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Sample records for acremonium intraocular infection

  1. Modeling intraocular bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Astley, Roger A; Coburn, Phillip S; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A super-infection in the cornea caused by Stemphylium, Acremonium, and α-Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Fumika; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Keiko; Kogiso, Masahiro; Ishimaru, Mayumi; Kusaka, Shunji; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2017-03-09

    Polymicrobial keratitis with fungus and bacteria can lead to blindness and is challenging to treat. Here, we introduce a case of fungal keratitis caused by two different strains in addition to definite bacterial super-infection caused by an α-Streptococcus sp., and describe the importance of microscopic examination. A 74-year-old woman, who had a past history of infection with leprosy, presented with conjunctival hyperaemia, pain, and corneal opacity in her right eye. Under the presumptive diagnosis of infectious keratitis, corneal scrapings were stained by various reagents and inoculated on several agar plates. Microscopic findings of the scrapings revealed fungi and a small number of Gram-positive cocci. Multiple anti-fungal therapies with levofloxacin ophthalmic solution were administered. Although empiric treatment was initially effective, keratitis recurred 10 days after its initiation. Repeated corneal scraping revealed an abundance of Gram-positive chain cocci and a small amount of fungi, resulting in the switching of an antibiotic medication from levofloxacin to moxifloxacin and cefmenoxime. Keratitis resolved gradually after the conversion. Stemphylium sp., Acremonium sp., and α-Streptococcus sp. were simultaneously isolated from the corneal scrapings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fungal keratitis caused by Stemphylium sp., and also the first case of super-infection in the cornea caused by two different fungi and one bacterium. Microscopic examination of the corneal scrapings was beneficial in rapid decision of changing to appropriate drug according to the dominancy of pathogenicity.

  3. Acremonium mycetoma: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Denise; Wongkittiroch, Khongruk; Goodman, Marcus; Singh, Angela; Weiss, Eduardo; Glick, Bradley

    2011-12-01

    Acremonium mycetoma is a rare fungal infection of the skin, tissue, and bones. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with mycetoma due to gardening. The clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and treatment options are reviewed.

  4. The role of pili in Bacillus cereus intraocular infection.

    PubMed

    Callegan, Michelle C; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C Blake; Coburn, Phillip S; Miller, Frederick C; LaGrow, Austin L; Astley, Roger A; Land, Craig; Oh, So-Young; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding intraocular infection. The bacterium Bacillus cereus causes a devastating form of this disease which progresses rapidly, resulting in significant inflammation and loss of vision within a few days. The outer surface of B. cereus incites the intraocular inflammatory response, likely through interactions with innate immune receptors such as TLRs. This study analyzed the role of B. cereus pili, adhesion appendages located on the bacterial surface, in experimental endophthalmitis. To test the hypothesis that the presence of pili contributed to intraocular inflammation and virulence, we analyzed the progress of experimental endophthalmitis in mouse eyes infected with wild type B. cereus (ATCC 14579) or its isogenic pilus-deficient mutant (ΔbcpA-srtD-bcpB or ΔPil). One hundred CFU were injected into the mid-vitreous of one eye of each mouse. Infections were analyzed by quantifying intraocular bacilli and retinal function loss, and by histology from 0 to 12 h postinfection. In vitro growth and hemolytic phenotypes of the infecting strains were also compared. There was no difference in hemolytic activity (1:8 titer), motility, or in vitro growth (p > 0.05, every 2 h, 0-18 h) between wild type B. cereus and the ΔPil mutant. However, infected eyes contained greater numbers of wild type B. cereus than ΔPil during the infection course (p ≤ 0.05, 3-12 h). Eyes infected with wild type B. cereus experienced greater losses in retinal function than eyes infected with the ΔPil mutant, but the differences were not always significant. Eyes infected with ΔPil or wild type B. cereus achieved similar degrees of severe inflammation. The results indicated that the intraocular growth of pilus-deficient B. cereus may have been better controlled, leading to a trend of greater retinal function in eyes infected with the pilus-deficient strain. Although this difference was not enough to significantly alter the severity

  5. Evaluation of the Efficacies of Amphotericin B, Posaconazole, Voriconazole, and Anidulafungin in a Murine Disseminated Infection by the Emerging Opportunistic Fungus Sarocladium (Acremonium) kiliense

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Sutton, Deanna A.; Hernández, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the efficacies of different antifungal drugs against Sarocladium kiliense (formerly Acremonium kiliense), a clinically relevant opportunistic fungus, in a murine model of systemic infection. Three clinical strains of this fungus were tested, and the therapy administered was as follows: posaconazole at 20 mg/kg of body weight (twice daily), voriconazole at 40 mg/kg, anidulafungin at 10 mg/kg, or amphotericin B at 0.8 mg/kg. The efficacy was evaluated by prolonged animal survival, tissue burden reduction, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan serum levels. In general, the four antifungal drugs showed high MICs and poor in vitro activity. The efficacy of the different treatments was only modest, since survival rates were never higher than 40% and no drug was able to reduce fungal load in all the organs for the three strains tested. Posaconazole, in spite of its high MICs (≥16 μg/ml), showed the highest efficacy. The (1→3)-β-d-glucan serum levels were equally reduced by all drugs evaluated. PMID:24100490

  6. Role of TLR5 and flagella in bacillus intraocular infection.

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Astley, Roger; Callegan, Michelle C

    2014-01-01

    B. cereus possesses flagella which allow the organism to migrate within the eye during a blinding form of intraocular infection called endophthalmitis. Because flagella is a ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), we hypothesized that TLR5 contributed to endophthalmitis pathogenesis. Endophthalmitis was induced in C57BL/6J and TLR5-/- mice by injecting 100 CFU of B. cereus into the mid-vitreous. Eyes were analyzed for intraocular bacterial growth, retinal function, and inflammation by published methods. Purified B. cereus flagellin was also injected into the mid-vitreous of wild type C57BL/6J mice and inflammation was analyzed. TLR5 activation by B. cereus flagellin was also analyzed in vitro. B. cereus grew rapidly and at similar rates in infected eyes of C57BL/6J and TLR5-/- mice. A significant loss in retinal function in both groups of mice was observed at 8 and 12 hours postinfection. Retinal architecture disruption and acute inflammation (neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations) increased and were significant at 8 and 12 hours postinfection. Acute inflammation was comparable in TLR5-/- and C57BL/6J mice. Physiological concentrations of purified B. cereus flagellin caused significant inflammation in C57BL/6J mouse eyes, but not to the extent of that observed during active infection. Purified B. cereus flagellin was a weak agonist for TLR5 in vitro. These results demonstrated that the absence of TLR5 did not have a significant effect on the evolution of B. cereus endophthalmitis. This disparity may be due to sequence differences in important TLR5 binding domains in B. cereus flagellin or the lack of flagellin monomers in the eye to activate TLR5 during infection. Taken together, these results suggest a limited role for flagellin/TLR5 interactions in B. cereus endophthalmitis. Based on this and previous data, the importance of flagella in this disease lies in its contribution to the motility of the organism within the eye during

  7. Acremonium sclerotigenum-Acremonium egyptiacum: a multi-resistant fungal pathogen complicating the course of aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Guitard, J; Degulys, A; Buot, G; Aline-Fardin, A; Dannaoui, E; Rio, B; Marie, J P; Lapusan, S; Hennequin, C

    2014-01-01

    A patient with aplastic anaemia, successively treated with caspofungin then liposomal amphotericin, developed a disseminated infection due to Acremonium, further confirmed as resistant in vitro to these drugs. Successful treatment was achieved with voriconazole. Multiple antifungal treatments may expose to the risk of breakthrough of multi-resistant pathogens in haematology patients.

  8. Two rare cases of Acremonium acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Larini, Sandra; Gorrini, Chiara; Martinelli, Monica; Piscopo, Giovanni; Benecchi, Magda; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Montecchini, Sara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Gandolfi, Stefano; Chezzi, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    This report describes two cases of Acremonium sp. endophthalmitis, occurring in two patients who underwent cataract surgery on the same day in the same operating room of our hospital ophthalmology clinic. Diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis was established by the repeated isolation of the same fungal agent from vitreous washing, acqueous fluid and intraocular lens samples and by its identification on the basis of morphological and molecular features. The cases reported in this study emphasize the need for clinical microbiology laboratories to be prepared to face the diagnosis of uncommon infectious diseases such as exogenous fungal endophthalmitis by Acremonium, and to enhance the awareness of surgeons and clinicians of this occurrence.

  9. [Antifungal susceptibility of Acremonium species using E-test and Sensititre].

    PubMed

    Saldarreaga, A; Garcia Martos, P; Ruiz Aragón, J; García Agudo, L; Montes de Oca, M; Puerto, J L; Marín, P

    2004-03-01

    Filamentous fungi have become a common cause of severe infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. In recent years, the number and diversity of the infections caused by Acremonium species have increased and numerous species have been implicated. As is the case for most emerging pathogens, the optimal therapeutic approach to Acremonium species remains to be determined. We used two methods to determine the in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole for 15 clinical isolates of eight different species of Acremonium. The MICs were determined according to protocol M38-A of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document, using the Sensititre and E-test microdilution methods. Amphotericin B was effective in vitro for few species using the Sensititre method. However, high MICs were obtained with E-test. Fluconazole and itraconazole were ineffective according to both methods. Acremonium species are generally resistant to the most commonly used antifungal agents. Consequently, Acremonium susceptibility testing is recommended to assist in choosing adequate treatment of infections caused by this filamentous fungus.

  10. CXCL1, but not IL-6, significantly impacts intraocular inflammation during infection.

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C Blake; Astley, Roger A; Furtado, Glaucia C; Lira, Sergio A; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-11-01

    During intraocular bacterial infections, the primary innate responders are neutrophils, which may cause bystander damage to the retina or perturb the clarity of the visual axis. We hypothesized that cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CXCL1 contributed to rapid neutrophil recruitment during Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis, a severe form of intraocular infection that is characterized by explosive inflammation and retinal damage that often leads to rapid vision loss. To test this hypothesis, we compared endophthalmitis pathogenesis in C57BL/6J, IL-6(-/-), and CXCL1(-/-) mice. Bacterial growth in eyes of CXCL1(-/-), IL-6(-/-), and C67BL/6J mice was similar. Retinal function retention was greater in eyes of IL-6(-/-) and CXCL1(-/-) mice compared with that of C57BL/6J, despite these eyes having similar bacterial burdens. Neutrophil influx into eyes of CXCL1(-/-) mice was reduced to a greater degree compared with that of eyes of IL6(-/-) mice. Histology confirmed significantly less inflammation in eyes of CXCL1(-/-) mice, but similar degrees of inflammation in IL6(-/-) and C57BL/6J eyes. Because inflammation was reduced in eyes of infected CXCL1(-/-) mice, we tested the efficacy of anti-CXCL1 in B. cereus endophthalmitis. Retinal function was retained to a greater degree and there was less overall inflammation in eyes treated with anti-CXCL1, which suggested that anti-CXCL1 may have therapeutic efficacy in limiting inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis. Taken together, our results indicate that absence of IL-6 did not affect overall pathogenesis of endophthalmitis. In contrast, absence of CXCL1, in CXCL1(-/-) mice or after anti-CXCL1 treatment, led to an improved clinical outcome. Our findings suggest a potential benefit in targeting CXCL1 to control inflammation during B. cereus and perhaps other types of intraocular infections. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. Pseudo-Outbreak of Lecanicillium and Acremonium Species in Orthopedic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Carolyn O. S.; Deak, Eszter; Chang, Loretta S.; Gilmartin, Heather; Gade, Lalitha; Imanishi, Maho; Price, Connie; Chiller, Tom; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi

