall detection system can achieve excellent fall detection performance with 100% fall detection rate and only 3% false detection rate with the optimally tuned parameters. This work is a semiunsupervised fall detection system from a system perspective because although an unsupervised-type algorithm (OCSVM) is applied, human intervention is needed for segmenting and selecting of video clips containing normal postures. As such, our research represents a step toward a complete unsupervised fall detection system.

  12. Reduction of Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Effects by Enriched Environment Is Associated with Cell-Specific Accumulation of ΔFosB in Striatal and Cortical Subregions.

    PubMed

    Lafragette, Audrey; Bardo, Michael T; Lardeux, Virginie; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2016-12-08

    Early exposure to enriched environments has been shown to decrease the locomotor effects induced by repeated injections of cocaine and modify basal and cocaine-induced total protein levels of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the whole striatum of mice. In this study, we aimed at characterizing whether the profile of ΔFosB accumulation induced by enriched environments and cocaine would be similar or different in terms of brain areas and cell type. We used mice expressing the eGFP protein in D1 receptor positive (D1R(+)) neurons to determine whether Δ FosB induced by enriched environment or cocaine injections (5×15 mg/kg) would occur in selective subpopulations of neurons in several subregions of the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We found that: (1) exposure to enriched environment reduces cocaine-induced locomotor activation, confirming our previous findings; (2) exposure to enriched environment by itself increases the accumulation of Δ FosB mostly in D1R(-) cells in the shell part of the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum, whereas in the nucleus accumbens core, Δ FosB accumulates in both D1R(+) and D1R(-) neurons; (3) in standard environment mice, cocaine induces accumulation of Δ FosB selectively in D1R(+) cells in the nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, and infralimbic cortex; and (4) the effects of enriched environments and cocaine on accumulation of Δ FosB were reciprocally blocked by their combination. Altogether, these results suggest that the enriched environment-induced reduction in behavioral effects of cocaine might result from 2 distinct effects on ΔFosB in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons belonging to the direct and indirect pathways. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  13. Engaging Learner Support: An Investigation of Faculty-Library Collaboration to Provide Live Course-Specific Learner Support in the Online Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration between faculty and learner support can create seamless services for e-learners. Providing access to learning materials and activities with co-located tailored learner support creates an environment in which e-learners can easily access everything they need for an enhanced, supported, and more focused learning experience. The…

  14. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3 d ions in tetrahedral environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U eff is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d 5 configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d 4 configurations, the parameter U eff increases after a spin crossover. For d 2 and d 7 configurations, U eff increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  15. Specification of the plasma environment at geosynchronous orbit in the energy range 87 eV to 288 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, J.L.

    1994-08-15

    The particle measurements by the P78-2 SCATHA satellite at near geosynchronous altitudes have been analyzed to obtain average electron and proton fluxes in the energy range 87 eV to 288 keV. The variation of the fluxes about the average values is also reported and the average fluxes are compared to those measured during an intense spacecraft charging event on September 22, 1982. These calculations provide a representation of the plasma environment, which can be used to quantify the surface charging of spacecraft materials in geosynchronous orbit.

  16. Performance and Specificity of the Covalently Linked Immunomagnetic Separation-ATP Method for Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Enterococci in Coastal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer-Faust, Amity G.; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Ferguson, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The performance and specificity of the covalently linked immunomagnetic separation-ATP (Cov-IMS/ATP) method for the detection and enumeration of enterococci was evaluated in recreational waters. Cov-IMS/ATP performance was compared with standard methods: defined substrate technology (Enterolert; IDEXX Laboratories), membrane filtration (EPA Method 1600), and an Enterococcus-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (EPA Method A). We extend previous studies by (i) analyzing the stability of the relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and culture-based methods at different field sites, (ii) evaluating specificity of the assay for seven ATCC Enterococcus species, (iii) identifying cross-reacting organisms binding the antibody-bead complexes with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluating specificity of the assay to five nonenterococcus species, and (iv) conducting preliminary tests of preabsorption as a means of improving the assay. Cov-IMS/ATP was found to perform consistently and with strong agreement rates (based on exceedance/compliance with regulatory limits) of between 83% and 100% compared to the culture-based Enterolert method at a variety of sites with complex inputs. The Cov-IMS/ATP method is specific to five of seven different Enterococcus spp. tested. However, there is potential for nontarget bacteria to bind the antibody, which may be reduced by purification of the IgG serum with preabsorption at problematic sites. The findings of this study help to validate the Cov-IMS/ATP method, suggesting a predictable relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and traditional culture-based methods, which will allow for more widespread application of this rapid and field-portable method for coastal water quality assessment. PMID:24561583

  17. Overview of High-Resolution Nondestructive Inspection of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Spray-on-Foam Insulation (SOFI) and Acreage Heat tiles using Focused, Synthetic and Holographical Millimeter Wave Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2006-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure has been attributed to a piece of spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) that was dislodged from the external tank (ET) and struck the leading edge of the left wing. A piece of SOFI was also dislodged in the recent Space Shuttle Discovery's flight. From immediately after the Columbia accident, microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods were considered as potential effective inspection tools for evaluating the integrity of the SOFI. To this end and as a result of these efforts, both real-focused, synthetic focusing and holographical techniques, at a wide range of frequencies covering 24 GHz to 150 GHz, have been developed for this purpose. Images of various complex SOFI panels with a wide range of embedded anomalies (representing real potential defects) have been produced using these techniques, including relatively small anomalies located near complex structural features representative of the external tank. These real-focused and 3D holographical images have effectively demonstrated the utility of these methods for SOFI inspection as being viable, robust, repeatable, simple, portable and relatively inexpensive (tens of $K as opposed to hundreds of $K). In addition, the potential viability of these methods for inspecting acreage heat tiles have has been demonstrated. This paper presents an overview of these activities, representative images of these panels using all of the imaging techniques used and a discussion of the practical attributes of these inspection methods.

  18. Overview of High-Resolution Nondestructive Inspection of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Spray-on-Foam Insulation (SOFI) and Acreage Heat tiles using Focused, Synthetic and Holographical Millimeter Wave Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2006-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure has been attributed to a piece of spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) that was dislodged from the external tank (ET) and struck the leading edge of the left wing. A piece of SOFI was also dislodged in the recent Space Shuttle Discovery's flight. From immediately after the Columbia accident, microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods were considered as potential effective inspection tools for evaluating the integrity of the SOFI. To this end and as a result of these efforts, both real-focused, synthetic focusing and holographical techniques, at a wide range of frequencies covering 24 GHz to 150 GHz, have been developed for this purpose. Images of various complex SOFI panels with a wide range of embedded anomalies (representing real potential defects) have been produced using these techniques, including relatively small anomalies located near complex structural features representative of the external tank. These real-focused and 3D holographical images have effectively demonstrated the utility of these methods for SOFI inspection as being viable, robust, repeatable, simple, portable and relatively inexpensive (tens of $K as opposed to hundreds of $K). In addition, the potential viability of these methods for inspecting acreage heat tiles have has been demonstrated. This paper presents an overview of these activities, representative images of these panels using all of the imaging techniques used and a discussion of the practical attributes of these inspection methods.

  19. Fiscal year 1980-81 implementation plan in support of technical development and integration of sampling and aggregation procedures. [crop acreage estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The specific objectives of the FY 1980-81 tasks are: (1) further refinements to the weighted aggregation procedure; (2) improved approaches for estimating within-stratum variance; (3) more intensive investigation of alternative sampling strategies such as full-frame sampling strategy, and (4) further developments in regard to a simulated approach for assessing the performance of the overall designed sampling and aggregation system.

