Science.gov

Sample records for acreage environment specifications

  1. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology: Results from Acreage and Integrated Seams Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2016-01-01

    This invited talk will give a brief overview of the integrated heat-shield system design that requires seams and the extreme environment conditions that HEEET should be demonstrated to be capable of thermal performance without fail. We have tested HEEET across many different facilities and at conditions that are extreme. The presentation will highlight the performance of both the acreage as well as integrated seam at these conditions. The Invite talks are 10 min and hence this presentation will be short.

  2. Determining crop acreage estimates for specific winter crops using shape attributes from sequential MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potgieter, A. B.; Lawson, K.; Huete, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    There are increasing societal and plant industry demands for more accurate, objective and near real-time crop production information to meet both economic and food security concerns. The advent of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite platform has augmented the capability of satellite-based applications to monitor large agricultural areas at acceptable pixel scale, cost and accuracy. Fitting parametric profiles to growing season vegetation index time series reduces the volume of data and provides simple quantitative parameters that relates to crop phenology (sowing date, flowering). In this study, we modelled various Gaussian profiles to time sequential MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) images over winter crops in Queensland, Australia. Three simple Gaussian models were evaluated in their effectiveness to identify and classify various winter crop types and coverage at both pixel and regional scales across Queensland's main agricultural areas. Equal to or greater than 93% classification accuracies were obtained in determining crop acreage estimates at pixel scale for each of the Gaussian modelled approaches. Significant high to moderate correlations (log-linear transformation) were also obtained for determining total winter crop (R2 = 0.93) areas as well as specific crop acreage for wheat (R2 = 0.86) and barley (R2 = 0.83). Conversely, it was much more difficult to predict chickpea acreage (R2 ≤ 0.26), mainly due to very large uncertainties in survey data. The quantitative approach utilised here further had additional benefits of characterising crop phenology in terms of length of growing season and providing regression diagnostics of how well the fitted profiles matched the EVI time series. The Gaussian curve models utilised here are novel in application and therefore will enhance the use and adoption of remote sensing technologies in targeted agricultural application. With innate simplicity and accuracies comparable to other

  3. 7 CFR 718.102 - Acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1412 of this title must report the acreage of fruits and vegetables planted for harvest on a farm... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.102 Acreage reports. (a) In order to be eligible for...

  4. 7 CFR 718.102 - Acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1412 of this title must report the acreage of fruits and vegetables planted for harvest on a farm... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.102 Acreage reports. (a) In order to be eligible for...

  5. 7 CFR 718.102 - Acreage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS... accurate information as required by these provisions. (b)(1) Participants in the programs governed by part... must report the acreage planted to a commodity for harvest for which a marketing assistance loan...

  6. 7 CFR 718.107 - Acreages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... area delineated on an aerial photograph or within a GIS, such acreage will be recognized by the county... boundaries not visible on the aerial photograph are established from data furnished by the producer,...

  7. 25 CFR 172.1 - Acreage designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acreage designated. 172.1 Section 172.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER PUEBLO INDIAN LANDS BENEFITED BY IRRIGATION AND... date, it is found that a total of 20,242.05 acres of Pueblo Indian lands of the Pueblos of...

  8. 7 CFR 1412.66 - Acreage and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acreage and production reports. 1412.66 Section 1412... Reduction in Payments § 1412.66 Acreage and production reports. (a) As a condition of eligibility for... production, no later than the acreage reporting date for the crop in the year immediately following the...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prevented planting acreage. 1437.201 Section 1437.201... Determining Coverage for Prevented Planted Acreage § 1437.201 Prevented planting acreage. (a) In addition to... determining losses under this section: (1) Producers must be prevented from planting more than 35 percent...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prevented planting acreage. 1437.201 Section 1437.201... Determining Coverage for Prevented Planted Acreage § 1437.201 Prevented planting acreage. (a) In addition to... determining losses under this section: (1) Producers must be prevented from planting more than 35 percent...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevented planting acreage. 1437.201 Section 1437.201... Determining Coverage for Prevented Planted Acreage § 1437.201 Prevented planting acreage. (a) In addition to... determining losses under this section: (1) Producers must be prevented from planting more than 35 percent...

  12. Estimating Genotype- and Environment-Specific Heritabilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advantages of computing genotype- and environment-specific heritabilities are discussed. A statistical approach is used in which logvariances of both genotype by environment interaction and error are modeled as random variables. Resulting estimators of variances are weighted averages of a pool...

  13. Specification of ISS Plasma Environment Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Neergaard, Linda F.; Bui, Them H.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Barsamian, H.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Quantifying spacecraft charging risks and associated hazards for the International Space Station (ISS) requires a plasma environment specification for the natural variability of ionospheric temperature (Te) and density (Ne). Empirical ionospheric specification and forecast models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model typically only provide long term (seasonal) mean Te and Ne values for the low Earth orbit environment. This paper describes a statistical analysis of historical ionospheric low Earth orbit plasma measurements from the AE-C, AE-D, and DE-2 satellites used to derive a model of deviations of observed data values from IRI-2001 estimates of Ne, Te parameters for each data point to provide a statistical basis for modeling the deviations of the plasma environment from the IRI model output. Application of the deviation model with the IRI-2001 output yields a method for estimating extreme environments for the ISS spacecraft charging analysis.

  14. LACIE large area acreage estimation. [United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A sample wheat acreage for a large area is obtained by multiplying its small grains acreage estimate as computed by the classification and mensuration subsystem by the best available ratio of wheat to small grains acreages obtained from historical data. In the United States, as in other countries with detailed historical data, an additional level of aggregation was required because sample allocation was made at the substratum level. The essential features of the estimation procedure for LACIE countries are included along with procedures for estimating wheat acreage in the United States.

  15. Specification of the ISS Plasma Environment Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Neergaard, Linda F.; Bui, Them H.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Barsamian, H.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the spacecraft charging risks and corresponding hazards for the International Space Station (ISS) requires a plasma environment specification describing the natural variability of ionospheric temperature (Te) and density (Ne). Empirical ionospheric specification and forecast models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model typically only provide estimates of long term (seasonal) mean Te and Ne values for the low Earth orbit environment. Knowledge of the Te and Ne variability as well as the likelihood of extreme deviations from the mean values are required to estimate both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of potentially hazardous spacecraft charging environments for a given ISS construction stage and flight configuration. This paper describes the statistical analysis of historical ionospheric low Earth orbit plasma measurements used to estimate Ne, Te variability in the ISS flight environment. The statistical variability analysis of Ne and Te enables calculation of the expected frequency of Occurrence of any particular values of Ne and Te, especially those that correspond to possibly hazardous spacecraft charging environments. The database used in the original analysis included measurements from the AE-C, AE-D, and DE-2 satellites. Recent work on the database has added additional satellites to the database and ground based incoherent scatter radar observations as well. Deviations of the data values from the IRI estimated Ne, Te parameters for each data point provide a statistical basis for modeling the deviations of the plasma environment from the IRI model output. This technique, while developed specifically for the Space Station analysis, can also be generalized to provide ionospheric plasma environment risk specification models for low Earth orbit over an altitude range of 200 km through approximately 1000 km.

  16. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 Through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 Through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  19. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.45 - Reducing or terminating base acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reducing or terminating base acreage. 1412.45 Section... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.45 Reducing or terminating base acreage. (a)(1) Subject to the limitation in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a permanent reduction of all or a portion of a farm's...

  1. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  2. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  3. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  4. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  5. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... weather reporting stations of the U.S. National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planted acreage credit... 718.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... the acreage could have been planted and harvested under normal weather conditions, and (2)...

  6. 43 CFR 4110.4-1 - Additional land acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional land acreage. 4110.4-1 Section 4110.4-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.4-1 Additional land acreage. When lands outside designated allotments...

  7. 43 CFR 4110.4-2 - Decrease in land acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decrease in land acreage. 4110.4-2 Section 4110.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.4-2 Decrease in land acreage. (a) Where there is a decrease in public...

  8. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  9. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  10. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  11. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  12. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... planted. (a) Payment acreage of a crop is limited to the lesser of insured acreage or NAP covered acreage... Deputy Administrator and separately meet all requirements, including insurance or NAP requirements ;...

  13. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  15. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a...

  18. Evaluation of vibration specifications for acoustic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Zeronian, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    To properly design any structure, it is necessary to determine the effects of various environments, vibration, and shock on that surface. Usually the environment which has the worst effect will be used as the design criteria for comparison with the static (yield or ultimate) material allowables. Analyzing the same structure under all of the various environments can be time consuming and costly. A method was devised previously to allow for various environments to be compared to each other to select the highest load or acceleration producing environment. A technique which extends the above method and allows an additional environment, acoustic vibration, to be compared with sine, random vibration and shock environments is introduced. Furthermore, these techniques enable all dynamic environments to be added together so only a single stress analysis of the structure is needed for combined environments.

  19. Measurement of irrigated acreage in Western Kansas from LANDSAT images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keene, K.M.; Conley, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past four decades, irrigated acreage in western Kansas has increased rapidly. Optimum utilization of vital groundwater supplies requires implementation of long-term water-management programs. One important variable in such programs is up-to-date information on acreage under irrigation. Conventional ground survey methods of estimating irrigated acreage are too slow to be of maximum use in water-management programs. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT images permits more rapid measurement of irrigated acreage, but procedures are tedious and still relatively slow. For example, using a LANDSAT false-color composite image in areas of western Kansas with few landmarks, it is impossible to keep track of fields by examination under low-power microscope. Irrigated fields are more easily delineated on a photographically enlarged false-color composite and are traced on an overlay for measurement. Interpretation and measurement required 6 weeks for a four-county (3140 mi2, 8133 km2) test area. Video image-analysis equipment permits rapid measurement of irrigated acreage. Spectral response of irrigated summer crops in western Kansas on MSS band 5 (visible red, 0.6-0.7 ??m) images is low in contrast to high response from harvested and fallow fields and from common soil types. Therefore, irrigated acreage in western Kansas can be uniquely discriminated by video image analysis. The area of irrigated crops in a given area of view is measured directly. Sources of error are small in western Kansas. After preliminary preparation of the images, the time required to measure irrigated acreage was 1 h per county (average area, 876 ml2 or 2269 km2). ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. Evaluation of classification procedures for estimating wheat acreage in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, L. M.; Register, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the results of experiments which were performed to evaluate procedures for estimating wheat acreage in intensive test sites (ITS's) in Kansas. An analyst/interpreter (AI) selected and labeled fields from Landsat-1 satellite imagery. Statistics were generated for each selected ITS, and the imagery was classified using a maximum likelihood classifier. Various components of the classification process were tested.

  1. Research on rice acreage estimation in fragmented area based on decomposition of mixed pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Li, Q. Z.; Lei, F.; Du, X.; Wei, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    Rice acreage estimation is a key aspect to guarantee food security and also important to support government agricultural subsidy system. In this paper, we explored a sophisticated method to improve rice estimation accuracy at county scale and we developed our approach with China Environment Satellite HJ-1A/B data in Hunan Province, a fragmented area with complex rice cropping patterns. Our approach improved the estimation accuracy by combing supervised and unsupervised classification upon decomposition of mixed pixels model, and the rice estimation results, validated by ground survey data, showed a close relationship (RMSE~3.40) with survey figures, the estimated accuracy (EA) reached 83.74% at county level according to the sub-pixel method, and the accuracy can be increased about 12% compared to the pure-pixel method. The results suggest that decomposition of mixed pixels method has great significance to the improvement of rice acreage estimation accuracy, and can be used in mountainous and broken planting area.

  2. Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  3. Tropical aquatic Archaea show environment-specific community composition.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Cardoso, Alexander M; Coutinho, Felipe H; Lima, Joyce L; Pinto, Leonardo H; Albano, Rodolpho M; Clementino, Maysa M; Martins, Orlando B; Vieira, Ricardo P

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria.

  4. Family Environments, Specific Relationships, and General Perceptions of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; And Others

    Current family relationships not only form an important part of most people's social networks but also influence global perceptions of social support. Using multiple regression techniques, this study investigated the roles of students' perceptions of their family environment and the quality of specific student-parent relationships in predicting…

  5. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.312 - Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.312 Establishment of acreage bases under proportionate... shares as the simple average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.316 - Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.316 Acreage reports for purposes of proportionate shares. (a) A report of planted and failed acreage shall be required on farms that produce sugarcane for...

  15. 76 FR 70407 - Report of Acreage, Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... associated with the report of acreage for the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). This... Acreage for the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). OMB Control Number: 0560-0004. Expiration Date: 01/31/2012. Type of Request: Extension. Abstract: NAP provides financial assistance...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.313 - Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under proportionate shares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permanent transfer of acreage base histories under... histories under proportionate shares. (a) A sugarcane producer on a farm may transfer all or a portion of the producer's acreage base history of land owned, operated, or controlled to any other farm in...

  1. It's all in the numbers: acreage tallies and environmental program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dale, Lisa; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly, performance measurement is being used to hold federal agencies accountable, represent environmental progress, and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental programs. The need to track measurable outputs has created a tendency to present programmatic progress solely by quantifiable data, despite the inherent complexity of natural resource management. Wetlands and fire management programs are two specific environmental arenas that have come to overemphasize the tracking of acreage numbers to validate existing policy direction. In both of these arenas, we find the definition and categorization of "countable" acres to be inconsistent and unreliable. We explore this systemic flaw for both wetlands and fire programs and describe its implications for environmental policy and natural resource management more broadly. We conclude with recommendations for improved performance measurement in these arenas.

  2. General multiyear aggregation technology: Methodology and software documentation. [estimating seasonal crop acreage proportions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, T. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A general methodology is presented for estimating a stratum's at-harvest crop acreage proportion for a given crop year (target year) from the crop's estimated acreage proportion for sample segments from within the stratum. Sample segments from crop years other than the target year are (usually) required for use in conjunction with those from the target year. In addition, the stratum's (identifiable) crop acreage proportion may be estimated for times other than at-harvest in some situations. A by-product of the procedure is a methodology for estimating the change in the stratum's at-harvest crop acreage proportion from crop year to crop year. An implementation of the proposed procedure as a statistical analysis system routine using the system's matrix language module, PROC MATRIX, is described and documented. Three examples illustrating use of the methodology and algorithm are provided.

  3. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  4. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  5. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  6. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  7. 7 CFR 760.621 - Requirement to report acreage and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... counties. (b) Acreage and production reports that have been submitted to FSA for NAP or to RMA for crop... production submitted for NAP or FCIA purposes must satisfy the requirements of NAP or FCIA, as applicable....

  8. The use of Landsat data to inventory cotton and soybean acreage in North Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Faust, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if Landsat data could be used to improve the accuracy of the estimation of cotton acreage. A linear classification algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm were used for computer classification of the area, and the classification was compared with ground truth. The classification accuracy for some fields was greater than 90 percent; however, the overall accuracy was 71 percent for cotton and 56 percent for soybeans. The results of this research indicate that computer analysis of Landsat data has potential for improving upon the methods presently being used to determine cotton acreage; however, additional experiments and refinements are needed before the method can be used operationally.

  9. Economic evaluation of crop acreage estimation by multispectral remote sensing. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderscheid, L. V.; Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Myers, W.; Safir, G.; Ilhardt, D.; Morgenstern, J. P.; Sarno, J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photointerpretation of S190A and S190B imagery showed significantly better resolution with the S190B system. A small tendancy to underestimate acreage was observed. This averaged 6 percent and varied with field size. The S190B system had adequate resolution for acreage measurement but the color film did not provide adequate contrast to allow detailed classification of ground cover from imagery of a single date. In total 78 percent of the fields were correctly classified but with 56 percent correct for the major crop, corn.

  10. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  13. 43 CFR 3206.16 - Is there any acreage which is not chargeable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is there any acreage which is not chargeable? 3206.16 Section 3206.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  14. 43 CFR 3206.13 - What is the maximum acreage I may hold?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the maximum acreage I may hold? 3206.13 Section 3206.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  15. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  16. 25 CFR 227.9 - Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acreage limitation: Leases on noncontiguous tracts. 227.9 Section 227.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  17. Evaluation of LISS-III and AWiFS sensor data for wheat acreage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S. B.; Bairagi, G. D.; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Crop acreage estimation is important for advanced planning and taking various policy decisions. The present study was carried out in Indore district using AWiFS sensor satellite data from sowing to maturity period as well as single date LISS-III sensor satellite data of maximum vegetation growth stage of wheat crop. The technique used for single date LISS-III data classification is complete enumeration approach based on supervised classification. While Multi-date AWiFS data classification technique is based on two-stage classification of multi-date dataset by unsupervised Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA). The acreage estimated using the LISS- III sensor data is 98.41 000'ha while using AWiFS sensor data is 105.70 000'ha. It was found that LISS - III results shows -6.89 percent underestimation as compared to AWiFS estimates. The comparison of both (LISS-III and AWiFS) sensor's acreage estimates with the actual acreage data (viz. 97.20 000'ha) shows that higher spatial resolution (LISS-III) sensor satellite data have more accuracy than low spatial resolution (AWiFS) sensor.

  18. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.110... shall be recognized in connection with the issuance of sales history as follows: (1) If a grower sells all of the acreage comprising the entity, all prior sales history shall accrue to the purchaser;...

  19. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.110... shall be recognized in connection with the issuance of sales history as follows: (1) If a grower sells all of the acreage comprising the entity, all prior sales history shall accrue to the purchaser;...

  20. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.110... shall be recognized in connection with the issuance of sales history as follows: (1) If a grower sells all of the acreage comprising the entity, all prior sales history shall accrue to the purchaser;...

  1. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.110... shall be recognized in connection with the issuance of sales history as follows: (1) If a grower sells all of the acreage comprising the entity, all prior sales history shall accrue to the purchaser;...

  2. 7 CFR 929.110 - Transfers or sales of cranberry acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.110... shall be recognized in connection with the issuance of sales history as follows: (1) If a grower sells all of the acreage comprising the entity, all prior sales history shall accrue to the purchaser;...

  3. A specification of 3D manipulation in virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. Augustine; Furuta, Richard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the modeling of three basic kinds of 3-D manipulations in the context of a logical hand device and our virtual panel architecture. The logical hand device is a useful software abstraction representing hands in virtual environments. The virtual panel architecture is the 3-D component of the 2-D window systems. Both of the abstractions are intended to form the foundation for adaptable 3-D manipulation.

  4. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  5. Development of rotation sample designs for the estimation of crop acreages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycthuan-Lee, T. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The idea behind the use of rotation sample designs is that the variation of the crop acreage of a particular sample unit from year to year is usually less than the variation of crop acreage between units within a particular year. The estimation theory is based on an additive mixed analysis of variance model with years as fixed effects, (a sub t), and sample units as a variable factor. The rotation patterns are decided upon according to: (1) the number of sample units in the design each year; (2) the number of units retained in the following years; and (3) the number of years to complete the rotation pattern. Different analytic formulae for the variance of (a sub t) and the variance comparisons in using a complete survey of the rotation patterns.

  6. Cell type-specific properties and environment shape tissue specificity of cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Martin H.; Serrano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest mysteries in cancer research remains why mutations in certain genes cause cancer only at specific sites in the human body. The poor correlation between the expression level of a cancer gene and the tissues in which it causes malignant transformations raises the question of which factors determine the tissue-specific effects of a mutation. Here, we explore why some cancer genes are associated only with few different cancer types (i.e., are specific), while others are found mutated in a large number of different types of cancer (i.e., are general). We do so by contrasting cellular functions of specific-cancer genes with those of general ones to identify properties that determine where in the body a gene mutation is causing malignant transformations. We identified different groups of cancer genes that did not behave as expected (i.e., DNA repair genes being tissue specific, immune response genes showing a bimodal specificity function or strong association of generally expressed genes to particular cancers). Analysis of these three groups demonstrates the importance of environmental impact for understanding why certain cancer genes are only involved in the development of some cancer types but are rarely found mutated in other types of cancer. PMID:26856619

  7. SLS-SPEC-159 Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE) Revision D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    This document is derived from the former National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) document CxP 70023, titled "The Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE), Revision C." The original document has been modified to represent updated Design Reference Missions (DRMs) for the NASA Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Programs. The DSNE completes environment-related specifications for architecture, system-level, and lower-tier documents by specifying the ranges of environmental conditions that must be accounted for by NASA ESD Programs. To assure clarity and consistency, and to prevent requirements documents from becoming cluttered with extensive amounts of technical material, natural environment specifications have been compiled into this document. The intent is to keep a unified specification for natural environments that each Program calls out for appropriate application. This document defines the natural environments parameter limits (maximum and minimum values, energy spectra, or precise model inputs, assumptions, model options, etc.), for all ESD Programs. These environments are developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (MSFC organization code: EV44). Many of the parameter limits are based on experience with previous programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program. The parameter limits contain no margin and are meant to be evaluated individually to ensure they are reasonable (i.e., do not apply unrealistic extreme-on-extreme conditions). The natural environments specifications in this document should be accounted for by robust design of the flight vehicle and support systems. However, it is understood that in some cases the Programs will find it more effective to account for portions of the environment ranges by operational mitigation or acceptance of risk in accordance with an appropriate program risk management plan and/or hazard analysis process. The DSNE is not intended

  8. The Role of Scaffolding in CSCL in General and in Specific Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdú, N.; Sanuy, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse if virtual forums set up in an environment specifically designed to improve collaborative learning can effectively influence students' discourse quality and learning when compared with those forums set up in a general environment. Following a coding schema based upon the set of scaffolds offered in the Knowledge…

  9. Specification of requirements for the virtual environment for reactor applications simulation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, S. M.; Pytel, M.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the United States Dept. of Energy initiated a research and development effort to develop modern modeling and simulation methods that could utilize high performance computing capabilities to address issues important to nuclear power plant operation, safety and sustainability. To respond to this need, a consortium of national laboratories, academic institutions and industry partners (the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors - CASL) was formed to develop an integrated Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) modeling and simulation capability. A critical element for the success of the CASL research and development effort was the development of an integrated set of overarching requirements that provides guidance in the planning, development, and management of the VERA modeling and simulation software. These requirements also provide a mechanism from which the needs of a broad array of external CASL stakeholders (e.g. reactor / fuel vendors, plant owner / operators, regulatory personnel, etc.) can be identified and integrated into the VERA development plans. This paper presents an overview of the initial set of requirements contained within the VERA Requirements Document (VRD) that currently is being used to govern development of the VERA software within the CASL program. The complex interdisciplinary nature of these requirements together with a multi-physics coupling approach to realize a core simulator capability pose a challenge to how the VRD should be derived and subsequently revised to accommodate the needs of different stakeholders. Thus, the VRD is viewed as an evolving document that will be updated periodically to reflect the changing needs of identified CASL stakeholders and lessons learned during the progress of the CASL modeling and simulation program. (authors)

  10. Two phase sampling for wheat acreage estimation. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Hay, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A two phase LANDSAT-based sample allocation and wheat proportion estimation method was developed. This technique employs manual, LANDSAT full frame-based wheat or cultivated land proportion estimates from a large number of segments comprising a first sample phase to optimally allocate a smaller phase two sample of computer or manually processed segments. Application to the Kansas Southwest CRD for 1974 produced a wheat acreage estimate for that CRD within 2.42 percent of the USDA SRS-based estimate using a lower CRD inventory budget than for a simulated reference LACIE system. Factor of 2 or greater cost or precision improvements relative to the reference system were obtained.

  11. Prosthesis-User-in-the-Loop: a user-specific biomechanical modeling and simulation environment.

    PubMed

    Wojtusch, J; Beckerle, P; Christ, O; Wolff, K; von Stryk, O; Rinderknecht, S; Vogt, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel biomechanical modeling and simulation environment with an emphasis on user-specific customization is presented. A modular modeling approach for multi-body systems allows a flexible extension by specific biomechanical modeling elements and enables an efficient application in dynamic simulation and optimization problems. A functional distribution of model description and model parameter data in combination with standardized interfaces enables a simple and reliable replacement or modification of specific functional components. The user-specific customization comprises the identification of anthropometric model parameters as well as the generation of a virtual three-dimensional character. The modeling and simulation environment is associated with Prosthesis-User-in-the-Loop, a hardware simulator concept for the design and optimization of lower limb prosthetic devices based on user experience and assessment. For a demonstration of the flexibility and capability of the modeling and simulation environment, an exemplary application in context of the hardware simulator is given.

  12. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

  13. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  14. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  15. Crop acreage estimation using a Landsat-based estimator as an auxiliary variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Houston, A. G.; Lundgren, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of improving upon the ground survey estimates of crop acreages by utilizing Landsat data is addressed. Three estimators, called regression, ratio, and stratified ratio, are studied for bias and variance, and their relative efficiencies are compared. The approach is to formulate analytically the estimation problem that utilizes ground survey data, as collected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Landsat data, which provide complete coverage for an area of interest, and then to conduct simulation studies. It is shown over a wide range of parametric conditions that the regression estimator is the most efficient unless there is a low correlation between the actual and estimated crop acreages in the sampled area segments, in which case the ratio and stratified ratio estimators are better. Furthermore, it is seen that the regression estimator is potentially biased due to estimating the regression coefficient from the training sample segments. Estimation of the variance of the regression estimator is also investigated. Two variance estimators are considered, the large sample variance estimator and an alternative estimator suggested by Cochran. The large sample estimate of variance is found to be biased and inferior to the Cochran estimate for small sample sizes.

  16. Irrigated acreage in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season. [Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Jaynes, R. A.; Landgraf, K. F.; Clark, L. D., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The irrigated cropland in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season was inventoried from satellite imagery. LANDSAT color infrared images (scale 1:125,000) were examined for early, mid, and late summer dates, and acreage was estimated by use of township/section overlays. The total basin acreage was estimated to be 573,435 acres, with individual state totals as follows: Idaho 234,370 acres; Utah 265,505 acres; and Wyoming 73,560 acres. As anticipated, wetland areas intermingled among cropland appears to have produced an over-estimation of irrigated acreage. According to a 2% random sample of test sites evaluated by personnel from the Soil Conservation Service such basin-wide over-estimation is 7.5%; individual counties deviate significantly from the basin-wide figure, depending on the relative amount of wetland areas intermingled with cropland.