    2012-01-01

    Acremonium species cause a variety of human infections, while Lecanicillium species have not been reported as human pathogens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak involving both organisms, highlighting the role and limitations of molecular methods in the characterization of rare fungal isolates. Repeated isolation of these fungi from patient tissue samples raises concerns about exogenous contamination in the hospital environment. PMID:23015668

  12. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  13. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  14. Unexpected Roles for Toll-Like Receptor 4 and TRIF in Intraocular Infection with Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C Blake; Coburn, Phillip S; Astley, Roger A; Staats, Rachel L; Callegan, Michelle C

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation caused by infection with Gram-positive bacteria is typically initiated by interactions with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Endophthalmitis, an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye, can lead to vision loss when initiated by a virulent microbial pathogen. Endophthalmitis caused by Bacillus cereus develops as acute inflammation with infiltrating neutrophils, and vision loss is potentially catastrophic. Residual inflammation observed during B. cereus endophthalmitis in TLR2(-/-) mice led us to investigate additional innate pathways that may trigger intraocular inflammation. We first hypothesized that intraocular inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis would be controlled by MyD88- and TRIF-mediated signaling, since MyD88 and TRIF are the major adaptor molecules for all bacterial TLRs. In MyD88(-/-) and TRIF(-/-) mice, we observed significantly less intraocular inflammation than in eyes from infected C57BL/6J mice, suggesting an important role for these TLR adaptors in B. cereus endophthalmitis. These results led to a second hypothesis, that TLR4, the only TLR that signals through both MyD88 and TRIF signaling pathways, contributed to inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis. Surprisingly, B. cereus-infected TLR4(-/-) eyes also had significantly less intraocular inflammation than infected C57BL/6J eyes, indicating an important role for TLR4 in B. cereus endophthalmitis. Taken together, our results suggest that TLR4, TRIF, and MyD88 are important components of the intraocular inflammatory response observed in experimental B. cereus endophthalmitis, identifying a novel innate immune interaction for B. cereus and for this disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Unexpected Roles for Toll-Like Receptor 4 and TRIF in Intraocular Infection with Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C. Blake; Coburn, Phillip S.; Astley, Roger A.; Staats, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infection with Gram-positive bacteria is typically initiated by interactions with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Endophthalmitis, an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye, can lead to vision loss when initiated by a virulent microbial pathogen. Endophthalmitis caused by Bacillus cereus develops as acute inflammation with infiltrating neutrophils, and vision loss is potentially catastrophic. Residual inflammation observed during B. cereus endophthalmitis in TLR2−/− mice led us to investigate additional innate pathways that may trigger intraocular inflammation. We first hypothesized that intraocular inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis would be controlled by MyD88- and TRIF-mediated signaling, since MyD88 and TRIF are the major adaptor molecules for all bacterial TLRs. In MyD88−/− and TRIF−/− mice, we observed significantly less intraocular inflammation than in eyes from infected C57BL/6J mice, suggesting an important role for these TLR adaptors in B. cereus endophthalmitis. These results led to a second hypothesis, that TLR4, the only TLR that signals through both MyD88 and TRIF signaling pathways, contributed to inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis. Surprisingly, B. cereus-infected TLR4−/− eyes also had significantly less intraocular inflammation than infected C57BL/6J eyes, indicating an important role for TLR4 in B. cereus endophthalmitis. Taken together, our results suggest that TLR4, TRIF, and MyD88 are important components of the intraocular inflammatory response observed in experimental B. cereus endophthalmitis, identifying a novel innate immune interaction for B. cereus and for this disease. PMID:26195555

  16. Prevalence and factors predictive of intraocular fungal infection in patients with fungemia at an academic urban tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Geraymovych, Elena; Conduff, Joseph H; Braich, Puneet S; Leffler, Christopher T; Brar, Vikram S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the prevalence and to identify factors predictive of intraocular infection in patients with fungemia receiving prophylactic antifungal therapy. Methods A retrospective review of patients who received prophylactic antifungal therapy and a dilated fundus examination at an academic urban tertiary care center from 2000 to 2007. Basic demographic information, fungal species grown, antifungal agent(s) used, number of positive blood culture specimens, visual acuity, visual symptoms, and known risks of disseminated candidiasis were noted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors significantly associated with intraocular fungal infection. Results A total of 132 patients with positive fungemia culture were requested to have ophthalmology consults. The prevalence of ocular infection was 6.9% (N=9). All nine patients were infected with Candida species. Undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) surgery within the prior 6 months was significantly related to developing intraocular infection, with an odds ratio of 18.5 (95% confidence interval, 15.1–24.3; P=0.002). Having ≥3 positive fungal blood cultures was also a significant risk factor, with an odds ratio of 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.8–3.7; P=0.03). Among 40 patients having GI surgery, eight (20.0%) had intraocular fungal disease, compared with one of 92 patients (1.1%) not having GI surgery. Among 125 patients with a negative baseline examination result, two of 32 patients (6.3%), who had recent GI surgery, subsequently developed fungal ocular disease, compared with 0 of 93 patients (0%), who did not have recent GI surgery. Conclusion Recent GI surgery and higher numbers of positive fungal blood culture specimens may be predictive of candida ocular infections. Normal baseline fundoscopy examination results in patients with such risks may require repeat evaluations to detect delayed manifestations. PMID:26491246

  17. Oxidation of ethane by an Acremonium species.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J S; Wellman, A M; Zajic, J E

    1976-01-01

    Ethane oxidation was studied in ethane-grown resting cells (mycelia) of an Acremonium sp. and in cell-free preparations of such mycelia. From resting cell experiments evidence was found for a pathway of ethane oxidation via ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. In vitro studies indicated that ethane-oxidizing activity in such mycelia occurred predominantly in the microsomal fraction of crude homogenates. Microsomal preparations were inactive in the absence of added coenzyme. Marked stimulation of activity was obtained in such preparations with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and to a much lesser degree with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Ethane oxidation was inhibited by sodium azide and carbon monoxide. PMID:9900

  18. Bacterial endophthalmitis in the age of outpatient intravitreal therapies and cataract surgeries: Host-microbe interactions in intraocular infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadaka, Ama; Durand, Marlene L; Gilmore, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is a sight threatening infection of the interior structures of the eye. Incidence in the US has increased in recent years, which appears to be related to procedures being performed on an aging population. The advent of outpatient intravitreal therapy for management of age-related macular degeneration raises yet additional risks. Compounding the problem is the continuing progression of antibiotic resistance. Visual prognosis for endophthalmitis depends on the virulence of the causative organism, the severity of intraocular inflammation, and the timeliness of effective therapy. We review the current understanding of the pathogenesis of bacterial endophthalmitis, highlighting opportunities for the development of improved therapeutics and preventive strategies. PMID:22521570

  19. Persistent Intraocular Rubella Infection in a Patient with Fuchs' Uveitis and Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Zsolt; Parmar, Dipak; Brown, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the role of rubella virus in Fuchs' uveitis syndrome (FUS). This report is the first to show persistent intraocular rubella virus in a 28-year-old man with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), who presented with blurred vision and was diagnosed with FUS. PMID:23426927

  20. Characterization of Acremonium and Isaria ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, the only known fungal ice nuclei (IN) were a few exponents of lichen mycobionts and Fusarium spp. [Kieft and Ruscetti 1990, Pouleur et al. 1992, Hasegawa et al. 1994, Tsumuki et al. 1995], as well as two strains of mold [Jayaweera and Flanagan 1982]. Other investigated species did not show any IN activity [Pouleur et al. 1992, Iannone et al. 2011, Pummer et al. 2013]. In the last few years, IN-activity has been discovered in some rust and smut fungi [Morris et al. 2013, Haga et al. 2013], Acremonium implicatum (Acr.) and Isaria farinosa (Isa.) [Huffman et al. 2013] and a handful of other airborne and soil fungi [unpublished data]. We started characterizing the IN of Acr. and Isa.: Like other non-bacterial biological IN, they can be easily separated from the cells in aqueous suspension, and keep their activity. The IN-active aqueous suspensions were processed by filtration (5 μm, 0.1 μm, 300 kDa, 100 kDa) and exposure to heat (60° C) or guanidinium chloride (6 M). The IN activity of the processed samples was measured by a freezing assay of droplets, as described by Pummer et al. [2013]. Via the Vali formula, we calculated the amount of IN per gram of mycelium, which is higher than 105 g-1. The initial freezing temperature was -4° C for Isaria and -8° C for Acremonium IN. Both were completely knocked out by 60° C or guanidinium chloride. The Acremonium IN are in a mass range between 100 and 300 kDa. The Isaria IN seem to be either a bit larger, or more attached to larger particles, since not all of them pass through the 300-kDa-filter. It is likely that both of these new IN are proteinaceous like the IN of Fusarium spp. and lichen mycobionts, which belong to the Ascomycota phylum. Since the Isaria IN show a high onset freezing temperature and are rather large for single molecules, they might be agglomerates. Haga D.I. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 118, 7260-7272 Hasegawa Y. et al. (1994) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58, 2273-2274 Huffman A

  1. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

  2. Intraocular cyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Shields, M B

    1986-01-01

    Laser energy, as a cyclodestructive source for the treatment of glaucoma, can be delivered by several routes. The transscleral approach has the advantages of being noninvasive and relatively quick and easy, but the disadvantages of unpredictable results and a high complication rate. Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation has fewer complications, but is only possible in a small number of eyes. The intraocular intraocular route is a newer technique, which utilises endophotocoagulation through a pars plana incision to treat ciliary processes in aphakic eyes. Visualisation for intraocular cyclophotocoagulation can be either transpupillary with scleral depression to expose the processes or by the use of an endoscope.

  3. Changes in visual acuity and intra-ocular pressure following bleb-related infection: the Japan Glaucoma Society Survey of Bleb-related Infection Report 2.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kuwayama, Yasuaki; Nomura, Eiichi; Tanihara, Hidenobu; Mori, Kazuhiko

    2013-09-01

    To identify changes in visual acuity and intra-ocular pressure (IOP) 12 months after the development of bleb-related infection. Data obtained from 146 eyes of 146 patients with bleb-related infection were analyzed as a part of the Japan Glaucoma Society Survey of Bleb-related Infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with poor prognosis in visual acuity and increased IOP and for being stage III. The logMAR increased by a mean of 0.140, 0.440, 1.099 and 1.122 at 12 months postinfection for stage I, II, IIIa and IIIb infections, respectively. The logMAR was significantly worse at 6 and 12 months postinfection in stage IIIb (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively; Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and at 6 months postinfection in stage IIIa (p = 0.036). The IOP was significantly elevated following infection in both stage IIIa and stage IIIb (p = 0.028 and p = 0.008 at 6 and 12 months, respectively, for stage IIIa; p = 0.002 and p = 0.005 for stage IIIb). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that being stage III and positive culture were significant risk factors for poor outcome for visual acuity (Odds ratio: 9.26 and 6.29, respectively) and that being stage III was a prognostic factor for increased IOP (Odds ratio: 8.33). Pseudophakia or aphakia was significantly associated with stage III and stage IIIb infections (Odds ratio: 2.85 and 6.30). Stage III bleb-related infection causes significant visual loss and IOP elevation within 12 months after development. Therefore, preventative measures should be taken, especially in cases that are pseudophakic or aphakic. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Interference by methionine on valine uptake in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, M J; Luengo, J M

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of L-[U-14C]valine into delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV), a direct biosynthetic precursor of penicillins and cephalosporins, was studied. When DL-methionine was added to Acremonium chrysogenum culture broths, no labeled ACV was found, while a large amount of radioactive ACV was detected when methionine was not present. DL-Norleucine, a nonsulfur analog of methionine, also inhibited the synthesis of radioactive ACV to some degree. This effect was due to the inhibition of valine transport by methionine and norleucine. PMID:3566258

  5. Phakic Intraocular Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Phakic Intraocular Lenses Phakic Intraocular Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Phakic intraocular lenses are new devices used to correct nearsightedness. These ...