  20. Development of an asthma specific job exposure matrix and its application in the epidemiological study of genetics and environment in asthma (EGEA).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S M; Le Moual, N; Choudat, D; Kauffmann, F

    2000-09-01

    To develop a method suitable for estimating exposure risks in population studies of asthma from job titles and international codes, by combining a new job exposure matrix (JEM) with the expert judgement approach. The method was applied in the French epidemiological study of the genetics and environment in asthma (EGEA). The JEM contains 22 exposure groups including 18 high risk groups based on known risk factors for occupational asthma, divided into high molecular weight agents, low molecular weight agents, and mixed environments. After applying the JEM to job codes, exposure estimates for each subject were re-evaluated by examining job title texts. Three high risk exposure estimates for asthma were compared: firstly, applying the JEM to original codes (from different coders in each study centre); secondly, applying the JEM to revised codes (from one experienced coder); and thirdly, after reviewing JEM exposure estimates in the light of job title texts. The study comprised 173 cases with asthma and 285 controls (age 18-65). Odds ratios (ORs) for asthma for high risk jobs were 1.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6 to 1.7), applying the JEM to original codes; 1.4 (95% CI 0.8 to 2.3), applying the JEM to revised codes; and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7), applying the JEM and subsequently re-evaluating exposure estimates from job title texts. Asthma ORs were 1.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.9) for high molecular weight agents, 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.4) for low molecular weight agents, and 2.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.2) for mixed environments. This asthma JEM, when enhanced by expert re-evaluation of exposure estimates from job title texts, may be a useful tool in general population studies of asthma. In this study, a 1.7-fold increase in prevalence odds of high risk exposures was found among asthmatic workers compared with controls, with risk magnitude varying for different classes of exposure.

  1. Testis-Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) in Skeletal Muscle Enhances a Pika's Sprint-Running Capacity in Hypoxic Environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2015-08-07

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. In mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), which belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. Ldh-c is expressed not only in testis and sperm but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. In this study, the effects of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate on LDH isozyme kinetics were compared to screens for a selective inhibitor of LDH-C4. To reveal the role and physiological mechanism of LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle of plateau pika, we investigated the effect of N-isopropyl oxamate on the pika exercise tolerance as well as the physiological mechanism. Our results show that Ki of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate for LDH-A4, LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were 0.094 mmol/L and 0.462 mmol/L, 0.119 mmol/L and 0.248 mmol/L, and 0.015 mmol/L and 0.013 mmol/L, respectively. N-isopropyl oxamate is a powerful selective inhibitor of plateau pika LDH-C4. In our exercise tolerance experiment, groups treated with inhibitors had significantly lower swimming times than the uninhibited control group. The inhibition rates of LDH, LD, and ATP were 37.12%, 66.27%, and 32.42%, respectively. Our results suggested that ldh-c is expressed in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika, and at least 32.42% of ATP in the skeletal muscle is catalyzed by LDH-C4 by anaerobic glycolysis. This suggests that pika has reduced dependence on oxygen and enhanced adaptation to hypoxic environment due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle. LDH-C4 in plateau pika plays the crucial role in anaerobic glycolysis and generates ATP rapidly since this is the role of LDH-A4 in most species on plain land, which provide evidence that the native humans and animals in Qinghai-Tibet plateau

  2. Testis-Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) in Skeletal Muscle Enhances a Pika’s Sprint-Running Capacity in Hypoxic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2015-01-01

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. In mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), which belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. Ldh-c is expressed not only in testis and sperm but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. In this study, the effects of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate on LDH isozyme kinetics were compared to screens for a selective inhibitor of LDH-C4. To reveal the role and physiological mechanism of LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle of plateau pika, we investigated the effect of N-isopropyl oxamate on the pika exercise tolerance as well as the physiological mechanism. Our results show that Ki of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate for LDH-A4, LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were 0.094 mmol/L and 0.462 mmol/L, 0.119 mmol/L and 0.248 mmol/L, and 0.015 mmol/L and 0.013 mmol/L, respectively. N-isopropyl oxamate is a powerful selective inhibitor of plateau pika LDH-C4. In our exercise tolerance experiment, groups treated with inhibitors had significantly lower swimming times than the uninhibited control group. The inhibition rates of LDH, LD, and ATP were 37.12%, 66.27%, and 32.42%, respectively. Our results suggested that ldh-c is expressed in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika, and at least 32.42% of ATP in the skeletal muscle is catalyzed by LDH-C4 by anaerobic glycolysis. This suggests that pika has reduced dependence on oxygen and enhanced adaptation to hypoxic environment due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle. LDH-C4 in plateau pika plays the crucial role in anaerobic glycolysis and generates ATP rapidly since this is the role of LDH-A4 in most species on plain land, which provide evidence that the native humans and animals in Qinghai

  3. The effectiveness of an aged care specific leadership and management program on workforce, work environment, and care quality outcomes: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A plethora of observational evidence exists concerning the impact of management and leadership on workforce, work environment, and care quality. Yet, no randomised controlled trial has been conducted to test the effectiveness of leadership and management interventions in aged care. An innovative aged care clinical leadership program (Clinical Leadership in Aged Care − CLiAC) was developed to improve managers’ leadership capacities to support the delivery of quality care in Australia. This paper describes the study design of the cluster randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of the program. Methods Twenty-four residential and community aged care sites were recruited as managers at each site agreed in writing to participate in the study and ensure that leaders allocated to the control arm would not be offered the intervention program. Sites undergoing major managerial or structural changes were excluded. The 24 sites were randomly allocated to receive the CLiAC program (intervention) or usual care (control), stratified by type (residential vs. community, six each for each arm). Treatment allocation was masked to assessors and staff of all participating sites. The objective is to establish the effectiveness of the CLiAC program in improving work environment, workforce retention, as well as care safety and quality, when compared to usual care. The primary outcomes are measures of work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes include manager leadership capacity, staff absenteeism, intention to leave, stress levels, and job satisfaction. Differences between intervention and control groups will be analysed by researchers blinded to treatment allocation using linear regression of individual results adjusted for stratification and clustering by site (primary analysis), and additionally for baseline values and potential confounders (secondary analysis). Outcomes measured at the site level will be

  4. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3d ions in tetrahedral environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lobach, K. A. Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.

    2015-01-15

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U{sub eff} is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d{sup 5} configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d{sup 4} configurations, the parameter U{sub eff} increases after a spin crossover. For d{sup 2} and d{sup 7} configurations, U{sub eff} increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  5. Sociodemographic, home environment and parental influences on total and device-specific screen viewing in children aged 2 years and below: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Si Ning; Teh, Long Hua; Tay, Wei Rong; Anantharaman, Saradha; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chua, Hwee Ling; Wong, Pey Gein; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate total and device-specific screen viewing (SV) and its determinants in children aged 2 years and below. Design Cross-sectional study conducted in February 2014. Setting Well-child clinics in Singapore national polyclinics. Participants Parents of children (Singapore citizens or permanent residents) aged 2 years and below were enrolled during routine clinic visits. Out of 794 eligible parent–child dyads, 725 (91.3%) provided informed consent and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Device-specific information on SV and determinants was ascertained using interviewer-administered survey questionnaires. The prevalence and duration of aggregate and device-specific SV were reported. Associations with potential determinants were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of daily SV and SV ≥2 h/day constituted 53.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The majority of children aged 18–24 months (88.2%) engaged in daily SV. TVs and mobile devices were the most commonly used screen devices, followed by computers and video consoles. In multivariable analysis, younger child age, Chinese ethnicity and setting rules on time of SV were strongly and consistently associated with lower levels of any SV and SV ≥2 h/day. Parental knowledge of SV recommendations and less parental SV were additionally associated with lower levels of SV ≥2 h/day. The number of screen devices was not associated with children's SV. Conclusions In contrast to recommendations, SV prevalence in children aged less than 2 years is high and appears to increase steadily across age groups. TVs and mobile devices are most frequently used. Improving parental knowledge of SV recommendations, reducing parental SV and especially the implementation of strict rules on SV time could be successful strategies to reduce SV in young children. PMID