  17. Expansion of the Protein Repertoire in Newly Explored Environments: Human Gut Microbiome Specific Protein Families

    PubMed Central

    Ellrott, Kyle; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Li, Weizhong; Wooley, John C.; Godzik, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit particular environments must be able to perform molecular functions that provide them with a competitive advantage to thrive in those environments. As most molecular functions are performed by proteins and are conserved between related proteins, we can expect that organisms successful in a given environmental niche would contain protein families that are specific for functions that are important in that environment. For instance, the human gut is rich in polysaccharides from the diet or secreted by the host, and is dominated by Bacteroides, whose genomes contain highly expanded repertoire of protein families involved in carbohydrate metabolism. To identify other protein families that are specific to this environment, we investigated the distribution of protein families in the currently available human gut genomic and metagenomic data. Using an automated procedure, we identified a group of protein families strongly overrepresented in the human gut. These not only include many families described previously but also, interestingly, a large group of previously unrecognized protein families, which suggests that we still have much to discover about this environment. The identification and analysis of these families could provide us with new information about an environment critical to our health and well being. PMID:20532204

  18. Using Content-Specific Interest To Evaluate Contemporary Science Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Daniel T.; And Others

    This paper describes a framework for studying and evaluating learning environments which contextualize school science content within a larger real-world scientific endeavor, such as carrying on a space mission. A central feature of this framework is its incorporation of recent research on content-specific personal interest. This framework was…

  19. Being Nature: Interspecies Articulation as a Species-Specific Practice of Relating to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2013-01-01

    Rather than categorically teaching us ways to be less anthropocentric, environmental education could be about educating us of the ways in which we already are nature as human animals. In this paper, one species-specific practice of human relating to environment--interspecies articulation--is argued as one way of being nature. Interspecies…

  20. Niger, with new oil legislation, offers little drilled acreage for exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneton, A. )

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports on the Ministry of Mines and Energy of Niger has released acreage in East Niger to the international oil industry. Four blocks will be opened in a first step with no fixed time schedule for offers. The blocks are largely underexplored and are near significant oil indications. Niger, between Algeria and Nigeria, represents a transitional link between North Africa and Central Africa. The Republic of Niger, with the exception of its capital Niamey, is sparsely populated with 7 million people on a 1.3 million sq mile territory. Easy communications exist with neighboring Nigeria, Mali, and Chad. The arid climate allows for year round working conditions and easy access to opened areas.

  1. Irrigated acreage and other land uses on the Snake River Plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Goodell, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Prompted by the need for a current, accurate, and repeatable delineation of irrigated acreage on the Snake River Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Idaho Department of Water Resources Image Analysis Facility and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to delineate 1980 land use form Landsat data. Irrigated acreage data were needed as input to groundwater flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in a study of the regional aquifer system underlying the Snake River Plain. Single-date digital multispectral scanner data analyzed to delineate land-use classes. Source of irrigation water (surface water, ground water, and combined) was determined from county maps of 1975 water-related land use, data from previous investigations, and field checking. Surface-water diversions for irrigation on the Snake River Plain began in the 1840's. With the stimulus of Federal aid authorized by the Desert Land Act, Carey Act, and Reclamation Act, irrigated area increased rapidly in the early 1900's. By 1929, 2.2 million acres were irrigated. Ground water became and important source of irrigation water after World War II. In 1980, about 3.1 million acres of the Snake River Plain were irrigate: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million with ground water, and 0.1 million with combined surface and ground water. About 5.2 million acres (half of the plain) are undeveloped rangeland, 1.0 million acres (one-tenth) are classified as barren. The remaining land is a mixture of dryland agriculture, water bodies, wetland, forests, and urban areas.

  2. Impacts of prior land use and increased corn acreage on life cycle assessment of net greenhouse gas flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increased demand for corn ethanol, farmers are expected to plant the largest corn acreage in the United States since 1944. One of the main reasons for producing corn ethanol is the reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with gasoline. However, quantifying the offset of GHG emission...

  3. Interactions between DRD4 and Developmentally Specific Environments in Alcohol Dependence Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marie D.; Harden, K. Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Social experiences may moderate genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Consistent with this hypothesis, Park, Sher, Todorov, and Heath (2011) previously reported interactions between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and developmentally specific environments in the etiology of AD symptoms during emerging and young adulthood. Using a longitudinal cohort of n = 367 White participants followed from ages 18–27 we examine a series of similar interactions between DRD4 and developmentally sensitive contexts including childhood adversity and work and family roles. In contrast to previous results, we observed no significant interactions between DRD4 and childhood adversity. Overall, results further highlight the need for longitudinal studies of gene × environment interaction in the behavioral sciences and the difficulty of identifying candidate gene × environment interaction effects that are consistent across studies. PMID:26595480

  4. Interactions between DRD4 and developmentally specific environments in alcohol-dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Marie D; Harden, K Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2015-11-01

    Social experiences may moderate genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Consistent with this hypothesis, Park, Sher, Todorov, and Heath (2011) previously reported interactions between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and developmentally specific environments in the etiology of AD symptoms during emerging and young adulthood. Using a longitudinal cohort of n = 367 White participants followed from ages 18 to 27 years, we examine a series of similar interactions between DRD4 and developmentally sensitive contexts including childhood adversity and work and family roles. In contrast to previous results, we observed no significant interactions between DRD4 and childhood adversity. Overall, results further highlight the need for longitudinal studies of Gene × Environment interaction in the behavioral sciences and the difficulty of identifying candidate Gene × Environment interaction effects that are consistent across studies.

  5. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    were compared with Bureau of Estimation Statistics (BES). Out of these five different methods, wheat area that was estimated by spatial modeling and programming on visual basics has been found quite near to Bureau of Estimation Statistics (BES). But for hilly region, maximum fields were going in shadow region, so it was difficult to estimate accurate result, so frequency distribution curve method has been used and frequency range has been decided to discriminate wheat pixels from other pixels in hilly region, digitized those regions and result shows good result. For yield estimation, an algorithm has been developed by using soil characteristics i.e. texture, depth, drainage, temperature, rainfall and historical yield data. To get the production estimation, estimated yield multiplied by acreage of crop per hectare. Result shows deviation for acreage estimation from BES is around 3.28 %, 2.46 %, 3.45 %, 1.56 %, 1.2 % and 1.6 % (estimation not declared till now by state Agriculture dept. For the year 2013-14) estimation and deviation for production estimation is around 4.98 %, 3.66 % 3.21 % , 3.1 % NA and 2.9 % for the consecutive above mentioned years i.e. 2008-09, 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14. The estimated data has been provided to State Agriculture department for their use. To forecast production before harvest facilitate the formulation of workable marketing strategies leading to better export/import of crop in the state, which will help to lead better economic condition of the state. Yield estimation would help agriculture department in assessment of productivity of land for specific crop. Pre-harvest wheat acreage/production estimation, is useful to facilitate the reliable and timely estimates and enable the administrators and planners to take strategic decisions on import-export policy matters and trade negotiations.

  6. Environment-specific noise suppression for improved speech intelligibility by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-06-01

    Attempts to develop noise-suppression algorithms that can significantly improve speech intelligibility in noise by cochlear implant (CI) users have met with limited success. This is partly because algorithms were sought that would work equally well in all listening situations. Accomplishing this has been quite challenging given the variability in the temporal/spectral characteristics of real-world maskers. A different approach is taken in the present study focused on the development of environment-specific noise suppression algorithms. The proposed algorithm selects a subset of the envelope amplitudes for stimulation based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel. Binary classifiers, trained using data collected from a particular noisy environment, are first used to classify the mixture envelopes of each channel as either target-dominated (SNR>or=0 dB) or masker-dominated (SNR<0 dB). Only target-dominated channels are subsequently selected for stimulation. Results with CI listeners indicated substantial improvements (by nearly 44 percentage points at 5 dB SNR) in intelligibility with the proposed algorithm when tested with sentences embedded in three real-world maskers. The present study demonstrated that the environment-specific approach to noise reduction has the potential to restore speech intelligibility in noise to a level near to that attained in quiet.

  7. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  8. Specific and sensitive detection of Alcaligenes species from an agricultural environment.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Miyo; Niwa, Masumi; Nishimura, Norihiro

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR assay to specifically detect and quantify the genus Alcaligenes in samples from the agricultural environment, such as vegetables and farming soils, was developed. The minimum detection sensitivity was 106 fg of pure culture DNA, corresponding to DNA extracted from two cells of Alcaligenes faecalis. To evaluate the detection limit of A. faecalis, serially diluted genomic DNA from this organism was mixed with DNA extracted from soil and vegetables and then a standard curve was constructed. It was found that Alcaligenes species are present in the plant phytosphere at levels 10(2)-10(4) times lower than those in soil. The approach presented here will be useful for tracking or quantifying species of the genus Alcaligenes in the agricultural environment.

  9. [Ecological environment of cultivated Astragali radix and market specification of prepared slices].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kunzi; Liu, Jing; Hong, Hao; Guo, Baolin; Cai, Shaoqing; Chen, Hubiao

    2010-05-01

    Astragali Radix is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. The exhaustion of wild Astragali Radix has made cultivated Astragali Radix possess the commercial market of Astragali Radix. So the ecological environment of cultivated Astragali Radix should be investigated through field survey. Through investigation, we found that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus are cultivated in Hengshan mountain of Shanxi province, Longnan of Gansu province, south of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai provinces. A. membranaceus var. mongholicus is almost planted on the plain, except in Shanxi province it grows on the sunny side of the mountain. What is more, soil type, elevation, annual temperature and annual rainfall of these locations are different. So the ecological environments of cultivated location of Astragali Radix are different from each other. A. membranaceus is wild in Heilongjiang and northeast of Inner Mongolia, but the resource is drying up. It is also planted in few places of the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei, Gansu, but cultivated scope of A. membranaceus is smaller than A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.. So A. membranaceus var. mongholicus possesses large part of Astragali Radix market. In market, there exists no unified specification fro slices of Astragali Radix, and specification of prepared slices will influence the contents of chemical components. Through investigation, different kind of prepared slices can be collected and compared, this provides evidences for quality control of prepared slices. Through investigation, five different specifications of prepared slices were found in market. The distributions of some specification of prepared slices are specified, like transverseprepared slices prepared from A. membranaceus only found in Heilongjiang province. Transverse prepared slices possess half part of prepared slice market, and can be used to identify original plant of Astragali Radix. So transverse prepared slices

  10. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinary team of engineers and computer scientists.

  11. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Idaho and Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of temporal overlays, equal and unequal prior probabilities, and independent test data are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributed are summarized: (1) Results in Missouri where temporal overlays were made, show that temporal information improved the overall classification by 10%. (2) The dates were not optimum that were overlaid. (3) Data analysis in both Missouri and Idaho indicates that the use of prior probabilities improves the overall classification rates by at least 10% overusing the assumption that the crops are all equally likely. (4) Using both procedures together indicates that overall performance can be improved by 20% over one data and equal prior probabilities. (5) Idaho data has banding problems that may have caused serious problems in the crop classification. (6) The twelve crop types in Idaho seem to be quite similar spectrally, and hence, classification is quite difficult. (7) ERTS may not contain enough information to have perfect classification, but the data may still be useful for making crop acreage estimates. (8) Remotely sensed data could be used with a regression estimator if there is a correlation between ground data and classification results. (9) Remotely sensed data could be used with a double sample model.

  12. Crop Acreage Estimation: Landsat TM and Resourcesat-1 AWiFS Sensor Assessment of the Mississippi River Delta, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boryan, Claire; Johnson, Dave; Craig, Mike; Seffrin, Bob; Mueller, RIck

    2007-01-01

    AWiFs data are appropriate for crop acreage estimation over large, spectrally homogenous, crop areas such as the Mid-West, the Delta and the Northern Great Plains. Regression and Kappa statistics for soybean, corn, cotton, rice and sorghum produced using both the Landsat TM and AWiFS data are very similar. AWiFS data appear to be a suitable alternative or supplement to Landsat TM data for production of NASS'Cropland Data Layer product.

  13. The perivascular environment along the vertebral artery governs segment-specific structural and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Boran; Alshareef, Mohammed; Prim, David; Collins, Michael; Kempner, Michael; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Eberth, John F; Rachev, Alexander; Shazly, Tarek

    2016-11-01

    The vertebral arteries (VAs) are anatomically divided into four segments (V1-V4), which cumulatively transport blood flow through neck and ultimately form the posterior circulation of the brain. The vital physiological function of these conduit vessels depends on their geometry, composition and mechanical properties, all of which may vary among the defined arterial segments. Despite their significant role in blood circulation and susceptibility to injury, few studies have focused on characterizing the mechanical properties of VAs, and none have investigated the potential for segmental variation that could arise due to distinct perivascular environments. In this study, we compare the passive mechanical response of the central, juxtaposed arterial segments of porcine VAs (V2 and V3) via inflation-extension mechanical testing. Obtained experimental data and histological measures of arterial wall composition were used to adjust parameters of structure-motivated constitutive models that quantify the passive mechanical properties of each arterial segment and enable prediction of wall stress distributions under physiologic loads and boundary conditions. Our findings reveal significant segmental differences in the arterial wall geometry and structure. Nevertheless, similar wall stress distributions are predicted in these neighboring arterial segments if calculations account for their specific perivascular environments. These findings allow speculation that segmental differences in wall structure and geometry are a consequence of a previously introduced principle of optimal operation of arteries, which ensures effective bearing of physiological load and a favorable mechanical environment for mechanosensitive vascular smooth muscle cells.

  14. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  15. High Resolution Millimeter Wave Inspecting of the Orbiter Acreage Heat Tiles of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Khakovsky, S.; Zoughi, r.; Hepburn, F.

    2007-01-01

    Presence of defects such as disbonds, delaminations, impact damage, in thermal protection systems can significantly reduce safety of the Space Shuttle and its crew. The physical cause of Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure was a breach in its thermal protection system, caused by a piece of external tank insulating foam separating from the external tank and striking the leading edge of the left wing of the orbiter. There is an urgent need for a rapid, robust and life-circle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) technique capable of inspecting the external tank insulating foam as well as the orbiter's protective (acreage) heat tiles and its fuselage prior and subsequent to a launch. Such a comprehensive inspection technique enables NASA to perform life-cycle inspection on critical components of the orbiter and its supporting hardware. Consequently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center initiated an investigation into several potentially viable NDT techniques for this purpose. Microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods have shown great potential to achieve these goals. These methods have been successfully used to produce images of the interior of various complex, thick and thin external tank insulating foam structures for real focused reflectometer at operating frequency from 50-100 GHz and for synthetic aperture techniques at Ku-band (12-18 GHz) and K-band (18-26 GHz). Preliminary results of inspecting heat tile specimens show that increasing resolution of the measurement system is an important issue. This paper presents recent results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting anomalies such as debonds and corrosion in metal substrate in complex multi-sectioned protective heat tile specimens using a real focused 150 GHz (D-band) reflectometer and wide-band millimeter wave holography at 33-50, GHz (Q-band).

  16. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement.

  17. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    DOE PAGES

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinarymore » team of engineers and computer scientists.« less

  18. Sex-specific effects of developmental environment on reproductive trait expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the expression of reproductive traits provides the raw material upon which sexual selection can act. It is therefore important to understand how key factors such as environmental variation influence the expression of reproductive traits, as these will have a fundamental effect on the evolution of mating systems. It is also important to consider the effects of environmental variation upon reproductive traits in both sexes and to make comparisons with the environment to which the organism is adapted. In this study, we addressed these issues in a systematic study of the effect of a key environmental factor, variation in larval density, on reproductive trait expression in male and female Drosophila melanogaster. To do this, we compared reproductive trait expression when flies were reared under controlled conditions at eight different larval densities that covered a 20-fold range. Then, to place these results in a relevant context, we compared the results to those from flies sourced directly from stock cages. Many reproductive traits were surprisingly insensitive to variation in larval density. A notable exception was nonlinear variation in female fecundity. In contrast, we found much bigger differences in comparisons with flies from stock cages—including differences in body size, latency to mate, copulation duration, fecundity, and male share of paternity in a competitive environment. For a number of traits, even densities of 1000 larvae per vial (125 larvae per mL of food) did not phenocopy stock cage individuals. This study reveals novel patterns of sex-specific sensitivity to environmental variation that will influence the strength of sexual selection. It also illustrates the importance of comparisons with the environment to which individuals are adapted. PMID:22957145

  19. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  20. Multitasking: multiple, domain-specific cognitive functions in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Trawley, Steven; Law, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Multitasking among three or more different tasks is a ubiquitous requirement of everyday cognition, yet rarely is it addressed in research on healthy adults who have had no specific training in multitasking skills. Participants completed a set of diverse subtasks within a simulated shopping mall and office environment, the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). The aim was to investigate how different cognitive functions, such as planning, retrospective and prospective memory, and visuospatial and verbal working memory, contribute to everyday multitasking. Subtasks were chosen to be diverse, and predictions were derived from a statistical model of everyday multitasking impairments associated with frontal-lobe lesions (Burgess, Veitch, de Lacy Costello, & Shallice, 2000b). Multiple regression indicated significant independent contributions from measures of retrospective memory, visuospatial working memory, and online planning, but not from independent measures of prospective memory or verbal working memory. Structural equation modelling showed that the best fit to the data arose from three underlying constructs, with Memory and Planning having a weak link, but with both having a strong directional pathway to an Intent construct that reflected implementation of intentions. Participants who followed their preprepared plan achieved higher scores than those who altered their plan during multitask performance. This was true regardless of whether the plan was efficient or poor. These results substantially develop and extend the Burgess et al. (2000b) model to healthy adults and yield new insight into the poorly understood area of everyday multitasking. The findings also point to the utility of using virtual environments for investigating this form of complex human cognition.

  1. Relationship among yield and plant specific traits on triticale Romanian varieties in Timisoara environment.

    PubMed

    Butnaru, Gallia; Sarac, Ioan; Ciulca, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    The paper assesses the behavior of triticale genotypes in the evolution of the environment in Timisoara area during 2001 - 2011. The triticale varieties and lines were bred in the Eastern part of Romania [RICIC Fundulea] with a different climate pattern than Timisoara. We intended to see the yield evolution during a long period of cultivation [10 years--3 varieties bred before 2000; Group 1] and the new genotypes bred after 2000; Group 2] cultivated during 6 - 2 years. Each year, new different varieties (in total 32) and new lines (in total 78) were also under observation. For 10 years, the best variety from the first Group was Titan [5643.2 ± 710.2 kg/ha; CV% = 39.8]. From the second Group, the highest yield average revealed Haiduc variety [6207.2 ± 715.0 kg/ha; CV% = 34.6. During 3 years of cultivation Nera, Matroz and Negoiu pointed out 7936 kg/ha, 7542 kg/ha and 7266 kg/ha respectively. Nedeea and Oda overpasses 8500 and 7500 kg/ha during 2010 - 2011 respectively. The 2011 agricultural year was improper for cereals. It was affected by high temperature, and small amounts of precipitations. Only 64.16% of the average amounts of precipitation were accumulated. In these conditions the best varieties were Gorun and Haiduc performing 7190 kg/ha and 7058 kg/ha respectively. 40% of the tested varieties yielded less than 4500 kg/ha. From the farmers' point of view the best varieties were Titan and Gorun. In terms of the eight plant traits studied in 2011, the phenotypic similarity [ps] between varieties was variable. According to obtained results, we advise the farmers to compose a complex of varieties that should be proper for their specific environment. The favorable combination for cultivation in a stable environmental condition are Gorun [7190 kg/ha] and Matroz [6863 kg/ha] with ps = 93.23% revealing a high similarity. In an unstable environment, the best variety combination for cultivation are: Titan [6025 kg/ha] and Haiduc [7058 kg/ha] [ps = 49.94%], Titan [6025

  2. Modeling Mission-Specific Worst-Case Solar Energetic Particle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. The environment during large solar energetic particle events poses the greatest challenge to missions. As a starting point for planning and design, a reference environment must be specified representing the most challenging environment to be encountered during the mission at some confidence level. The engineering challenge is then to find plans and mission design solutions that insure safe and reliable operations in this reference environment. This paper describes progress toward developing a model that provides such reference space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels.

  3. Complex Visual Adaptations in Squid for Specific Tasks in Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wen-Sung; Marshall, N. Justin

    2017-01-01

    In common with their major competitors, the fish, squid are fast moving visual predators that live over a great range of depths in the ocean. Both squid and fish show a variety of adaptations with respect to optical properties, receptors and their underlying neural circuits, and these adaptations are often linked to the light conditions of their specific niche. In contrast to the extensive investigations of adaptive strategies in fish, vision in response to the varying quantity and quality of available light, our knowledge of visual adaptations in squid remains sparse. This study therefore undertook a comparative study of visual adaptations and capabilities in a number of squid species collected between 0 and 1,200 m. Histology, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), and depth distributions were used to compare brains, eyes, and visual capabilities, revealing that the squid eye designs reflect the lifestyle and the versatility of neural architecture in its visual system. Tubular eyes and two types of regional retinal deformation were identified and these eye modifications are strongly associated with specific directional visual tasks. In addition, a combination of conventional and immuno-histology demonstrated a new form of a complex retina possessing two inner segment layers in two mid-water squid species which they rhythmically move across a broad range of depths (50–1,000 m). In contrast to their relatives with the regular single-layered inner segment retina live in the upper mesopelagic layer (50–400 m), the new form of retinal interneuronal layers suggests that the visual sensitivity of these two long distance vertical migrants may increase in response to dimmer environments. PMID:28286484

  4. Carbon-14 Specific Activity Model Validation for Biota in Wetland Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T.L.; Sharp, K.J.; Benz, M.L.; Carr, J.; Killey, R.W.D.

    2008-01-15

    In many cases, contaminants, such as radionuclides, can show highly localized spatial distributions in natural systems. Therefore, a key question for environmental assessment and monitoring becomes, how can these localized distributions of contaminants in the environment lead to organism exposure, and ultimately, the potential for effects to receptor biota? To address this question, an important first step is to conduct field surveys at sites of interest to map out the spatial distribution and extent of contaminants in areas that are being occupied and utilized by resident receptor biota. Work can then be conducted to establish predictive relationships between contaminant concentrations in biota tissues and those in environmental media with which biota interact, to gain an understanding of how representative ambient contaminant concentrations are of biota exposure. The objectives of this study were: - To conduct a field survey in a wetland ecosystem to characterize the spatial distribution of carbon- 14 ({sup 14}C), a radionuclide with dynamics in natural systems that can be described using a specific activity model; and - To determine whether {sup 14}C concentrations in environmental media reflect those measured in tissues of resident flora and fauna. A detailed field campaign was carried out in summer 2001 to characterize the spatial distribution and areal coverage of {sup 14}C in Duke Swamp, a wetland ecosystem on Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site that receives {sup 14}C through releases from an up-gradient Waste Management Area (WMA), primarily through groundwater influx. Sampling of surface vegetation (dominantly comprised of Sphagnum moss) was conducted at a total of 69 locations, with complementary sampling of air, soil, fungi, aerial insects, ground-dwelling insects, amphibians, small mammals and snakes being carried out at a subset of five locations with varying {sup 14}C concentrations. Concentrations of {sup 14

  5. ENCOMPASS: A SAGA based environment for the compositon of programs and specifications, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terwilliger, Robert B.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1985-01-01

    ENCOMPASS is an example integrated software engineering environment being constructed by the SAGA project. ENCOMPASS supports the specification, design, construction and maintenance of efficient, validated, and verified programs in a modular programming language. The life cycle paradigm, schema of software configurations, and hierarchical library structure used by ENCOMPASS is presented. In ENCOMPASS, the software life cycle is viewed as a sequence of developments, each of which reuses components from the previous ones. Each development proceeds through the phases planning, requirements definition, validation, design, implementation, and system integration. The components in a software system are modeled as entities which have relationships between them. An entity may have different versions and different views of the same project are allowed. The simple entities supported by ENCOMPASS may be combined into modules which may be collected into projects. ENCOMPASS supports multiple programmers and projects using a hierarchical library system containing a workspace for each programmer; a project library for each project, and a global library common to all projects.

  6. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  7. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked, and that both are influenced by family environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The current study identifies general and substance-specific predictors of comorbid problem behavior, tobacco dependence, and alcohol abuse and dependence. Specifically, we examine the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of origin (ages 10 – 18) and family of cohabitation (ages 27 – 30) on problem behavior and alcohol- and tobacco-specific outcomes at age 33. General environmental factors include family monitoring, conflict, bonding, and involvement. Alcohol environment includes parental alcohol use, parents’ attitudes toward alcohol, and children’s involvement in family drinking. Tobacco-specific environment is assessed analogously. Additionally, analyses include the effect of childhood behavioral disinhibition and control for demographics and initial behavior problems. Analyses were based on 469 participants drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample. Results indicated that (a) environmental factors within the family of origin and the family of cohabitation are both important predictors of problem behavior at age 33; (b) family of cohabitation influences partially mediate the effects of family of origin environments; (c) considerable continuity exists between adolescent and adult general and tobacco (but not alcohol) environments; age 18 alcohol and tobacco use partially mediates these relationships; and (d) childhood behavioral disinhibition, contributed to age 33 outcomes, over and above the effects of family of cohabitation mediators. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:22799586

  8. The Los Alamos dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM) for space weather specification and forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H W; Chen, Yue; Koller, Josef; Henderson, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to assess, quantify, and predict the hazards from the natural space environment and the anthropogenic environment produced by high altitude nuclear explosions (HANE). DREAM was initially developed as a basic research activity to understand and predict the dynamics of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. It uses Kalman filter techniques to assimilate data from space environment instruments with a physics-based model of the radiation belts. DREAM can assimilate data from a variety of types of instruments and data with various levels of resolution and fidelity by assigning appropriate uncertainties to the observations. Data from any spacecraft orbit can be assimilated but DREAM was designed to function with as few as two spacecraft inputs: one from geosynchronous orbit and one from GPS orbit. With those inputs, DREAM can be used to predict the environment at any satellite in any orbit whether space environment data are available in those orbits or not. Even with very limited data input and relatively simple physics models, DREAM specifies the space environment in the radiation belts to a high level of accuracy. DREAM has been extensively tested and evaluated as we transition from research to operations. We report here on one set of test results in which we predict the environment in a highly-elliptical polar orbit. We also discuss long-duration reanalysis for spacecraft design, using DREAM for real-time operations, and prospects for 1-week forecasts of the radiation belt environment.