  6. [Chromosomal polymorphism of Acremonium chrysogenum strains producing cephalosporin C].

    PubMed

    Dumina, M V; Zhgun, A A; Domracheva, A G; Novak, M I; El'darov, M A

    2012-08-01

    Using pulse electrophoresis in controlled homogenous electric field we conducted molecular karyotyping of highly-productive and laboratory strains of Acremonium chrysogenum generating antibiotic cephalosporin C (cefC). Differences in size of several chromosomes of highly active strain CB26/8 compared to the wild-type strain ATCC 11550 were revealed. It was shown that chromosomal polymorphism in the highly active strain was not associated with alteration of localization and copy number ofcephalosporin C biosynthesis and transport genes. A cluster of "early" cefC biosynthesis genes is located on chromosome VI (4.4 Mb); a cluster of the "late genes", on chromosome II (2.3 Mb). Both clusters are presented as a single copy perA. chrysogenum genome in the wild-type and in CB26/8 producer strains. Based on comparative analysis of laboratory and industrial cefC producers, a karyotype scheme for A. chrysogenum strains of various origins was designed.

  7. An unusual case of lung abscess caused by Acremonium species treated with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Qazi, M S; Bowalekar, S S; Wanjare, V S; Shankar, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a report of a 37-year-old female with lung abscess due to Acremonium species that responded to oral itraconazole. There was a marked clinical as well as radiological improvement in patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of lung abscess due to Acremonium species which was treated by oral itraconazole. This cost-effective treatment modality proved to be significant in improving symptoms as well as morbidity in this patient.

  8. Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus complex clear corneal wound infection with recurrent hypopyon and perforation after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Servat, Juan Javier; Ramos-Esteban, Jerome C; Tauber, Shachar; Bia, Frank J

    2005-07-01

    We report a clear corneal wound infection occurring in a 74-year-old man caused by a member of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus complex, presenting as crystalline keratopathy with recurrent hypopyon. This led to perforation after phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Only after corneal biopsy of the incision was the causative organism isolated and found to be sensitive to clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Despite aggressive therapy, a full-thickness corneal perforation developed, requiring emergent cyanoacrylate glue to preserve ocular integrity. Both the difficulty and delays in obtaining a correct diagnosis led to severe ocular morbidity. Infectious lamellar keratitis limited to the clear cornea phacoemulsification incision is rare, but some unusual organisms such as atypical mycobacteria may be encountered.

  9. Intraocular magnet of Parel.

    PubMed Central

    Crock, G. W.; Janakiraman, P.; Reddy, P.

    1986-01-01

    The intraocular magnet (IOM) is a new device based on permanent magnetism providing controlled energy for removal of magnetic intraocular foreign bodies. Its use is reported in 11 cases. Images PMID:3801364

  10. Recombinant Acremonium chrysogenum strains for the industrial production of cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Díez, B; Mellado, E; Fouces, R; Rodríguez, M; Barredo, J L

    1996-09-01

    Conventional strain improvement programs based on random mutagenesis and rational screening have meant valuable results to the antibiotic producing companies. The development of recombinant DNA techniques and their applications to the industrially-used cephalosporin-producing fungus Acremonium chrysogenum has provided a new tool, complementary to classical mutation, promoting the design of alternative biosynthetic pathways making it possible to obtain new antibiotics and to improve cephalosporin production. Yield increases have been achieved by increasing the dosage of the biosynthetic genes cefEF (deacetoxycephalosporin C expandase/hydroxylase) and cefG (deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) or enhancing the oxygen uptake by expressing a bacterial oxygen-binding heme protein (Vitreoscilla hemoglobin). New biosynthetic capacities such as the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or penicillin G have been achieved through the expression of the foreign genes dao (D-amino acid oxidase) coupled with cephalosporin acylase or penDE(acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase) respectively. Confined manipulation of the above-mentioned recombinant strains must be performed according to standing rules.

  11. Structural Characterization of Glucooligosaccharide Oxidase from Acremonium strictum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Lin, Shuen-Fuh; Hsu, Cheng-Sheng; Liaw, Shwu-Huey; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    Glucooligosaccharide oxidase from Acremonium strictum was screened for potential applications in oligosaccharide acid production and carbohydrate detection. This protein is a unique covalent flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of carbohydrates with high selectivity for cello- and maltooligosaccharides. Kinetic measurements suggested that this enzyme possesses an open carbohydrate-binding groove, which is mainly composed of two glucosyl-binding subsites. The encoding gene was subsequently cloned, and one intron was detected in the genomic DNA. Large amounts of active enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris, with a yield of 300 mg per liter medium. The protein was predicted to share structural homology with plant cytokinin dehydrogenase and related flavoproteins that share a conserved flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain. The closest sequence matches are those of plant berberine bridge enzyme-like proteins, particularly the characteristic flavinylation site. Unexpectedly, mutation of the putative FAD-attaching residue, H70, to alanine, serine, cysteine, and tyrosine did not abolish the covalent FAD linkage and had little effect on the Km. Instead, the variants displayed kcat values that were 50- to 600-fold lower, indicating that H70 is crucial for efficient redox catalysis, perhaps through modulation of the oxidative power of the flavin. PMID:16332885

  12. Biocompatibility of Intraocular Lenses.

    PubMed

    Özyol, Pelin; Özyol, Erhan; Karel, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    The performance of an intraocular lens is determined by several factors such as the surgical technique, surgical complications, intraocular lens biomaterial and design, and host reaction to the lens. The factor indicating the biocompatibility of an intraocular lens is the behavior of inflammatory and lens epithelial cells. Hence, the biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials is assessed in terms of uveal biocompatibility, based on the inflammatory foreign-body reaction of the eye against the implant, and in terms of capsular biocompatibility, determined by the relationship of the intraocular lens with residual lens epithelial cells within the capsular bag. Insufficient biocompatibility of intraocular lens materials may result in different clinical entities such as anterior capsule opacification, posterior capsule opacification, and lens epithelial cell ongrowth. Intraocular lenses are increasingly implanted much earlier in life in cases such as refractive lens exchange or pediatric intraocular lens implantation after congenital cataract surgery, and these lenses are expected to exhibit maximum performance for many decades. The materials used in intraocular lens manufacture should, therefore, ensure long-term uveal and capsular biocompatibility. In this article, we review the currently available materials used in the manufacture of intraocular lenses, especially with regard to their uveal and capsular biocompatibility, and discuss efforts to improve the biocompatibility of intraocular lenses.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolyzing performance of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei against three lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Fang, Xu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2009-10-01

    Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a useful method in the production of bioethanol. The filamentous fungi Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei are known to be potential cellulase producers. In this study, we aimed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the cellulase enzymes derived from these fungi. We compared A. cellulolyticus and T. reesei cellulase activity against the three lignocellulosic materials: eucalyptus, Douglas fir and rice straw. Saccharification analysis using the supernatant from each culture demonstrated that the enzyme mixture derived from A. cellulolyticus exhibited 2-fold and 16-fold increases in Filter Paper enzyme and beta-glucosidase specific activities, respectively, compared with that derived from T. reesei. In addition, culture supernatant from A. cellulolyticus produced glucose more rapidly from the lignocellulosic materials. Meanwhile, culture supernatant derived from T. reesei exhibited a 2-fold higher xylan-hydrolyzing activity and produced more xylose from eucalyptus (72% yield) and rice straw (43% yield). Although the commercial enzymes Acremonium cellulase (derived from A. cellulolyticus, Meiji Seika Co.) demonstrated a slightly lower cellulase specific activity than Accellerase 1000 (derived from T. reesei, Genencor), the glucose yield (over 65%) from lignocellulosic materials by Acremonium cellulase was higher than that of Accellerase 1000 (less than 60%). In addition, the mannan-hydrolyzing activity of Acremonium cellulase was 16-fold higher than that of Accellerase 1000, and the conversion of mannan to mannobiose and mannose by Acremonium cellulase was more efficient. We investigated the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by cellulase derived from two types of filamentous fungi. We found that glucan-hydrolyzing activity of the culture

  14. [Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from keratitis and intraocular infections at Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander (FOSCAL), Floridablanca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Guerra, Alfredo; Acuña, María Fernanda; Villarreal, Donaldo

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial resistance is critical for the selection of antibiotics in the treatment of infections, so it is vital to know its current status in our geographical area. To determine in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates obtained from keratitis and intraocular infections. A retrospective study of microbiological tests in Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander (FOSCAL) was carried out between June, 2011, and January, 2012. A total of 92 samples were examined and 110 bacteria, 27 fungi and 12 free-living amoebae were identified. Polymicrobial infections constituted 50% of the total; 1.1%, 0%, 1.1%, 16.9%, 29.3% and 85% of Gram-positive bacteria were resistant to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin, respectively, while 0%, 8.3%, 0%, 0%, 18.2% and 27.3% of Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin, respectively. For methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci, resistance percentages to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin were 0%, 0%, 0%, 7%, 17% and 100%, respectively. For methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, resistance percentages to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin were 3%, 0%, 0%, 24%, 44% and 100%, respectively. Overall bacterial resistance to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin, for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, was 1%, 1%, 1%, 15.1%, 28% and 64.5%, respectively. The levels of bacterial resistance to imipenem, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were lower than for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin. The levels of resistance to tobramycin were very high, which calls into question its usefulness in this region of our country.

  15. Atracurium and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D F; Eustace, P; Unwin, A; Magner, J B

    1985-01-01

    The effect of atracurium on intraocular pressure was studied by comparing it with pancuronium in a randomised controlled trial. The intraocular pressure was measured in patients undergoing cataract surgery before administration of the muscle relaxant, at 1, 3, and 5 minutes after its administration, and at 1 minute after tracheal intubation. Atracurium was found to decrease intraocular pressure to a significantly greater degree than pancuronium. The intraocular pressure after tracheal intubation was found to be significantly higher than that measured immediately after induction of anaesthesia. The authors conclude that atracurium provides an acceptable alternative to pancuronium for ophthalmic surgery but does not overcome the ocular hypertensive effect of tracheal intubation. PMID:3899166

  16. Intestinal microbial ecology and hematological parameters of broiler fed cassava waste pulp fermented with Acremonium charticola.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli; Widiastuti, Endang; Putra, Fatan Dwi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Acremonium charticola-fermented cassava pulp (AC-FCP) on the intestinal microbial ecology and hematological indices of broiler chickens. A total of 240 male Lohman day-old-chicks were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental diets including control diet, control diet + antimicrobials (neomycin; 300 mg/kg diet), diet containing AC-FCP (16 g/100 g diet) or diet containing AC-FCP + antimicrobials. At day 28, the birds from each pen were blood sampled, sacrificed and immediately the internal organs were removed and weighed. Digesta were obtained from the ileum and cecum. Birds fed AC-FCP had lower (p<0.05) coliform bacteria count in the ileal digesta than birds fed control diet or control diet + antimicrobials. Butiric acid was higher (p<0.05) in the cecal content of birds fed AC-FCP than in other birds. Propionic acid was also higher in AC-FCP fed birds than in other birds although statistically not significant. The percentages of lymphocytes and heterophils were higher (p<0.05) and tended (p=0.07) to be lower, respectively, in broilers fed control diet than in other birds. The birds provided control diet had lower (p<0.05) heterophils to lymphocytes ratio compared to those receiving AC-FCP or AC-FCP + antimicrobials. Serum total protein and globulin were higher (p<0.01) in birds fed control diet or control diet + antimicrobials compared to AC-FCP or AC-FCP + antimicrobials fed birds. Serum albumin was lower (p<0.01) in AC-FCP birds than that in other birds. There was a tendency (p=0.09) that birds fed AC-FCP diet had lower total serum cholesterol than other birds. Feeding AC-FCP has potential to improve the intestinal health and protect the birds from acute infections.