  6. Design, Calibration and Specifications of the Space Environment in-Situ Suite (SEISSS) Space Weather Instruments for the GOES-R Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichter, B.; Galica, G. E.; McGarity, J. O.; Mullen, E. G.; Hanser, F. A.; Tsui, S.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation GOES spacecraft will continue the long-term operational measurement of the charged particle environment in geosynchronous orbit with the SEISS space environment monitors. The suite comprises five instruments that measure electrons and ions in multiple energy ranges and a data processing unit. Two of the instruments, MPS-LO and EHIS provide new measurement capabilities compared with previous GOES environmental monitors. The MPS-LO (new to GOES) is an electrostatic instrument that measures electrons and ions from 30 eV to 30 keV in 15 logarithmically spaced energy bins. Its twelve 15ox5o angular channels provide a 180o FOV oriented north to south. The MPS-HI instrument, using solid state Si detector telescopes, covers the energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV for electrons and 80 keV to 10 MeV for protons each along five 15o half angle look angles spaced 35o apart. High energy solar and galactic protons in the range of 1 to 500 MeV are measured by the SGPS, which also has an integral channel above 500 MeV. This broad energy range is divided into three sub-ranges, 1-25, 25-80 and 80-500 MeV, each measured by a separate Si detector telescope. The opening half-angles of the telescopes are 30o, 30o and 45o respectively. There are east and west oriented SGPS instruments. Energetic heavy ions are detected by EHIS, also consisting of solid state detectors, in thirty individual species from H to Ni and in five logarithmically spaced energy bands from 10 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n. The FOV is a 30oopening half-angle cone. Extensive calibrations at accelerator facilities have been performed to verify the 25% accuracy of each instrument's geometric factor. In addition, performances of the solid state detector instruments have been modeled using the GEANT and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes and the results compared to calibration measurements. Energy overlap regions of the instruments will be used to improve the quality and self-consistency of the data sets.

  7. Sociodemographic, home environment and parental influences on total and device-specific screen viewing in children aged 2 years and below: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Si Ning; Teh, Long Hua; Tay, Wei Rong; Anantharaman, Saradha; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chua, Hwee Ling; Wong, Pey Gein; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-01-25

    This study aimed to investigate total and device-specific screen viewing (SV) and its determinants in children aged 2 years and below. Cross-sectional study conducted in February 2014. Well-child clinics in Singapore national polyclinics. Parents of children (Singapore citizens or permanent residents) aged 2 years and below were enrolled during routine clinic visits. Out of 794 eligible parent-child dyads, 725 (91.3%) provided informed consent and were included in the analysis. Device-specific information on SV and determinants was ascertained using interviewer-administered survey questionnaires. The prevalence and duration of aggregate and device-specific SV were reported. Associations with potential determinants were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of daily SV and SV ≥ 2 h/day constituted 53.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The majority of children aged 18-24 months (88.2%) engaged in daily SV. TVs and mobile devices were the most commonly used screen devices, followed by computers and video consoles. In multivariable analysis, younger child age, Chinese ethnicity and setting rules on time of SV were strongly and consistently associated with lower levels of any SV and SV ≥ 2 h/day. Parental knowledge of SV recommendations and less parental SV were additionally associated with lower levels of SV ≥ 2 h/day. The number of screen devices was not associated with children's SV. In contrast to recommendations, SV prevalence in children aged less than 2 years is high and appears to increase steadily across age groups. TVs and mobile devices are most frequently used. Improving parental knowledge of SV recommendations, reducing parental SV and especially the implementation of strict rules on SV time could be successful strategies to reduce SV in young children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  8. Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic composition, for example, (14)C/(12)C, (13)C/(12)C, (2)H/(1)H, (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, of the elements of matter is heterogeneous. It is ruled by physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Isotopes can be employed to follow the fate of mineral and organic compounds during biogeochemical transformations. The determination of the isotopic composition of organic substances occurring at trace level in very complex mixtures such as sediments, soils and blood, has been made possible during the last 20 years due to the rapid development of molecular level isotopic techniques. After a brief glance at pioneering studies revealing isotopic breakthroughs at the molecular and intramolecular levels, this paper reviews selected applications of compound-specific isotope analysis in various scientific fields.

  9. [Specific features of feeding of the Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica (Carnivora, Felidae) in a densely populated locality (with reference to Bol'shekhekhtsirskii Reserve and its environs)].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Specific features of feeding of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Bol'shekhekhtsirskii Reserve located in a densely populated locality (only 15 km to the north of it is the city of Khabarovsk) have been investigated. For a long time (1992-2000) the diet of tigers consisted 100% of wild animals, although the accessibility of domestic animals, dogs, in particular, was high. From 2000 to 2007, in their feeding, the proportion of dogs increased (up to 47%), and the proportion of wild animals decreased (50.8%). Tigers attacking dogs were physically weakened (broken fangs, wounds, inflicted by humans, diseases). Thus, even in a densely populated locality, the tiger's diet includes domestic animals only at exposure to different negative factors.

  10. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Paraoxonase gene variants are associated with autism in North America, but not in Italy: possible regional specificity in gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, M; Ricci, I; Sacco, R; Liu, X; D'Agruma, L; Muscarella, L A; Guarnieri, V; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Elia, M; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Trillo, S; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Macciardi, F; Holden, J J A; Persico, A M

    2005-11-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are routinely used as pesticides in agriculture and as insecticides within the household. Our prior work on Reelin and APOE delineated a gene-environment interactive model of autism pathogenesis, whereby genetically vulnerable individuals prenatally exposed to OPs during critical periods in neurodevelopment could undergo altered neuronal migration, resulting in an autistic syndrome. Since household use of OPs is far greater in the USA than in Italy, this model was predicted to hold validity in North America, but not in Europe. Here, we indirectly test this hypothesis by assessing linkage/association between autism and variants of the paraoxonase gene (PON1) encoding paraoxonase, the enzyme responsible for OP detoxification. Three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms, PON1 C-108T, L55M, and Q192R, were assessed in 177 Italian and 107 Caucasian-American complete trios with primary autistic probands. As predicted, Caucasian-American and not Italian families display a significant association between autism and PON1 variants less active in vitro on the OP diazinon (R192), according to case-control contrasts (Q192R: chi2=6.33, 1 df, P<0.025), transmission/disequilibrium tests (Q192R: TDT chi2=5.26, 1 df, P<0.025), family-based association tests (Q192R and L55M: FBAT Z=2.291 and 2.435 respectively, P<0.025), and haplotype-based association tests (L55/R192: HBAT Z=2.430, P<0.025). These results are consistent with our model and provide further support for the hypothesis that concurrent genetic vulnerability and environmental OP exposure may possibly contribute to autism pathogenesis in a sizable subgroup of North American individuals.

  12. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte grade in primary melanomas is independently associated with melanoma-specific survival in the population-based genes, environment and melanoma study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nancy E; Busam, Klaus J; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A; Groben, Pamela A; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-11-20

    Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (P(trend) < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions.

  14. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants.