  9. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluation the Radiation Environment Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret; Howard, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Hardware design environments for NASA's Constellation Program-the Vision for Space Exploration program to design and build new vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit and the Moon and beyond-have been developed that are necessarily conservative in nature to assure robust hardware design and development required to build space systems which will meet operational goals in a wide range of space environments, This presentation will describe the rationale used to establish the space radiation and plasma design environments specified for a variety of applications including total ionizing radiation dose, dose rate effects, and spacecraft charging and will compare the design environments with "space weather" variability to evaluate the applicability of the design environments and potential vulnerabilities of the system to extreme space weather events.

  10. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)-producing B cells restore antigen (Ag)-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Sun, Ying-Xue; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2015-05-15

    Restoration of the antigen (Ag)-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment is refractory. B cells are involved in immune regulation. Whether B cells facilitate the generation of Ag-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment requires further investigation. This paper aims to elucidate the mechanism by which B cells restore the Ag-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment. In this study, a B cell-deficient mouse model was created by injecting an anti-CD20 antibody. The frequency of tolerogenic dendritic cell (TolDC) was assessed by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) was assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and methylation-specific PCR. The results showed that B cells were required in the generation of the TGF-β-producing TolDCs in mice. B cell-derived TSP1 converted the latent TGF-β to the active TGF-β in DCs, which generated TGF-β-producing TolDCs. Exposure to IL-13 inhibited the expression of TSP1 in B cells by enhancing the TSP1 gene DNA methylation. Treating food allergy mice with Ag-specific immunotherapy and IL-13 antagonists restored the generation of TolDCs and enhanced the effect of specific immunotherapy. In conclusion, B cells play a critical role in the restoration of specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment. Blocking IL-13 in an allergic environment facilitated the generation of TolDCs and enhanced the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy.

  11. Using Tele-Coaching to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise Delivered by Secondary Teachers in an Augmented Reality Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, Martha Denton

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of real-time feedback on teacher behavior in an augmented reality simulation environment. Real-time feedback prompts teachers to deliver behavior-specific praise to students in the TeachLivE KU Lab as an evidence-based practice known to decrease disruptive behavior in inclusive classrooms. All educators face the…

  12. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  13. Domain-Specific Languages and Diagram Customization for a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Dubos, Greg; Banazadeh, Payam; Reh, Jonathan; Case, Kelley; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Jones, Susan; Picha, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are several

  14. Domain-specific languages and diagram customization for a concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, B.; Dubos, G.; Banazadeh, P.; Reh, J.; Case, K.; Wang, Y.; Jones, S.; Picha, F.

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are severa

  15. Environment-specific amino acid substitution tables: tertiary templates and prediction of protein folds.

    PubMed Central

    Overington, J.; Donnelly, D.; Johnson, M. S.; Sali, A.; Blundell, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    The local environment of an amino acid in a folded protein determines the acceptability of mutations at that position. In order to characterize and quantify these structural constraints, we have made a comparative analysis of families of homologous proteins. Residues in each structure are classified according to amino acid type, secondary structure, accessibility of the side chain, and existence of hydrogen bonds from the side chains. Analysis of the pattern of observed substitutions as a function of local environment shows that there are distinct patterns, especially for buried polar residues. The substitution data tables are available on diskette with Protein Science. Given the fold of a protein, one is able to predict sequences compatible with the fold (profiles or templates) and potentially to discriminate between a correctly folded and misfolded protein. Conversely, analysis of residue variation across a family of aligned sequences in terms of substitution profiles can allow prediction of secondary structure or tertiary environment. PMID:1304904

  16. Incorporating partially identified sample segments into acreage estimation procedures: Estimates using only observations from the current year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sielken, R. L., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Several methods of estimating individual crop acreages using a mixture of completely identified and partially identified (generic) segments from a single growing year are derived and discussed. A small Monte Carlo study of eight estimators is presented. The relative empirical behavior of these estimators is discussed as are the effects of segment sample size and amount of partial identification. The principle recommendations are (1) to not exclude, but rather incorporate partially identified sample segments into the estimation procedure, (2) try to avoid having a large percentage (say 80%) of only partially identified segments, in the sample, and (3) use the maximum likelihood estimator although the weighted least squares estimator and least squares ratio estimator both perform almost as well. Sets of spring small grains (North Dakota) data were used.

  17. Telecommunication system specific to high temperature environment for JAXA Mercury exploration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Tomoaki; Kamata, Yukio; Kawahara, Kousuke; Maejima, Hironori; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2014-02-01

    BepiColombo is the joint Mercury exploration program between JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) and ESA (European Space Agency). MMO (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter) is JAXA's satellite in this program. She requires a telecommunication system that survives a harsh heat environment surrounding Mercury. She will stay in a polar orbit circulating Mercury for a year for continuous observations of Mercury magnetosphere. MMO has an X-band telecommunication system. We newly developed a high gain antenna for the use of her daily operations and wider field of view antennas for critical events. They are ones directly exposed to a high temperature environment of Mercury. The remains of the telecommunication system such as a transponder and a power amplifier were selected from the heritage of our past deep space missions. These instruments are placed inside MMO where a milder environment is expected than the outside. The total telecommunication system has been designed so that it should work through the MMO mission lifetime from the launch in 2016 to the end of the mission in 2025 including an extra year of extension. The system has experienced thermal environmental tests and proved its excellent resistivity to predicted environments. We will discuss these technologies incorporated in MMO and her telecommunication system design.

  18. Seed source may determine field-specific germination and emergence: the source by planting environment interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm environmental characteristics and management practices can result in within-cultivar differences in seed quality. Transgenerational plasticity (effects of the farm environment on offspring, or TGP) can be important in germination and emergence dynamics. We chose two commonly-used cultivars (Lod...

  19. 43 CFR 3503.37 - Is there a limit to the acreage of lands I can hold under permits and leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... can hold under permits and leases? 3503.37 Section 3503.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Amounts § 3503.37 Is there a limit to the acreage of lands I can hold under permits and leases? Yes. The... acres to facilitate an economic mine) None. (c) Potassium 2,560 acres 96,000 acres (larger if...

  20. Ultrasound in the austere environment: a review of the history, indications, and specifications.

    PubMed

    Russell, Travis C; Crawford, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the use of ultrasound has expanded because of its portability, safety, real-time image display, and rapid data collection. Simultaneously, more people are going into the backcountry for enjoyment and employment. Increased deployment for the military and demand for remote medicine services have led to innovative use and study of ultrasound in extreme and austere environments. Ultrasound is effective to rapidly assess patients during triage and evacuation decision making. It is clinically useful for assessment of pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, blunt abdominal trauma, musculoskeletal trauma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, ocular injury, and obstetrics, whereas acute mountain sickness and stroke are perhaps still best evaluated on clinical grounds. Ultrasound performs well in the diverse environments of space, swamp, jungle, mountain, and desert. Although some training is necessary to capture and interpret images, real-time evaluation with video streaming is expected to get easier and cheaper as global communications improve. Although ultrasound is not useful in every situation, it can be a worthwhile tool in the austere or deployed environment.

  1. Welfare of apes in captive environments: comments on, and by, a specific group of apes.

    PubMed

    Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Wamba, Kanzi; Wamba, Panbanisha; Wamba, Nyota

    2007-01-01

    Accurately determining the proper captive environment for apes requires adequately assessing the psychological similarities between apes and humans. Scientists currently believe apes lack mental complexity (Millikan, 2006), raising questions concerning the evolution of human culture from ape-like societies (Tomasello, 1999). A long-term cultural study with bonobos suggests less intellectual divergence from humans than currently postulated (Savage-Rumbaugh, 2005). Because humans view apes as mentally limited, some current captive environments may appear idyllic while offering only an illusion of appropriate care, derived from a simplistic view of what apes are, rather than what they might be. This perception of apes determines their handling, which determines their mental development, which perpetuates the prevailing perception. Only breaking this cycle will allow the current perception of apes to change. Their usual captive environment limits any demonstration of culture. However, the bonobo study reveals what ape culture can become, which should affect future welfare considerations for at least those species genetically close to humans (bonobos and chimpanzees). Development of a languaged bonobo culture allows these nonhuman animals to provide their own responses regarding adequate ape welfare.

  2. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Christopher A.; Hoffman, Jackson A.; Trotter, Kevin W.; Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Bennett, Brian D.; Burkholder, Adam B.; Fargo, David C.; Archer, Trevor K.

    2016-01-01

    Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. PMID:27487356

  3. Specification of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere Environment Using Ensemble Kalman Filter with Orthogonal Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, H. C.; Lawrence, E. C.; Higdon, D. M.; Walker, A. C.; Linares, R.; Ridley, A. J.; Koller, J.; Klimenko, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Ionosphere-Thermosphere environment undergoes constant and sometimes dramatic changes due to solar and geomagnetic activity. Furthermore, given that this environment has a significant effect on space infrastructure, such as satellites, it is important to understand the potential changes caused by space weather events. This work presents a case study of four time periods using assimilation methods with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM). The main objective is to analyze the changes in the global upper atmospheric environment caused by extreme space weather events, including the Halloween storm, and analyze the effect on satellite drag and collision uncertainty. In particular, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) assimilation method is applied to GITM and used to incorporate observations from the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) missions. To reduce the introduction of noise into the assimilation results, we use orthogonal transformations in the EnKF to capture the dominant correlations within the model variables. In particular, we use principal component analysis technique to extract the dominant directions of variability and form a basis for an orthogonal transformation. The assimilation is performed in the space spanned by the orthogonal basis and used to adjust the model variables and parameters. The experiments show that key solar parameters, which act as proxy for solar activity, exert a significant influence in the evolution of the total atmospheric density. Furthermore, the results also show the strong correlation that exists between upper atmospheric density and solar activity. That is, the correlation is strong during solar active times, and weak during solar quiet times. Indicating that at active times the sun dominates the changes in the ionosphere-thermosphere, while at quiet times internal processes dominate the evolution of the ionosphere-thermosphere. The work is part of the

  4. Fostering Self-Concept and Interest for Statistics through Specific Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…

  5. Delivering Software Process-Specific Project Courses in Tertiary Education Environment: Challenges and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Guoping; Shao, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The importance of delivering software process courses to software engineering students has been more and more recognized in China in recent years. However, students usually cannot fully appreciate the value of software process courses by only learning methodology and principle in the classroom. Therefore, a process-specific project course was…

  6. Indoor environment and cancer: materials specifications in building construction and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Adebamowo, E

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to environmental health hazards is a continuing threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. Though reduction of environmental health hazards is one of the eight aims of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG), this aim has not received the same level of support and attention as the others. Yet it is difficult to envisage how the MDG can be attained without it. It is imperative that every nation, especially developing ones pay more attention to environmental determinants of health and disease in order to improve the quality and quantity of life of their citizens.In this paper, I review some of the building materials specified by architects and other building professionals for the indoor environment (buildings) and their impact on diseases risk, in particular, the risk of cancer. I also discuss the role of building professionals in reducing risk of cancer from exposure to unhealthy indoor environments. Some of these building materials include asbestos roofing materials, lead water pipes, chemicals in paints and granite stones. It is the duty and responsibility of building professionals to become more aware of the health implications of the materials they specify for clients and ensure that these are materials that will not contribute to an increase in the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases.

  7. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  8. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  9. Toward domain-specific design environments: Some representation ideas from the telecommunications domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, Sol; Feblowitz, Mark

    1992-01-01

    ACME is an experimental environment for investigating new approaches to modeling and analysis of system requirements and designs. ACME is built on and extends object-oriented conceptual modeling techniques and knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) tools. The most immediate intended use for ACME is to help represent, understand, and communicate system designs during the early stages of system planning and requirements engineering. While our research is ostensibly aimed at software systems in general, we are particularly motivated to make an impact in the telecommunications domain, especially in the area referred to as Intelligent Networks (IN's). IN systems contain the software to provide services to users of a telecommunications network (e.g., call processing services, information services, etc.) as well as the software that provides the internal infrastructure for providing the services (e.g., resource management, billing, etc.). The software includes not only systems developed by the network proprietors but also by a growing group of independent service software providers.

  10. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  11. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  12. CARDS: A blueprint and environment for domain-specific software reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallnau, Kurt C.; Solderitsch, Anne Costa; Smotherman, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    CARDS (Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software) exploits advances in domain analysis and domain modeling to identify, specify, develop, archive, retrieve, understand, and reuse domain-specific software components. An important element of CARDS is to provide visibility into the domain model artifacts produced by, and services provided by, commercial computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technology. The use of commercial CASE technology is important to provide rich, robust support for the varied roles involved in a reuse process. We refer to this kind of use of knowledge representation systems as supporting 'knowledge-based integration.'

  13. Heterogeneous selection at specific loci in natural environments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weinig, Cynthia; Dorn, Lisa A; Kane, Nolan C; German, Zachary M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Ungerer, Mark C; Toyonaga, Yuko; Mackay, Trudy F C; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2003-09-01

    Genetic variation for quantitative traits is often greater than that expected to be maintained by mutation in the face of purifying natural selection. One possible explanation for this observed variation is the action of heterogeneous natural selection in the wild. Here we report that selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness traits in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana differs among natural ecological settings and genetic backgrounds. At one QTL, the allele that enhanced the viability of fall-germinating seedlings in North Carolina reduced the fecundity of spring-germinating seedlings in Rhode Island. Several other QTL experienced strong directional selection, but only in one site and seasonal cohort. Thus, different loci were exposed to selection in different natural environments. Selection on allelic variation also depended upon the genetic background. The allelic fitness effects of two QTL reversed direction depending on the genotype at the other locus. Moreover, alternative alleles at each of these loci caused reversals in the allelic fitness effects of a QTL closely linked to TFL1, a candidate developmental gene displaying nucleotide sequence polymorphism consistent with balancing selection. Thus, both environmental heterogeneity and epistatic selection may maintain genetic variation for fitness in wild plant species.

  14. Heterogeneous selection at specific loci in natural environments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Weinig, Cynthia; Dorn, Lisa A; Kane, Nolan C; German, Zachary M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Ungerer, Mark C; Toyonaga, Yuko; Mackay, Trudy F C; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variation for quantitative traits is often greater than that expected to be maintained by mutation in the face of purifying natural selection. One possible explanation for this observed variation is the action of heterogeneous natural selection in the wild. Here we report that selection on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness traits in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana differs among natural ecological settings and genetic backgrounds. At one QTL, the allele that enhanced the viability of fall-germinating seedlings in North Carolina reduced the fecundity of spring-germinating seedlings in Rhode Island. Several other QTL experienced strong directional selection, but only in one site and seasonal cohort. Thus, different loci were exposed to selection in different natural environments. Selection on allelic variation also depended upon the genetic background. The allelic fitness effects of two QTL reversed direction depending on the genotype at the other locus. Moreover, alternative alleles at each of these loci caused reversals in the allelic fitness effects of a QTL closely linked to TFL1, a candidate developmental gene displaying nucleotide sequence polymorphism consistent with balancing selection. Thus, both environmental heterogeneity and epistatic selection may maintain genetic variation for fitness in wild plant species. PMID:14504239

  15. Genetic architecture of metabolic rate: environment specific epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in an insect.

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, Göran; Dowling, Damian K; Eady, Paul; Gay, Laurene; Tregenza, Tom; Tuda, Midori; Hosken, David J

    2010-12-01

    The extent to which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is involved in adaptive evolutionary change is currently being reevaluated. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that mtDNA genes coevolve with the nuclear genes with which they interact to form the energy producing enzyme complexes in the mitochondria. This suggests that intergenomic epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes may affect whole-organism metabolic phenotypes. Here, we use crossed combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear lineages of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and assay metabolic rate under two different temperature regimes. Metabolic rate was affected by an interaction between the mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and the temperature regime. Sequence data suggests that mitochondrial genetic variation has a role in determining the outcome of this interaction. Our genetic dissection of metabolic rate reveals a high level of complexity, encompassing genetic interactions over two genomes, and genotype × genotype × environment interactions. The evolutionary implications of these results are twofold. First, because metabolic rate is at the root of life histories, our results provide insights into the complexity of life-history evolution in general, and thermal adaptation in particular. Second, our results suggest a mechanism that could contribute to the maintenance of nonneutral mtDNA polymorphism.

  16. Relation of Childhood Home Environment to Cortical Thickness in Late Adolescence: Specificity of Experience and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Avants, Brian B.; Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    What are the long-term effects of childhood experience on brain development? Research with animals shows that the quality of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance both play important roles in shaping lifelong brain structure and function. Human research has so far been limited to the effects of abnormal experience and pathological development. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of in-home measures of childhood experience at ages 4 and 8 and MRI acquired in late adolescence, we were able to relate normal variation in childhood experience to later life cortical thickness. Environmental stimulation at age 4 predicted cortical thickness in a set of automatically derived regions in temporal and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, age 8 experience was not predictive. Parental nurturance was not predictive at either age. This work reveals an association between childhood experience and later brain structure that is specific relative to aspects of experience, regions of brain, and timing. PMID:26509809

  17. An Extensible Aspect-Oriented Modeling Environment for Constructing Domain-Specific Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Kamei, Yasutaka

    AspectM, an aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) language, provides not only basic modeling constructs but also an extension mechanism called metamodel access protocol (MMAP) that allows a modeler to modify the metamodel. MMAP consists of metamodel extension points, extension operations, and primitive predicates for navigating the metamodel. Although the notion of MMAP is useful, it needs tool support. This paper proposes a method for implementing a MMAP-based AspectM support tool. It consists of model editor, model weaver, and model verifier. We introduce the notion of edit-time structural reflection and extensible model weaving. Using these mechanisms, a modeler can easily construct domain-specific languages (DSLs). We show a case study using the AspectM support tool and discuss the effectiveness of the extension mechanism provided by MMAP. As a case study, we show a UML-based DSL for describing the external contexts of embedded systems.

  18. Utilizing Computational Probabilistic Methods to Derive Shock Specifications in a Nondeterministic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    FIELD JR.,RICHARD V.; RED-HORSE,JOHN R.; PAEZ,THOMAS L.

    2000-10-25

    One of the key elements of the Stochastic Finite Element Method, namely the polynomial chaos expansion, has been utilized in a nonlinear shock and vibration application. As a result, the computed response was expressed as a random process, which is an approximation to the true solution process, and can be thought of as a generalization to solutions given as statistics only. This approximation to the response process was then used to derive an analytically-based design specification for component shock response that guarantees a balanced level of marginal reliability. Hence, this analytically-based reference SRS might lead to an improvement over the somewhat ad hoc test-based reference in the sense that it will not exhibit regions of conservativeness. nor lead to overtesting of the design.

  19. Quantitative genetic analysis of responses to larval food limitation in a polyphenic butterfly indicates environment- and trait-specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Saastamoinen, Marjo; Brommer, Jon E; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2013-01-01

    Different components of heritability, including genetic variance (VG), are influenced by environmental conditions. Here, we assessed phenotypic responses of life-history traits to two different developmental conditions, temperature and food limitation. The former represents an environment that defines seasonal polyphenism in our study organism, the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, whereas the latter represents a more unpredictable environment. We quantified heritabilities using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures within an “Information Theoretical” framework in a full-sib design. Whereas development time, pupal mass, and resting metabolic rate showed no genotype-by-environment interaction for genetic variation, for thorax ratio and fat percentage the heritability increased under the cool temperature, dry season environment. Additionally, for fat percentage heritability estimates increased under food limitation. Hence, the traits most intimately related to polyphenism in B. anynana show the most environmental-specific heritabilities as well as some indication of cross-environmental genetic correlations. This may reflect a footprint of natural selection and our future research is aimed to uncover the genes and processes involved in this through studying season and condition-dependent gene expression. PMID:24223292

  20. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

  1. Evaluation of occupational environment in two textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Raman

    2006-01-01

    Occupational Noise exposure has been linked with a range of negative health effects by various researchers. The resulting injury of occupational hearing loss is also a well recognized and global problem. To protect workers from hearing damage due to noise exposure and other related health effects, a vast store of knowledge has been accumulated till date about its nature, etiology and time course. There is still ignorance, amongst majority of people working in industries in developing and third world countries including India about ill effects of exposure to high values of noise. The study being reported here has been carried out in two textile plants located in Northern Indian state of Punjab. Equivalent sound pressure level L(eq) has been measured in various sections of these plants with the help of a Class-I type digital sound level meter. The noise spectrum has been evaluated with the help of 1/3 octave filter set. A cross sectional study involving 112 workers exposed to different levels of occupational noise has been conducted. The results of the study establish the fact that noise level in certain sections of the plants i.e Loom Shed, Spinning, Ring Frame, TFO Area is more than the acceptable limit of 90 dBA for 8 h exposure stipulated by OSHA. The noise level in other sections like carding, blow room, combing etc., although is less than 90 dB(A), but is quite higher than limits used for assessment of noise for community response. Octave band analysis of the noise shows the presence of high sound level in 4,000 Hz frequency range, which can be a major reason for causing occupational hearing loss. The results of the interview questionnaire which included a number of parameters reveal the following; (i) only 29% workers are aware about the effects of noise on health (ii) 28% workers are using ear protectors (iii) the satisfaction with the working environment is related to noise level, as workers exposed to comparatively less noise level report better

  2. Chemical mixtures: Evaluation of risk for child-specific exposures in a multi-stressor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, H.R. Abadin, H.G.

    2008-11-15

    Evaluating the health impact from exposure to chemical mixtures is multifaceted. One component is exposure. Exposure, and consequently risk assessment for mixtures and chemicals in general, are often viewed in terms of a given exposure to a given population at a given location over a given time period. However, environmental exposures are present throughout human lifetime. As a result, an evaluation of risk must include the distinctive characteristics related to chemical exposures which will impact risk depending upon the particular life stage where exposure occurs. Risks to offspring may be associated with unique exposures in utero, during infancy, childhood, or adolescent periods. For example, exposure of infants to anthropogenic chemicals via breast milk may be of concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) approach to evaluating risks associated with exposure to mixtures of chemicals is presented. In addition to the breast milk issues, indoor exposure to combined air pollutants, drinking water contaminants, and soil and dust contaminants are discussed. The difference between a mixture's risk evaluation for children and adults is in the distinct exposure scenarios resulting from variations in behavior, physiology, and/or pharmacokinetics between adults and children rather than in the method for the specific mixtures evaluation per se.

  3. Modeling of groundwater draft based on satellite-derived crop acreage estimation over an arid region of northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Bidyut Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Paliwal, Rakesh; Jeyaseelan, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater for agricultural crops puts stress on the sustainability of natural resources in the arid region of Rajasthan state, India. Hydrogeological study of groundwater levels of the study area during the pre-monsoon (May to June), post-monsoon (October to November) and post-irrigation (February to March) seasons of 2004-2005 to 2011-2012 shows a steady decline of groundwater levels at the rate of 1.28-1.68 m/year, mainly due to excessive groundwater draft for irrigation. Due to the low density of the groundwater observation-well network in the study area, assessment of groundwater draft, and thus groundwater resource management, becomes a difficult task. To overcome the situation, a linear groundwater draft model (LGDM) has been developed based on the empirical relationship between satellite-derived crop acreage and the observed groundwater draft for the year 2003-2004. The model has been validated for a decade, during three year-long intervals (2005-2006, 2008-2009 and 2011-2012) using groundwater draft, estimated through a discharge factor method. Further, the estimated draft was validated through observed pumping data from random sampled villages (2011-2012). The results suggest that the developed LGDM model provides a good alternative to the estimation of groundwater draft based on satellite-based crop area in the absence of groundwater observation wells in arid regions of northwest India.

  4. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam and Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and its protective acreage heat tiles. Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing millimeter wave images of the anomalies in SOFI panel and heat tiles. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in two SOFI panels and a set of heat tiles. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The results clearly illustrate the utility of these methods for this purpose.