  17. Is the root-colonizing endophyte Acremonium strictum an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus?

    PubMed

    Grunewaldt-Stöcker, Gisela; von Alten, Henning

    2016-07-01

    In previous investigations, we found that Acremonium strictum (strain DSM 100709) developed intracellular structures with similarity to mycelia of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizodermal cells of flax plants and in hair roots of Rhododendron plantlets. A. strictum had also been isolated from roots of ericaceous salal plants and was described as an unusual ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ERMF). As its mycorrhizal traits were doubted, we revised the hypothesis of a mycorrhizal nature of A. strictum. A successful synthesis of mycorrhiza in hair roots of inoculated ericaceous plants was a first step of evidence, followed by fluorescence microscopy with FUN(®)1 cell stain to observe the vitality of the host cells at the early infection stage. In inoculation trials with in vitro-raised mycorrhiza-free Rhododendron plants in axenic liquid culture and in greenhouse substrate culture, A. strictum was never observed in living hair root cells. As compared to the ERMF Oidiodendron maius and Rhizoscyphus ericae that invaded metabolically active host cells and established a symbiotic unit, A. strictum was only found in cells that were dead or in the process of dying and in the apoplast. In conclusion, A. strictum does not behave like a common ERMF-if it is one at all. A comparison of A. strictum isolates from ericaceous and non-ericaceous hosts could reveal further identity details to generalize or specify our findings on the symbiotic nature of A. strictum. At least, the staining method enables to discern between true mycorrhizal and other root endophytes-a tool for further studies.

  18. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheplick, G.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Isolation of an Isocoumarin and an Isobenzofuran Derivatives from a Fungicolous Isolate of Acremonium crotocinigenum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    6,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dimethyl-3-methyleneisochroman-1-one (1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-isobenzofuranone (2), have been isolated from an organic extract of the fungicolous fungus Acremonium crotocinigenum (NRRL 40192). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of NM...

  20. Occurrence of Pyrrocidine and Dihydroresorcyclide Production among Acremonium zeae Populations from Maize Grown in Different Regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acremonium zeae is recognized as a protective endophyte of maize. It is thus a potential confounding variable in maize variety trials for resistance to pathogenic microbes and their mycotoxins. This fungus grows systemically in maize and produces pyrrocidines A and B, polyketide amino acid derived...

  1. INTRAOCULAR SYNOVIAL SARCOMA.

    PubMed

    Richards, Nikisha Q; Kofler, Julia K; Chu, Charleen T; Stefko, S Tonya

    2017-01-01

    To describe the first reported case of intraocular synovial sarcoma. A 29-year-old man was enucleated for a blind, painful eye. Pathologic examination revealed an unexpected intraocular spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed diffuse reactivity of the tumor cells for vimentin and focal positivity for epithelial markers pankeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Melanoma markers were negative. Fluorescent in situ hybridization studies identified a t(X;18) (p11.2;q11.2) translocation, establishing a final diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. There was no evidence of extraocular extension as the resected margin of the optic nerve was free of tumor. Further imaging studies revealed no extraocular primary site or metastasis. The incidental discovery of an intraocular malignancy in this case underscores the importance of routine histopathologic analysis of all enucleated globes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraocular synovial sarcoma, either as metastasis or as primary site.

  2. [Biotechnological grounds for the regulation of the component composition of cephalosporins in cultures of Acremonium chrysogenum].

    PubMed

    Iunkerova, L I; Bartoshevich, Iu E; Iudina, O D; Novak, M I; Belianina, V F; Egorov, V L

    1988-04-01

    The dynamics of cephalosporine C and desacetylcephalosporine C alterations in cultures of Acremonium chrysogenum 309A under different conditions was studied. It was shown expedient to determine the fermantation period by the data of HPLC. Genetic predisposition of the strain used to production of both cephalosporine C and desacetylcephalosporine C is discussed. With changing the cultivation procedure, medium active acidity and cultivation time it is possible to change the biosynthesis pathway.

  3. Synthesis of a natural gamma-butyrolactone from nerylacetone by Acremonium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum cultures.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Switalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2011-03-01

    Natural gamma-butyrolactone - (4R, 5R)-5-(4'-methyl-3'pentenyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-dihydrofuran-2-one (2) was isolated as the product of microbial transformation of nerylacetone (1) by fungal strains. This product was obtained as the enantiomer (+) in high yields 24% and 61% with ee=94% and 82% by the biotransformation in the cultures of Acremonium roseum AM336 and Fusarium oxysporum AM13 respectively.

  4. Intestinal microbial ecology and hematological parameters of broiler fed cassava waste pulp fermented with Acremonium charticola

    PubMed Central

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli; Widiastuti, Endang; Putra, Fatan Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Acremonium charticola-fermented cassava pulp (AC-FCP) on the intestinal microbial ecology and hematological indices of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 male Lohman day-old-chicks were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental diets including control diet, control diet + antimicrobials (neomycin; 300 mg/kg diet), diet containing AC-FCP (16 g/100 g diet) or diet containing AC-FCP + antimicrobials. At day 28, the birds from each pen were blood sampled, sacrificed and immediately the internal organs were removed and weighed. Digesta were obtained from the ileum and cecum. Results: Birds fed AC-FCP had lower (p<0.05) coliform bacteria count in the ileal digesta than birds fed control diet or control diet + antimicrobials. Butiric acid was higher (p<0.05) in the cecal content of birds fed AC-FCP than in other birds. Propionic acid was also higher in AC-FCP fed birds than in other birds although statistically not significant. The percentages of lymphocytes and heterophils were higher (p<0.05) and tended (p=0.07) to be lower, respectively, in broilers fed control diet than in other birds. The birds provided control diet had lower (p<0.05) heterophils to lymphocytes ratio compared to those receiving AC-FCP or AC-FCP + antimicrobials. Serum total protein and globulin were higher (p<0.01) in birds fed control diet or control diet + antimicrobials compared to AC-FCP or AC-FCP + antimicrobials fed birds. Serum albumin was lower (p<0.01) in AC-FCP birds than that in other birds. There was a tendency (p=0.09) that birds fed AC-FCP diet had lower total serum cholesterol than other birds. Conclusion: Feeding AC-FCP has potential to improve the intestinal health and protect the birds from acute infections. PMID:28435195

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the endophytic fungus Acremonium implicatum associated with Brachiaria grasses.

    PubMed

    Abello, Javier; Kelemu, Segenet; García, Celsa

    2008-03-01

    Acremonium implicatum is a seed-transmitted endophytic fungus that forms symbiotic associations with the economically significant tropical forage grasses, Brachiaria species. To take advantage of the endophyte's plant protective properties, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Acremonium implicatum, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and vector pSK1019 (trpC promoter) or pCAMBIA1300 (CaMV35S promoter). We found that transformation efficiency doubled for both mycelial and conidial transformation as the co-cultivation period for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Acremonium implicatum was increased from 48 to 72h. Significantly, optimal results were obtained for either mycelial or conidial transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL-1 and vector pSK1019 under the control of the trpC promoter. However, mycelial transformation consistently generated a significantly higher number of transformants than did conidial transformation. The mitotic stability of the transferred DNA was confirmed by growing ten transformants in liquid and agar media for six generations. In all cases, resistance to the selection pressure (hygromycin B) was maintained. Fluorescence emission was retained by the transformants and also expressed in Brachiaria tissues from plants inoculated with GFP-transformed A. implicatum. This technology will help in the transfer and expression of agronomically important genes in host plants.

  6. Pseudophakia and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Schultz, K; Sobocinski, K; Schultz, R O; Easom, H

    1984-06-01

    We studied the change in intraocular pressure in 373 consecutive eyes undergoing cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation between Jan. 1, 1981, and May 31, 1982. There was a mean increase in intraocular pressure of 0.1 mm Hg following this surgery. This increase, however, was not statistically significant (P greater than .5). There was a mean rise in pressure of 0.8 mm Hg in the eyes undergoing intracapsular surgery and a mean fall in pressure of 0.6 mm Hg in the eyes undergoing extracapsular surgery (P less than .05). The change in pressure was unrelated to age, surgeon, or lens type. The results of a separate analysis of 16 eyes with a preoperative diagnosis of glaucoma and eight eyes with ocular hypertension were similar.

  7. Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Faia, Lisa J.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Primary intraocular lymphoma, recently suggested to be renamed primary retinal lymphoma, is a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma and is usually an aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Between 56% and 85% of patients who initially present with primary intraocular lymphoma alone will develop cerebral lesions. Patients typically complain of decreased vision and floaters, most likely secondary to the chronic vitritis and subretinal lesions. The diagnosis of primary intraocular lymphoma can be difficult to make and requires tissue for diagnosis. The atypical lymphoid cells are large and display a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, and basophilic cytoplasm. Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, cytokine analysis, and gene rearrangements also aid in the diagnosis. Local and systemic treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are employed, although the relapse rate remains high. PMID:19653715

  8. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  9. Expression of cefF significantly decreased deacetoxycephalosporin C formation during cephalosporin C production in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    An, Yang; Dong, Hailing; Liu, Gang

    2012-02-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC) is not only the precursor but also one of the by-products during cephalosporin C (CPC) biosynthesis. One enzyme (DAOC/DAC synthase) is responsible for the two-step conversion of penicillin N into deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC) in Acremonium chrysogenum, while two enzymes (DAOC synthase and DAOC hydroxylase) were involved in this reaction in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Amycolatopsis lactamdurans (Nocardia lactamdurans). In this study, the DAOC hydroxylase gene cefF was cloned from Streptomyces clavuligerus and introduced into Acremonium chrysogenum through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. When cefF was expressed under the promoter of pcbC, the ratio of DAOC/CPC in the fermentation broth significantly decreased. These results suggested that introduction of cefF could function quite well in Acremonium chrysogenum and successfully reduce the content of DAOC in the CPC fermentation broth. This work offered a practical way to improve the CPC purification and reduce its production cost.