  15. Changes in the fibronectin-specific integrin expression pattern modify the migratory behavior of sarcoma S180 cells in vitro and in the embryonic environment

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The molecules that mediate cell-matrix recognition, such as fibronectins (FN) and integrins, modulate cell behavior. We have previously demonstrated that FN and the beta 1-integrins are used during neural crest cell (NCC) migration in vitro as well as in vivo, and that the FN cell-binding domains I and II exhibit functional specificity in controlling either NCC attachment, spreading, or motility in vitro. In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of changes in the integrin expression patterns on migratory cell behavior in vivo. We have generated, after stable transfection, S180 cells expressing different levels of alpha 4 beta 1 or alpha 5 beta 1 integrins, two integrins that recognize distinct FN cell-binding domains. Murine S180 cells were chosen because they behave similarly to NCC after they are grafted into the NCC embryonic pathways in the chicken embryo. Thus, they provide a model system with which to investigate the mechanisms controlling in vitro and in vivo migratory cell behavior. We have observed that either the overexpression of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin or the induction of alpha 4 beta 1 expression in transfected S180 cells enhances their motility on FN in vitro. These genetically modified S180 cells also exhibit different migratory properties when grafted into the early trunk NCC migratory pathways. We observe that alpha 5 and low alpha 4 expressors migrate in both the ventral and dorsolateral paths simultaneously, in contrast to the parental S180 cells or the host NCC, which are delayed by 24 h in their invasion of the dorsolateral path. Moreover, the alpha 4 expressors exhibit different migratory properties according to their level of alpha 4 expression at the cell surface. Cells of the low alpha 4 expressor line invade both the ventral and dorsolateral pathways. In contrast, the high expressors remain as an aggregate at the graft site, possibly the result of alpha 4 beta 1-dependent homotypic aggregation. Thus, changes in the repertoire of

  16. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  17. Relationship between the specific surface area of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel in a wet-dry acid corrosion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-he; Li, Shuan-zhu

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the specific surface area (SSA) of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel under wet-dry acid corrosion conditions was investigated. The results showed that the corrosion current density first increased and then decreased with increasing SSA of the rust during the corrosion process. The structure of the rust changed from single-layer to double-layer, and the γ-FeOOH content decreased in the inner layer of the rust with increasing corrosion time; by contrast, the γ-FeOOH content in the outer layer was constant. When the SSA of the rust was lower than the critical SSA corresponding to the relative humidity during the drying period, condensed water in the micropores of the rust could evaporate, which prompted the diffusion of O2 into the rust and the following formation process of γ-FeOOH, leading to an increase of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time. However, when the SSA of the rust reached or exceeded the critical SSA, condensate water in the micro-pores of the inner layer of the rust could not evaporate which inhibited the diffusion of O2 and decreased the γ-FeOOH content in the inner rust, leading to a decrease of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time.

  18. Tryptophan environment, secondary structure and thermal unfolding of the galactose-specific seed lectin from Dolichos lablab: fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Nabil Ali Mohammed; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar; Swamy, Musti J

    2006-07-01

    Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies were carried out on the galactose-specific lectin from Dolichos lablab seeds (DLL-II). The microenvironment of the tryptophan residues in the lectin under native and denaturing conditions were investigated by quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein by a neutral quencher (acrylamide), an anionic quencher (iodide ion) and a cationic quencher (cesium ion). The results obtained indicate that the tryptophan residues of DLL-II are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains residing close to at least some of the tryptophan residues under the experimental conditions. Analysis of the far UV CD spectrum of DLL-II revealed that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 57% alpha-helix, 21% beta-sheet, 7% beta-turns and 15% unordered structures. Carbohydrate binding did not significantly alter the secondary and tertiary structures of the lectin. Thermal unfolding of DLL-II, investigated by monitoring CD signals, showed a sharp transition around 75 degrees C both in the far UV region (205 nm) and the near UV region (289 nm), which shifted to ca. 77-78 degrees C in the presence of 0.1 M methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, indicating that ligand binding leads to a moderate stabilization of the lectin structure.

  19. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of An Aged Care Specific Leadership and Management Program to Improve Work Environment, Staff Turnover, and Care Quality.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Simpson, Judy M; Li, Zhicheng; Cunich, Michelle M; Thomas, Tamsin H; Chenoweth, Lynn; Kendig, Hal L

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a leadership and management program in aged care. Double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve residential and community-aged care sites in Australia. All care staff employed for 6 months or longer at the aged care sites were invited to participate in the surveys at 3 time points: baseline (time 1), 9 months from baseline (time 2), and 9 months after completion of time 2 (time 3) from 2011 to 2013. At each time point, at least 500 care staff completed a survey. At baseline (N = 503) the largest age group was 45 to 54 years (37%), and the majority of care staff were born in Australia (70%), spoke English (94%), and had at least completed secondary education (57%). A 12-month Clinical Leadership in Aged Care (CLiAC) program for middle managers, which aimed to further develop their leadership and management skills in creating positive workplace relationships and in enabling person-centered, evidence-based care. The primary outcomes were care staff ratings of the work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes were care staff's intention to leave their employer and profession, workplace stress, job satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness of implementing the program. Absenteeism was excluded due to difficulty in obtaining reliable data. Managers' self-rated knowledge and skills in leadership and management are not included in this article, which focuses on care staff perceptions only. At 6 months after its completion, the CLiAC program was effective in improving care staff's perception of management support [mean difference 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-1.18; P = .04]. Compared with the control sites, care staff at the intervention sites perceived their managers' leadership styles as more transformational (mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.51; P = .005), transactional (mean difference 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.39; P = .01), and less passive avoidant (mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0

  20. Derivation of predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for marine environmental risk assessment: application of different approaches to the model contaminant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) in a site-specific environment.

    PubMed

    Hampel, M; González-Mazo, E; Vale, C; Blasco, J

    2007-05-01

    Four sediment-dwelling marine organisms were exposed to sediments spiked with increasing concentrations of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS). The selected endpoint mortality was reported daily and acute LC(50) (96 h), as well as final LC(10) values were calculated for the derivation of environmentally safe predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for the sediment compartment. PNECs were estimated by both application of assessment factors (AF) and the equilibrium partitioning method (EPM) as proposed by the EU TGD. Finally, environmental risk assessment in a site-specific environment, the Sancti Petri Channel, South Iberian Peninsula, was carried out at three different sampling stations with known environmental LAS concentrations. PNECs obtained by the assessment factor approach with acute toxicity data were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those from the equilibrium partitioning method. On the other hand, when applying lower AFs to the estimated LC(10) values, the PNECs obtained by both approaches were more similar. Environmental risk assessment carried out with the estimated PNECs in a site specific environment with known sediment LAS concentrations revealed that PNECs obtained with acute toxicity data were over conservative whereas those obtained with AF=10 on LC(10) data and EPM produced more realistic results in accordance with field observations carried out in the study area.

  1. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accurate and efficient algorithm for analyzing the structure of MSS data, the application of the Akaiki information criterion to mixture models, and a research plan to delineate some of the technical issues and associated tasks in the area of rice scene radiation characterization are discussed. The AMOEBA clustering algorithm is refined and documented.

  2. Potential seen on Australia's Bonaparte exploration acreage

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Miyazaki, S. )

    1994-09-12

    Two of the offshore areas recently released for exploration bids by the Australian government are NT94-1 and NT94-2 covering 23,000 sq km in the oil producing Bonaparte basin off northwestern Australia 300 km northwest of Darwin. Three wells have been drilled in the two areas, including Evans Shoal-1 which made a gas discovery currently considered to be non-commercial. The results of a study by the Australian Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS) have been synthesized into the Evans Shoal Area Bulletin and Data Base. BRS interprets the available geochemical and maturation data to indicate that potential source rocks are present in the Jurassic Plover formation and Flamingo group and the Cretaceous Bathurst Island group. The paper describes the area geology, play types, and gas and oil potential.