  5. Phylogenetic and Functional Substrate Specificity for Endolithic Microbial Communities in Hyper-Arid Environments.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Robinson, Courtney K; Ma, Bing; Ravel, Jacques; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Casero, M Cristina; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    Under extreme water deficit, endolithic (inside rock) microbial ecosystems are considered environmental refuges for life in cold and hot deserts, yet their diversity and functional adaptations remain vastly unexplored. The metagenomic analyses of the communities from two rock substrates, calcite and ignimbrite, revealed that they were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative distribution of major phyla was significantly different between the two substrates and biodiversity estimates, from 16S rRNA gene sequences and from the metagenomic data, all pointed to a higher taxonomic diversity in the calcite community. While both endolithic communities showed adaptations to extreme aridity and to the rock habitat, their functional capabilities revealed significant differences. ABC transporters and pathways for osmoregulation were more diverse in the calcite chasmoendolithic community. In contrast, the ignimbrite cryptoendolithic community was enriched in pathways for secondary metabolites, such as non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) and polyketides (PK). Assemblies of the metagenome data produced population genomes for the major phyla found in both communities and revealed a greater diversity of Cyanobacteria population genomes for the calcite substrate. Draft genomes of the dominant Cyanobacteria in each community were constructed with more than 93% estimated completeness. The two annotated proteomes shared 64% amino acid identity and a significantly higher number of genes involved in iron update, and NRPS gene clusters, were found in the draft genomes from the ignimbrite. Both the community-wide and genome-specific differences may be related to higher water availability and the colonization of large fissures and cracks in the calcite in contrast to a harsh competition for colonization space and nutrient resources in the narrow pores of the ignimbrite. Together, these results indicated that the habitable architecture of both lithic substrates

  6. Phylogenetic and Functional Substrate Specificity for Endolithic Microbial Communities in Hyper-Arid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Robinson, Courtney K.; Ma, Bing; Ravel, Jacques; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Casero, M. Cristina; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    Under extreme water deficit, endolithic (inside rock) microbial ecosystems are considered environmental refuges for life in cold and hot deserts, yet their diversity and functional adaptations remain vastly unexplored. The metagenomic analyses of the communities from two rock substrates, calcite and ignimbrite, revealed that they were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative distribution of major phyla was significantly different between the two substrates and biodiversity estimates, from 16S rRNA gene sequences and from the metagenomic data, all pointed to a higher taxonomic diversity in the calcite community. While both endolithic communities showed adaptations to extreme aridity and to the rock habitat, their functional capabilities revealed significant differences. ABC transporters and pathways for osmoregulation were more diverse in the calcite chasmoendolithic community. In contrast, the ignimbrite cryptoendolithic community was enriched in pathways for secondary metabolites, such as non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) and polyketides (PK). Assemblies of the metagenome data produced population genomes for the major phyla found in both communities and revealed a greater diversity of Cyanobacteria population genomes for the calcite substrate. Draft genomes of the dominant Cyanobacteria in each community were constructed with more than 93% estimated completeness. The two annotated proteomes shared 64% amino acid identity and a significantly higher number of genes involved in iron update, and NRPS gene clusters, were found in the draft genomes from the ignimbrite. Both the community-wide and genome-specific differences may be related to higher water availability and the colonization of large fissures and cracks in the calcite in contrast to a harsh competition for colonization space and nutrient resources in the narrow pores of the ignimbrite. Together, these results indicated that the habitable architecture of both lithic substrates

  7. Of plasticity and specificity: dialectics of the micro- and macro-environment and the organ phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramray; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of biological form and how it arises is the domain of the developmental biologists; but once the form is achieved, the organ poses a fascinating conundrum for all the life scientists: how are form and function maintained in adult organs throughout most of the life of the organism? That they do appears to contradict the inherently plastic nature of organogenesis during development. How do cells with the same genetic information arrive at, and maintain such different architectures and functions, and how do they keep remembering that they are different from each other? It is now clear that narratives based solely on genes and an irreversible regulatory dynamics cannot answer these questions satisfactorily, and the concept of microenvironmental signaling needs to be added to the equation. During development, cells rearrange and differentiate in response to diffusive morphogens, juxtacrine signals and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These components, which constitute the modular microenvironment, are sensitive to cues from other tissues and organs of the developing embryo as well as from the external macroenvironment. On the other hand, once the organ is formed, these modular constituents integrate and constrain the organ architecture, which ensures structural and functional homeostasis and therefore, organ specificity. We argue here that a corollary of the above is that once the organ architecture is compromised in adults by mutations or by changes in the microenvironment such as aging or inflammation, that organ becomes subjected to the developmental and embryonic circuits in search of a new identity. But since the microenvironment is no longer embryonic, the confusion leads to cancer: hence as we have argued, tumors become new evolutionary organs perhaps in search of an elusive homeostasis. PMID:24678448

  8. The use of MODIS data to derive acreage estimations for larger fields: A case study in the south-western Rostov region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Massart, M.; Savin, I.; Gallego, J.; Rembold, F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent developments in remote sensing technology, in particular improved spatial and temporal resolution, open new possibilities for estimating crop acreage over larger areas. Remotely sensed data allow in some cases the estimation of crop acreage statistics independently of sub-national survey statistics, which are sometimes biased and incomplete. This work focuses on the use of MODIS data acquired in 2001/2002 over the Rostov Oblast in Russia, by the Azov Sea. The region is characterised by large agricultural fields of around 75 ha on average. This paper presents a methodology to estimate crop acreage using the MODIS 16-day composite NDVI product. Particular emphasis is placed on a good quality crop mask and a good quality validation dataset. In order to have a second dataset which can be used for cross-checking the MODIS classification a Landsat ETM time series for four different dates in the season of 2002 was acquired and classified. We attempted to distinguish five different crop types and achieved satisfactory and good results for winter crops. Three hundred and sixty fields were identified to be suitable for the training and validation of the MODIS classification using a maximum likelihood classification. A novel method based on a pure pixel field sampling is introduced. This novel method is compared with the traditional hard classification of mixed pixels and was found to be superior.

  9. Reducing Specific Phobia/Fear in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) through a Virtual Reality Environment Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Maskey, Morag; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with specific fears and phobias one of the most frequent subtypes. Specific fears and phobias can have a serious impact on young people with ASD and their families. In this study we developed and evaluated a unique treatment combining cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with graduated exposure in a virtual reality environment (VRE). Nine verbally fluent boys with an ASD diagnosis and no reported learning disability, aged 7 to 13 years old, were recruited. Each had anxiety around a specific situation (e.g. crowded buses) or stimulus (e.g. pigeons). An individualised scene was recreated in our ‘wrap-around’ VRE. In the VRE participants were coached by a psychologist in cognitive and behavioural techniques (e.g. relaxation and breathing exercises) while the exposure to the phobia/fear stimulus was gradually increased as the child felt ready. Each child received four 20–30 minute sessions. After participating in the study, eight of the nine children were able to tackle their phobia situation. Four of the participants completely overcame their phobia. Treatment effects were maintained at 12 months. These results provide evidence that CBT with VRE can be a highly effective treatment for specific phobia/fear for some young people with ASD. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN58483069. PMID:24987957

  10. Selective de-repression of germ cell-specific genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts in a permissive epigenetic environment

    PubMed Central

    Sekinaka, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Yohei; Noce, Toshiaki; Niwa, Hitoshi; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play crucial roles on establishment of tissue-specific transcription profiles and cellular characteristics. Direct conversions of fibroblasts into differentiated tissue cells by over-expression of critical transcription factors have been reported, but the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these conversions are still not fully understood. In addition, conversion of somatic cells into germ cells has not yet been achieved. To understand epigenetic mechanisms that underlie germ cell characteristics, we attempted to use defined epigenetic factors to directly convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into germ cells. Here, we successfully induced germ cell-specific genes by inhibiting repressive epigenetic modifications via RNAi or small-molecule compounds. Under these conditions, some tissue-specific genes and stimulus-inducible genes were also induced. Meanwhile, the treatments did not result in genome-wide transcriptional activation. These results suggested that a permissive epigenetic environment resulted in selective de-repression of stimulus- and differentiation-inducible genes including germ cell-specific genes in MEFs. PMID:27608931

  11. Massive habitat-specific genomic response in D. melanogaster populations during experimental evolution in hot and cold environments.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Ray; Franssen, Susanne U; Kofler, Robert; Orozco-Terwengel, Pablo; Nolte, Viola; Hermisson, Joachim; Schlötterer, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Experimental evolution in combination with whole-genome sequencing (evolve and resequence [E&R]) is a promising approach to define the genotype-phenotype map and to understand adaptation in evolving populations. Many previous studies have identified a large number of putative selected sites (i.e., candidate loci), but it remains unclear to what extent these loci are genuine targets of selection or experimental noise. To address this question, we exposed the same founder population to two different selection regimes-a hot environment and a cold environment-and quantified the genomic response in each. We detected large numbers of putative selected loci in both environments, albeit with little overlap between the two sets of candidates, indicating that most resulted from habitat-specific selection. By quantifying changes across multiple independent biological replicates, we demonstrate that most of the candidate SNPs were false positives that were linked to selected sites over distances much larger than the typical linkage disequilibrium range of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that many of these mid- to long-range associations were attributable to large segregating inversions and confirm by computer simulations that such patterns could be readily replicated when strong selection acts on rare haplotypes. In light of our findings, we outline recommendations to improve the performance of future Drosophila E&R studies which include using species with negligible inversion loads, such as D. mauritiana and D. simulans, instead of D. melanogaster.

  12. Molecular Detection and Environment-Specific Diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 1 β-Glucosidase in Different Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rameshwar; Kumar, Kanika; Singh, Surender; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    β-glucosidase is a crucial element of the microbial cellulose multienzyme complex since it is responsible for the regulation of the entire cellulose hydrolysis process. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to explore the diversity and distribution of glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase genes in three different environmental niches including, Himalayan soil, cow dung and compost by metagenomic approach. Preliminary evaluation through metabolic profiling using BIOLOG based utilization patterns of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur revealed the environment and substrate specific nature of the indigenous microbial population. Furthermore, clonal library selection, screening and sequence analysis revealed that most of the GH1 β-glucosidase proteins had low identities with the available database. Analysis of the distribution of GH1 β-glucosidase gene fragments and β-glucosidase producing microbial community revealed the environment specific nature. The OTUs obtained from Himalayan soil and compost metagenomic libraries were grouped into 19 different genera comprising 6 groups. The cow dung sample displayed the least diversity of GH1 β-glucosidase sequences, with only 14 genera, distributed among three groups- Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The metagenomic study coupled with metabolic profiling of GH1 β-glucosidase illustrated the existence of intricate relationship between the geochemical environmental factors and inherent microbial community. PMID:27790196

  13. Estrogen responses in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from polluted and unpolluted environments are site- and gene-specific.

    PubMed

    Greytak, Sarah R; Tarrant, Ann M; Nacci, Diane; Hahn, Mark E; Callard, Gloria V

    2010-08-15

    Epidemiological, ecological, and laboratory-based studies support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment are responsible for developmental and reproductive abnormalities. We have previously described a killifish population resident in a highly polluted Superfund site (New Bedford Harbor, NBH) that shows evidence of exposure to an estrogenic environment and endocrine disruption. Here, we compare NBH with a local reference population (Scorton Creek, SC) for developmental patterns and direct effects of exogenous estradiol on the estrogenic markers, brain cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A2 or AroB), hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg), and hepatic estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha). In contrast to our previous observation of elevated ER alpha in NBH embryos, developmental levels of AroB and Vtg mRNAs did not differ between the two sites, demonstrating that not all estrogen-responsive genes are upregulated in NBH embryos. A dose-response experiment showed that NBH larvae are less responsive (lower maximum induction, as measured by ER alpha) and less sensitive (higher EC(50) for induction, as measured by AroB) to estradiol than SC larvae, changes that would be adaptive in an estrogenic environment. In contrast, induction of Vtg mRNA is similar in the two populations, indicating that the adaptive mechanism is target gene-specific. Based on the lower basal levels of ER alpha mRNA in several tissues from adult NBH fish vs SC fish (Greytak and Callard, 2007), we predicted estrogen hyporesponsiveness; however, induction of ER alpha by estradiol exposure in reproductively inactive males did not differ between the two sites. Moreover, AroB was more responsive and Vtg induction was greater (2d) or similar (5d) in NBH as compared to SC males. Worth noting is the high inter-individual variability in estrogen responses of gene targets, especially in NBH killifish, which may indicate evolving preadaptive or adaptive mechanisms. In conclusion, although

  14. ESTROGEN RESPONSES IN KILLIFISH (FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS) FROM POLLUTED AND UNPOLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS ARE SITE- AND GENE-SPECIFIC

    PubMed Central

    Greytak, Sarah R.; Tarrant, Ann M.; Nacci, Diane; Hahn, Mark E.; Callard, Gloria V.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological, ecological, and laboratory-based studies support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment are responsible for developmental and reproductive abnormalities. We have previously described a killifish population resident in a highly polluted Superfund site (New Bedford Harbor, NBH) that shows evidence of exposure to an estrogenic environment and endocrine disruption. Here, we compare NBH with a local reference population (Scorton Creek, SC) for developmental patterns and direct effects of exogenous estradiol on the estrogenic markers, brain cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A2 or AroB), hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg), and hepatic estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). In contrast to our previous observation of elevated ERα in NBH embryos, developmental levels of AroB and Vtg mRNAs did not differ between the two sites, demonstrating that not all estrogen-responsive genes are upregulated in NBH embryos. A dose-response experiment showed that NBH larvae are less responsive (lower maximum induction, as measured by ERα) and less sensitive (higher EC50 for induction, as measured by AroB) to estradiol than SC larvae, changes that would be adaptive in an estrogenic environment. In contrast, induction of Vtg mRNA is similar in the two populations, indicating that the adaptive mechanism is target gene-specific. Based on the lower basal levels of ERα mRNA in several tissues from adult NBH fish vs SC fish (Greytak and Callard, 2007), we predicted estrogen hyporesponsiveness; however, induction of ERα by estradiol exposure in reproductively inactive males did not differ between the two sites. Moreover, AroB was more responsive and Vtg induction was greater (2d) or similar (5d) in NBH as compared to SC males. Worth noting is the high inter-individual variability in estrogen responses of gene targets, especially in NBH killifish, which may indicate evolving preadaptive or adaptive mechanisms. In conclusion, although multi

  15. Aβ42 assembles into specific β-barrel pore-forming oligomers in membrane-mimicking environments

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Batiste, Montserrat; Ninot-Pedrosa, Martí; Bayoumi, Mariam; Gairí, Margarida; Maglia, Giovanni; Carulla, Natàlia

    2016-01-01

    The formation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers at the cellular membrane is considered to be a crucial process underlying neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, it is critical to characterize the oligomers that form within a membrane environment. To contribute to this characterization, we have applied strategies widely used to examine the structure of membrane proteins to study the two major Aβ variants, Aβ40 and Aβ42. Accordingly, various types of detergent micelles were extensively screened to identify one that preserved the properties of Aβ in lipid environments—namely the formation of oligomers that function as pores. Remarkably, under the optimized detergent micelle conditions, Aβ40 and Aβ42 showed different behavior. Aβ40 aggregated into amyloid fibrils, whereas Aβ42 assembled into oligomers that inserted into lipid bilayers as well-defined pores and adopted a specific structure with characteristics of a β-barrel arrangement that we named β-barrel pore-forming Aβ42 oligomers (βPFOsAβ42). Because Aβ42, relative to Aβ40, has a more prominent role in AD, the higher propensity of Aβ42 to form βPFOs constitutes an indication of their relevance in AD. Moreover, because βPFOsAβ42 adopt a specific structure, this property offers an unprecedented opportunity for testing a hypothesis regarding the involvement of βPFOs and, more generally, membrane-associated Aβ oligomers in AD. PMID:27621459

  16. Performance specifications for health physics instrumentation: portable instrumentation for use in normal work environments. Part 2. Test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, J.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Selby, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated a draft American National Standards Institute Standard N42.17 (ANSI N42.17) on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation through a project jointly funded by the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The evaluation involved testing a representative cross section of instruments against criteria in the standard. This report presents results of the testing program. A brief history of the project is included in the introduction. The instrumentation tested is described in general terms (i.e., types, ranges); however, no direct relationship between the results and a specific instrument model is made in this report. Testing requirements in ANSI N42.17D4, Revision 1 (May 1985) are summarized and the methods by which the tests are performed are discussed. Brief descriptions of the testing equipment are included in the methods section of the report. More detailed information about the draft standard, testing requirements and procedures, and the test equipment is included in ''Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation - Portable Instrumentation for Use in Normal Work Environments, Part 1: Manual of Testing Procedures.'' Results of testing are given in two formats: test-by-test and instrument-by-instrument. Discussion is included on significant and interesting findings, on comparisons of results from the same type of instruments from same and different manufacturers, and on data grouped by manufacturer. Conclusions are made on the applicability and practicality of the proposed standard and on instrument performance. Changes that have been made to the proposed standard based on findings of the testing program are listed and discussed. 22 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  17. Phylogeographical Patterns among Mediterranean Sepiolid Squids and Their Vibrio Symbionts: Environment Drives Specificity among Sympatric Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zamborsky, D. J.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Bobtail squid from the genera Sepiola and Rondeletiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) form mutualistic associations with luminous Gram-negative bacteria (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionaceae) from the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium. Symbiotic bacteria proliferate inside a bilobed light organ until they are actively expelled by the host into the surrounding environment on a diel basis. This event results in a dynamic symbiont population with the potential to establish the symbiosis with newly hatched sterile (axenic) juvenile sepiolids. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity found in populations of sympatric sepiolid squid species and their symbionts by the use of nested clade analysis with multiple gene analyses. Variation found in the distribution of different species of symbiotic bacteria suggests a strong influence of abiotic factors in the local environment, affecting bacterial distribution among sympatric populations of hosts. These abiotic factors include temperature differences incurred by a shallow thermocline, as well as a lack of strong coastal water movement accompanied by seasonal temperature changes in overlapping niches. Host populations are stable and do not appear to have a significant role in the formation of symbiont populations relative to their distribution across the Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, all squid species examined (Sepiola affinis, S. robusta, S. ligulata, S. intermedia, and Rondeletiola minor) are genetically distinct from one another regardless of location and demonstrate very little intraspecific variation within species. These findings suggest that physical boundaries and distance in relation to population size, and not host specificity, are important factors in limiting or defining gene flow within sympatric marine squids and their associated bacterial symbionts in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21075896

  18. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Testing for the Inspection of the Space Shuttle Spray On Foam Insulation (SOFI) and the Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, R.; Kharkovsky, S.; Hepburn, F. L.

    2006-03-01

    The utility of microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods, for testing the Space Shuttle's external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and the acreage heat tiles has been investigated during the past two years. Millimeter wave NDE techniques are capable of producing internal images of SOFI. This paper presents the results of testing several diverse panels with embedded voids and debonds at millimeter wave frequencies. Additionally, the results of testing a set of heat tiles are also presented. Finally, the attributes of these methods as well as the advantageous features associated with these systems are also provided.

  19. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Testing for the Inspection of the Space Shuttle Spray on Foam Insulations (SOFI) and the Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoughi, R.; Kharkovsky, S.; Hepburn, F. L.

    2005-01-01

    The utility of microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods, for testing the Space Shuttle's external he1 tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and the acreage heat tiles has been investigated during the past two years. Millimeter wave NDE techniques are capable of producing internal images of SOFI. This paper presents the results of testing several diverse panels with embedded voids and debonds at millimeter wave frequencies. Additionally, the results of testing a set of heat tiles are also presented. Finally, the attributes of these methods as well as the advantageous features associated with these systems are also provided.

  20. Evaluation of the use of remote-sensing data to identify crop types and estimate irrigated acreage, Uvalde and Medina counties, Texas, 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, L.H.; Nalley, G.M.; Rettman, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Results were verified using crop acreages reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The total areas for all irrigated crops estimated using remote-sensing data were about 8 percent higher for Uvalde County and about 4 percent higher for Medina County than the areas reported by the ASCS. Irrigated-crop areas subsequently were multiplied by the respective duties of water to calculate the total quantity of water pumped from the aquifer for irrigation. Pumpage did not differ for the two estimates of crop areas for Uvalde County and differed by about 3 percent for Medina County.

  1. Species specific and environment induced variation of δ13C and δ15N in alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Körner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in plant tissues integrate plant-environment interactions over long periods. In this study, we hypothesized that humid alpine life conditions are narrowing the scope for significant deviations from common carbon, water and nitrogen relations as captured by stable isotope signals. We explored the variation in δ13C and δ15N in 32 plant species from tissue type to ecosystem scale across a suite of locations at c. Two thousand five hundred meter elevation in the Swiss Alps. Foliar δ13C and δ15N varied among species by about 3–4‰ and 7–8‰ respectively. However, there was no overall difference in means of δ13C and δ15N for species sampled in different plant communities or when bulk plant dry matter harvests of different plant communities were compared. δ13C was found to be highly species specific, so that the ranking among species was mostly maintained across 11 habitats. However, δ15N varied significantly from place to place in all species (a range of 2.7‰) except in Fabaceae (Trifolium alpinum) and Juncaceae (Luzula lutea). There was also a substantial variation among individuals of the same species collected next to each other. No difference was found in foliar δ15N of non-legumes, which were either collected next to or away from the most common legume, T. alpinum. δ15N data place Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, just like Fabaceae, in a low discrimination category, well separated from other families. Soil δ15N was higher than in plants and increased with soil depth. The results indicate a high functional diversity in alpine plants that is similar to that reported for low elevation plants. We conclude that the surprisingly high variation in δ13C and δ15N signals in the studied high elevation plants is largely species specific (genetic) and insensitive to obvious environmental cues. PMID:26097487

  2. Contextual-specificity of short-delay extinction in humans: Renewal of fear-potentiated startle in a virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ruben P.; Johnson, Linda; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A recent fear-potentiated startle study in rodents suggested that extinction was not context dependent when extinction was conducted after a short delay following acquisition, suggesting that extinction can lead to erasure of fear learning in some circumstances. The main objective of this study was to attempt to replicate these findings in humans by examining the context specificity of short-delay extinction in an ABA renewal procedure using virtual reality environments. A second objective was to examine whether renewal, if any, would be influenced by context conditioning. Subjects underwent differential aversive conditioning in virtual context A, which was immediately followed by extinction in virtual context B. Extinction was followed by tests of renewal in context A and B, with the order counterbalanced across subjects. Results showed that extinction was context dependent. Evidence for renewal was established using fear-potentiated startle as well as skin conductance and fear ratings. In addition, although contextual anxiety was greater in the acquisition context than in the extinction context during renewal, as assessed with startle, context conditioning did not influence the renewal effect. These data do not support the view that extinction conducted shortly after acquisition is context independent. Hence, they do not provide evidence that extinction can lead to erasure of a fear memory established via Pavlovian conditioning. PMID:17412963

  3. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anubhav; Philip, Nisha; Hughes, Katie R.; Georgiou, Konstantina; MacRae, James I.; Barrett, Michael P.; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design. PMID:28027318

  4. Microbiota and metabolite profiling reveal specific alterations in bacterial community structure and environment in the cystic fibrosis airway during exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Kate B; Alston, Mark; An, Shi-Qi; O'Connell, Oisin J; McCarthy, Yvonne; Swarbreck, David; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Plant, Barry J; Ryan, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Chronic polymicrobial infections of the lung are the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The composition of the microbial flora of the airway alters considerably during infection, particularly during patient exacerbation. An understanding of which organisms are growing, their environment and their behaviour in the airway is of importance for designing antibiotic treatment regimes and for patient prognosis. To this end, we have analysed sputum samples taken from separate cohorts of CF and non-CF subjects for metabolites and in parallel, and we have examined both isolated DNA and RNA for the presence of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts by high-throughput sequencing of amplicon or cDNA libraries. This analysis revealed that although the population size of all dominant orders of bacteria as measured by DNA- and RNA- based methods are similar, greater discrepancies are seen with less prevalent organisms, some of which we associated with CF for the first time. Additionally, we identified a strong relationship between the abundance of specific anaerobes and fluctuations in several metabolites including lactate and putrescine during patient exacerbation. This study has hence identified organisms whose occurrence within the CF microbiome has been hitherto unreported and has revealed potential metabolic biomarkers for exacerbation.

  5. Faculty Emphases on Alternative Course-Specific Learning Outcomes in Holland's Model Environments: The Role of Environmental Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.; Rocconi, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines variability in the extent to which faculty members in the disciplinary-based academic environments of Holland's theory emphasize different student learning outcomes in their classes and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" versus "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variation in the…

  6. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  7. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  8. Cell type-specific adaptation of cellular and nuclear volume in micro-engineered 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Alexandra M; Klein, Franziska; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Richter, Benjamin; Striebel, Thomas; Wundari, Bayu G; Autenrieth, Tatjana J; Wegener, Martin; Franz, Clemens M; Bastmeyer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Bio-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) are structurally and mechanically well-defined and ideal for systematically investigating the influence of three-dimensionality and substrate stiffness on cell behavior. Here, we show that different fibroblast-like and epithelial cell lines maintain normal proliferation rates and form functional cell-matrix contacts in DLW-fabricated 3D scaffolds of different mechanics and geometry. Furthermore, the molecular composition of cell-matrix contacts forming in these 3D micro-environments and under conventional 2D culture conditions is identical, based on the analysis of several marker proteins (paxillin, phospho-paxillin, phospho-focal adhesion kinase, vinculin, β1-integrin). However, fibroblast-like and epithelial cells differ markedly in the way they adapt their total cell and nuclear volumes in 3D environments. While fibroblast-like cell lines display significantly increased cell and nuclear volumes in 3D substrates compared to 2D substrates, epithelial cells retain similar cell and nuclear volumes in 2D and 3D environments. Despite differential cell volume regulation between fibroblasts and epithelial cells in 3D environments, the nucleus-to-cell (N/C) volume ratios remain constant for all cell types and culture conditions. Thus, changes in cell and nuclear volume during the transition from 2D to 3D environments are strongly cell type-dependent, but independent of scaffold stiffness, while cells maintain the N/C ratio regardless of culture conditions.

  9. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume IV, The Simulated Maintenance Task Environment (SMTE): A Job Specific Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Kenneth I.; And Others

    The purpose of the simulated maintenance task environment is to provide a means for training and job performance testing of the flight line weapon control systems mechanic/technician for the F-111A aircraft. It provides practice in flight line equipment checkout, troubleshooting, and removal and replacement of line replaceable units in the…

  10. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  11. Sex-Specific Relationships between Route-Learning Strategies and Abilities in a Large-Scale Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jean; McKillop, Erin; Ward, Micheal; L'Hirondelle, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    Spatial theories identify three aspects of the environment that are used to various degrees in route-learning tasks; namely, landmarks, routes, and configurations. Although research has demonstrated sex differences in the relative predominance of each aspect in route-learning strategies, it is unclear how these sex differences correspond to…

  12. Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects.