  10. The production and characterization of a new active lipase from Acremonium alcalophilum using a plant bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microorganisms are the most proficient decomposers in nature, using secreted enzymes in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose. As such, they present the most abundant source for discovery of new enzymes. Acremonium alcalophilum is the only known cellulolytic fungus that thrives in alkaline conditions and can be cultured readily in the laboratory. Its optimal conditions for growth are 30°C and pH 9.0-9.2. The genome sequence of Acremonium alcalophilum has revealed a large number of genes encoding biomass-degrading enzymes. Among these enzymes, lipases are interesting because of several industrial applications including biofuels, detergent, food processing and textile industries. Results We identified a lipA gene in the genome sequence of Acremonium alcalophilum, encoding a protein with a predicted lipase domain with weak sequence identity to characterized enzymes. Unusually, the predicted lipase displays ≈ 30% amino acid sequence identity to both feruloyl esterase and lipase of Aspergillus niger. LipA, when transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana, accumulated to over 9% of total soluble protein. Plant-produced recombinant LipA is active towards p-nitrophenol esters of various carbon chain lengths with peak activity on medium-chain fatty acid (C8). The enzyme is also highly active on xylose tetra-acetate and oat spelt xylan. These results suggests that LipA is a novel lipolytic enzyme that possesses both lipase and acetylxylan esterase activity. We determined that LipA is a glycoprotein with pH and temperature optima at 8.0 and 40°C, respectively. Conclusion Besides being the first heterologous expression and characterization of a gene coding for a lipase from A. alcalophilum, this report shows that LipA is very versatile exhibiting both acetylxylan esterase and lipase activities potentially useful for diverse industry sectors, and that tobacco is a suitable bioreactor for producing fungal proteins. PMID:23915965

  11. Clinical and pathological characteristics of intraocular cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan-Juan; Zhang, Li-Wei; Li, Hua; Hu, Zhu-Lin

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of intraocular cysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestode infection. Total 8 patients diagnosed with intraocular cysticercosis at the Red Cross Hospital of Yunnan Province, China were examined retrospectively. Patients with clear dioptic media had undergone fundus chromophotography. All patients underwent B ultrasonography of the ocular region (CT) successive scanning of the orbit and cerebral tissues. Parasites were extracted surgically and then examined pathologically. The fundus chromophotography showed a white and condensing scolex package in the vesicle. The B ultrasonic examination showed a vesicle-like echogenic mass in the vitreous chamber, in which the high-level echo spot was the cysticercus scolex. The pathological examinations showed that the vesicle wall exhibited hyaline degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, neuroglial fiber, and glial cell proliferation layers from the inside to the outside. The scolex is round and is composed of the outer tissue (the body wall) and the inner furrow tissue; these tissues migrated together. Primordially differentiated sucking discs were found in one case, but no hooklets were found. The inner scolex tissue was folded like a paper flower. The severity of intraocular disease is closely correlated with the pathophysiological processes of the cysticercus worm. Pathological examination of the intraocular lesions can help to evaluate the course of the disease as well as to provide a scientific basis for effective antiparasitic medication.

  12. A glucuronoyl esterase from Acremonium alcalophilum cleaves native lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds.

    PubMed

    Arnling Bååth, Jenny; Giummarella, Nicola; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lawoko, Martin; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2016-08-01

    The Glucuronoyl esterases (GE) have been proposed to target lignin-carbohydrate (LC) ester bonds between lignin moieties and glucuronic acid side groups of xylan, but to date, no direct observations of enzymatic cleavage on native LC ester bonds have been demonstrated. In the present investigation, LCC fractions from spruce and birch were treated with a recombinantly produced GE originating from Acremonium alcalophilum (AaGE1). A combination of size exclusion chromatography and (31) P NMR analyses of phosphitylated LCC samples, before and after AaGE1 treatment provided the first evidence for cleavage of the LC ester linkages existing in wood.

  13. An experimental approach to the study of intraocular Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Luxenberg, M N

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study of nematode endophthalmitis due to T canis and review of the literature has been presented. Six owl monkeys were infected either by nasogastric tube using embryonated T canis eggs or by carotid or intravitreal injection of second stage larvae. The clinical manifestations, especially ocular, were observed and various diagnostic tests performed. Only minimal or no intraocular changes were seen after systemic infection but significant abnormalities such as retinal hemorrhages and venous dilation were noted after intravitreal infection. Motile larvae were observed in the lenses of three eyes and in the vitreous of five eyes and, probably a sixth, after intravitreal injection. The intensity and timing of the intraocular reaction seemed to correlate with the infecting dose and apparent disappearance of larvae from the eye. Pathologic confirmation of larvae in the lens was obtained in one eye. A marked inflammatory reaction occurred in eyes receiving intraocular infection but none was seen in eyes with only systemic infectin. Various laboratory and serologic studies were performed, including the ELISA test, which were used to evaluate systemic as well as intraocular responses to infection with T canis. The two monkeys infected by nasogastric tube gave a positive ELISA response in the serum but intraocular fluids gave a negative response in all monkeys including those infected syst:mically and/or intraocularly. Problems in the understanding of clinical aspects of the disease, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are discussed. The need for future experimental studies is emphasized. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 2 D FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 PMID:120993

  14. The Structure of manganese oxide formed by the fungus Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saratovsky, Ian; Gurr, Sarah J.; Hayward, Michael A.

    2009-06-01

    Manganese oxides are observed to form by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of Mn(II) catalyzed by the action of microorganisms. In contrast to the widely studied material produced by bacteria, manganese oxide phases produced by the action of fungi have received only limited attention. A detailed study of the MnO x material produced by the action of the fungus Acremonium KR21-2, utilizing X-ray diffraction, XANES, EXAFS and transmission electron microscopy is reported. The MnO x material is produced as small crystalline particles which adopt a todorokite-like tunnel structure, in striking contrast to previously reported microbial MnO x materials which adopt layered birnessite-type structures. ICPMS measurements reveal there are no templating metal ions present in the fungally mediated MnO x material, in contrast to analogous bacterially mediated material, suggesting these cations play a critical role in determining the structure of the material precipitated. A phylogenetic analysis places KR21-2 with other Acremonium species in the Hypocreales.

  15. A Battle in a Kernel: Molecular Exploration of Antagonisms between Two Maize Endophytes, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a prevalent seed-borne maize endophyte capable of causing severe kernel rot and fumonisin mycotoxin contamination. Within maize kernels, Fv is primarily confined to the pedicel, while another seed-borne fungal endophyte, Acremonium zeae (Az), is observed in embryos. ...

  16. Expression of Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) Resistance in Genotypes of Tall Fescue Harboring Different Isolates of Acremonium Endophyte

    Treesearch

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; R.C. Johnson; J.H. Bouton

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Russian wheat aphid, Diurnphis noxia (Mordvilko), resistance in 2 genotypes of tall fescue grass, Festucn arundinacea Schreb., harboring different isolates of the endophytic fungus Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & cams. Aphids did not select...

  17. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis associated with intraocular gas bubble.

    PubMed Central

    al-Hemidan, A; Byrne-Rhodes, K A; Tabbara, K F

    1989-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus cereus can cause a severe and devastating form of endophthalmitis following penetrating trauma by a metallic object. B. cereus is an uncommon aetiological agent in non-clostridial gas-forming infections. The patient studied in this single case report showed evidence of intraocular gas mimicking gas gangrene infection. The physiology of non-clostridial bacteria producing gas from anaerobic metabolic conditions is reviewed. Further intraocular and systemic complications which may be avoided by accurate and early diagnosis and the use of recommended treatment with antibiotics such as clindamycin. Images PMID:2493262

  18. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, Mike A.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  19. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  20. Lipid composition of thermophilic moulds Acremonium alabamensis and Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, T; Sancholle, M; Chavant, L

    1987-01-01

    The total lipid content of Acremonium alabamensis and Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae ranged 2.6-7.3 and 8.5-13.0% of dry mycelium, respectively during development. Neutral lipid fraction increased during growth while polar and phospholipids declined. Both moulds contained palmitic, oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acids as major fatty acid components in lipids. Degree of unsaturation of lipids of A. alabamensis was greater than that of T. indicae-seudaticae. Neutral lipids were more unsaturated than the polar lipids. The ratio of unsaturation index of polar lipids to neutral lipids was either one or less than one. The principal phospholipids of these moulds were phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidic acid. However, phosphatidic acid was not found in very high amounts as observed in Humicola grisea var. thermoidea.

  1. Eremophilane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from an Acremonium sp. Fungus Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongbin; Zhao, Jingjun; Liu, Dong; Proksch, Peter; Zhao, Zhimin; Lin, Wenhan

    2016-04-22

    Chemical examination of an EtOAc extract of a cultured Acremonium sp. fungus from deep-sea sediments resulted in the isolation of 15 new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids, namely, acremeremophilanes A-O (1-15), together with seven known analogues. The structures of new compounds were determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses, in association with chemical conversions and ECD calculations for configurational assignments. The PKS-derived 4-hexenoic acid unit in 2-6 is rarely found in nature. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects toward nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 2-6 and 14 exhibited inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 45 μM.

  2. Cellulase production from a new strain Acremonium strictum isolated from the Brazilian Biome using different substrates.

    PubMed

    Goldbeck, Rosana; Ramos, Mayla M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Maugeri-Filho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the production of cellulolytic enzymes by Acremonium strictum isolated from Brazilian Biome using different substrates. Fermentations were initially carried out using commercial substrates, including microcrystalline cellulose (AVICEL® and SERVACEL®) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). This was followed by fermentations performed using lignocellulosic biomass: sugarcane bagasse pretreated at different intensities. The fermentations were carried out in shakers at 150 rpm, 30 °C for 240 h. Four enzyme activities were determined: CMCase, FPase, cellobiase and β-glucosidase. Among the substrates used, results showed that the sugarcane bagasse submitted to mild pretreatment was that which induced the microorganism to produce greater cellulolytic activities. This substrate was employed in the optimization study of cellulase production by A. strictum.

  3. Cyanide-resistant alternative respiration is strictly correlated to intracellular peroxide levels in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, L; Váczy, K; Sándor, E; Biró, S; Szentirmai, A; Pócsi, I

    2001-04-01

    A strict correlation between the intensity of the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway and the intracellular peroxide levels in the cephalosporin C producer filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum was demonstrated. Intracellular peroxide levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after addition of H2O2 to the culture media. A similar phenomenon was observed due to the specific inhibition of catalase by salicylic acid. In both cases, cyanide-resistant respiration was markedly stimulated. On the other hand, both cyanide-resistant respiration and intracellular peroxide levels were effectively suppressed by the lipid peroxyl radical scavenger DL-alpha-tocopherol, which breaks lipid peroxidation chains effectively. Our findings firmly supported the assumption that there is a connection between the intracellular peroxide levels and the intensity of the alternative respiratory pathway in fungi.

  4. Activation of prothrombin by two subtilisin-like serine proteases from Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunli; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Kosuke; Makimura, Koichi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2007-06-22

    Two novel subtilisin-like serine proteases (AS-E1 and -E2) that activate prothrombin have been identified in a culture of the fungus Acremonium sp. The enzymes were purified through repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The N-terminal sequences of AS-E1 (34.4 kDa) and AS-E2 (32 kDa) showed high similarity to the internal sequences of two distinct subtilisin-like hypothetical proteins from Chaetomium globosum. Both enzymes proteolytically activated prothrombin to meizothrombin(desF1)-like molecules, while the activation cleavage seemed to occur at a site (Tyr(316)-Ile(317)) that is four residues proximal to the canonical Xa cleavage site (Arg(320)-Ile(321)). Both enzymes inhibited plasma clotting, possibly due to extensive degradation of fibrinogen and production of meizothrombin(desF1)-like molecule.

  5. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  6. Utilization of algal sugars and glycerol for enhanced cephalosporin C production by Acremonium chrysogenum M35.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Yoo, H Y; Yang, X; Kim, D S; Lee, J H; Lee, S K; Han, S O; Kim, S W

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, glycerol was utilized as an additional carbon source for the production of cephalosporin C (CPC) by Acremonium chrysogenum M35. In this study, algal sugars extracted from the third-generation biomass were utilized in the CPC production for the first time. The CPC production improved about twofold when using the algal sugars as the carbon source. The complex medium including algal sugars and glycerol was utilized, and 7·3 g l(-1) CPC production was achieved in a 250-ml shaking flask. To determine the important variables for the CPC production, Plackett-Burman design was carried out and 6·18 g l(-1) of CPC was estimated under the numerically optimized conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the CPC production was performed in a 5-l scale bioreactor, affording CPC production at a rate of 7·1 g l(-1) . Moreover, 6·7 g l(-1) CPC was produced using crude glycerol as the substrate. Microalgae are the biomass containing various components, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. In this study, carbon sources contained in microalgae were obtained by acid extraction, and cephalosporin C (CPC), a β-lactam antibiotic intermediate, was produced by using Acremonium chrysogenum M35. In addition, the increase of CPC production was not distinct for A. chrysogenum M35 with algal sugars as the only carbon source; therefore, glycerol was added, increasing the CPC production. Thus, cheap residues such as algal sugars form microalgal and glycerol form biodiesel process could be used as the alternative sources for the production of various products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Intraocular pressure reduction and regulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.; Burnett, J. E.; Felder, S. F.; Mcgannon, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    An intraocular pressure reduction and regulation system is described and data are presented covering performance in: (1) reducing intraocular pressure to a preselected value, (2) maintaining a set minimum intraocular pressure, and (3) reducing the dynamic increases in intraocular pressure resulting from external loads applied to the eye.