  3. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The use of the AMOEBA clustering/classification algorithm was investigated as a basis for both a color display generation technique and maximum likelihood proportion estimation procedure. An approach to analyzing large data reduction systems was formulated and an exploratory empirical study of spatial correlation in LANDSAT data was also carried out. Topics addressed include: (1) development of multiimage color images; (2) spectral spatial classification algorithm development; (3) spatial correlation studies; and (4) evaluation of data systems.

  4. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., phosphate, iron ores, and other useful minerals, other than coal, lead, and zinc, 960 acres. (c) For coal, 4... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold...

  5. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., phosphate, iron ores, and other useful minerals, other than coal, lead, and zinc, 960 acres. (c) For coal, 4... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold...

  6. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold, silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum,...

  7. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold, silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum,...

  8. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold, silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum,...

  9. ADA Integrated Environment I. System Specification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    returned. UNCLASSIFIED SECt AITY CLASSIFICATION O r THiS PAGE ("On’ Dese ,9nA.,d)l ,_ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFO scOL’No RM 1. RqEPl~ORT, NUM1191N 2...statements, symbols, names, etc.; 2. build and develop (and maintain) Ada programs by linking (and maintaining) collections of separate Ada...program build by selecting a consistent set of library units for input to the Linker. Only those units actually used shall be included; 22 INTERMETRICS

  10. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  11. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  12. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  13. Land development in Massachusetts: Its effect on the environment within Essex and Middlesex counties from 1990 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardie, Peter Sean

    Since the 1970's urban centers in and surrounding Essex and Middlesex Counties in Massachusetts have expanded and proliferated into adjacent communities. This expansion has led to the conversion of land for housing, businesses, schools, recreation, and parks, placing significant strain on existing land cover, land use, and available natural resources. Mounting growth pressures and a reduction of undeveloped land have raised serious concerns as cropland and forest fragmentation, wetland destruction, protected open-space infringement, pollution, and systematic losses of rural conditions have become obvious. To monitor development, the post-classification change detection method was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and GIS was used to detect, quantity, and document the extent of development and its effect on the environment and to assess and quantify the demographic changes that occurred within the counties from 1990 to 2007. Classification of the 1990 image resulted in 217 clusters and 214 clusters for the 2007 image The overall accuracy achieved for the 1990 image classification was 87.3% with a KHAT value of 0.848, and the overall accuracy for the 2007 classification was 86.27% with a KHAT value of 0.840. From 1990 to 2007 land cover change occurred primarily along major transportation corridors. The post-classification change detection results indicate that Essex and Middlesex County combined gained 23,435.66 "new" acres of land development from 1990 to 2007 through a loss and change in acreage from the Bareland, Forest, Grassland, Water, and Wetland land cover class categories. Results indicate that there was an approximate 0.56% overall (net) increase of newly developed land areas within the 1990 and 2007 image classifications from 415.46 acres or 0.64 square miles. In addition, there was a substantial decrease (-40.0%) within the grassland category. Land development was responsible for a portion of the decrease of grasslands (-13

  14. Specific phobias.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  15. Analysis environments for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. D.; Luca, L.; Hegner, B.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS offline software suite uses a layered approach to provide several different environments suitable for a wide range of analysis styles. At the heart of all the environments is the ROOT-based event data model file format. The simplest environment uses 'bare' ROOT to read files directly, without the use of any CMS-specific supporting libraries. This is useful for performing simple checks on a file or plotting simple distributions (such as the momentum distribution of tracks). The second environment supports use of the CMS framework's smart pointers that read data on demand, as well as automatic loading of the libraries holding the object interfaces. This environment fully supports interactive ROOT sessions in either CINT or PyROOT. The third environment combines ROOT's TSelector with the data access API of the full CMS framework, facilitating sharing of code between the ROOT environment and the full framework. The final environment is the full CMS framework that is used for all data production activities as well as full access to all data available on the Grid. By providing a layered approach to analysis environments, physicists can choose the environment that most closely matches their individual work style.

  16. Population and Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Carr, David; Cassels, Susan; Jiang, Leiwen

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics (e.g., population size, growth, density, age and sex composition, migration, urbanization, vital rates) and environmental changes. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems. PMID:20011237

  17. Aquatic Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  18. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  19. Socioeconomic environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic environment of the Tennessee Valley region. It describes the region and mentions geographical factors, current economy, the agricultural sector, and future trends in the economy of the region.

  20. Understanding Our Environment: Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblich, Suzanne, Ed.

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses an in-depth study of a local stream or river to raise questions about the nature, sources, and uses of water. Students begin by identifying the…

  1. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  2. Understanding Our Environment: People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Ann

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, students work individually and in groups to plan a future community in order to gain an understanding of how greatly increased human populations impact resources,…

  3. Understanding Our Environment: Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Laura M. Sanders

    This unit is part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience. Students begin by researching the migratory songbirds that live in their community. They determine the bird's roles in the ecosystems and their…

  4. Birds, Examining Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBean, John C.; And Others

    Designed to provide new and different ways of observing birds rather than simply identifying them, this book attempts to develop skills for how to look at birds. Activities in each of the four sections, "Live Birds,""Birds' Eggs,""Birds' Nests," and "Dead Birds," are specifically planned to get one involved with birds in their natural environment.…

  5. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  6. Understanding Our Environment: Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblich, Suzanne, Ed.

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses an in-depth study of a local stream or river to raise questions about the nature, sources, and uses of water. Students begin by identifying the…

  7. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  8. Understanding Our Environment: Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Laura M. Sanders

    This unit is part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience. Students begin by researching the migratory songbirds that live in their community. They determine the bird's roles in the ecosystems and their…

  9. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  10. Visualization Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  11. Synthetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  12. Specification Reformulation During Specification Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the ARIES Simulation Component (ASC) is to uncover behavioral errors by 'running' a specification at the earliest possible points during the specification development process. The problems to be overcome are the obvious ones the specification may be large, incomplete, underconstrained, and/or uncompilable. This paper describes how specification reformulation is used to mitigate these problems. ASC begins by decomposing validation into specific validation questions. Next, the specification is reformulated to abstract out all those features unrelated to the identified validation question thus creating a new specialized specification. ASC relies on a precise statement of the validation question and a careful application of transformations so as to preserve the essential specification semantics in the resulting specialized specification. This technique is a win if the resulting specialized specification is small enough so the user my easily handle any remaining obstacles to execution. This paper will: (1) describe what a validation question is; (2) outline analysis techniques for identifying what concepts are and are not relevant to a validation question; and (3) identify and apply transformations which remove these less relevant concepts while preserving those which are relevant.

  13. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  14. Safe environments.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  15. 67 FR 46998 - Agency Information Collection; Proposed Revisions to a Currently Approved Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB): Crop Acreage and Yields and Water Distribution (Water User Crop... revised Crop Acreage and Yields and Water Distribution Forms and specific aspect of the information... Crop Acreage and Yields and Water Distribution information collection. Title: Crop Acreage and Yields...

  16. Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

  17. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  18. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  19. Safer Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes how new rules mean a safer environment.

  20. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  1. Numeracy in Society and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cath; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that focuses on how a Society and Environment unit could develop required numeracy. This is more of an integrated unit organised around a theme rather than a Society and Environment unit that required specific aspects of numeracy. Suggested data sources for examining students numeracy development included (1) a…

  2. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  3. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  4. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  5. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  6. 40 CFR 247.5 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Specifications. 247.5 Section 247.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES COMPREHENSIVE PROCUREMENT... specifications for procurement items procured by Federal agencies to revise their specifications by May 8,...