    PubMed

    Duis, Karen; Coors, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Due to the widespread use and durability of synthetic polymers, plastic debris occurs in the environment worldwide. In the present work, information on sources and fate of microplastic particles in the aquatic and terrestrial environment, and on their uptake and effects, mainly in aquatic organisms, is reviewed. Microplastics in the environment originate from a variety of sources. Quantitative information on the relevance of these sources is generally lacking, but first estimates indicate that abrasion and fragmentation of larger plastic items and materials containing synthetic polymers are likely to be most relevant. Microplastics are ingested and, mostly, excreted rapidly by numerous aquatic organisms. So far, there is no clear evidence of bioaccumulation or biomagnification. In laboratory studies, the ingestion of large amounts of microplastics mainly led to a lower food uptake and, consequently, reduced energy reserves and effects on other physiological functions. Based on the evaluated data, the lowest microplastic concentrations affecting marine organisms exposed via water are much higher than levels measured in marine water. In lugworms exposed via sediment, effects were observed at microplastic levels that were higher than those in subtidal sediments but in the same range as maximum levels in beach sediments. Hydrophobic contaminants are enriched on microplastics, but the available experimental results and modelling approaches indicate that the transfer of sorbed pollutants by microplastics is not likely to contribute significantly to bioaccumulation of these pollutants. Prior to being able to comprehensively assess possible environmental risks caused by microplastics a number of knowledge gaps need to be filled. However, in view of the persistence of microplastics in the environment, the high concentrations measured at some environmental sites and the prospective of strongly increasing concentrations, the release of plastics into the environment should be

  13. Controlled Environment Soil-Core Microcosm Unit (CESMU) for Investigating Fate, Transport, and Transformation of Chemicals in Site-Specific Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    34 Acid Rain," Environment Vol. 14, pp 33-44 (1972). 12. The Soil Core Microcosm - A Potential Screening Tool, EPA-600/3-79-089, U.S. Environmental...AD-A284 768 EDGEWOOD U A CN DEMW APUENT & •ENGCWR Dh Ct ZER U.& ARMY CXZWCAL AND WOLOGICAL DErzNu COwLAND ERDEC-TR-088 CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT SOIL ...CORE MICROCOSM UNIT (CESMU) FOR INVESTIGATING FATE, TRANSPORT, AND TRANSFORMATION OF CHEMICALS IN SITE-SPECIFIC SOILS Ronald T. Checkal Randall S

  14. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-03

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  15. Specification for the Performance, Design, Development and Test Requirements for a Severe Environment Cartridge Recorder. Issue 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    protruding components shall be recessed beneath the outline formed by extending all planar exterior surfaces to their intersection lines. The only...either machining it from solid blanks of aluminium alloy, or by casting it from aluminium alloy. The finished external surfaces shall be orthogonal. (b...design and construction of a prototype which forms the basis for this specification. The AEL Recorder contained most of the mechanical features described

  16. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing Using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for Use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-sq cm/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  17. The value of site-specific information and the environment: technology adoption and pesticide use under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Isik, Murat; Hudson, Darren; Coble, Keith H

    2005-08-01

    Remote sensing technology offers an opportunity to significantly increase the amount of site-specific information about field characteristics such as pest populations. Coupled with variable rate application technologies, this added information has the potential to provide environmental benefits through reduced pesticide applications. However, producers face a complicated adoption decision because output prices and crop yields are uncertain. A model is developed to examine the potential value of remote sensing information to pesticide applications in an option-value framework under uncertainty. Simulations suggest that remote sensing information could decrease pesticide use, but uncertainty and irreversibility are likely to limit technological adoption by farmers. Potential cost-share subsidies are discussed.

  18. Biotic structure indirectly affects associated prey in a predator-specific manner via changes in the sensory environment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Miranda L; Weissburg, Marc J

    2013-02-01

    Indirect effects, which can be either positive or negative, may be important in areas containing biotic structure, because such structure can provide refuge and habitat, produce additional sensory cues that may attract predators, and modify the sensory landscape in which predator-prey interactions occur. To determine the indirect effects of biotic structure on prey populations, we assessed predation on patches of hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) by large odor-mediated blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and knobbed whelk (Busycon carica) predators at 0, 5, and 10 m from oyster reefs in intertidal salt marshes. Oyster reefs had an overall indirect negative effect on hard clams, with higher predation rates closer to the reef than farther away. Predator-specific patterns of predation showed that blue crabs consumed more clams very close to the reef, whereas whelks consumed more clams at intermediate distances. Laboratory flume experiments suggest that the oyster reef structure creates turbulence that diminishes predator foraging efficiency, particularly in rapidly mobile predators such as blue crabs, but that oyster reef chemicals ameliorate the negative impact of turbulence on foraging success for both predators. Changes in the sensory landscape, in combination with predator perceptual ability, will determine the positive and/or negative impacts of biotic structure on associated prey. Gaining an understanding of the context specificity of positive and negative sensory effects of biotic structure provides insights that are important for developing a predictive framework to assess the magnitude and distribution of indirect interactions in natural communities.

  19. Defect sink characteristics of specific grain boundary types in 304 stainless steels under high dose neutron environments

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-05-01

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 °C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed and benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.

  20. Defect sink characteristics of specific grain boundary types in 304 stainless steels under high dose neutron environments

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Busby, Jeremy T.; ...

    2015-03-09

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 °C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed andmore » benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Furthermore, such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.« less

  1. Defect sink characteristics of specific grain boundary types in 304 stainless steels under high dose neutron environments

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Busby, Jeremy T.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-09

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 °C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed and benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Furthermore, such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.

  2. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Hanene; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ferjani, Raoudha; Fusi, Marco; Soussi, Asma; Mapelli, Francesca; Blilou, Ikram; Borin, Sara; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-08-01

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem.

  3. Ester synthesis and hydrolysis in an aqueous environment, and strain specific changes during malolactic fermentation in wine with Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Sumby, Krista M; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Previous work has shown that Oenococcus oeni produces esterases that are capable of hydrolysing artificial substrates. Using SPME-GCMS, this study provides evidence that purified O. oeni esterases have the ability to both synthesise and hydrolyse esters. Two purified esterases (EstA2 and EstB28) synthesised ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate to varying degrees. Both purified esterases hydrolysed ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Once this dual activity was confirmed, malolactic fermentation (MLF) trials were conducted in wine with O. oeni strains that had been previously observed to have either high or low esterase activity against artificial substrates. Strain specific differences were observed and strains with low esterase hydrolysis activity against artificial substrates had a higher level of total esters measured after MLF. The results demonstrate the impact that O. oeni has on wine aroma and relates this to the ester hydrolysis and synthesis abilities of O. oeni strains.

  4. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  5. Optimized Basis Sets for the Environment in the Domain-Specific Basis Set Approach of the Incremental Scheme.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Tony; Hill, J Grant; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-04-21

    Minimal basis sets, denoted DSBSenv, based on the segmented basis sets of Ahlrichs and co-workers have been developed for use as environmental basis sets for the domain-specific basis set (DSBS) incremental scheme with the aim of decreasing the CPU requirements of the incremental scheme. The use of these minimal basis sets within explicitly correlated (F12) methods has been enabled by the optimization of matching auxiliary basis sets for use in density fitting of two-electron integrals and resolution of the identity. The accuracy of these auxiliary sets has been validated by calculations on a test set containing small- to medium-sized molecules. The errors due to density fitting are about 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the basis set incompleteness error of the DSBSenv orbital basis sets. Additional reductions in computational cost have been tested with the reduced DSBSenv basis sets, in which the highest angular momentum functions of the DSBSenv auxiliary basis sets have been removed. The optimized and reduced basis sets are used in the framework of the domain-specific basis set of the incremental scheme to decrease the computation time without significant loss of accuracy. The computation times and accuracy of the previously used environmental basis and that optimized in this work have been validated with a test set of medium- to large-sized systems. The optimized and reduced DSBSenv basis sets decrease the CPU time by about 15.4% and 19.4% compared with the old environmental basis and retain the accuracy in the absolute energy with standard deviations of 0.99 and 1.06 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. Human disturbances, habitat characteristics and social environment generate sex-specific responses in vigilance of Mediterranean mouflon.

    PubMed

    Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing

  7. Human Disturbances, Habitat Characteristics and Social Environment Generate Sex-Specific Responses in Vigilance of Mediterranean Mouflon

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing

  8. Development and validation of broad-range qualitative and clade-specific quantitative molecular probes for assessing mercury methylation in the environment

    DOE PAGES

    Christensen, Geoff A.; Wymore, Ann M.; King, Andrew J.; ...

    2016-07-15

    Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg)-methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability and biogeochemistry is critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB+ strains tested via Sanger sequencing.more » Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative primers (qPCR) that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88% and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. Here, the resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg-methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB.« less

  9. Development and validation of broad-range qualitative and clade-specific quantitative molecular probes for assessing mercury methylation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Geoff A.; Wymore, Ann M.; King, Andrew J.; Podar, Mircea; Hurt, Jr., Richard A.; Santillan, Eugenio U.; Soren, Ally; Brandt, Craig C.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Wall, Judy D.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2016-07-15

    Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg)-methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability and biogeochemistry is critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB+ strains tested via Sanger sequencing. Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative primers (qPCR) that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88% and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. Here, the resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg-methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB.

  10. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  11. Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Thomas G., Ed.; Wright, Benjamin E., Ed.

    The focus of the 16 essays in this book is the physical environment of learning, specifically the man-made or built environment. The authors contend that educators have tended to overlook the influence of built environments on the learning process--a process not confined to schools, but involving play areas, tree houses, and the city itself. The…

  12. Recent advances in the detection of specific natural organic compounds as carriers for radionuclides in soil and water environments, with examples of radioiodine and plutonium.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Xu, C; Zhang, S; Schwehr, K A; Lin, P; Yeager, C M; Kaplan, D I

    2017-03-09

    Among the key environmental factors influencing the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is natural organic matter (NOM). While this has been known for decades, there still remains great uncertainty in predicting NOM-radionuclide interactions because of lack of understanding of radionuclide interactions with the specific organic moieties within NOM. Furthermore, radionuclide-NOM studies conducted using modelled organic compounds or elevated radionuclide concentrations provide compromised information related to true environmental conditions. Thus, sensitive techniques are required not only for the detection of radionuclides, and their different species, at ambient and/or far-field concentrations, but also for potential trace organic compounds that are chemically binding these radionuclides. GC-MS and AMS techniques developed in our lab are reviewed here that aim to assess how two radionuclides, iodine and plutonium, form strong bonds with NOM by entirely different mechanisms; iodine tends to bind to aromatic functionalities, whereas plutonium binds to N-containing hydroxamate siderophores at ambient concentrations. While low-level measurements are a prerequisite for assessing iodine and plutonium migration at nuclear waste sites and as environmental tracers, it is necessary to determine their in-situ speciation, which ultimately controls their mobility and transport in natural environments. More importantly, advanced molecular-level instrumentation (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI-FTICRMS) were applied to resolve either directly or indirectly the molecular environments in which the radionuclides are associated with the NOM.

  13. Polarizable QM/MM Multiconfiguration Self-Consistent Field Approach with State-Specific Corrections: Environment Effects on Cytosine Absorption Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Quansong; Mennucci, Benedetta; Robb, Michael A; Blancafort, Lluís; Curutchet, Carles

    2015-04-14

    We present the formulation and implementation of a polarizable quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) strategy to describe environment effects in multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations. The strategy is applied to the calculation of the vertical absorption spectrum of cytosine in water. In our approach, mutual polarization of the solute and the solvent is solved self-consistently at the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) level, and the resulting set of charges and dipoles is used to calculate vertical excitation energies using the complete-active-space second-order perturbative (CASPT2) approach and its multistate (MS-CASPT2) variant. In order to treat multiple excited states, we converge the solvent polarization with respect to the state-averaged density of the solute. In order to obtain the final energies, however, we introduce a state-specific correction, where the solvent polarization is recomputed with the density of each state, and demonstrate that this correction brings the excitation energies closer to the values obtained with state-optimized orbitals. Comparison with PCM and nonpolarizable QM/MM calculations shows the importance of specific solute-solvent interactions and environment polarization in describing experiments. Overall, the calculated excitations for the π → π* states in water show good agreement with the experimental spectrum, whereas the n → π* appear at energies above 6 eV, approximately 1 eV higher than in the gas phase. Beyond solvents, the new method will allow studying the impact of heterogeneous biological environments in multiple excited states, as well as the treatment of multichromophoric systems where charge transfer and exciton states play important roles.

  14. Development and Validation of Broad-Range Qualitative and Clade-Specific Quantitative Molecular Probes for Assessing Mercury Methylation in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Geoff A.; Wymore, Ann M.; King, Andrew J.; Podar, Mircea; Hurt, Richard A.; Santillan, Eugenio U.; Soren, Ally; Brandt, Craig C.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Wall, Judy D.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two genes, hgcA and hgcB, are essential for microbial mercury (Hg) methylation. Detection and estimation of their abundance, in conjunction with Hg concentration, bioavailability, and biogeochemistry, are critical in determining potential hot spots of methylmercury (MeHg) generation in at-risk environments. We developed broad-range degenerate PCR primers spanning known hgcAB genes to determine the presence of both genes in diverse environments. These primers were tested against an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes, including 13 Deltaproteobacteria, nine Firmicutes, and nine methanogenic Archaea genomes. A distinct PCR product at the expected size was confirmed for all hgcAB+ strains tested via Sanger sequencing. Additionally, we developed clade-specific degenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers that targeted hgcA for each of the three dominant Hg-methylating clades. The clade-specific qPCR primers amplified hgcA from 64%, 88%, and 86% of tested pure cultures of Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Archaea, respectively, and were highly specific for each clade. Amplification efficiencies and detection limits were quantified for each organism. Primer sensitivity varied among species based on sequence conservation. Finally, to begin to evaluate the utility of our primer sets in nature, we tested hgcA and hgcAB recovery from pure cultures spiked into sand and soil. These novel quantitative molecular tools designed in this study will allow for more accurate identification and quantification of the individual Hg-methylating groups of microorganisms in the environment. The resulting data will be essential in developing accurate and robust predictive models of Hg methylation potential, ideally integrating the geochemistry of Hg methylation to the microbiology and genetics of hgcAB. IMPORTANCE The neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) poses a serious risk to human health. MeHg production in nature is associated with anaerobic microorganisms. The

  15. Sex-specific genotype-by-environment interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus: implications for the evolution of signal reliability.

    PubMed

    Weddle, C B; Mitchell, C; Bay, S K; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic traits that convey information about individual identity or quality are important in animal social interactions, and the degree to which such traits are influenced by environmental variation can have profound effects on the reliability of these cues. Using inbred genetic lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, we manipulated diet quality to test how the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of males and females respond across two different nutritional rearing environments. There were significant differences between lines in the CHC profiles of females, but the effect of diet was not quite statistically significant. There was no significant genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic variation in female CHCs are independent of genotype. There was, however, a significant effect of GEI for males, with changes in both signal quantity and content, suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic expression of male CHCs are dependent on genotype. The differential response of male and female CHC expression to variation in the nutritional environment suggests that these chemical cues may be under sex-specific selection for signal reliability. Female CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of identity: high genetic variability, low condition dependence and a high degree of genetic determination. This supports earlier work showing that female CHCs are used in self-recognition to identify previous mates and facilitate polyandry. In contrast, male CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of quality: condition dependence and a relatively higher degree of environmental determination. This suggests that male CHCs are likely to function as cues of underlying quality during mate choice and/or male dominance interactions.

  16. Improved pan-specific MHC class I peptide-binding predictions using a novel representation of the MHC-binding cleft environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, S; Zimic, M; Nielsen, M

    2014-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a key role in cell-mediated immune responses presenting bounded peptides for recognition by the immune system cells. Several in silico methods have been developed to predict the binding affinity of a given peptide to a specific MHC molecule. One of the current state-of-the-art methods for MHC class I is NetMHCpan, which has a core ingredient for the representation of the MHC class I molecule using a pseudo-sequence representation of the binding cleft amino acid environment. New and large MHC-peptide-binding data sets are constantly being made available, and also new structures of MHC class I molecules with a bound peptide have been published. In order to test if the NetMHCpan method can be improved by integrating this novel information, we created new pseudo-sequence definitions for the MHC-binding cleft environment from sequence and structural analyses of different MHC data sets including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), non-human primates (chimpanzee, macaque and gorilla) and other animal alleles (cattle, mouse and swine). From these constructs, we showed that by focusing on MHC sequence positions found to be polymorphic across the MHC molecules used to train the method, the NetMHCpan method achieved a significant increase in the predictive performance, in particular, of non-human MHCs. This study hence showed that an improved performance of MHC-binding methods can be achieved not only by the accumulation of more MHC-peptide-binding data but also by a refined definition of the MHC-binding environment including information from non-human species.

  17. Imaging of conformational changes of proteins with a new environment-sensitive fluorescent probe designed for site-specific labeling of recombinant proteins in live cells.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, J; Nakajima, T; Sato, M; Ozawa, T; Tohda, K; Umezawa, Y

    2001-07-01

    We demonstrate herein a new method for imaging conformational changes of proteins in live cells using a new synthetic environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, 9-amino-6,8-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one. This fluorescent probe can be attached to recombinant proteins containing four cysteine residues at the i, i + 1, i + 4, and i + 5 positions of an alpha-helix. The specific binding of the fluorescent probe to this 4Cys motif enables fluorescent labeling inside cells by its extracellular administration. The high sensitivity of the fluorophore to its environment enables monitoring of the conformational changes of the proteins in live cells as changes in its fluorescence intensity. The present method was applied to calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+-binding protein that was well-known to expose hydrophobic domains, depending on the Ca2+ concentration. A recombinant CaM fused at its C-terminal with a helical peptide containing a 4Cys motif was labeled with the fluorescent probe inside live cells. The fluorescence intensity changed reversibly depending on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which reflected the conformational change of the recombinant CaM in the live cells.

  18. Preexercise urine specific gravity and fluid intake during one-hour running in a thermoneutral environment - a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Altoé, Janaína L; Saldanha, Mônica R; Ferreira, Fabrícia G; Marins, João C B

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity is often used to assess hydration status. Athletes who are hypohydrated prior to exercise tend to ingest more fluid during the exercise, possibly to compensate for their pre exercise fluid deficit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional fluid intake on fluid balance and gastrointestinal tract comfort during 1h running in a thermoneutral environment when athletes followed their habitual fluid and dietary regimes. Sixteen men and sixteen women ingested a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution immediately prior to exercise and then every 15 minutes during two runs, with a consumption rate of 2 mL.kg(-1) (LV, lower volume) or 3 mL.kg(-1) (HV, higher volume) body mass. Urine specific gravity and body mass changes were determined before and after the tests to estimate hydration status. During exercise subjects verbally responded to surveys inquiring about gastrointestinal symptoms, sensation of thirst and ratings of perceived exertion. Plasma glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were also evaluated. Men had higher preexercise urine specific gravity than women (1.025 vs. 1.016 g·mL(-1) HV; and 1.024 vs. 1.017 g·mL(-1) LV) and greater sweat loss (1.21 ± 0.27 L vs. 0.83 ± 0.21 L HV; and 1.18 ± 0.23 L vs. 0.77 ± 0.17 LV). Prevalence of gastrointestinal discomfort increased after 45 min. No significant differences on heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, blood pressure or glycemia was observed with the additional fluid intake. From these results it appears that additional fluid intake reduces body mass loss and thirst sensation. When compared to the men, however, preexercise euhydration was more common in women and an increased fluid intake increases the risk of body mass gain and gastrointestinal discomfort. Key pointsThere seems to be a wide variability in pre-exercise hydration status between male and female and efforts aimed at educating athletes about the importance of pregame hydration must be emphasized

  19. Modelling the fate of six common pharmaceuticals in a small stream: quantification of attenuation and retention in different stream-specific environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders; Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Detection of pharmaceutical residues in streaming waters is common in urbanized areas. Although the occurrence and source of these micropollutants is known, their behavior in these aquatic ecosystems is still only partly understood. Specifically, quantitative information of biogeochemical processes in stream-specific environments where predominant reactions occur is often missing. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, we performed simultaneous tracer tests in Säva Brook, Sweden, with bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and naproxen, as well as with the more inert solutes uranine and Rhodamine WT. The breakthrough curves at five successive sampling stations along a 16 km long stream reach were evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream. The multi-tracer experiment opens for decoupling of hydrological and biogeochemical contribution to the fate, and by linking impact and sensitivity analyses to relative significance of model parameters the most important processes for each contaminant were elucidated. Specifically for Säva Brook, the proposed methodology revealed that the pharmaceutical-contaminated stream water remained in the storage zones for times corresponding to 5-25% of the flow time of the stream. Furthermore, the results indicate a great variability in terms of predominant biogeochemical processes between the different contaminants. Rapid reactions occurring in the transient storage zone attenuated both ibuprofen and clofibric acid, and we conclude that a major degradation pathway for these contaminants was biodegradation in the hyporheic zone. In contrast, bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen were mainly affected by sorption both in the storage zone and the main channel, while diclofenac displayed negligible effects of biogeochemical reactions.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker to indicate PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin H; Hong, Hua S; Mu, Jing L; Lin, Jian Q; Wang, Shong H

    2008-02-15

    In this study, analysis methods for the PAH metabolites of naphthalene (Na), pyrene (Py) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with different benzo-rings (2-4-5 rings respectively) were developed and the metabolism kinetics of Py and BaP in marine fishes were studied. Two PAH metabolites of Na and Py, namely 1-naphthol (1-OH Na) and 1-hydroxy pyrene (1-OH Py), were determined using the fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) method, and the BaP metabolite, 3-hydroxy benzo(a)pyrene (3-OH BaP), was determined using reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The dose- and time-response of Lateolabrax japonicus to Py metabolites and Sparus macrocephalus to BaP metabolites were studied in order to evaluate the use of PAH metabolites as a means of assessing exposure to PAHs. The results showed that both fishes could be induced to metabolize and eliminate their metabolites in vivo with increasing Py and BaP exposure concentrations in seawater. As Py and BaP concentrations increased, metabolite concentrations in the fish bile also increased. A significant dose-response of biliary PAH metabolites was observed after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days for Py and 2, 4 and 7 days for BaP, respectively. These results provide the proof necessary for using PAH metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker or early warning signal of PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment.

  1. Development of an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for assessing the fate of α-hexachlorocyclo-hexane in the environment.

    PubMed

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Vogt, Carsten; Gehre, Matthias; Fischer, Anko; Danet, Andrei-Florin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2011-05-30

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is the only chiral isomer of the eight 1,2,3,4,5,6-HCHs and we have developed an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for the evaluation of its fate in the environment. The carbon isotope ratios of the α-HCH enantiomers were determined for a commercially available α-HCH sample using a gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) system equipped with a chiral column. The GC-C-IRMS measurements revealed δ-values of -32.5 ± 0.8‰ and -32.3 ± 0.5‰ for (-) α-HCH and (+) α-HCH, respectively. The isotope ratio of bulk α-HCH was estimated to be -32.4 ± 0.6‰ which was in accordance with the δ-values obtained by GC-C-IRMS (-32.7 ± 0.2‰) and elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) of the bulk α-HCH (-32.1 ± 0.1‰). The similarity of the isotope ratio measurements of bulk α-HCH by EA-IRMS and GC-C-IRMS indicates the accuracy of the chiral GC-C-IRMS method. The linearity of the α-HCH ESIA method shows that carbon isotope ratios can be obtained for a signal size above 100 mV. The ESIA measurements exhibited standard deviations (2σ) that were mostly < ± 0.5‰. In order to test the chiral GC-C-IRMS method, the isotope compositions of individual enantiomers in biodegradation experiments of α-HCH with Clostridium pasteurianum and samples from a contaminated field site were determined. The isotopic compositions of the α-HCH enantiomers show a range of enantiomeric and isotope patterns, suggesting that enantiomeric and isotope fractionation can serve as an indicator for biodegradation and source characterization of α-HCH in the environment.

  2. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  3. A Novel Type Pathway-Specific Regulator and Dynamic Genome Environments of a Solanapyrone Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in the Fungus Ascochyta rabiei

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonyong; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.; Peever, Tobin L.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolite genes are often clustered together and situated in particular genomic regions, like the subtelomere, that can facilitate niche adaptation in fungi. Solanapyrones are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi occupying different ecological niches. Full-genome sequencing of the ascomycete Ascochyta rabiei revealed a solanapyrone biosynthesis gene cluster embedded in an AT-rich region proximal to a telomere end and surrounded by Tc1/Mariner-type transposable elements. The highly AT-rich environment of the solanapyrone cluster is likely the product of repeat-induced point mutations. Several secondary metabolism-related genes were found in the flanking regions of the solanapyrone cluster. Although the solanapyrone cluster appears to be resistant to repeat-induced point mutations, a P450 monooxygenase gene adjacent to the cluster has been degraded by such mutations. Among the six solanapyrone cluster genes (sol1 to sol6), sol4 encodes a novel type of Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster transcription factor. Deletion of sol4 resulted in the complete loss of solanapyrone production but did not compromise growth, sporulation, or virulence. Gene expression studies with the sol4 deletion and sol4-overexpressing mutants delimited the boundaries of the solanapyrone gene cluster and revealed that sol4 is likely a specific regulator of solanapyrone biosynthesis and appears to be necessary and sufficient for induction of the solanapyrone cluster genes. Despite the dynamic surrounding genomic regions, the solanapyrone gene cluster has maintained its integrity, suggesting important roles of solanapyrones in fungal biology. PMID:26342019

  4. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3 d ions in tetrahedral environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U eff is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d 5 configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d 4 configurations, the parameter U eff increases after a spin crossover. For d 2 and d 7 configurations, U eff increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  5. Performance and Specificity of the Covalently Linked Immunomagnetic Separation-ATP Method for Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Enterococci in Coastal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer-Faust, Amity G.; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Ferguson, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The performance and specificity of the covalently linked immunomagnetic separation-ATP (Cov-IMS/ATP) method for the detection and enumeration of enterococci was evaluated in recreational waters. Cov-IMS/ATP performance was compared with standard methods: defined substrate technology (Enterolert; IDEXX Laboratories), membrane filtration (EPA Method 1600), and an Enterococcus-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (EPA Method A). We extend previous studies by (i) analyzing the stability of the relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and culture-based methods at different field sites, (ii) evaluating specificity of the assay for seven ATCC Enterococcus species, (iii) identifying cross-reacting organisms binding the antibody-bead complexes with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluating specificity of the assay to five nonenterococcus species, and (iv) conducting preliminary tests of preabsorption as a means of improving the assay. Cov-IMS/ATP was found to perform consistently and with strong agreement rates (based on exceedance/compliance with regulatory limits) of between 83% and 100% compared to the culture-based Enterolert method at a variety of sites with complex inputs. The Cov-IMS/ATP method is specific to five of seven different Enterococcus spp. tested. However, there is potential for nontarget bacteria to bind the antibody, which may be reduced by purification of the IgG serum with preabsorption at problematic sites. The findings of this study help to validate the Cov-IMS/ATP method, suggesting a predictable relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and traditional culture-based methods, which will allow for more widespread application of this rapid and field-portable method for coastal water quality assessment. PMID:24561583

  6. Testis-Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) in Skeletal Muscle Enhances a Pika’s Sprint-Running Capacity in Hypoxic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2015-01-01

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. In mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), which belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. Ldh-c is expressed not only in testis and sperm but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. In this study, the effects of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate on LDH isozyme kinetics were compared to screens for a selective inhibitor of LDH-C4. To reveal the role and physiological mechanism of LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle of plateau pika, we investigated the effect of N-isopropyl oxamate on the pika exercise tolerance as well as the physiological mechanism. Our results show that Ki of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate for LDH-A4, LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were 0.094 mmol/L and 0.462 mmol/L, 0.119 mmol/L and 0.248 mmol/L, and 0.015 mmol/L and 0.013 mmol/L, respectively. N-isopropyl oxamate is a powerful selective inhibitor of plateau pika LDH-C4. In our exercise tolerance experiment, groups treated with inhibitors had significantly lower swimming times than the uninhibited control group. The inhibition rates of LDH, LD, and ATP were 37.12%, 66.27%, and 32.42%, respectively. Our results suggested that ldh-c is expressed in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika, and at least 32.42% of ATP in the skeletal muscle is catalyzed by LDH-C4 by anaerobic glycolysis. This suggests that pika has reduced dependence on oxygen and enhanced adaptation to hypoxic environment due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle. LDH-C4 in plateau pika plays the crucial role in anaerobic glycolysis and generates ATP rapidly since this is the role of LDH-A4 in most species on plain land, which provide evidence that the native humans and animals in Qinghai

  7. The effectiveness of an aged care specific leadership and management program on workforce, work environment, and care quality outcomes: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A plethora of observational evidence exists concerning the impact of management and leadership on workforce, work environment, and care quality. Yet, no randomised controlled trial has been conducted to test the effectiveness of leadership and management interventions in aged care. An innovative aged care clinical leadership program (Clinical Leadership in Aged Care − CLiAC) was developed to improve managers’ leadership capacities to support the delivery of quality care in Australia. This paper describes the study design of the cluster randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of the program. Methods Twenty-four residential and community aged care sites were recruited as managers at each site agreed in writing to participate in the study and ensure that leaders allocated to the control arm would not be offered the intervention program. Sites undergoing major managerial or structural changes were excluded. The 24 sites were randomly allocated to receive the CLiAC program (intervention) or usual care (control), stratified by type (residential vs. community, six each for each arm). Treatment allocation was masked to assessors and staff of all participating sites. The objective is to establish the effectiveness of the CLiAC program in improving work environment, workforce retention, as well as care safety and quality, when compared to usual care. The primary outcomes are measures of work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes include manager leadership capacity, staff absenteeism, intention to leave, stress levels, and job satisfaction. Differences between intervention and control groups will be analysed by researchers blinded to treatment allocation using linear regression of individual results adjusted for stratification and clustering by site (primary analysis), and additionally for baseline values and potential confounders (secondary analysis). Outcomes measured at the site level will be

  8. Specific features of insulator-metal transitions under high pressure in crystals with spin crossovers of 3d ions in tetrahedral environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lobach, K. A. Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.