  8. Drug-Eluting Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    González-Chomón, Clara; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Notable advances in materials science and in surgical techniques make the management of cataract by replacement of the opaque crystalline with an intraocular lens (IOL), one of the most cost-effective interventions in current healthcare. The usefulness and safety of IOLs can be enhanced if they are endowed with the ability to load and to sustain drug release in the implantation site. Drug-eluting IOLs can prevent infections and untoward reactions of eye tissues (which lead to opacification) and also can act as drug depots for treatment of several other ocular pathologies. Such a myriad of therapeutic possibilities has prompted the design of drug-IOL combination products. Several approaches are under study, namely combination of the IOL with an insert in a single device, soaking in drug solutions, impregnation using supercritical fluids, coating with drug/polymer layers, and covalent grafting of the drug. The advantages/limitations of each technique are discussed in the present review on selected examples. Although more in vivo data are required, the information already available proves the interest of some approaches in ocular therapeutics. PMID:28824115

  9. [Regulation of alkaline exoprotease and cephalosporin C synthesis in Acremonium chrysogenum by different carbon and nitrogen sources].

    PubMed

    Shuvalova, I A; Bartoshevich, Iu E

    1981-03-01

    The synthesis of exoproteases and cephalosporin C in Acremonium chrysogenum is repressed by easily assimilated forms of nitrogen and carbon according to the type of nitrogen metabolism repression and catabolism inhibition. Glucose and ammonium salts inhibited the mycelium fragmentation and prevented formation of conidia. Amino acids had a diverse effect on the synthesis of the proteases and antibiotic. Methionine played the role of an inductor of the synthesis of alkaline exoproteases, cephalosporin C and the mycelium fragmentation into arthrospores.

  10. Intraocular pressure reduction and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.; Mcgannon, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    System designed to reduce intraocular pressure hydraulically to any level desired by physician over set time and in controlled manner has number of uses in ophthalmology. Device may be most immediately useful in treatment of glaucoma.

  11. Intraocular pressure reduction and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.; Mcgannon, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    System designed to reduce intraocular pressure hydraulically to any level desired by physician over set time and in controlled manner has number of uses in ophthalmology. Device may be most immediately useful in treatment of glaucoma.

  12. Expression of the cefG gene is limiting for cephalosporin biosynthesis in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, S; Velasco, J; Marcos, A T; Fernández, F J; Fierro, F; Barredo, J L; Díez, B; Martín, J F

    1997-11-01

    The conversion of deacetylcephalosporin C to cephalosporin C is inefficient in most Acremonium chrysogenum strains. The cefG gene, which encodes deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase, is expressed very poorly in A. chrysogenum as compared to other genes of the cephalosporin pathway. Introduction of additional copies of the cefG gene with its native promoter (in two different constructions with upstream regions of 1056 bp and 538 bp respectively) did not produce a significant increase of the steady-state level of the cefG transcript. Expression of the cefG gene from the promoters of (i) the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene of Aspergillus nidulans, (ii) the glucoamylase (gla) gene of Aspergillus niger, (iii) the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and (iv) the isopenicillin N synthase (pcbC) genes of Penicillium chrysogenum, led to very high steady-state levels of cefG transcript and to increased deacetylcephalosporin-C acetyltransferase protein concentration (as shown by immunoblotting) and enzyme activity in the transformants. Southern analysis showed that integration of the new constructions occurred at sites different from that of the endogenous cefG gene. Cephalosporin production was increased two- to threefold in A. chrysogenum C10 transformed with constructions in which the cefG gene was expressed from the gdh or gpd promoters as a result of a more efficient acetylation of deacetylcephalosporin C.

  13. Physically Triggered Morphology Changes in a Novel Acremonium Isolate Cultivated in Precisely Engineered Microfabricated Environments.

    PubMed

    Catón, Laura; Yurkov, Andrey; Giesbers, Marcel; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Ingham, Colin J

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are strongly affected by their physical environment. Microfabrication offers the possibility of creating new culture environments and ecosystems with defined characteristics. Here, we report the isolation of a novel member of the fungal genus Acremonium using a microengineered cultivation chip. This isolate was unusual in that it organizes into macroscopic structures when initially cultivated within microwells with a porous aluminum oxide (PAO) base. These "templated mycelial bundles" (TMB) were formed from masses of parallel hyphae with side branching suppressed. TMB were highly hydrated, facilitating the passive movement of solutes along the bundle. By using a range of culture chips, it was deduced that the critical factors in triggering the TMB were growth in microwells from 50 to 300 μm in diameter with a PAO base. Cultivation experiments, using spores and pigments as tracking agents, indicate that bulk growth of the TMB occurs at the base. TMB morphology is highly coherent and is maintained after growing out of the microwells. TMB can explore their environment by developing unbundled lateral hyphae; TMB only followed if nutrients were available. Because of the ease of fabricating numerous microstructures, we suggest this is a productive approach for exploring morphology and growth in multicellular microorganisms and microbial communities.

  14. Hyperthermic treatment of intraocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Finger, P T; Packer, S; Svitra, P P; Paglione, R W; Chess, J; Albert, D M

    1984-10-01

    A 5.8-gigahertz (GHz) ophthalmic microwave applicator was used to treat choroidal melanoma (Green strain) in rabbits. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation provides a favorable dose distribution to induce local hyperthermia in the treatment of intraocular tumors. Heating of the neoplasm, while sparing normal ocular structures, is best accomplished by a transscleral approach. A hyperthermia plaque is placed on the sclera at the base of the intraocular tumor. Contact (resistive) heating and electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency and microwave) are best suited to a plaque technique. The advantages of electromagnetic heat induction, as compared with contact heating, are twofold: the depth of hyperthermic penetration can be modulated by frequency selection, and the tissues with low water content (sclera) remain relatively unaffected by microwaves. The 5.8-GHz ophthalmic microwave applicator satisfies the requirements for local hyperthermic treatment of intraocular tumors.

  15. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  16. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4270 - Intraocular gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular gas. 886.4270 Section 886.4270 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4270 Intraocular gas. (a) Identification. An intraocular gas is a device consisting of a gaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to place pressure...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4270 - Intraocular gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular gas. 886.4270 Section 886.4270 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4270 Intraocular gas. (a) Identification. An intraocular gas is a device consisting of a gaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to place pressure...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4270 - Intraocular gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular gas. 886.4270 Section 886.4270 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4270 Intraocular gas. (a) Identification. An intraocular gas is a device consisting of a gaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to place pressure...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4270 - Intraocular gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular gas. 886.4270 Section 886.4270 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4270 Intraocular gas. (a) Identification. An intraocular gas is a device consisting of a gaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to place pressure...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4270 - Intraocular gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular gas. 886.4270 Section 886.4270 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4270 Intraocular gas. (a) Identification. An intraocular gas is a device consisting of a gaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to place...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to aid...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to aid...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to aid...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to aid...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to aid...

  9. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  10. Kinetics and Thermostability of NADP-Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Cephalosporium acremonium

    PubMed Central

    Olano, J.; de Arriaga, D.; Busto, F.; Soler, J.

    1995-01-01

    NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase [isocitrate:NADP(sup+) oxidoreductase (decarboxylating); EC 1.1.1.42] was purified from Cephalosporium acremonium as a single species. The enzyme is a dimer of 140 kDa with identical subunits of 75 kDa. The existence of a monomer-dimer equilibrium is apparent as revealed by an enzyme dilution approach. The chelate complex of the tribasic form of isocitrate and Mg(sup2+) is the true substrate. The V(infmax) depends on a basic form of an ionizable group of the enzyme-substrate complex with a pK(infes) (pK of the enzyme-substrate complex) of 6.9 and a (Delta)H(infion) (activation enthalpy) of -2 (plusmn) 0.4 kcal mol(sup-1) (ca. 8 (plusmn) 2 kJ mol(sup-1)). The enzyme showed maximum activity at 60(deg)C, an unusually high temperature for a nonthermophilic fungus. The thermodynamic parameters for isocitrate oxidative decarboxylation and for the binding of isocitrate and NADP(sup+) were calculated. We analyzed the kinetic thermal stability of the enzyme at pH 6.5 and 7.6. It was inactivated above 40(deg)C following a first-order kinetics. The presence of 12 mM Mg(sup2+) plus 10 mM dl-isocitrate led to 100% protection of enzyme activity against inactivation at 60(deg)C for 120 min. Removal of either or both compounds led to activity loss. A greater stabilizing role for Mg(sup2+) was seen at pH 6.5 than at pH 7.6, whereas the stabilizing effect of isocitrate was not dependent on pH. PMID:16535052

  11. Cephalosporin C production by immobilized Cephalosporium acremonium cells in a repeated batch tower bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio J G; Pan, Tai; Giordano, Roberto C; Araujo, Maria Lucia G C; Hokka, Carlos O

    2004-01-05

    The industrial production of antibiotics with filamentous fungi is usually carried out in conventional aerated and agitated tank fermentors. Highly viscous non-Newtonian broths are produced and a compromise must be found between convenient shear stress and adequate oxygen transfer. In this work, cephalosporin C production by bioparticles of immobilized cells of Cephalosporium acremonium ATCC 48272 was studied in a repeated batch tower bioreactor as an alternative to the conventional process. Also, gas-liquid oxygen transfer volumetric coefficients, k(L)a, were determined at various air flow-rates and alumina contents in the bioparticle. The bioparticles were composed of calcium alginate (2.0% w/w), alumina ( < 44 micra), cells, and water. A model describing the cell growth, cephalosporin C production, oxygen, glucose, and sucrose consumption was proposed. To describe the radial variation of oxygen concentration within the pellet, the reaction-diffusion model forecasting a dead core bioparticle was adopted. The k(L)a measurements with gel beads prepared with 0.0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% alumina showed that a higher k(L)a value is attained with 1.5 and 2.0%. An expression relating this coefficient to particle density, liquid density, and air velocity was obtained and further utilized in the simulation of the proposed model. Batch, followed by repeated batch experiments, were accomplished by draining the spent medium, washing with saline solution, and pouring fresh medium into the bioreactor. Results showed that glucose is consumed very quickly, within 24 h, followed by sucrose consumption and cephalosporin C production. Higher productivities were attained during the second batch, as cell concentration was already high, resulting in rapid glucose consumption and an early derepression of cephalosporin C synthesizing enzymes. The model incorporated this improvement predicting higher cephalosporin C productivity.

  12. Asexual cephalosporin C producer Acremonium chrysogenum carries a functional mating type locus.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the alpha-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The alpha-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the PaDeltaMAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT(+)) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum.

  13. Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Apollo).