  7. ISS Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Microgravity performance assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of a quasi-steady, structural dynamic and a vibro-acoustic analysis of the ISS assembly-complete vehicle configuration. The Boeing Houston (BHOU) Loads and Dynamics Team is responsible to verify compliance with the ISS System Specification (SSP 41000) and USOS Segment (SSP 41162) microgravity requirements. To verify the ISS environment, a series of accelerometers are on-board to monitor the current environment. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis that was performed for the Verification Analysis Cycle (VAC)-Assembly Complete (AC) and compares it to on-orbit acceleration values currently being reported. The analysis will include the predicted maximum and average environment on-board ISS during multiple activity scenarios

  8. Specific Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a recent case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which highlights the importance of having specific suspicions of misbehavior before conducting a strip search. The case involves an eighth-grade female student who was being strip-searched by a middle school assistant principal, a school nurse, and an administrative assistant…

  9. Specific Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a recent case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which highlights the importance of having specific suspicions of misbehavior before conducting a strip search. The case involves an eighth-grade female student who was being strip-searched by a middle school assistant principal, a school nurse, and an administrative assistant…

  10. NEON VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-28

    NEON VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT NEXT CENTURY CORPORATION JULY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...specifications, or other data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation ; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell...this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data

  11. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  12. Process migration in UNIX environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1988-01-01

    To support process migration in UNIX environments, the main problem is how to encapsulate the location dependent features of the system in such a way that a host independent virtual environment is maintained by the migration handlers on the behalf of each migrated process. An object-oriented approach is used to describe the interaction between a process and its environment. More specifically, environmental objects were introduced in UNIX systems to carry out the user-environment interaction. The implementation of the migration handlers is based on both the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion.

  13. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  14. Environment matters

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This year's annual review is devoted to the theme of environmental health. It contains: an overview by the Director of the World Bank's Environment Department, J. Warren Evans; viewpoints on health risks of environmental pollution, integrating health concerns into carbon planning, sanitation in the world's poorest countries and impacts of indoor air pollution on health; and reviews on the World Bank's efforts to adapt safeguards to demanding priorities and on the Banks' 2005 environmental portfolio. Feature articles include a review of the Bank's Clean Air Initiative (now active in Africa, South and East Asia and Latin America). Reviews of work in the Bank's six regions focus on efforts to address the linkages among poverty, environmental pollution and human health.

  15. International environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    During the past 20 years, nations have signed an increasing number of agreements on an array of environmental concerns ranging from acid rain to marine pollution. The agreements generally call for the parties to report annually on implementation. In response to congressional concerns about how well these reporting obligations are being met, this paper discusses whether the agreements are specific enough to allow implementation to be measured and whether parties are reporting required information and how the administrative bodies for the agreements monitor implementation. GAO also identifies proposed measures for strengthening monitoring and implementation.

  16. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to 1000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  17. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  18. Research on agricultural ecology and environment analysis and modeling based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Hongfu; Wang, Mingsheng

    2009-07-01

    Analysis of agricultural ecology and environment is based on the data of agricultural resources, which are obtained by RS monitoring. The over-exploitation of farmlands will cause structural changes of the soil composition, and damage the planting environment and the agro-ecosystem. Through the research on the dynamic monitoring methods of multitemporal RS images and GIS technology, the crop growth status, crop acreage and other relevant information in agricultural production are extracted based on the monitor and analysis of the conditions of the fields and crop growth. The agro-ecological GIS platform is developed with the establishment of the agricultural resources management database, which manages spatial data, RS data and attribute data of agricultural resources. Using the RS, GIS analysis results, the reasons of agro-ecological destruction are analyzed and the evaluation methods are established. This paper puts forward the concept of utilization capacity of farmland, which describes farmland space for development and utilization that is influenced by the conditions of the land, water resources, climate, pesticides and chemical fertilizers and many other agricultural production factors. Assessment model of agricultural land use capacity is constructed with the help of Fuzzy. Assessing the utilization capacity of farmland can be helpful to agricultural production and ecological protection of farmland. This paper describes the application of the capacity evaluation model with simulated data in two aspects, namely, in evaluating the status of farmland development and utilization and in optimal planting.

  19. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  4. Natural Environments Definition for Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Altino, K. M.; Decker, R. K.; Koehler, H. M.; Leahy, F. B.; Minow, J. I.; Roberts, B. C.; Suggs, R. M.; Suggs, R. J.; White, P. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Planning for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions will encompass a variety of operational and engineering activities that involve a multitude of issues, constraints, and influences derived from the natural environment. This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents a definition of the natural environment, i.e., a description in engineering handbook format of models and data specifically selected to support the architecture development, engineering design, and technology development for NASA's Exploration Systems Development (ESD) initiatives.

  5. Current orbital debris environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has instituted a plan for the definition of activities and resources required over the coming decade for the deepening of current understanding of anthropogenic orbital debris, and its effects on future mission operations. This understanding will be the basis of policy definition and policy implementation efforts. The most immediate requirement is the definition of the debris environment, with emphasis on data for debris sizes smaller than 4 cm. Systems-damage criteria and hypervelocity-impact theory will then be used to define the hazard to specific spacecraft.

  6. A Specification Translation from Behavioral Specifications to Rewrite Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Kong, Weiqiang; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    There are two ways to describe a state machine as an algebraic specification: a behavioral specification and a rewrite specification. In this study, we propose a translation system from behavioral specifications to rewrite specifications to obtain a verification system which has the strong points of verification techniques for both specifications. Since our translation system is complete with respect to invariant properties, it helps us to obtain a counter-example for an invariant property through automatic exhaustive searching for a rewrite specification.

  7. Obesity and Economic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  8. Ion specificities of artificial macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lvdan; Kou, Ran; Liu, Guangming

    2016-12-21

    Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes. For direct ion-macromolecule interactions, we will discuss specific ion-pairing interactions for charged macromolecules and specific ion-neutral site interactions for uncharged macromolecules. When the medium conditions change from dilute solutions to crowded environments, the ion specificities can be modified by either the volume exclusion effect, the variation of dielectric constant, or the interactions between ions, macromolecules, and crowding agents.

  9. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... includes, but is not limited to: (1) Value-loss crops, including, but not limited to, Christmas trees, aquaculture, and ornamental nursery; (2) Tree crops and other perennials, unless: (i) The producer can prove resources unique to the planting of tree crops and other perennials were available to plant, grow,...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... includes, but is not limited to: (1) Value-loss crops, including, but not limited to, Christmas trees, aquaculture, and ornamental nursery; (2) Tree crops and other perennials, unless: (i) The producer can prove resources unique to the planting of tree crops and other perennials were available to plant, grow,...

  11. 25 CFR 138.1 - Construction costs and assessable acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 138.1... the Wapato Indian Irrigation Project and the construction costs have been established as $79,833.64...

  12. The role of phenology in statistical crop acreage measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to achieve market acceptance, the accuracy of remote sensing systems needs to be increased from the historically achieved average level of approximately 80-85% to 96-98%, i.e., by a factor of at least three, preferably five. A theory of discrimination is developed based on the fine-grained spectral data from LACIE supersites. It is shown that significant improvements in discrimination accuracy are possible by exploiting the differentials of crop spectra occurring between different phenologic stages. The major effects of such techniques on data system design are examined with respect to recurrence frequency, data volume, and information extraction.

  13. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  14. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  15. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  16. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... insufficient soil moisture for germination of seed and progress toward crop maturity because of a prolonged... cannot provide verifiable proof to the county committee that inputs such as seed, chemicals, and...