    2015-01-15

    For Mott insulators with tetrahedral environment, the effective Hubbard parameter U{sub eff} is obtained as a function of pressure. This function is not universal. For crystals with d{sup 5} configuration, the spin crossover suppresses electron correlations, while for d{sup 4} configurations, the parameter U{sub eff} increases after a spin crossover. For d{sup 2} and d{sup 7} configurations, U{sub eff} increases with pressure in the high-spin (HS) state and is saturated after the spin crossover. Characteristic features of the insulator-metal transition are considered as pressure increases; it is shown that there may exist cascades of several transitions for various configurations.

  9. Sociodemographic, home environment and parental influences on total and device-specific screen viewing in children aged 2 years and below: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Si Ning; Teh, Long Hua; Tay, Wei Rong; Anantharaman, Saradha; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chua, Hwee Ling; Wong, Pey Gein; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate total and device-specific screen viewing (SV) and its determinants in children aged 2 years and below. Design Cross-sectional study conducted in February 2014. Setting Well-child clinics in Singapore national polyclinics. Participants Parents of children (Singapore citizens or permanent residents) aged 2 years and below were enrolled during routine clinic visits. Out of 794 eligible parent–child dyads, 725 (91.3%) provided informed consent and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Device-specific information on SV and determinants was ascertained using interviewer-administered survey questionnaires. The prevalence and duration of aggregate and device-specific SV were reported. Associations with potential determinants were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of daily SV and SV ≥2 h/day constituted 53.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The majority of children aged 18–24 months (88.2%) engaged in daily SV. TVs and mobile devices were the most commonly used screen devices, followed by computers and video consoles. In multivariable analysis, younger child age, Chinese ethnicity and setting rules on time of SV were strongly and consistently associated with lower levels of any SV and SV ≥2 h/day. Parental knowledge of SV recommendations and less parental SV were additionally associated with lower levels of SV ≥2 h/day. The number of screen devices was not associated with children's SV. Conclusions In contrast to recommendations, SV prevalence in children aged less than 2 years is high and appears to increase steadily across age groups. TVs and mobile devices are most frequently used. Improving parental knowledge of SV recommendations, reducing parental SV and especially the implementation of strict rules on SV time could be successful strategies to reduce SV in young children. PMID

  10. Design, Calibration and Specifications of the Space Environment in-Situ Suite (SEISSS) Space Weather Instruments for the GOES-R Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichter, B.; Galica, G. E.; McGarity, J. O.; Mullen, E. G.; Hanser, F. A.; Tsui, S.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation GOES spacecraft will continue the long-term operational measurement of the charged particle environment in geosynchronous orbit with the SEISS space environment monitors. The suite comprises five instruments that measure electrons and ions in multiple energy ranges and a data processing unit. Two of the instruments, MPS-LO and EHIS provide new measurement capabilities compared with previous GOES environmental monitors. The MPS-LO (new to GOES) is an electrostatic instrument that measures electrons and ions from 30 eV to 30 keV in 15 logarithmically spaced energy bins. Its twelve 15ox5o angular channels provide a 180o FOV oriented north to south. The MPS-HI instrument, using solid state Si detector telescopes, covers the energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV for electrons and 80 keV to 10 MeV for protons each along five 15o half angle look angles spaced 35o apart. High energy solar and galactic protons in the range of 1 to 500 MeV are measured by the SGPS, which also has an integral channel above 500 MeV. This broad energy range is divided into three sub-ranges, 1-25, 25-80 and 80-500 MeV, each measured by a separate Si detector telescope. The opening half-angles of the telescopes are 30o, 30o and 45o respectively. There are east and west oriented SGPS instruments. Energetic heavy ions are detected by EHIS, also consisting of solid state detectors, in thirty individual species from H to Ni and in five logarithmically spaced energy bands from 10 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n. The FOV is a 30oopening half-angle cone. Extensive calibrations at accelerator facilities have been performed to verify the 25% accuracy of each instrument's geometric factor. In addition, performances of the solid state detector instruments have been modeled using the GEANT and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes and the results compared to calibration measurements. Energy overlap regions of the instruments will be used to improve the quality and self-consistency of the data sets.

  11. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data.

  12. Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic composition, for example, (14)C/(12)C, (13)C/(12)C, (2)H/(1)H, (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, of the elements of matter is heterogeneous. It is ruled by physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Isotopes can be employed to follow the fate of mineral and organic compounds during biogeochemical transformations. The determination of the isotopic composition of organic substances occurring at trace level in very complex mixtures such as sediments, soils and blood, has been made possible during the last 20 years due to the rapid development of molecular level isotopic techniques. After a brief glance at pioneering studies revealing isotopic breakthroughs at the molecular and intramolecular levels, this paper reviews selected applications of compound-specific isotope analysis in various scientific fields.

  13. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  14. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants.

  15. Fiscal year 1980-81 implementation plan in support of technical development and integration of sampling and aggregation procedures. [crop acreage estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The specific objectives of the FY 1980-81 tasks are: (1) further refinements to the weighted aggregation procedure; (2) improved approaches for estimating within-stratum variance; (3) more intensive investigation of alternative sampling strategies such as full-frame sampling strategy, and (4) further developments in regard to a simulated approach for assessing the performance of the overall designed sampling and aggregation system.

  16. Overview of High-Resolution Nondestructive Inspection of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Spray-on-Foam Insulation (SOFI) and Acreage Heat tiles using Focused, Synthetic and Holographical Millimeter Wave Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2006-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure has been attributed to a piece of spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) that was dislodged from the external tank (ET) and struck the leading edge of the left wing. A piece of SOFI was also dislodged in the recent Space Shuttle Discovery's flight. From immediately after the Columbia accident, microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods were considered as potential effective inspection tools for evaluating the integrity of the SOFI. To this end and as a result of these efforts, both real-focused, synthetic focusing and holographical techniques, at a wide range of frequencies covering 24 GHz to 150 GHz, have been developed for this purpose. Images of various complex SOFI panels with a wide range of embedded anomalies (representing real potential defects) have been produced using these techniques, including relatively small anomalies located near complex structural features representative of the external tank. These real-focused and 3D holographical images have effectively demonstrated the utility of these methods for SOFI inspection as being viable, robust, repeatable, simple, portable and relatively inexpensive (tens of $K as opposed to hundreds of $K). In addition, the potential viability of these methods for inspecting acreage heat tiles have has been demonstrated. This paper presents an overview of these activities, representative images of these panels using all of the imaging techniques used and a discussion of the practical attributes of these inspection methods.

  17. Changes in the fibronectin-specific integrin expression pattern modify the migratory behavior of sarcoma S180 cells in vitro and in the embryonic environment

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The molecules that mediate cell-matrix recognition, such as fibronectins (FN) and integrins, modulate cell behavior. We have previously demonstrated that FN and the beta 1-integrins are used during neural crest cell (NCC) migration in vitro as well as in vivo, and that the FN cell-binding domains I and II exhibit functional specificity in controlling either NCC attachment, spreading, or motility in vitro. In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of changes in the integrin expression patterns on migratory cell behavior in vivo. We have generated, after stable transfection, S180 cells expressing different levels of alpha 4 beta 1 or alpha 5 beta 1 integrins, two integrins that recognize distinct FN cell-binding domains. Murine S180 cells were chosen because they behave similarly to NCC after they are grafted into the NCC embryonic pathways in the chicken embryo. Thus, they provide a model system with which to investigate the mechanisms controlling in vitro and in vivo migratory cell behavior. We have observed that either the overexpression of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin or the induction of alpha 4 beta 1 expression in transfected S180 cells enhances their motility on FN in vitro. These genetically modified S180 cells also exhibit different migratory properties when grafted into the early trunk NCC migratory pathways. We observe that alpha 5 and low alpha 4 expressors migrate in both the ventral and dorsolateral paths simultaneously, in contrast to the parental S180 cells or the host NCC, which are delayed by 24 h in their invasion of the dorsolateral path. Moreover, the alpha 4 expressors exhibit different migratory properties according to their level of alpha 4 expression at the cell surface. Cells of the low alpha 4 expressor line invade both the ventral and dorsolateral pathways. In contrast, the high expressors remain as an aggregate at the graft site, possibly the result of alpha 4 beta 1-dependent homotypic aggregation. Thus, changes in the repertoire of

  18. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  19. Tryptophan environment, secondary structure and thermal unfolding of the galactose-specific seed lectin from Dolichos lablab: fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Nabil Ali Mohammed; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar; Swamy, Musti J

    2006-07-01

    Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies were carried out on the galactose-specific lectin from Dolichos lablab seeds (DLL-II). The microenvironment of the tryptophan residues in the lectin under native and denaturing conditions were investigated by quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein by a neutral quencher (acrylamide), an anionic quencher (iodide ion) and a cationic quencher (cesium ion). The results obtained indicate that the tryptophan residues of DLL-II are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains residing close to at least some of the tryptophan residues under the experimental conditions. Analysis of the far UV CD spectrum of DLL-II revealed that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 57% alpha-helix, 21% beta-sheet, 7% beta-turns and 15% unordered structures. Carbohydrate binding did not significantly alter the secondary and tertiary structures of the lectin. Thermal unfolding of DLL-II, investigated by monitoring CD signals, showed a sharp transition around 75 degrees C both in the far UV region (205 nm) and the near UV region (289 nm), which shifted to ca. 77-78 degrees C in the presence of 0.1 M methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, indicating that ligand binding leads to a moderate stabilization of the lectin structure.

  20. Relationship between the specific surface area of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel in a wet-dry acid corrosion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-he; Li, Shuan-zhu

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the specific surface area (SSA) of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel under wet-dry acid corrosion conditions was investigated. The results showed that the corrosion current density first increased and then decreased with increasing SSA of the rust during the corrosion process. The structure of the rust changed from single-layer to double-layer, and the γ-FeOOH content decreased in the inner layer of the rust with increasing corrosion time; by contrast, the γ-FeOOH content in the outer layer was constant. When the SSA of the rust was lower than the critical SSA corresponding to the relative humidity during the drying period, condensed water in the micropores of the rust could evaporate, which prompted the diffusion of O2 into the rust and the following formation process of γ-FeOOH, leading to an increase of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time. However, when the SSA of the rust reached or exceeded the critical SSA, condensate water in the micro-pores of the inner layer of the rust could not evaporate which inhibited the diffusion of O2 and decreased the γ-FeOOH content in the inner rust, leading to a decrease of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time.

  1. Derivation of predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for marine environmental risk assessment: application of different approaches to the model contaminant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) in a site-specific environment.

    PubMed

    Hampel, M; González-Mazo, E; Vale, C; Blasco, J

    2007-05-01

    Four sediment-dwelling marine organisms were exposed to sediments spiked with increasing concentrations of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS). The selected endpoint mortality was reported daily and acute LC(50) (96 h), as well as final LC(10) values were calculated for the derivation of environmentally safe predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for the sediment compartment. PNECs were estimated by both application of assessment factors (AF) and the equilibrium partitioning method (EPM) as proposed by the EU TGD. Finally, environmental risk assessment in a site-specific environment, the Sancti Petri Channel, South Iberian Peninsula, was carried out at three different sampling stations with known environmental LAS concentrations. PNECs obtained by the assessment factor approach with acute toxicity data were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those from the equilibrium partitioning method. On the other hand, when applying lower AFs to the estimated LC(10) values, the PNECs obtained by both approaches were more similar. Environmental risk assessment carried out with the estimated PNECs in a site specific environment with known sediment LAS concentrations revealed that PNECs obtained with acute toxicity data were over conservative whereas those obtained with AF=10 on LC(10) data and EPM produced more realistic results in accordance with field observations carried out in the study area.

  2. Helicopter Maritime Environment Trainer: Software Product Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    d’entraîner les pilotes d’hélicoptère à l’atterrissage sur le pont d’envol d’une frégate canadienne de patrouille dans un environnement virtuel. Le...d’entraîner les pilotes d’hélicoptère à l’atterrissage sur le pont d’envol d’une frégate canadienne de patrouille dans un environnement virtuel. Le...Next Generation 1.3 (RTI-NG 1.3) from Defence Modelling Simulation Organization (DMSO) and Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) is an

  3. ADA Integrated Environment I. System Specification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    returned. UNCLASSIFIED SECt AITY CLASSIFICATION O r THiS PAGE ("On’ Dese ,9nA.,d)l ,_ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFO scOL’No RM 1. RqEPl~ORT, NUM1191N 2...statements, symbols, names, etc.; 2. build and develop (and maintain) Ada programs by linking (and maintaining) collections of separate Ada...program build by selecting a consistent set of library units for input to the Linker. Only those units actually used shall be included; 22 INTERMETRICS

  4. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accurate and efficient algorithm for analyzing the structure of MSS data, the application of the Akaiki information criterion to mixture models, and a research plan to delineate some of the technical issues and associated tasks in the area of rice scene radiation characterization are discussed. The AMOEBA clustering algorithm is refined and documented.

  5. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The use of the AMOEBA clustering/classification algorithm was investigated as a basis for both a color display generation technique and maximum likelihood proportion estimation procedure. An approach to analyzing large data reduction systems was formulated and an exploratory empirical study of spatial correlation in LANDSAT data was also carried out. Topics addressed include: (1) development of multiimage color images; (2) spectral spatial classification algorithm development; (3) spatial correlation studies; and (4) evaluation of data systems.

  6. Potential seen on Australia's Bonaparte exploration acreage

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Miyazaki, S. )

    1994-09-12

    Two of the offshore areas recently released for exploration bids by the Australian government are NT94-1 and NT94-2 covering 23,000 sq km in the oil producing Bonaparte basin off northwestern Australia 300 km northwest of Darwin. Three wells have been drilled in the two areas, including Evans Shoal-1 which made a gas discovery currently considered to be non-commercial. The results of a study by the Australian Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS) have been synthesized into the Evans Shoal Area Bulletin and Data Base. BRS interprets the available geochemical and maturation data to indicate that potential source rocks are present in the Jurassic Plover formation and Flamingo group and the Cretaceous Bathurst Island group. The paper describes the area geology, play types, and gas and oil potential.

  7. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold, silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum,...

  8. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold, silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum,...

  9. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... excess of the following areas: (a) For deposits of the nature of lodes, or veins containing ores of gold, silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum,...

  10. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  11. Specific phobias.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  12. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  13. Land development in Massachusetts: Its effect on the environment within Essex and Middlesex counties from 1990 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardie, Peter Sean

    Since the 1970's urban centers in and surrounding Essex and Middlesex Counties in Massachusetts have expanded and proliferated into adjacent communities. This expansion has led to the conversion of land for housing, businesses, schools, recreation, and parks, placing significant strain on existing land cover, land use, and available natural resources. Mounting growth pressures and a reduction of undeveloped land have raised serious concerns as cropland and forest fragmentation, wetland destruction, protected open-space infringement, pollution, and systematic losses of rural conditions have become obvious. To monitor development, the post-classification change detection method was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and GIS was used to detect, quantity, and document the extent of development and its effect on the environment and to assess and quantify the demographic changes that occurred within the counties from 1990 to 2007. Classification of the 1990 image resulted in 217 clusters and 214 clusters for the 2007 image The overall accuracy achieved for the 1990 image classification was 87.3% with a KHAT value of 0.848, and the overall accuracy for the 2007 classification was 86.27% with a KHAT value of 0.840. From 1990 to 2007 land cover change occurred primarily along major transportation corridors. The post-classification change detection results indicate that Essex and Middlesex County combined gained 23,435.66 "new" acres of land development from 1990 to 2007 through a loss and change in acreage from the Bareland, Forest, Grassland, Water, and Wetland land cover class categories. Results indicate that there was an approximate 0.56% overall (net) increase of newly developed land areas within the 1990 and 2007 image classifications from 415.46 acres or 0.64 square miles. In addition, there was a substantial decrease (-40.0%) within the grassland category. Land development was responsible for a portion of the decrease of grasslands (-13

  14. Environment Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carl A., II

    2010-01-01

    Environment isn't just the space itself; it also includes the feelings and vibes--the atmosphere. As with all environments there are elements that can't be controlled. So, the focus needs to be on what can be changed and modified to make the environment better. The environment in the school library can be compared to others in the real world. Not…

  15. Population and Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Carr, David; Cassels, Susan; Jiang, Leiwen

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics (e.g., population size, growth, density, age and sex composition, migration, urbanization, vital rates) and environmental changes. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems. PMID:20011237

  16. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  17. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  18. Specification Reformulation During Specification Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the ARIES Simulation Component (ASC) is to uncover behavioral errors by 'running' a specification at the earliest possible points during the specification development process. The problems to be overcome are the obvious ones the specification may be large, incomplete, underconstrained, and/or uncompilable. This paper describes how specification reformulation is used to mitigate these problems. ASC begins by decomposing validation into specific validation questions. Next, the specification is reformulated to abstract out all those features unrelated to the identified validation question thus creating a new specialized specification. ASC relies on a precise statement of the validation question and a careful application of transformations so as to preserve the essential specification semantics in the resulting specialized specification. This technique is a win if the resulting specialized specification is small enough so the user my easily handle any remaining obstacles to execution. This paper will: (1) describe what a validation question is; (2) outline analysis techniques for identifying what concepts are and are not relevant to a validation question; and (3) identify and apply transformations which remove these less relevant concepts while preserving those which are relevant.

  19. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  20. Socioeconomic environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic environment of the Tennessee Valley region. It describes the region and mentions geographical factors, current economy, the agricultural sector, and future trends in the economy of the region.

  1. Understanding Our Environment: People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Ann

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, students work individually and in groups to plan a future community in order to gain an understanding of how greatly increased human populations impact resources,…

  2. Understanding Our Environment: Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Laura M. Sanders

    This unit is part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience. Students begin by researching the migratory songbirds that live in their community. They determine the bird's roles in the ecosystems and their…

  3. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  4. Birds, Examining Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBean, John C.; And Others

    Designed to provide new and different ways of observing birds rather than simply identifying them, this book attempts to develop skills for how to look at birds. Activities in each of the four sections, "Live Birds,""Birds' Eggs,""Birds' Nests," and "Dead Birds," are specifically planned to get one involved with birds in their natural environment.…

  5. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  6. Understanding Our Environment: Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblich, Suzanne, Ed.

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses an in-depth study of a local stream or river to raise questions about the nature, sources, and uses of water. Students begin by identifying the…

  7. Visualization Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  8. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  9. Safe environments.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  10. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  11. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  12. 40 CFR 247.5 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Specifications. 247.5 Section 247.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES COMPREHENSIVE PROCUREMENT... specifications for procurement items procured by Federal agencies to revise their specifications by May 8,...

  13. Specific Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a recent case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which highlights the importance of having specific suspicions of misbehavior before conducting a strip search. The case involves an eighth-grade female student who was being strip-searched by a middle school assistant principal, a school nurse, and an administrative assistant…

  14. Safer Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes how new rules mean a safer environment.

  15. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  16. Numeracy in Society and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cath; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that focuses on how a Society and Environment unit could develop required numeracy. This is more of an integrated unit organised around a theme rather than a Society and Environment unit that required specific aspects of numeracy. Suggested data sources for examining students numeracy development included (1) a…

  17. ISS Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Microgravity performance assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of a quasi-steady, structural dynamic and a vibro-acoustic analysis of the ISS assembly-complete vehicle configuration. The Boeing Houston (BHOU) Loads and Dynamics Team is responsible to verify compliance with the ISS System Specification (SSP 41000) and USOS Segment (SSP 41162) microgravity requirements. To verify the ISS environment, a series of accelerometers are on-board to monitor the current environment. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis that was performed for the Verification Analysis Cycle (VAC)-Assembly Complete (AC) and compares it to on-orbit acceleration values currently being reported. The analysis will include the predicted maximum and average environment on-board ISS during multiple activity scenarios

  18. Process migration in UNIX environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1988-01-01

    To support process migration in UNIX environments, the main problem is how to encapsulate the location dependent features of the system in such a way that a host independent virtual environment is maintained by the migration handlers on the behalf of each migrated process. An object-oriented approach is used to describe the interaction between a process and its environment. More specifically, environmental objects were introduced in UNIX systems to carry out the user-environment interaction. The implementation of the migration handlers is based on both the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion.

  19. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  20. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  1. Environment matters

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This year's annual review is devoted to the theme of environmental health. It contains: an overview by the Director of the World Bank's Environment Department, J. Warren Evans; viewpoints on health risks of environmental pollution, integrating health concerns into carbon planning, sanitation in the world's poorest countries and impacts of indoor air pollution on health; and reviews on the World Bank's efforts to adapt safeguards to demanding priorities and on the Banks' 2005 environmental portfolio. Feature articles include a review of the Bank's Clean Air Initiative (now active in Africa, South and East Asia and Latin America). Reviews of work in the Bank's six regions focus on efforts to address the linkages among poverty, environmental pollution and human health.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  6. International environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    During the past 20 years, nations have signed an increasing number of agreements on an array of environmental concerns ranging from acid rain to marine pollution. The agreements generally call for the parties to report annually on implementation. In response to congressional concerns about how well these reporting obligations are being met, this paper discusses whether the agreements are specific enough to allow implementation to be measured and whether parties are reporting required information and how the administrative bodies for the agreements monitor implementation. GAO also identifies proposed measures for strengthening monitoring and implementation.

  7. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to 1000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  8. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  9. Research on agricultural ecology and environment analysis and modeling based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Hongfu; Wang, Mingsheng

    2009-07-01

    Analysis of agricultural ecology and environment is based on the data of agricultural resources, which are obtained by RS monitoring. The over-exploitation of farmlands will cause structural changes of the soil composition, and damage the planting environment and the agro-ecosystem. Through the research on the dynamic monitoring methods of multitemporal RS images and GIS technology, the crop growth status, crop acreage and other relevant information in agricultural production are extracted based on the monitor and analysis of the conditions of the fields and crop growth. The agro-ecological GIS platform is developed with the establishment of the agricultural resources management database, which manages spatial data, RS data and attribute data of agricultural resources. Using the RS, GIS analysis results, the reasons of agro-ecological destruction are analyzed and the evaluation methods are established. This paper puts forward the concept of utilization capacity of farmland, which describes farmland space for development and utilization that is influenced by the conditions of the land, water resources, climate, pesticides and chemical fertilizers and many other agricultural production factors. Assessment model of agricultural land use capacity is constructed with the help of Fuzzy. Assessing the utilization capacity of farmland can be helpful to agricultural production and ecological protection of farmland. This paper describes the application of the capacity evaluation model with simulated data in two aspects, namely, in evaluating the status of farmland development and utilization and in optimal planting.

  10. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87...) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in § 87.61 shall be used in smoke emission testing....

  11. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  15. Obesity and Economic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  16. Development of Quantitative Specifications for Simulating the Stress Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    specifying loudness is the decibel (dB). The bel (B) is a basic unit of measurement named after Alexander Graham Bell; a decibel (dB) ic 1/10 of a bel...20 feet 90-100 dB Pneumatic hammer 130 dB Jet aircraft at 35 feet actually lead to improved performance (as only irrelevant stimuli may be ignored...resulted from the subjects having control andnot receiving shocks (r - -. 172). The final two situations: (a) no control# shocks delivered and (b

  17. MAGIC (Mobile Autonomous Generic Instrument Carrier): Environment Specification & Requirements Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbach, S.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.-M.; Lange, C.; Ulamec, S.; Witte, L.; Zoest, T. V.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents first results of the DLR MAGIC (Mobile Autonomous Generic Instrument Carrier) study. MAGIC, a small robotic landing system that can autonomously relocate and upright, shall allow carrying variable suites of innovative instrumentation (up to a limit of ca. 3kg) for in-situ exploration to a broad, but defined, range of small bodies (such as asteroids, Near Earth Objects (NEO) and small moons). The instrumentation delivered shall allow studying the body's physical properties, internal, surface and subsurface structure and its chemical composition, thus being a complement to any rendezvous or sample return missions to small bodies.