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Camares, O; Veisseire, P

    2000-05-01

    The effects of zinc on growth, mineral content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and detoxifying enzyme activity (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), EC 1.11.1.11; superoxide dismutase (SOD), EC 1.15.1.1) of ryegrass infected or not by Acremonium lolii, and treated with nutrient solution containing 0-50 mM ZnSO(4) were studied. The introduction of zinc induces stress with a decrease in growth at 1, 5 and 10 mM ZnSO(4) and a cessation of growth at 50 mM ZnSO(4), in ryegrass plants infected by A. lolii or not. This decrease in growth may be due to an accumulation of zinc in leaves. Nevertheless, symbiotic plants showed higher values in tiller number, an advantage conferred by the fungus. After 24 d of Zn exposure, leaf fresh weights and leaf water content were lower in plants growing with Zn in the culture medium and no advantage was conferred by the fungus to its host. An increase in Zn supply resulted in a decrease of the Ca, K, Mg, and Cu content of the leaves, a reduction in the quantum yield of electron flow throughout photosystem II (DeltaF/F(1)(m))and a lowering of the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion (F(v)/F(m)), compared to control plants. To counter this zinc stress, detoxifying enzymes APX and SOD increased (100%) when Zn reached the value of 50 mM in the nutrient solution. At 10 mM ZnSO(4), the presence of the fungus in the plant led to an increase in the threshold toxicity of plants to zinc by a diminution of APX activity.

  14. Intraocular nematodiasis caused by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in an eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Gandolf, A Rae; Atkinson, Mark W; Gemensky, Anne J; Hayes, Jeff; Grimes, Sheila; Blumer, Evan S

    2003-06-01

    A 10-mo-old female eland (Taurotragus oryx) at the Wilds exhibited recalcitrant, progressive unilateral uveitis for a 5-wk period, despite constant medical treatment. Unilateral enucleation was performed because of blindness and animal discomfort evidenced by continuous blepharospasm. Histopathologic examination of the eye demonstrated intraocular larvae morphologically consistent with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, the first known case of intraocular P. tenuis migration. This animal subsequently was euthanatized because of severe, nonresponsive neurologic signs associated with P. tenuis infection.

  15. Elucidation of the factors affecting the oxidative activity of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase by an electrochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Kenichi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-07

    Steady-state kinetics of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase toward p-hydroquinone derivatives have been examined by using an electrochemical analysis based on the theory of steady-state bioelectrocatalysis. The electrochemical technique has enabled one to examine the influence of electronic and chemical properties of substrates on the activity. It was proven that the oxidative activity of ascorbate oxidase was dominated by the highly selective substrate-binding affinity based on electrostatic interaction beyond the one-electron redox potential difference between ascorbate oxidase's type 1 copper site and substrate.

  16. Elucidation of the factors affecting the oxidative activity of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase by an electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenichi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-07

    Steady-state kinetics of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase toward p-hydroquinone derivatives have been examined by using an electrochemical analysis based on the theory of steady-state bioelectrocatalysis. The electrochemical technique has enabled one to examine the influence of electronic and chemical properties of substrates on the activity. It was proven that the oxidative activity of ascorbate oxidase was dominated by the highly selective substrate-binding affinity based on electrostatic interaction beyond the one-electron redox potential difference between ascorbate oxidase's type 1 copper site and substrate.

  17. An endogenous promoter for conditional gene expression in Acremonium chrysogenum: the xylan and xylose inducible promoter xyl1(P.).

    PubMed

    Blatzer, Michael; Gsaller, Fabio; Abt, Beate; Schrettl, Markus; Specht, Thomas; Haas, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum is the natural producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C and therefore of significant biotechnological importance. Here we identified and characterized the xylanase-encoding xyl1 gene and demonstrate that its promoter, xyl1(P), is suitable for conditional expression of heterologous genes in A. chrysogenum. This was shown by xylose and xylan-inducible xyl1(P)-driven expression of genes encoding green fluorescence protein and phleomycin resistance. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of the xyl1(P) promoter for selection marker recycling. Taken together, these finding will help to overcome the limitation in genetic tools in this important filamentous fungus.

  18. Exogenous endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus: A case report and discussion regarding treatment of intraocular infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    PubMed

    Berenger, Byron M; Kulkarni, Shobhana; Hinz, Brad J; Md, Sarah E Forgie

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis caused by enterococci is rare, and cases involving vancomycin-resistant enterococci are even more so. Due to the poor bioavailability of many antibiotics in the vitreous chamber, special considerations are required when choosing antibiotics to treat these infections. The authors report the first case of exogenous endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus via the unique mechanism of high-velocity water stream trauma from a toy water gun. A previously healthy four-year old boy presented with endophthalmitis of the left eye after injury from a water gun. Empirical treatment for endophthalmitis was started on presentation to the ophthalmologist. After the identification of the pathogen and a review of the literature, the antibiotic regimen was changed to include intravitreal ampicillin and amikacin with systemic linezolid. Endophthalmitis caused by E casseliflavus and other vancomycin-resistant enterococci are challenging to treat. Rapid identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal endophthalmitis is important to guide appropriate antibiotic therapy. Systemic linezolid achieves excellent intravitreal concentrations, and should be used in combination with intravitreal and topical antibiotics.

  19. Personalizing Intraocular Pressure: Target Intraocular Pressure in the Setting of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sit, Arthur J; Pruet, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Determining target intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients is multifaceted, requiring attention to many different factors such as glaucoma type, severity of disease, age, race, family history, corneal thickness and hysteresis, and initial IOP. Even with all these variables accounted for, there are still patients who have progression of the disease despite achieving target IOP. Intraocular pressure variability has been identified as a potential independent risk factor for glaucoma progression but is currently difficult to quantify in individual patients. New technologies enabling measurement of both diurnal and nocturnal IOP may necessitate modifying our concept of target pressure.

  20. Intraocular tumors. A cytopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Scroggs, M W; Johnston, W W; Klintworth, G K

    1990-01-01

    The cytologic characteristics and histopathologic correlates of common ocular tumors were examined using (1) cytologic and histologic specimens prepared from enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma and melanoma, (2) cytologic specimens prepared from clinically obtained intraocular fluids from eyes with lymphoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma and (3) cytologic specimens prepared from orbital aspirates and cerebrospinal fluids from a patient in whom retinoblastoma had spread to the orbit and central nervous system. Retinoblastoma cells occurred singly and in clusters and were associated with abundant necrotic debris and portions of capillaries with perivascular tumor infiltrates. Melanoma cells frequently had prominent nucleoli and variable amounts of fine cytoplasmic pigmentation and were found individually and in groups. Lymphoma cells were noncohesive, with scant cytoplasm. Metastatic intraocular adenocarcinoma cells had well-defined borders, multiple nucleoli and vacuolated cytoplasm. In general, the cellular morphology in the cytologic and tissue preparations of the intraocular tumors correlated well with each other. The findings suggest that common primary and metastatic intraocular tumors can be differentiated in cytologic preparations.

  1. The Fyodorov Sputnik intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Kwitko, M L

    1979-04-01

    The author has implanted 197 Fyodorov intraocular lenses. With careful selection of patients, good surgical judgment, and meticulous surgery, a degree of success can be obtained with this lens, which will equal that of conventional cataract surgery. The surgical technique of implantation will be described.

  2. Recurrent enterococcal endophthalmitis seeded by an intraocular lens biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kimberly V.; Eisley, Kari M.; Shanks, Robert M.Q.; Lahr, Roni M.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Kowalski, Regis P.; Noecker, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A case of endophthalmitis following uneventful phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in a 77-year-old diabetic man was culture-positive for Enterococcus faecalis. After successful treatment with intravitreal, topical, and systemic antibiotic agents, the infection seemed to clear and the patient achieved a corrected visual acuity of 20/25. Four months after the initial presentation, the patient again developed signs and symptoms of endophthalmitis, with regrowth of E faecalis. The antibiotic therapy was repeated. One month later, the IOL was removed surgically and found to harbor a biofilm of the strain demonstrated by DNA analysis. The microbiologic and DNA analyses support that a biofilm on an IOL could be a vector for a cause of recurrent endophthalmitis. Intraocular lens exchange in cases of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by E faecalis may be considered to decrease the risk for recurrent infection. PMID:21700113

  3. Soluble inhibitors generated during hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber suppressed the catalytic activity of Acremonium cellulase.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm mesocarp fiber was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The pretreated slurries were separated by filtration, pretreated liquids and solids were characterized. An enzymatic digestibility study was performed for both pretreated slurries and solids to understand the effect of soluble inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process. The highest glucose yield obtained from pretreated slurries was 70.1%, and gradually decreased with higher pretreatment severities. The highest glucose yield obtained in pretreated solids was 100%, after pretreatment at 210°C for 20min. In order to study the inhibitory effects of compounds generated during pretreatment with cellulase, technical grade solutions that mimic the pretreated liquid were prepared and their effect on Acremonium cellulase activity was monitored using Avicel. Xylo-oligomers and tannic acid were identified as powerful inhibitors of Acremonium cellulase, and the lowest hydrolysis rate of Avicel of 0.18g/g-glucose released/L/h was obtained from tannic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    PubMed

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus.

  5. Acremoxanthone E, a Novel Member of Heterodimeric Polyketides with a Bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene Ring, Produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae) Endophytic Fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Acremonium camptosporum was isolated as an endophyte from the leaves of the plant Bursera simaruba. Extracts from cultures of the fungus were shown to have inhibitory effects on the growth of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The chemical compounds in the extracts were identified, and a group...

  6. Direct ethanol production from glucose, xylose and sugarcane bagasse by the corn endophytic fungi Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Visser, Evan M; Siqueira, Germano A; Milagres, Adriane M F; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2013-10-10

    Production of ethanol with two corn endophytic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae, was studied. The yield of ethanol from glucose, xylose and a mixture of both sugars were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.50g/g ethanol/sugar for F. verticillioides and 0.37, 0.39 and 0.48g/g ethanol/sugar for A. zeae. Both fungi were able to co-ferment glucose and xylose. Ethanol production from 40g/L of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was 4.6 and 3.9g/L for F. verticillioides and A. zeae, respectively, yielding 0.31g/g of ethanol per consumed sugar. Both fungi studied were capable of co-fermenting glucose and xylose at high yields. Moreover, they were able to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulosic biomass, demonstrating to be suitable microorganisms for consolidated bioprocessing.

  7. Cell-free ring expansion of penicillin N to deacetoxycephalosporin C by Cephalosporium acremonium CW-19 and its mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, M; Konomi, T; Kohsaka, M; Baldwin, J E; Herchen, S; Singh, P; Hunt, N A; Demain, A L

    1978-01-01

    To examine microbiological ring expansion of penicillin N to a cephalosporin, we obtained five mutants of Cephalosporium acremonium blocked in beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis from 2500 survivors of mutagenesis. In submerged fermentation, mutants M-0198, M-0199, and M-2351 produced no beta-lactam antibiotic (type A), whereas mutants M-1443 and M-1836 formed penicillin N but not cephalosporin C (type B). Cell-free extracts of type A mutants converted penicillin N to a cephalosporin; those of type B mutants did not. The product of the cell-free reaction was identified as deacetoxycephalosporin C by thin-layer chromatography, paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and enzyme tests. These data strongly support our hypothesis that penicillin N is an intermediate of cephalosporin biosynthesis. PMID:282643

  8. Expression of the transporter encoded by the cefT gene of Acremonium chrysogenum increases cephalosporin production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Kovalchuk, Andriy; van den Berg, Marco A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-10-01

    By introduction of the cefEF genes of Acremonium chrysogenum and the cmcH gene of Streptomyces clavuligerus, Penicillium chrysogenum can be reprogrammed to form adipoyl-7-amino-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (ad7-ACCCA), a carbamoylated derivate of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid. The cefT gene of A. chrysogenum encodes a cephalosporin C transporter that belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Introduction of cefT into an ad7-ACCCA-producing P. chrysogenum strain results in an almost 2-fold increase in cephalosporin production with a concomitant decrease in penicillin by-product formation. These data suggest that cephalosporin production by recombinant P. chrysogenum strains is limited by the ability of the fungus to secrete these compounds.