  17. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insufficient soil moisture for germination of seed and progress toward crop maturity because of a prolonged... cannot provide verifiable proof to the county committee that inputs such as seed, chemicals, and...

  18. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... insufficient soil moisture for germination of seed and progress toward crop maturity because of a prolonged... cannot provide verifiable proof to the county committee that inputs such as seed, chemicals, and...

  19. Estimating crop acreage from space-simulated multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Hyde, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    The need for multispectral data processing methods to permit the estimation of proportions of objects and materials appearing within the instantaneous field of view of a scanning system is discussed. An algorithm developed for proportion estimation is described as well as other supporting processing techniques. Application of this algorithm to space-simulated multispectral scanner data is discussed and some results presented and compared. Results indicate that, for this data set, the true proportions of the various crops contained within this data set are with one exception more closely in agreement with the proportions determined by the proportion estimation algorithm than with the proportions determined by conventional classfication algorithm.

  20. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  4. 25 CFR 138.1 - Construction costs and assessable acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 138.1... the Wapato Indian Irrigation Project and the construction costs have been established as $79,833.64...

  5. 25 CFR 138.1 - Construction costs and assessable acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 138.1... the Wapato Indian Irrigation Project and the construction costs have been established as $79,833.64...

  6. 25 CFR 138.1 - Construction costs and assessable acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 138.1... the Wapato Indian Irrigation Project and the construction costs have been established as $79,833.64...

  7. 25 CFR 138.1 - Construction costs and assessable acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 138.1... the Wapato Indian Irrigation Project and the construction costs have been established as $79,833.64...

  8. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The microdensitometer will be used to analyze data acquired by ERTS-1 imagery. The classification programs and software packages have been acquired and are being prepared for use with the information as it is received. Photo and digital tapes have been acquired for coverage of virtually 100 percent of the test site areas. These areas are located in South Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, and Kansas. Hass 70mm color infrared, infrared, black and white high altitude aerial photography of the test sites is available. Collection of ground truth for updating the data base has been completed and a computer program written to count the number of fields and give total acres by size group for the segments in each test site. Results are given of data analysis performed on digitized data from densitometer measurements of fields of corn, sugar, beets, and alfalfa in Kansas.

  9. Monitoring irrigated land acreage using Landsat imagery: an application example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Two interpreters independently estimated the irrigated area.  Their adjusted estimates were 285,000 acres (115,000 ha) and 267,000 acres (108,000 ha) respectively, with corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals of +19,500 acres (7,880 ha) and +34,700 acres (14,000 ha). The estimated cost of the survey, exclusive of management costs and training, was $1,500.

  10. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., aquaculture, and ornamental nursery; (2) Tree crops and other perennials, unless: (i) The producer can prove resources unique to the planting of tree crops and other perennials were available to plant, grow,...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., aquaculture, and ornamental nursery; (2) Tree crops and other perennials, unless: (i) The producer can prove resources unique to the planting of tree crops and other perennials were available to plant, grow,...

  12. 7 CFR 400.654 - Application and acreage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Federal Crop Insurance Reform... crop. (c) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 400.654(a) that applications for insurance be submitted...

  13. 7 CFR 1410.4 - Maximum county acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.4 Maximum... having difficulties complying with conservation plans implemented under part 12 of this title. (c)...

  14. Specifying the ISS Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, J.; Diekmann, A.; Neergaard, L.; Bui, T.; Mikatarian, R.; Barsamian, H.; Koontz, S.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying the spacecraft charging risks and corresponding hazards for the International Space Station (ISS) requires a plasma environment specification describing the natural variability of ionospheric temperature (Te) and density (Ne). Empirical ionospheric specification and forecast models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model typically only provide estimates of long term (seasonal) mean Te and Ne values for the low Earth orbit environment. Knowledge of the Te and Ne variability as well as the likelihood of extreme deviations from the mean values are required to estimate both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of potentially hazardous spacecraft charging environments for a given ISS construction stage and flight configuration. This paper describes a statistical analysis of historical ionospheric low Earth orbit plasma measurements used to estimate Ne, Te variability in the ISS flight environment. The statistical variability analysis of Ne and Te enables calculation of the expected frequency of occurrence of any particular values of Ne and Te, especially those that correspond to possibly hazardous spacecraft charging environments. The database used in the original analysis included measurements from the AE-C, AE-D, and DE-2 satellites and recent work on the database has added additional satellites to the database and ground based incoherent scatter radar observations as well. Deviations of the data values from the IRI estimated Ne, Te parameters for each data point provide a statistical basis for modeling the deviations of the plasma environment from the IRI model output.

  15. Energy-Environment Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervine, Kathryn E.; Cawley, Rebecca E.

    This publication, one part of a three-part NSTA series on energy-environment, is a sampling of current energy literature. The references are divided into four separate categories, each directed for a specific audience: readings for teachers, readings for students (grades 8-10); Readings for students (grades 5-9); and readings for students (grades…

  16. Feminist Interventions in Electronic Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocks, Mary E.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that feminist interventions are communicative acts that bring attention to shifting power relations within a specific discursive context. Argues that enacting feminist interventions in online environments changes the online community's identity and narrow sense of audience, and that creating feminist multimedia helps ensure a more human,…

  17. The Environment: Our Children's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of the child and its environment. Specifically, topics covered include (1) awareness of the kind of world our children will inherit; (2) the survival of an urban child; (3) the survival of a Sahelian rural child as a working member of his farming community;…

  18. The Environment: Our Children's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of the child and its environment. Specifically, topics covered include (1) awareness of the kind of world our children will inherit; (2) the survival of an urban child; (3) the survival of a Sahelian rural child as a working member of his farming community;…

  19. Development of Quantitative Specifications for Simulating the Stress Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    specifying loudness is the decibel (dB). The bel (B) is a basic unit of measurement named after Alexander Graham Bell; a decibel (dB) ic 1/10 of a bel...20 feet 90-100 dB Pneumatic hammer 130 dB Jet aircraft at 35 feet actually lead to improved performance (as only irrelevant stimuli may be ignored...resulted from the subjects having control andnot receiving shocks (r - -. 172). The final two situations: (a) no control# shocks delivered and (b

  20. MAGIC (Mobile Autonomous Generic Instrument Carrier): Environment Specification & Requirements Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbach, S.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.-M.; Lange, C.; Ulamec, S.; Witte, L.; Zoest, T. V.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents first results of the DLR MAGIC (Mobile Autonomous Generic Instrument Carrier) study. MAGIC, a small robotic landing system that can autonomously relocate and upright, shall allow carrying variable suites of innovative instrumentation (up to a limit of ca. 3kg) for in-situ exploration to a broad, but defined, range of small bodies (such as asteroids, Near Earth Objects (NEO) and small moons). The instrumentation delivered shall allow studying the body's physical properties, internal, surface and subsurface structure and its chemical composition, thus being a complement to any rendezvous or sample return missions to small bodies.

  1. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87...) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in § 87.61 shall be used in smoke emission testing....

  2. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  6. Surface phenomena in plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Ferguson, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma interactions and their effects on materials depend on a number of factors, including the pre-existing environment, the properties of surface materials and the characteristics of the system. An additional dimension is the question of mission: some payloads may be much more sensitive to plasma interactions than others. As an example, a payload whose objective is to measure the ambient environment will be more sensitive to any effects than will a power system. Material specific effects include charging and its associated effects, which can result in short- and long-term damage. Selection of materials for a particular application requires consideration of all factors and assessment of effects due to all causes. Proper selection and suitability determination requires analysis to identify the actual environment combined with testing under exposure to single and combined environment factors.

  7. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  8. DPC materials and corrosion environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Bryan, Charles R.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest; Clarity, J.