  18. Specifying the ISS Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, J.; Diekmann, A.; Neergaard, L.; Bui, T.; Mikatarian, R.; Barsamian, H.; Koontz, S.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying the spacecraft charging risks and corresponding hazards for the International Space Station (ISS) requires a plasma environment specification describing the natural variability of ionospheric temperature (Te) and density (Ne). Empirical ionospheric specification and forecast models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model typically only provide estimates of long term (seasonal) mean Te and Ne values for the low Earth orbit environment. Knowledge of the Te and Ne variability as well as the likelihood of extreme deviations from the mean values are required to estimate both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of potentially hazardous spacecraft charging environments for a given ISS construction stage and flight configuration. This paper describes a statistical analysis of historical ionospheric low Earth orbit plasma measurements used to estimate Ne, Te variability in the ISS flight environment. The statistical variability analysis of Ne and Te enables calculation of the expected frequency of occurrence of any particular values of Ne and Te, especially those that correspond to possibly hazardous spacecraft charging environments. The database used in the original analysis included measurements from the AE-C, AE-D, and DE-2 satellites and recent work on the database has added additional satellites to the database and ground based incoherent scatter radar observations as well. Deviations of the data values from the IRI estimated Ne, Te parameters for each data point provide a statistical basis for modeling the deviations of the plasma environment from the IRI model output.

  19. Feminist Interventions in Electronic Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocks, Mary E.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that feminist interventions are communicative acts that bring attention to shifting power relations within a specific discursive context. Argues that enacting feminist interventions in online environments changes the online community's identity and narrow sense of audience, and that creating feminist multimedia helps ensure a more human,…

  20. Energy-Environment Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervine, Kathryn E.; Cawley, Rebecca E.

    This publication, one part of a three-part NSTA series on energy-environment, is a sampling of current energy literature. The references are divided into four separate categories, each directed for a specific audience: readings for teachers, readings for students (grades 8-10); Readings for students (grades 5-9); and readings for students (grades…

  1. The Environment: Our Children's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of the child and its environment. Specifically, topics covered include (1) awareness of the kind of world our children will inherit; (2) the survival of an urban child; (3) the survival of a Sahelian rural child as a working member of his farming community;…

  2. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  3. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  4. DPC materials and corrosion environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Bryan, Charles R.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest; Clarity, J.

    2014-10-01

    After an exposition of the materials used in DPCs and the factors controlling material corrosion in disposal environments, a survey is given of the corrosion rates, mechanisms, and products for commonly used stainless steels. Research needs are then identified for predicting stability of DPC materials in disposal environments. Stainless steel corrosion rates may be low enough to sustain DPC basket structural integrity for performance periods of as long as 10,000 years, especially in reducing conditions. Uncertainties include basket component design, disposal environment conditions, and the in-package chemical environment including any localized effects from radiolysis. Prospective disposal overpack materials exist for most disposal environments, including both corrosion allowance and corrosion resistant materials. Whereas the behavior of corrosion allowance materials is understood for a wide range of corrosion environments, demonstrating corrosion resistance could be more technically challenging and require environment-specific testing. A preliminary screening of the existing inventory of DPCs and other types of canisters is described, according to the type of closure, whether they can be readily transported, and what types of materials are used in basket construction.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1513...

  6. 40 CFR 7.145 - Specific prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific prohibitions. 7.145 Section 7.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR... respect to individuals of a particular age. (c) A recipient shall not choose a site or location of...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., aquaculture, and ornamental nursery; (2) Tree crops and other perennials, unless: (i) The producer can prove resources unique to the planting of tree crops and other perennials were available to plant, grow,...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.201 - Prevented planting acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., aquaculture, and ornamental nursery; (2) Tree crops and other perennials, unless: (i) The producer can prove resources unique to the planting of tree crops and other perennials were available to plant, grow,...

  9. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planting benefits under this part apply to irrigated crops where... Section 760.815 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... period of dry weather; (2) Verifiable information collected by sources whose business or purpose is...

  10. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planting benefits under this part apply to irrigated crops where... Section 760.815 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... period of dry weather; (2) Verifiable information collected by sources whose business or purpose is...

  11. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planting benefits under this part apply to irrigated crops where... Section 760.815 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... period of dry weather; (2) Verifiable information collected by sources whose business or purpose is...

  12. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planting benefits under this part apply to irrigated crops where... Section 760.815 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... period of dry weather; (2) Verifiable information collected by sources whose business or purpose is...

  13. 7 CFR 760.815 - Calculation of prevented planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... National Weather Service. (g) Prevented planting benefits under this part apply to irrigated crops where... Section 760.815 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... period of dry weather; (2) Verifiable information collected by sources whose business or purpose is...

  14. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The microdensitometer will be used to analyze data acquired by ERTS-1 imagery. The classification programs and software packages have been acquired and are being prepared for use with the information as it is received. Photo and digital tapes have been acquired for coverage of virtually 100 percent of the test site areas. These areas are located in South Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, and Kansas. Hass 70mm color infrared, infrared, black and white high altitude aerial photography of the test sites is available. Collection of ground truth for updating the data base has been completed and a computer program written to count the number of fields and give total acres by size group for the segments in each test site. Results are given of data analysis performed on digitized data from densitometer measurements of fields of corn, sugar, beets, and alfalfa in Kansas.

  15. Monitoring irrigated land acreage using Landsat imagery: an application example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Two interpreters independently estimated the irrigated area.  Their adjusted estimates were 285,000 acres (115,000 ha) and 267,000 acres (108,000 ha) respectively, with corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals of +19,500 acres (7,880 ha) and +34,700 acres (14,000 ha). The estimated cost of the survey, exclusive of management costs and training, was $1,500.

  16. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  17. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  18. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  4. The role of phenology in statistical crop acreage measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to achieve market acceptance, the accuracy of remote sensing systems needs to be increased from the historically achieved average level of approximately 80-85% to 96-98%, i.e., by a factor of at least three, preferably five. A theory of discrimination is developed based on the fine-grained spectral data from LACIE supersites. It is shown that significant improvements in discrimination accuracy are possible by exploiting the differentials of crop spectra occurring between different phenologic stages. The major effects of such techniques on data system design are examined with respect to recurrence frequency, data volume, and information extraction.

  5. 7 CFR 1410.4 - Maximum county acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.4 Maximum... having difficulties complying with conservation plans implemented under part 12 of this title. (c)...

  6. An Integrated Product Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Chuck

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Advantage is a mechanical design decision support system. Unlike our CAD/CAM cousins, Mechanical Advantage addresses true engineering processes, not just the form and fit of geometry. If we look at a traditional engineering environment, we see that an engineer starts with two things - performance goals and design rules. The intent is to have a product perform specific functions and accomplish that within a designated environment. Geometry should be a simple byproduct of that engineering process - not the controller of it. Mechanical Advantage is a performance modeler allowing engineers to consider all these criteria in making their decisions by providing such capabilities as critical parameter analysis, tolerance and sensitivity analysis, math driven Geometry, and automated design optimizations. If you should desire an industry standard solid model, we would produce an ACIS-based solid model. If you should desire an ANSI/ISO standard drawing, we would produce this as well with a virtual push of the button. For more information on this and other Advantage Series products, please contact the author.

  7. The auxiliary use of LANDSAT data in estimating crop acreages: Results of the 1975 Illinois crop-acreage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, C. (Principal Investigator); Starbuck, R. R.; Sigman, R. S.; Hanuschak, G. A.; Craig, M. E.; Cook, P. W.; Allen, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that classifier performance was influenced by a number of temporal, methodological, and geographical factors. Best results were obtained when corn was tasselled and near the dough stage of development. Dates earlier or later in the growing season produced poor results. Atmospheric effects on results cannot be independently measured or completely separated from the effects due to the maturity stage of the crops. Poor classifier performance was observed in areas where considerable spectral confusion was present.

  8. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  9. NCSE Conference 2017: Integrating Environment & Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This conference will bring together scientist and professionals to discuss the complex relationships between people, the planet, and all living beings. The focus will specifically be integrating environment and health.

  10. Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Assistive Living Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papangelis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Dialogue Systems (ADS) are intelligent systems, able to interact with users via multiple modalities, such as speech, gestures, facial expressions and others. Such systems are able to make conversation with their users, usually on a specific, narrow topic. Assistive Living Environments are environments where the users are by definition not…

  11. Managing for the Ideal Research Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses two questions relating to research: (1) what is the best environment in which to carry out research and (2) what is the best way to manage employment in order to maintain this environment? It focuses on research management in UK higher education, but attempts to generalise beyond a specifically national context. The article…

  12. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  13. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  14. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  15. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  16. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  17. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  18. Debugging in a parallel environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Griffin, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a project investigating approaches to dynamic debugging in parallel processing systems. Debugging programs in a multiprocessing environment is particularly difficult because of potential errors in synchronization of tasks, data dependencies, sharing of data among tasks, and irreproducibility of specific machine instruction sequences from one job to the next. The basic methodology involved in predicate-based debuggers is given as well as other desirable features of dynamic parallel debugging. 13 refs.

  19. Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

  20. Environment and asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Dumas, Orianne; Kauffmann, Francine; Nadif, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    The present review addresses recent advances and especially challenging aspects regarding the role of environmental risk factors in adult-onset asthma, for which the causes are poorly established. In the first part of the review, we discuss aspects regarding some environmental risk factors for adult-onset asthma: air pollution, occupational exposures with a focus on an emerging risk represented by exposure to cleaning agents (both at home and in the workplace), and lifestyle and nutrition. The second part is focused on perspectives and challenges, regarding relevant topics on which research is needed to improve the understanding of the role of environmental factors in asthma. Aspects of exposure assessment, the complexity of multiple exposures, the interrelationships of the environment with behavioral characteristics and the importance of studying biological markers and gene-environment interactions to identify the role of the environment in asthma are discussed. We conclude that environmental and lifestyle exposures play an important role in asthma or related phenotypes. The changes in lifestyle and the environment in recent decades have modified the specific risk factors in asthma even for well-recognized risks such as occupational exposures. To better understand the role of the environment in asthma, the use of objective (quantitative measurement of exposures) or modern tools (bar code, GPS) and the development of multidisciplinary collaboration would be very promising. A better understanding of the complex interrelationships between socio-economic, nutritional, lifestyle and environmental conditions might help to study their joint and independent roles in asthma.

  1. Mining Specifications: A Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Andreas

    Recent advances in software validation and verification make it possible to widely automate whether a specification is satisfied. This progress is hampered, though, by the persistent difficulty of writing specifications. Are we facing a “specification crisis”? In this paper, I show how to alleviate the burden of writing specifications by reusing and extending specifications as mined from existing software and give an overview on the state of the art in specification mining, its origins, and its potential.

  2. Environments for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinski, C. Joanne

    2005-01-01

    This chapter considers Robert Kegan's concept of holding environments, as well as six steps necessary for creation of new or adaptation of existing learning environments that facilitate adult development across the life course.

  3. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  4. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  5. Environment and health: Probes and sensors for environment digital control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettini, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The idea of studying the environment using New Technologies (NT) came from a MIUR (Ministry of Education of the Italian Government) notice that allocated funds for the realization of innovative school science projects. The "Environment and Health" project uses probes and sensors for digital control of environment (water, air and soil). The working group was composed of 4 Science teachers from 'Liceo Statale G. Mazzini ', under the coordination of teacher Chiara Schettini. The Didactic Section of Naples City of Sciences helped the teachers in developing the project and it organized a refresher course for them on the utilization of digital control sensors. The project connects Environment and Technology because the study of the natural aspects and the analysis of the chemical-physical parameters give students and teachers skills for studying the environment based on the utilization of NT in computing data elaboration. During the practical project, samples of air, water and soil are gathered in different contexts. Sample analysis was done in the school's scientific laboratory with digitally controlled sensors. The data are elaborated with specific software and the results have been written in a booklet and in a computing database. During the first year, the project involved 6 school classes (age of the students 14—15 years), under the coordination of Science teachers. The project aims are: 1) making students more aware about environmental matters 2) achieving basic skills for evaluating air, water and soil quality. 3) achieving strong skills for the utilization of digitally controlled sensors. 4) achieving computing skills for elaborating and presenting data. The project aims to develop a large environmental conscience and the need of a ' good ' environment for defending our health. Moreover it would increase the importance of NT as an instrument of knowledge.

  6. Fun with the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This self-contained activity booklet is designed to teach young elementary students about their environment. Information about the environment and people's interaction with it are presented in cartoon and coloring book form. Drawings and simple vocabulary explain how the environment is polluted and natural resources wasted, as well as ways that…

  7. Environments, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to Environments, the fourth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems, and make use of scientific and…

  8. Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim; And Others

    2001-01-01

    Four articles suggest ways to create good child care environments: (1) "What Kind of Place for Child Care in the 21st Century?" (Greenman); (2) "Strategies for Enhancing Children's Use of the Environment" (Curtis); (3) "Designing the Family Child Care Environment" (Osborn); (4) "Imagine! Child Care--A Great Place for Teachers, Too" (Haack,…

  9. Computing environment logbook

    DOEpatents

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1771-99 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1771-99... Trucks § 86.1771-99 Fuel specifications. (a) The provisions of § 86.113 apply to this subpart, with the... specifications listed in the table in this paragraph (a)(1). Specifications for non-gasoline fuels and all...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1771-99 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1771-99... Trucks § 86.1771-99 Fuel specifications. (a) The provisions of § 86.113 apply to this subpart, with the... specifications listed in the table in this paragraph (a)(1). Specifications for non-gasoline fuels and all...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1771-99 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1771-99... Trucks § 86.1771-99 Fuel specifications. (a) The provisions of § 86.113 apply to this subpart, with the... specifications listed in the table in this paragraph (a)(1). Specifications for non-gasoline fuels and all...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1771-99 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1771-99... Trucks § 86.1771-99 Fuel specifications. (a) The provisions of § 86.113 apply to this subpart, with the... specifications listed in the table in this paragraph (a)(1). Specifications for non-gasoline fuels and all...

  14. Intelligent Motion and Interaction Within Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Slater, Mel (Editor); Alexander, Thomas (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    What makes virtual actors and objects in virtual environments seem real? How can the illusion of their reality be supported? What sorts of training or user-interface applications benefit from realistic user-environment interactions? These are some of the central questions that designers of virtual environments face. To be sure simulation realism is not necessarily the major, or even a required goal, of a virtual environment intended to communicate specific information. But for some applications in entertainment, marketing, or aspects of vehicle simulation training, realism is essential. The following chapters will examine how a sense of truly interacting with dynamic, intelligent agents may arise in users of virtual environments. These chapters are based on presentations at the London conference on Intelligent Motion and Interaction within a Virtual Environments which was held at University College, London, U.K., 15-17 September 2003.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment required and specifications; overview. 86.1406 Section 86.1406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... specifications; overview. (a) Exhaust emission tests. All vehicles subject to this subpart are tested for...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1213-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-08 Section 86.1213-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-08 Fuel specifications. The test fuels listed in 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1213-94 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-94 Section 86.1213-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-94 Fuel specifications. Use the fuels specified in subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1213-94 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-94 Section 86.1213-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-94 Fuel specifications. Use the fuels specified in subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1213-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-08 Section 86.1213-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-08 Fuel specifications. The test fuels listed in 40 CFR...

  20. 40 CFR 86.884-6 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.884-6 Section 86.884-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-6 Fuel specifications....

  1. 40 CFR 86.1213-94 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-94 Section 86.1213-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-94 Fuel specifications. Use the fuels specified in subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1213-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-08 Section 86.1213-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-08 Fuel specifications. The test fuels listed in 40 CFR...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1213-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-08 Section 86.1213-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-08 Fuel specifications. The test fuels listed in 40 CFR...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1213-94 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1213-94 Section 86.1213-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1213-94 Fuel specifications. Use the fuels specified in subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 75.14 - Specific provisions for monitoring opacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring opacity. 75.14 Section 75.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Monitoring Provisions § 75.14 Specific provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications. 89.415 Section 89.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate...

  7. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Fuel flow measurement specifications. 89.415 Section 89.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate...

  8. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications. 89.415 Section 89.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate...

  9. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications. 89.415 Section 89.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate...

  10. 40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications. 89.415 Section 89.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate...

  11. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific criteria for site selection. 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.6 Specific criteria for...

  12. Formal specification and verification of Ada software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hird, Geoffrey R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods in software development achieves levels of quality assurance unobtainable by other means. The Larch approach to specification is described, and the specification of avionics software designed to implement the logic of a flight control system is given as an example. Penelope is described which is an Ada-verification environment. The Penelope user inputs mathematical definitions, Larch-style specifications and Ada code and performs machine-assisted proofs that the code obeys its specifications. As an example, the verification of a binary search function is considered. Emphasis is given to techniques assisting the reuse of a verification effort on modified code.

  13. [Environment and rural development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  14. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  15. Video personalization for usage environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Lin, Ching-Yung; Smith, John R.

    2002-07-01

    A video personalization and summarization system is designed and implemented incorporating usage environment to dynamically generate a personalized video summary. The personalization system adopts the three-tier server-middleware-client architecture in order to select, adapt, and deliver rich media content to the user. The server stores the content sources along with their corresponding MPEG-7 metadata descriptions. Our semantic metadata is provided through the use of the VideoAnnEx MPEG-7 Video Annotation Tool. When the user initiates a request for content, the client communicates the MPEG-21 usage environment description along with the user query to the middleware. The middleware is powered by the personalization engine and the content adaptation engine. Our personalization engine includes the VideoSue Summarization on Usage Environment engine that selects the optimal set of desired contents according to user preferences. Afterwards, the adaptation engine performs the required transformations and compositions of the selected contents for the specific usage environment using our VideoEd Editing and Composition Tool. Finally, two personalization and summarization systems are demonstrated for the IBM Websphere Portal Server and for the pervasive PDA devices.

  16. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  17. Standards for moderate thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N K; Olesen, B W

    1985-06-01

    Recently two Draft International Standards dealing with specifications of the conditions for thermal comfort (ISO DIS 7730) and measurement procedures (ISO DIS 7726) have been approved by the International Stadardisation Organisation (ISO). The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has made a standard with similar requirements for the thermal environment (ASHRAE, 1981). To verify the requirements, measurements of different thermal parameters have to be performed. Guidelines as to how and where to measure are also given in the standards. The present paper deals mainly with the requirements and measurements that are relevant for moderate thermal environments in places of residence, offices, hospitals and light industry. For evaluation of very hot or very cold surroundings, other methods are required. Only measurements of parameters that influence the perception of the thermal surroundings are included.

  18. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  19. Mining the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  20. Hydrogen environment embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement is classified into three types: internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen reaction embrittlement, and hydrogen environment embrittlement. Characteristics of and materials embrittled by these types of hydrogen embrittlement are discussed. Hydrogen environment embrittlement is reviewed in detail. Factors involved in standardizing test methods for detecting the occurrence of and evaluating the severity of hydrogen environment embrittlement are considered. The effect of test technique, hydrogen pressure, purity, strain rate, stress concentration factor, and test temperature are discussed. Additional research is required to determine whether hydrogen environment embrittlement and internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement are similar or distinct types of embrittlement.

  1. General aviation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The background, development, and relationship, among economic factors, airworthiness, costs, and environment protection are examined. Government regulations for airports, air agencies, aircraft, and airmen are reviewed.

  2. Microbiology & Toxicology: Space Environment

    NASA Video Gallery

    One key aspect in maintaining crew health and performance during spaceflight missions is the provision of a habitable environment with acceptably low concentrations of microbiological and toxicolog...

  3. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  4. Glass corrosion in natural environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.

    1989-01-01

    A series of studies of the effects of solutes which appear in natural aqueous environments, specifically Mg and Al, under controlled conditions, permit characterization of the retardation of silicate glass leaching in water containing such solutes. In the case of Mg the interaction with the glass appears to consist of exchange with alkali ions present in the glass to a depth of several microns. The effect of Al can be observed at much lower levels, indicating that the mechanism in the case of Al involves irreversible formation of aluminosilicate species at the glass surface.

  5. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  6. Near Space Environments: Tethering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucht, Nolan R.

    2013-01-01

    Near Space Environments, the Rocket University (Rocket U) program dealing with high altitude balloons carrying payloads into the upper earth atmosphere is the field of my project. The tethering from balloon to payload is the specific system I am responsible for. The tethering system includes, the lines that tie the payload to the balloon, as well as, lines that connect payloads together, if they are needed, as well as how to sever the tether to release payloads from the balloon. My objective is to design a tethering system that will carry a payload to any desired altitude and then sever by command at any given point during flight.

  7. Engineering plants for spaceflight environments.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B

    1999-05-01

    The conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass and yield has steadily increased for centuries because of continued improvement in both plant genetics and environmental control. Considerable effort has gone into improving the environment for plant growth in space, but work has only begun to engineer plants for spaceflight. Genetic manipulation offers tremendous potential to improve our ability to study gravitational effects. Genetic manipulation will also be necessary to build an efficient regenerative life support system. We cannot fully characterize plant response to the spaceflight environment without understanding and manipulating their genetic composition. Identification and selection of the existing germplasm is the first step. There are thousands of cultivars of each of our major crop plants, each specifically adapted to a unique environment on our planet. Thousands of additional lines are held in national germplasm collections to maintain genetic diversity. Spaceflight imposes the need to tap this diversity. Existing lines need to be evaluated in the environment that is characteristic of closed-system spaceflight conditions. Many of the plant growth challenges we confront in space can be better solved through genetic change than by hardware engineering. Ten thousand years of plant breeding has demonstrated the value of matching genetics with the environment. For example, providing continuous light can increase plant growth in space, but this often induces calcium deficiencies because Ca is not supplied by guttation during a dark period. This deficiency cannot be eliminated through increased root-zone and foliar Ca applications. It can be solved, in wheat, through genetic selection of lines that do not have the deficiency. Subsequent comparison of lines with and without the Ca deficiency has also helped us understand the nature of the problem.

  8. Engineering plants for spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass and yield has steadily increased for centuries because of continued improvement in both plant genetics and environmental control. Considerable effort has gone into improving the environment for plant growth in space, but work has only begun to engineer plants for spaceflight. Genetic manipulation offers tremendous potential to improve our ability to study gravitational effects. Genetic manipulation will also be necessary to build an efficient regenerative life support system. We cannot fully characterize plant response to the spaceflight environment without understanding and manipulating their genetic composition. Identification and selection of the existing germplasm is the first step. There are thousands of cultivars of each of our major crop plants, each specifically adapted to a unique environment on our planet. Thousands of additional lines are held in national germplasm collections to maintain genetic diversity. Spaceflight imposes the need to tap this diversity. Existing lines need to be evaluated in the environment that is characteristic of closed-system spaceflight conditions. Many of the plant growth challenges we confront in space can be better solved through genetic change than by hardware engineering. Ten thousand years of plant breeding has demonstrated the value of matching genetics with the environment. For example, providing continuous light can increase plant growth in space, but this often induces calcium deficiencies because Ca is not supplied by guttation during a dark period. This deficiency cannot be eliminated through increased root-zone and foliar Ca applications. It can be solved, in wheat, through genetic selection of lines that do not have the deficiency. Subsequent comparison of lines with and without the Ca deficiency has also helped us understand the nature of the problem.

  9. Helical Membrane Protein Conformations and their Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Timothy A.; Murray, Dylan T.; Watts, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that membrane proteins respond conformationally and functionally to their environment is gaining pace. Structural models, by necessity, have been characterized in preparations where the protein has been removed from its native environment. Different structural methods have used various membrane mimetics that have recently included lipid bilayers as a more native-like environment. Structural tools applied to lipid bilayer-embedded integral proteins are informing us about important generic characteristics of how membrane proteins respond to the lipid environment as compared with their response to other non-lipid environments. Here, we review the current status of the field, with specific reference to observations of some well-studied α-helical membrane proteins, as a starting point to aid the development of possible generic principals for model refinement. PMID:23996195

  10. Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.G.; Batts, G. W.; Anderson, B. J.; James, B. F.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) for determining appropriate engineering design values to specify the thermal environment of Earth-orbiting satellites. The thermal environment of a satellite, consists of three components: (1) direct solar radiation, (2) Earth-atmosphere reflected shortwave radiation, as characterized by Earth's albedo, and (3) Earth-atmosphere-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). This report, together with a companion "guidelines" report provides methodology and guidelines for selecting "design points" for thermal environment parameters for satellites and spacecraft systems. The methods and models reported here are outgrowths of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) satellite data analysis and thermal environment specifications discussed by Anderson and Smith (1994). In large part, this report is intended to update (and supersede) those results.

  11. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  12. Environments of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ursula

    This report describes findings of a study concerned with identifying environments of support to increase the participation and success of African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, and U.S.-born Asian Americans in doctoral programs. The project found that supportive environments include: (1) aggressive and targeted recruitment efforts; (2)…

  13. Managing School Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Michael A.

    Asserting that successfully managing a school environment is a necessary and essential educational investment, this paper details common problems with school environments and how to address them. These include environmental awareness training, moisture and water management, effective ventilation, mold removal, and cleaning and restoration…

  14. Forest Environment Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szuhy, Donna L. T.; Shepard, Clint L.

    Environmental education, as a teaching methodology, is appropriate for all subject areas and environments. Two teaching approaches are presented with the 13 activities in this booklet serving as examples of their application to the forest environment and different disciplines. The first approach is based upon the understanding that learners retain…

  15. An Engaging Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The author believes that a stimulating learning environment can offer benefits to the general classroom conduct of young people through the different charts displayed in his classroom. Students see the teacher taking pride in their shared working environment and wall or table graffiti. He mentions that he does not only care for his students'…

  16. Healthful School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C., Ed.; Wilson, Elizabeth Avery, Ed.

    A broad range of topics deals with the development, maintenance, and full utilization of a healthful school environment, encompassing such areas as--(1) school organizations which affect the student environment, (2) accident prevention, (3) the criteria for healthful food services, (4) physical education and the necessary athletic facilities, (5)…

  17. Open Access Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentor, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions are increasingly adopting "closed" learning environments that hide learning materials in password-protected areas. While this may be a logical solution to a range of problems, much is lost in this mode of course delivery. Although there are logical reasons for moving toward closed environments, we may be erring…

  18. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic…

  19. Space and Atmospheric Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on space environments and the protection of materials and structures from their harsh conditions. Space environments are complex, and the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing. Design accommodation must be realistic. Environmental problems can be limited at low cost relative to spacecraft cost.

  20. Population and Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of 'protection' is possible only before something is lost, however, development of the built environment to meet human needs also compromises the environmental systems that sustain human life. Because maintaining an environment that is able to sustain human life re...

  1. System specification for the reusable reentry satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The RRS design shall provide a relatively inexpensive method of access to micro and fractional gravity space environments for an extended period of time, with eventual intact recovery on the surface of the Earth. This specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system.

  2. Radiotherapy supports protective tumor-specific immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anurag; Sharma, Anu; von Boehmer, Lotta; Surace, Laura; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Growing evidence indicates that, besides inducing an irreversible DNA damage, radiotherapy promotes tumor-specific immune response, which significantly contribute to therapeutic efficacy. We postulate that radiotherapy activates tumor-associated dendritic cells, thus changing the tolerogenic tumor environment into an immunogenic one. PMID:23264910

  3. Dancing in Place: Site-Specific Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metal-Corbin, Josie

    2012-01-01

    In her lecture the 2012 NDA Scholar/Artist, Josie Metal-Corbin, chronicles four decades of working with artists, educators, librarians, and scientists. The kinetic language of dance and the visual impact of specific environments provide provocative opportunities for collaboration, wherein the site becomes the framework or map for the dance design.…

  4. Genesis Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  5. Specific heat revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, C. A.; Condat, C. A.; Lamberti, P. W.; Prato, D. P.

    1996-06-01

    The correlation between potential shape and specific heat is generally absent from textbook discussions. We present a detailed analysis of the specific heat contribution due to independent particles subject to one-dimensional classical and quantum model potentials. For the classical models, we use phase space concepts to develop a clear physical interpretation of the temperature dependence of the specific heat. For the quantum models, we make the interpretation in terms of the differences in quantum levels.

  6. [Specific dermatoses of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vera; Coutinho, Inês; Gameiro, Rita; Vieira, Ricardo; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy immunological, metabolic, hormonal and vascular changes occur, and can cause specific skin diseases. The specific dermatoses of pregnancy have undergone numerous changes in nomenclature and classification, partly due to advances in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of these skin diseases. Currently the following diseases are considered specific dermatoses of pregnancy: pemphigoid gestations, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and specific and safe treatment are essential to prevent complications which, although rare, may be associated with significant maternal-fetal comorbidity.

  7. Blast casting in a sensitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stach, G.J.; Hale, N.

    1984-07-01

    Bicknell Minerals' mine is located in the rolling farm country of Southwestern Indiana near the town of Bicknell. Approximately 600,000 tpy of washed coal is produced from a two-seam operation in the Illinois coal basin which covers most of Illinois and southwestern Indiana and extends into western Kentucky. The firm operates a McNally-Pittsburgh jig preparation plant, and all of the production is under contract to a major utility. The acreage being stripped by Bicknell adjoins property on which an active 250,000 tpy underground coal mine is situated. Bicknell is extracting coal from two seams-the Danville number7 upper seam and the Hymera number6 seam which, with the number7 dips down slightly on property from the southwest to the northeast where underground mining is carried out. The proximity of a working underground mine is a constant factor in operations.

  8. Advanced Instrumentation for Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise extreme environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these extreme conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the extreme environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with

  9. 40 CFR 86.213-11 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.213-11 Section...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.213-11 Fuel specifications. (a) Gasoline... available to the Administrator upon request. The table listing the cold CO fuel specifications described...

  10. 40 CFR 86.213-11 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.213-11 Section...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.213-11 Fuel specifications. (a) Gasoline... available to the Administrator upon request. The table listing the cold CO fuel specifications described...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1313-2007 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1313-2007... § 86.1313-2007 Fuel specifications. Section 86.1313-2007 includes text that specifies requirements that...) Petroleum fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in Table N07-2, or substantially...

  12. 40 CFR 86.213-11 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.213-11 Section...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.213-11 Fuel specifications. (a) Gasoline... available to the Administrator upon request. The table listing the cold CO fuel specifications described...

  13. 40 CFR 86.213-11 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.213-11 Section...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.213-11 Fuel specifications. (a) Gasoline... available to the Administrator upon request. The table listing the cold CO fuel specifications described...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1313-2007 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1313-2007... § 86.1313-2007 Fuel specifications. Section 86.1313-2007 includes text that specifies requirements that...) Petroleum fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in Table N07-2, or substantially...

  15. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer specifications and... ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a) Dynamometer specifications. The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of power...

  16. 40 CFR 90.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer specifications and... KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.305 Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy. (a) Dynamometer specifications. The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement...

  17. 40 CFR 91.305 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer specifications and... Equipment Provisions § 91.305 Dynamometer specifications and calibration accuracy. (a) Dynamometer specifications. (1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of engine speed and...

  18. Software development environment, appendix F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The current status in the area of software development environments is assessed. The purposes of environments, the types of environments, the constituents of an environment, the issue of environment integration, and the problems which must be solved in preparing an environment are discussed. Some general maxims to guide near-term future work are proposed.

  19. Coevolution of compositional protocells and their environment.

    PubMed

    Shenhav, Barak; Oz, Aia; Lancet, Doron

    2007-10-29

    The coevolution of environment and living organisms is well known in nature. Here, it is suggested that similar processes can take place before the onset of life, where protocellular entities, rather than full-fledged living systems, coevolve along with their surroundings. Specifically, it is suggested that the chemical composition of the environment may have governed the chemical repertoire generated within molecular assemblies, compositional protocells, while compounds generated within these protocells altered the chemical composition of the environment. We present an extension of the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model--the environment exchange polymer GARD (EE-GARD) model. In the new model, molecules, which are formed in a protocellular assembly, may be exported to the environment that surrounds the protocell. Computer simulations of the model using an infinite-sized environment showed that EE-GARD assemblies may assume several distinct quasi-stationary compositions (composomes), similar to the observations in previous variants of the GARD model. A statistical analysis suggested that the repertoire of composomes manifested by the assemblies is independent of time. In simulations with a finite environment, this was not the case. Composomes, which were frequent in the early stages of the simulation disappeared, while others emerged. The change in the frequencies of composomes was found to be correlated with changes induced on the environment by the assembly. The EE-GARD model is the first GARD model to portray a possible time evolution of the composomes repertoire.

  20. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  1. Prototype Facility Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Div. of Professional-Technical Education, Boise.

    This document presents prototypical educational specifications to guide the building and renovation of Idaho vocational schools so they can help communities meet the advanced, professional-technical programs of the future. The specifications start with points to consider when determining school site suitability. The document then sets forth…

  2. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  3. Site-specific DNA-antibody conjugates for specific and sensitive immuno-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kazane, Stephanie A.; Sok, Devin; Cho, Edward H.; Uson, Maria Loressa; Kuhn, Peter; Schultz, Peter G.; Smider, Vaughn V.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody conjugates are widely used as diagnostics and imaging reagents. However, many such conjugates suffer losses in sensitivity and specificity due to nonspecific labeling techniques. We have developed methodology to site-specifically conjugate oligonucleotides to antibodies containing a genetically encoded unnatural amino acid with orthogonal chemical reactivity. These oligobody molecules were used in immuno-PCR assays to detect Her2+ cells with greater sensitivity and specificity than nonspecifically coupled fragments, and can detect extremely rare Her2+ cells in a complex cellular environment. Such designed antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates should provide sensitive and specific reagents for diagnostics, as well as enable other unique applications based on oligobody building blocks. PMID:22345566

  4. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  5. College residential sleep environment.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  6. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  7. Salmonellae in the environment.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J

    1991-09-01

    Salmonellae are part of the bacterial flora normally found in Man and animals, although the frequency of occurrence is variable, reflecting the general level of Salmonella in food, water and the environment. They are widely disseminated into environments which have been disturbed by human activities. Wildlife may harbour the organisms but do not appear to be a major conduit by which the organisms enter the human and animal food chain. In areas associated with Man, salmonellae in wild animals and birds reflect the serovars disseminated into the environment. Seasonal changes in infection occur, and the capacity of the organisms to survive in nature varies. Water plays an important role in the spread of the organisms to Man and animals. Control of salmonellae must start with a significant decrease in the number of organisms which are discharged into the environment.

  8. SN Environments in LEGUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; LEGUS Team

    2017-01-01

    From the LEGUS multi-band data we can analyze the stellar environments of recent supernovae (SNe), attempt to recover emission from the aging SNe, and search for light echoes around them. We can attempt to constrain the properties of the SN progenitor, based on age estimates for stellar populations in the immediate SN environments. The sites of 15 SNe of various types can be isolated in these images. I will briefly provide a summary of what we have learned about these SNe from their LEGUS environments. A few of these environments have been analyzed and published by other teams. In addition, two SNe occurred shortly after observations were made of two of the galaxies in our sample, NGC 4258 and NGC 1566. I will talk about the inferences we can make regarding the progenitors of these two core-collapse events. In general, the LEGUS dataset will be a valuable resource for identifying the progenitors of future SNe.

  9. Specification Technology Guidelines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    Chicago, Ill., October 27-31, 1980. 0. Marca , D. and D. Thornhill, "Modeling Software Configurability Require- ments," in Requirements Engineering...Environments, ed. Y. Ohno, pp. 51- 58, North-Holland Publishing Company, 1082. B-7 L7 - 0 Marca , D. and C. McGowan, "Static and Dynamic Data Modeling for

  10. Comprehensive affected environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

  11. Aryl azide photochemistry in defined protein environments.

    PubMed

    Morris, Josephine L; Reddington, Samuel C; Murphy, Damien M; Jones, D Dafydd; Platts, James A; Tippmann, Eric M

    2013-02-15

    A genetically encoded precursor to an aryl nitrene, para-azidophenylalanine, was introduced site specifically into proteins to deduce if distinct environments were capable of caging a reactive organic intermediate. Following photolysis of mutant T4 lysozyme or green fluorescent proteins, EPR spectra showed, respectively, the presence of a triplet nitrene and an anilino radical.

  12. Experiencing Sexually Objectifying Environments: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Lauren B.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the tenets of objectification theory has given little attention to increasing scholars' understanding of specific environments and subcultures, such as beauty pageants, cheerleading, and cocktail waitressing, that exist within U.S. culture where sexual objectification of women is encouraged, promoted, and socially sanctioned.…

  13. Successful Web Learning Environments: New Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Margaret

    The Web offers the perfect technology and environment for precision learning because learners can be uniquely identified, relevant content can be specifically personalized, and subsequent response and progress can be monitored, supported, and assessed. Technologically, researchers are making rapid progress realizing the personalized learning dream…

  14. A Paradigm Shift to Protect Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts to protect the environment have primarily been remedial with the intent to move away from environmental problems. Congressional agendas have provided specific acts related to pollution of air, water, and toxic wastes. These acts provide the regulatory powers to move away...

  15. Nomadism as a Man-Environment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Amos

    1978-01-01

    Concepts derived from general man-environment system (MES) models are applied to the specific problem of nomadic sedentarization. The analysis focuses on the manner in which residential mobility may function as a central element in nomadic cultures. (Author/MA)

  16. Mars Transportation Environment Definition Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This document provides a compilation of environments knowledge about the planet Mars. Information is divided into three catagories: (1) interplanetary space environments (environments required by the technical community to travel to and from Mars); (2) atmospheric environments (environments needed to aerocapture, aerobrake, or use aeroassist for precision trajectories down to the surface); and (3) surface environments (environments needed to have robots or explorers survive and work on the surface).

  17. Languages for Specific Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on languages for specific purposes, providing a brief historical perspective, examining it as a profession, discipline, or neither; its role in science and law; language for business purposes; and the position of English worldwide. (Author/VWL)

  18. TWRSview system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  19. Phobia - simple/specific

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A phobia is an ongoing intense fear or anxiety of a certain object, animal, activity, ... panic attack when exposed to the object of fear. Specific phobias are a common mental disorder. Common ...

  20. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

  1. Specific Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Genetic Terms Definitions for genetic terms Specific Genetic Disorders Many human diseases have a genetic component. ... Condition in an Adult The Undiagnosed Diseases Program Genetic Disorders Achondroplasia Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Antiphospholipid Syndrome ...

  2. Microbial Telesensing: Probing the environment for friends, foes and food

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Agnès; Payne, Shelley M.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial sensing circuits may be triggered by molecules originating from the environment (e.g., nutrients, chemoattractants). Bacteria also actively probe the environment for information, by releasing molecular probes to measure conditions beyond the cell surface -- telesensing. Perceiving the environment beyond is achieved by sensing environmentally induced changes in those probes, such as occurs when a siderophore chelates an iron atom, or a quorum sensing signal is inactivated by a specific enzyme or adsorbent. This information, captured by chemical and physical changes induced in specifically produced molecules transiting through the environment, enable bacteria to mount a contextually appropriate response. PMID:19683678

  3. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  4. Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial environment is an important driver of space vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of producing an update to an earlier Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development Handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, and sea state. In addition, the respective engineering design elements are discussed relative to terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are presented.

  5. Tele-Immersive medical educational environment.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other.

  6. Vehicle Anthropometric Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Gordon, C. C. (2002). Multivariate anthropometric models for seated workstation design . Contemporary Ergonomics . Gordon, C. C., T. Churchill, et al...accommodate a large proportion of the male and female ADF population. Historically, when designing a seated work environment it has been assumed that the...whom it was designed (Robinette, Nemeth et al. 1998). The pilots who were eliminated typically had a short seated eye height and long legs, or a short

  7. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  8. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  9. Urban Environment Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Urban Environment Initiative (UEI), has been established as part of a Cooperative Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The UEI is part of NASA's overall High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information Infrastructure Technology Applications (IITA) programs. The goal of the UEI is to provide public access to Earth Science information and promote its use with a focus on the environment of urban areas. This goal will be accomplished through collaborative efforts of the UEI team with both community-based and local/regional governmental organizations. The UEI team is comprised of four organizations representing private industry, NASA, and universities: Prime Technologies Service Corporation, NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) California State University, at Los Angeles, and Central State University (Wilberforce, OH). "Urban Environment" refers to the web of environmental, economic, and social factors that combine to create the urban world in which we live. Examples of these factors are population distribution, neighborhood demographic profiles, economic resources, business activities, location and concentration of environmental hazards and various pollutants, proximity and level of urban services, which form the basis of the urban environment and ultimately affect our lives and experiences. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing allows data to be visualized in the forms of maps and spatial images. The use of these tools allow analysis of information about urban environments. Also included are descriptions of the four query types which will assist in understanding the maps.

  10. The Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits, higher earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations with the phase of the solar cycle. In this paper we concentrate mainly on charged particle radiations. Descriptions of the radiation belts and particles of solar and cosmic origin are reviewed. An overview of the traditional models is presented accompanied by their application areas and limitations. This is followed by discussion of some recent model developments.

  11. Materials in extreme environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemley, R. J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Buchanan, M. V.; Materials Science Division; Geophysical Lab.; ORNL

    2009-11-01

    Nature is rich with examples of phenomena and environments we might consider extreme, at least from our familiar experience on Earth's surface: large fluxes of radiation and particles from the Sun, explosive asteroid collisions in space, volcanic eruptions that originate deep underground, extraordinary pressures and temperatures in the interiors of planets and stars, and electromagnetic discharges that occur, say, in sunspots and pulsars. We often intentionally create similar extreme environments - for example, in high-powered lasers, high-temperature turbines, internal-combustion engines, and industrial chemical plants. The response of materials to the broad range of such environments signals the materials underlying structure and dynamics, provides insight into new phenomena, exposes failure modes that limit technological possibility, and presents novel routes for making new materials.

  12. The hovercraft environment.

    PubMed

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-06-01

    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  13. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, Dale J.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  14. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  15. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  16. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  17. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  18. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  19. 40 CFR 600.107-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 600.107-08 Section 600.107-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  20. 40 CFR 600.107-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 600.107-08 Section 600.107-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  5. 40 CFR 600.107-08 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 600.107-08 Section 600.107-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.884-6 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.884-6 Section 86.884-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-6 Fuel...

  7. 40 CFR 86.884-6 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.884-6 Section 86.884-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-6 Fuel...

  8. 40 CFR 86.884-6 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.884-6 Section 86.884-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-6 Fuel...

  9. 40 CFR 86.884-6 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.884-6 Section 86.884-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-6 Fuel...

  10. 40 CFR 7.50 - Specific prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific prohibitions against discrimination. 7.50 Section 7.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... program or activity receiving EPA assistance with respect to handicapped persons. (c) A recipient...

  11. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  12. Jupiter Environment Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  13. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  14. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  15. GUIs in the MIDAS environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballester, P.

    1992-01-01

    MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System) is the image processing system developed at ESO for astronomical data reduction. MIDAS is used for off-line data reduction at ESO and many astronomical institutes all over Europe. In addition to a set of general commands, enabling to process and analyze images, catalogs, graphics and tables, MIDAS includes specialized packages dedicated to astronomical applications or to specific ESO instruments. Several graphical interfaces are available in the MIDAS environment: XHelp provides an interactive help facility, and XLong and XEchelle enable data reduction of long-slip and echelle spectra. GUI builders facilitate the development of interfaces. All ESO interfaces comply to the ESO User Interfaces Common Conventions which secures an identical look and feel for telescope operations, data analysis, and archives.

  16. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  17. Characterization of Mercury's Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenza, Monica; Storini, Marisa; Diego, Piero; Massetti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Data from the Helios spacecraft have been revised to identify different solar wind conditions (interplanetary magnetic field intensity, solar wind density, velocity and temperature) at Mercury's location, as they induce critcal changes in the Hermean environment. In particular, the weak magnetic field of the planet and the increasing weight of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BX component at Mercury's orbit, introduce critical differences in the Mercury magnetosphere, such as a strong north-south asymmetry. Different geometries of the Mercury's magnetosphere are also calculated as response to the different solar wind conditions through aToffoletto-Hill modified model (Massetti et al., 2007). Results allow to compute the cutoff rigidities, in order to estimate the energetic charged particle transmission through the Hermean magnetosphere to the specific location of the BepiColombo spacecraft Work partly supported by the Italian Space Agency

  18. Automated Library System Specifications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AD-A78 95 AUTOMATED LIBRARY SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS(U) ARMY LIBRARY /i MANAGEMENT OFFICE ALEXANDRIA VA ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INFORMATION... MANAGEMENT M B BONNETT JUN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 9/2 NLEElIIhllEEEEE IllEEEEEllllEI .1lm lliml * ~I fI.L25 MI, [OCM RL,;OCLUTO fl. ’N k~ AUTOMATED LIBRARY...SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS .,I Prepared by Mary B. Bonnett ARMY LIBRARY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Lij

  19. Mask cost and specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Higashikawa, Iwao

    2003-12-01

    At the panel discussion of Photomask Japan 2003, we discussed about Mask cost and specification. The topics are (1) Mask price trend and its impact, (2) How to reduce the mask costs; solutions from a mask shop, mask writing tool and mask inspection tool 3) Partnering mask suppliers with mask users; reasonable mask specification and OPC strategies. The choice of DUV laser writer instead of e-beam writer is one solution for reduction of mask cost. The continuous improvement of e-beam writer and resist sensitivity for high throughput is another solution. The partnership between designer, EDA vender, mask maker and wafer lithographer becomes more important.

  20. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  1. GPS Multipath in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, A.; Sella, G.

    2008-12-01

    Multipath, where a GNSS signal arrives by more than one path, is considered one of the last unmodeled errors remaining in GNSS. Multipath is of great concern because the additional path length traveled by the incoming signal biases the satellite-receiver range and therefore determination of position. Siting a GNSS station in an urban area, in the immediate vicinity of large reflecting objects such as rooftops, buildings, asphalt and concrete parking lots, grassy fields, and chainlink fences, is both a multipath nightmare and a necessary evil. We note that continuously-operating GNSS stations are becoming increasingly common in urban areas, which makes sense as these stations are often installed in support of civil infrastructure (e.g. departments of transportation, strong motion monitoring of buildings in earthquake-prone areas, surveying networks). Urban stations are well represented in geodetic networks such as the CORS (United States) and GeoNet (Japan) networks, with more stations likely to be installed in the coming years. What sources and types of urban multipath are the most detrimental to geodetic GPS positioning? Which reflecting objects are assumed to be a major source of multipath error, but the GPS data show otherwise? Are certain reflecting environments worse for specific applications, i.e. kinematic vs. static positioning? If forced to install a GNSS station in a highly reflective environment, is it possible to rank objects for their multipath severity? To answer these questions, we provide multipath examples taken from continuously- operating GNSS stations sited in urban environments. We concentrate on some of the most common obstacles and reflecting objects for urban sites - rooftops, parking lots, and fences. We analyze the multipath signature of these objects as manifested in the GPS phase, pseudorange, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) observables, and also examine multipath impacts on the precision and accuracy of GPS-derived positions.

  2. Semiclassical environment of collapsing shells

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kinjal; Paranjape, Aseem

    2009-12-15

    We explore in detail the semiclassical environment of collapsing shells of matter, and determine the semiclassical flux measured by a variety of observers. This study is a preliminary step in a broader investigation of thermodynamic properties of the geometry of collapsing objects. Specifically, in this paper we consider spherically symmetric null and timelike collapsing shells which form an event horizon, and calculate the flux measured by observers both inside and outside the shell, and both inside and outside the event horizon, and find nontrivial results in most of the cases. Additionally, we also investigate the environment of a shell which collapses but does not form a horizon, halting at some radius larger than the Schwarzschild radius, and find that such an object generically gives rise to a pulse of radiation which is sharply peaked as it travels inwards and is reflected at the origin, and eventually emerges from the shell in a thermalized form. Our results have potential consequences in addressing questions pertaining, e.g. to black hole entropy and backreaction.

  3. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.

  4. Picturing the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phyllis Scott

    2011-01-01

    Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

  5. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one…

  6. "Everyman" and his Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, John E.

    Although we have accumulated much factual data on environmental conditions, interrelationships, and consequences of actions, our decisions are based on political expediency, pressure, mob action, and emotion. Believing that decisions regarding the environment and pollution control are not technical but socioeconomic, crusaders have refused…

  7. The Acoustical Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melissa

    Asserting that without an adequate acoustical environment, learning activities can be hindered, this paper reviews the literature on classroom acoustics, particularly noise, reverberation, signal-to-noise ratio, task performance, and recommendations for improvement. Through this review, the paper seeks to determine whether portable classrooms…

  8. Advanced Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubal, Robert C.; Helms, Robert F.; Triplett, Suzanne E.

    Leading-edge technologies, integrated with emerging educational methodologies, make the Advanced Learning Environment (ALE) model cost effective and efficient for learning. The ALE integrates virtual reality and other enabling technologies such as natural language processing, animation, video, courseware, sound, projection, CD-ROM, and distance…

  9. China's English Language Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students and teachers often say that the major challenge they face in acquiring English is that "China does not have a good English language environment" ("zhong guo de ying yu huan jing bu tai hao") by which they mean there are insufficient opportunities to use English in real life situations and a lack of exposure to…

  10. Learning Environment: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Sacit; Bag, Huseyin; Gezer, Kutret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the Learning Environment Research-Bibliography includes studies on Educational subject. We have analyzed many journals, books, and theses published in international. The references listed here primarily focus on the empirical research related to the learning environmental research as an educational goal; along with a few learning…

  11. Monitoring the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Conrad F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    New ways of obtaining environmental data are being developed to meet the demand for comprehensive, accurate, and timely information on the environment. This article examines four developments that are transforming the entire field of environmental measurement: spectroscopy; satellite transmission of environmental data; remote sensing; and…

  12. Risk Analysis Virtual ENvironment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-10

    RAVEN has 3 major functionalities: 1. Provides a Graphical User Interface for the pre- and post-processing of the RELAP-7 input and output. 2. Provides the capability to model nuclear power plants control logic for the RELAP-7 code and dynamic control of the accident scenario evolution. This capability is based on a software structure that realizes a direct connection between the RELAP-7 solver engine (MOOSE) and a python environment where the variables describing the plant status are accessible in a scripting environment. RAVEN support the generation of the probabilistic scenario control by supplying a wide range of probability and cumulative distribution functions and their inverse functions. 3. Provides a general environment to perform probability risk analysis for RELAP-7, RELAP-5 and any generic MOOSE based applications. The probabilistic analysis is performed by sampling the input space of the coupled code parameters and it is enhanced by using modern artificial intelligence algorithms that accelerate the identification of the areas of major risk (in the input parameter space). This environment also provides a graphical visualization capability to analyze the outcomes. Among other approaches, the classical Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling algorithms are available. For the acceleration of the convergence of the sampling methodologies, Support Vector Machines, Bayesian regression, and collocation stochastic polynomials chaos are implemented. The same methodologies here described could be used to solve optimization and uncertainties propagation problems using the RAVEN framework.

  13. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  14. Integrated Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Gary; Stone, Paul; Holtery, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Modeling Environment (IME) is a software system that establishes a centralized Web-based interface for integrating people (who may be geographically dispersed), processes, and data involved in a common engineering project. The IME includes software tools for life-cycle management, configuration management, visualization, and collaboration.

  15. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  16. Economics and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Curt L.

    This packet of lessons focuses on the complementary relationship between economic well-being and the natural resources of the environment. Students gain insight into a variety of environmental issues and learn to use economic analysis to understand these issues and seek solutions. The book contains 20 lessons divided into seven units. The units…

  17. Environment and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    As a conference report, the booklet is primarily devoted to abstracts of papers presented at a Conference on Environment and Humanities held in Tallahassee, Florida, April 25-27, 1976. Dr. Huston Smith of Syracuse University, the main speaker, addressed the issue of "Humanities and Environmental Awareness." Other topics discussed…

  18. Environment: Readings for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, J. W. George, Ed.

    Twenty-six articles or extracts from scholarly literature and one article written for this collection are contained in this anthology intended for teachers. The articles present the viewpoints of writers in a number of scientific and sociological fields concerning human interactions with their environment. Articles are arranged in the following…

  19. Multiprocessor programming environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  20. The Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver and Co., Salina, KS.

    The learning environment is discussed in terms of environmental components or factors that should be considered by the architect. The design factors to be considered and elaborated on are as follows--(1) program, (2) function, (3)light, (4) color, (5) acoustics, (6) temperature, (7) humidity, (8) spatial conformation, (9) structure, (10) site…