    2014-10-01

    After an exposition of the materials used in DPCs and the factors controlling material corrosion in disposal environments, a survey is given of the corrosion rates, mechanisms, and products for commonly used stainless steels. Research needs are then identified for predicting stability of DPC materials in disposal environments. Stainless steel corrosion rates may be low enough to sustain DPC basket structural integrity for performance periods of as long as 10,000 years, especially in reducing conditions. Uncertainties include basket component design, disposal environment conditions, and the in-package chemical environment including any localized effects from radiolysis. Prospective disposal overpack materials exist for most disposal environments, including both corrosion allowance and corrosion resistant materials. Whereas the behavior of corrosion allowance materials is understood for a wide range of corrosion environments, demonstrating corrosion resistance could be more technically challenging and require environment-specific testing. A preliminary screening of the existing inventory of DPCs and other types of canisters is described, according to the type of closure, whether they can be readily transported, and what types of materials are used in basket construction.

  9. The auxiliary use of LANDSAT data in estimating crop acreages: Results of the 1975 Illinois crop-acreage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, C. (Principal Investigator); Starbuck, R. R.; Sigman, R. S.; Hanuschak, G. A.; Craig, M. E.; Cook, P. W.; Allen, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that classifier performance was influenced by a number of temporal, methodological, and geographical factors. Best results were obtained when corn was tasselled and near the dough stage of development. Dates earlier or later in the growing season produced poor results. Atmospheric effects on results cannot be independently measured or completely separated from the effects due to the maturity stage of the crops. Poor classifier performance was observed in areas where considerable spectral confusion was present.

  10. An Integrated Product Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Chuck

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Advantage is a mechanical design decision support system. Unlike our CAD/CAM cousins, Mechanical Advantage addresses true engineering processes, not just the form and fit of geometry. If we look at a traditional engineering environment, we see that an engineer starts with two things - performance goals and design rules. The intent is to have a product perform specific functions and accomplish that within a designated environment. Geometry should be a simple byproduct of that engineering process - not the controller of it. Mechanical Advantage is a performance modeler allowing engineers to consider all these criteria in making their decisions by providing such capabilities as critical parameter analysis, tolerance and sensitivity analysis, math driven Geometry, and automated design optimizations. If you should desire an industry standard solid model, we would produce an ACIS-based solid model. If you should desire an ANSI/ISO standard drawing, we would produce this as well with a virtual push of the button. For more information on this and other Advantage Series products, please contact the author.

  11. Communication in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W N; Herold, T R

    1986-01-01

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

  12. Reconceptualizing the motive/environment link in recreation choice behavior

    Treesearch

    Richard Schreyer; Richard C. Knopf; Daniel R. Williams

    1985-01-01

    Effective inventory, management, and planning for recreation resources depend upon knowing why persons choose certain environments to attain specific goals, and what elements in those environments facilitate goal-attainment. Research focused on relating motives for participation to specific components in the environment has had only limited success. This paper proposes...

  13. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  14. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1513...

  16. 40 CFR 7.145 - Specific prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific prohibitions. 7.145 Section 7.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR... respect to individuals of a particular age. (c) A recipient shall not choose a site or location of...

  17. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  18. NCSE Conference 2017: Integrating Environment & Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This conference will bring together scientist and professionals to discuss the complex relationships between people, the planet, and all living beings. The focus will specifically be integrating environment and health.

  19. Managing for the Ideal Research Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses two questions relating to research: (1) what is the best environment in which to carry out research and (2) what is the best way to manage employment in order to maintain this environment? It focuses on research management in UK higher education, but attempts to generalise beyond a specifically national context. The article…

  20. Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Assistive Living Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papangelis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Dialogue Systems (ADS) are intelligent systems, able to interact with users via multiple modalities, such as speech, gestures, facial expressions and others. Such systems are able to make conversation with their users, usually on a specific, narrow topic. Assistive Living Environments are environments where the users are by definition not…

  1. Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Assistive Living Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papangelis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Dialogue Systems (ADS) are intelligent systems, able to interact with users via multiple modalities, such as speech, gestures, facial expressions and others. Such systems are able to make conversation with their users, usually on a specific, narrow topic. Assistive Living Environments are environments where the users are by definition not…

  2. Debugging in a parallel environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Griffin, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a project investigating approaches to dynamic debugging in parallel processing systems. Debugging programs in a multiprocessing environment is particularly difficult because of potential errors in synchronization of tasks, data dependencies, sharing of data among tasks, and irreproducibility of specific machine instruction sequences from one job to the next. The basic methodology involved in predicate-based debuggers is given as well as other desirable features of dynamic parallel debugging. 13 refs.

  3. 40 CFR 141.602 - System specific studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false System specific studies. 141.602... System specific studies. (a) System specific study plan. Your system specific study plan must be based on... required under paragraph (a)(2) of this section. You must prepare and submit your system specific study...

  4. 40 CFR 141.602 - System specific studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false System specific studies. 141.602... System specific studies. (a) System specific study plan. Your system specific study plan must be based on... required under paragraph (a)(2) of this section. You must prepare and submit your system specific study...

  5. 40 CFR 141.602 - System specific studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false System specific studies. 141.602... System specific studies. (a) System specific study plan. Your system specific study plan must be based on... required under paragraph (a)(2) of this section. You must prepare and submit your system specific study...

  6. Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

  7. Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

  8. Natural Environment Definition for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive set of environment definitions is necessary from the beginning of the development of a spacecraft. The Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE, SLS-SPEC-159) was originally developed during the Constellation Program and then modified and matured for the Exploration Programs (Space Launch System and Orion). The DSNE includes launch, low-earth orbit (LEO), trans-lunar, cislunar, interplanetary, and entry/descent/landing environments developed from standard and custom databases and models. The space environments section will be discussed in detail.

  9. Natural Environment Definition for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Rob

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive set of environment definitions is necessary from the beginning of the development of a spacecraft. The Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE, SLS-SPEC-159) was originally developed during the Constellation Program and then modified and matured for the Exploration Programs (Space Launch System and Orion). The DSNE includes launch, low-earth orbit, trans-lunar, cis-lunar, interplanetary, and entry/descent/landing environments developed from standard and custom databases and models. The space environments section will be discussed in detail.

  10. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  11. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  12. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  13. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  14. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  15. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  16. Specification validation tools study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotta, J. P.

    1987-05-01

    The use of the SMALLTALK language for specification of space mission information systems was assessed. It is shown that functional prototyping is possible. The SMALLTALK-80 language provides a complete development environment and powerful conceptual features that makes it a very good support for prototyping. Simple versions of both prototyping tool and demonstration examples were built rapidly. The prototyping approach should be introduced in the development cycle of space systems because it allows early verification of the functional analysis. However, it should not be limited to this phase and should be associated with the project data base to support various utilizations by keeping the unicity of the system definition. It is important that a model of the coordination tasks (e.g., mode management) in a space system is developed in order to make easier its verification and its implementation. This model should integrate the conventional way to define the management tasks and a more formal description. The approach could be applied to reliability analysis at functional level, and development of dynamic and hierarchic models of mode management.

  17. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... SOLUTIONS FOR ALL THESE PROBLEMS... BY PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  18. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  19. Environments for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinski, C. Joanne

    2005-01-01

    This chapter considers Robert Kegan's concept of holding environments, as well as six steps necessary for creation of new or adaptation of existing learning environments that facilitate adult development across the life course.

  20. Environments for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinski, C. Joanne

    2005-01-01

    This chapter considers Robert Kegan's concept of holding environments, as well as six steps necessary for creation of new or adaptation of existing learning environments that facilitate adult development across the life course.