  9. Intraocular minocycline for the treatment of ocular pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Ros Castellar, Fátima; Sobrino Jiménez, Carmen; del Hierro Zarzuelo, Almudena; Herrero Ambrosio, Alicia; Boto de Los Bueis, Ana

    2017-06-01

    A case of ocular pythiosis successfully treated with surgery and intraocular and oral minocycline is reported. A 30-year-old man who wore corrective contact lenses traveled to Brazil and Colombia where he swam in salt and fresh waters while wearing contact lenses. He sought treatment at an emergency department after 2 weeks of suffering with a painful corneal ulcer, redness, and loss of vision in his right eye that had been treated at other centers with ophthalmic moxifloxacin for 10 days and with fortified topical antibiotics (amikacin and vancomycin) for 2 days. Examination using a slit lamp revealed a deep central corneal ulcer with surrounding white infiltrate, endothelial plaque, and hypopyon. Due to infection severity, the patient was admitted and received empirical antibiotic therapy and i.v. and topical antifungals. During the first corneal transplantation, the patient's original infection relapsed and was treated with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B intraocular injections. A subsequent infection developed, and a second keratoplasty was performed. One month after hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with ocular pythiosis and therapy with oral minocycline was initiated. After severe infection relapse in the anterior chamber, the patient underwent a third penetrating keratoplasty, where minocycline intraocular injection was administered. After this intervention, complete infection control was achieved, and the patient was discharged 45 days after admission with oral minocycline and 1% cyclosporine and 0.3% ofloxacin eye drops. A patient with ocular pythiosis was successfully treated with penetrating keratoplasty and 2 months of treatment with intracameral and oral minocycline. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and characterization of the gene cahB encoding a cephalosporin C acetylhydrolase from Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Velasco, J; Gutiérrez, S; Casqueiro, J; Fierro, F; Campoy, S; Martín, J F

    2001-10-01

    An important problem during the production of cephalosporin C by Acremonium chrysogenum is the hydrolysis of cephalosporin C to deacetylcephalosporin C, since the latter compound has no commercial value and represents an unwanted side-product. Characterization of the enzymatic process that gives rise to deacetylcephalosporin C will help to avoid the accumulation of this side-product. An extracellular cephalosporin C acetylhydrolase (CPC-AH) from Acremonium chrysogenum C10 was purified to near homogeneity. This enzyme had a molecular mass of 31 kDa, a pl of 4.0, and showed relatively little affinity for cephalosporin C (Km 33.7 mM). We sequenced twenty amino acids at the amino-terminal end; a probe based on this sequence was then used to clone the cephalosporin acetylhydrolase (cahB) gene. cahB encodes a pre-protein of 383 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 38,228 Da. The sequenced 20 amino acids of the purified protein corresponded to amino acids 107-127 deduced from the cahB gene, suggesting that mature CPC-AH results from processing of the pre-protein after Gln-106. cahB is located on chromosome VIII of A. chrysogenum C10 and is not linked to the cephalosporin early or late gene clusters. It is expressed as a single 1.4-kb transcript after 72 h of cultivation. Expression declined in batch cultures after 120 h even though CPC-AH activity was observed until 144 h. The CPC-AH protein resembles other wide-spectrum substrate fungal esterases that are functionally related to serine proteases. The cahB gene does not seem to be related to the cephalosporin biosynthesis genes and encodes an esterase active on several substrates in addition to cephalosporin C.

  11. Topical tissue plasminogen activator appears ineffective for the clearance of intraocular fibrin.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, J; Latimer, W B

    1998-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of topical tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for the resolution of postoperative or inflammatory intraocular fibrinous exudates. Each treatment consisted of drops of 1 mg/ml tPA given 9 times 5 minutes apart. Records were reviewed and the results at 24 and 48 hours were recorded. Sixty-two patients had a total of 94 treatments. Fibrin exudates following intraocular surgery in 34 patients were treated 44 times. In 6 patients there was a positive result. Fibrin associated with intraocular infection was treated in 9 patients. None showed clear improvement. Nineteen patients had a total of 34 treatments for poorly controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma surgery. Five patients showed adequate control of the IOP, 12 did not change, and 2 had a questionable improvement. Eleven patients had adequate IOP control after additional treatment. Seven required suture lysis, 2 ab interno bleb revision, and 2 YAG capsulotomy or iridotomy to reduce the IOP to an acceptable level. Within the limits of this retrospective study and taking into account that fibrin may resolve spontaneously, it appears that topical tPA drops are not effective for the liquefaction of intraocular fibrin after surgery or in association with intraocular inflammation. They did not improve IOP control after glaucoma surgery.

  12. Phakic Intraocular Lenses and their Special Indications

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Roberto; Chauhan, Tulika

    2016-01-01

    Phakic intraocular lenses revolutionize refractive surgery and continue to serve as an excellent option for vision correction in patients who are not ideal candidates for laser vision correction. This article will review special indications of phakic intraocular lenses in the clinical practice. PMID:27994811

  13. Elevated intraocular pressure in secondary piggyback intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Takeshi; Tanaka, Nobushige

    2005-09-01

    We report 2 cases of postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in secondary piggyback intraocular lens (IOL) implantation without history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. A 74-year-old woman with myopic pseudophakia and a 68-year-old man with hyperopic pseudophakia received secondary piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation in their left eyes. In both patients, the left IOP gradually increased and sustained around 30 mm Hg for about 1 year. In the first, IOP continued elevating despite topical and systemic medications. There was an episode of pupillary block in the second. Gonioscopically, heavier trabecular meshwork pigmentation in their left eyes was observed. Because of this, the 2 IOLs implanted were removed and replaced by an adequate IOL and trabeculotomy was performed in the former. The AcrySof IOL has a truncated optic edge, which increases the risk for chafing the iris, resulting in pigment dispersion syndrome; thus, it would be a poor choice for a sulcus-placed piggyback implantation.

  14. Intraocular lens optics and aberrations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel H; Rocha, Karolinne M

    2016-07-01

    This review outlines concepts in intraocular lens (IOL) optics and aberrations important both for current IOLs and for new IOLs in development. Optical aberrations make a significant impact on the laboratory and clinical performance of IOLs, especially under mesopic and low-contrast conditions. Minimizing or correcting these aberrations can potentially improve visual function. Strategic management of aberrations can have clinical utility for extended depth of focus and presbyopia correction. All IOLs affect ocular aberrations in some manner. It is important for clinicians and researchers to understand the implications how any residual aberrations could affect visual quality, visual side-effects, and depth of focus.

  15. Transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Kjersem, Bård; Krohn, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a recently described modification of a standard photo slit lamp system for ocular transillumination, with special emphasis on the light transmission through the eye wall and the photographic technique. Transillumination photography was carried out with the Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland). After having released the background lighting optic fibre cable from its holder, the patient was positioned at the slit lamp, and the fibre tip was gently pressed against the sclera or the cornea of the patient's eye. During about 1/1000 of a second, the eye was illuminated by the flash and the scleral shadow of the tumour was exposed to the camera sensor. The images were of good diagnostic quality, making it easy to outline the tumours and to evaluate the involvement of intraocular structures. None of the examined patients experienced discomfort or negative side effects. The method is recommended in cases where photographic transillumination documentation of intraocular pathologies is considered important.

  16. IRIS: Integrated Robotic Intraocular Snake*

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingchi; van Geirt, Vincent; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2015-01-01

    Retinal surgery is one of the most technically challenging surgical disciplines. Many robotic systems have been developed to enhance the surgical capabilities. However, very few of them provide the surgeon the dexterity within the patient’s eye to enable more flexible, more advanced surgical procedures. This paper presents a sub-millimeter intraocular dexterous robot, the Integrated Robotic Intraocular Snake (IRIS). The variable neutral-line mechanism is used to provide very high dexterity with a very small form factor. The IRIS distal dexterous unit is 0.9 mm in diameter and about 3 mm in length. It enables two rotational degrees of freedom at the distal end of the ophthalmic instruments. The analysis on contact mechanics provides a reference for the adjustment of the wire pretension. Redundant actuation is implemented by using one motor for each wire. A motion scaling transmission is developed to overcome the suboptimal resolution of the motors. A scale-up model of the IRIS is built for initial experimental evaluation. Preliminary results show that the scale-up IRIS can provide large range of motion. For given bending angle, the kinematic model can estimate the desired wire translation when the friction is not significant. The first prototype of the actual-scale IRIS is assembled and tested. PMID:26405561

  17. IRIS: Integrated Robotic Intraocular Snake.

    PubMed

    He, Xingchi; van Geirt, Vincent; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2015-05-01

    Retinal surgery is one of the most technically challenging surgical disciplines. Many robotic systems have been developed to enhance the surgical capabilities. However, very few of them provide the surgeon the dexterity within the patient's eye to enable more flexible, more advanced surgical procedures. This paper presents a sub-millimeter intraocular dexterous robot, the Integrated Robotic Intraocular Snake (IRIS). The variable neutral-line mechanism is used to provide very high dexterity with a very small form factor. The IRIS distal dexterous unit is 0.9 mm in diameter and about 3 mm in length. It enables two rotational degrees of freedom at the distal end of the ophthalmic instruments. The analysis on contact mechanics provides a reference for the adjustment of the wire pretension. Redundant actuation is implemented by using one motor for each wire. A motion scaling transmission is developed to overcome the suboptimal resolution of the motors. A scale-up model of the IRIS is built for initial experimental evaluation. Preliminary results show that the scale-up IRIS can provide large range of motion. For given bending angle, the kinematic model can estimate the desired wire translation when the friction is not significant. The first prototype of the actual-scale IRIS is assembled and tested.

  18. Fiberglass intraocular foreign body with no initial ocular symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, David; Olumba, Kenneth; Shrier, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of an occult intraocular foreign body missed on initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fiberglass as an intraocular foreign body. A case report in which the clinical presentation of the patient was documented by color anterior segment and fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and computed topography (CT) of the orbit. A 34-year-old male was referred for the evaluation of an acute unilateral preretinal hemorrhage of undetermined origin. Three months before his presentation, he had a foreign body sensation while cutting fiberglass, which lasted for several hours. He denied having any visual complaints until his presentation 3 months later. On anterior examination, a small paracentral corneal scar was noticed. There was no cell or flare. A small iris defect inferior nasal with an adjacent area of broad based peripheral anterior synechia on gonioscopy was noted. On funduscopy, a large subretinal elevation with an underlying hemorrhage adjacent to the disk with a white foreign body partially imbedded in the retina was seen. A vitreous hemorrhage was overlying the macula. Because there were no signs of infection or inflammation, surgical intervention was avoided. Barrier laser was performed around the subretinal elevation. Occurrence of intraocular foreign bodies, although not uncommon, has a varying presentation. Most often devastating and dramatic, clinical signs may not be obvious or appreciated on thorough examination, especially when the offending object is very small. Intraocular foreign bodies composed of inert material (i.e., glass/fiberglass) can leave the eye without inflammation, further making the diagnosis difficult.

  19. [Physical exercise and intraocular pressure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-bo; Wu, Yue; Li, Si-zhen; Sun, Lan-ping; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, it had been observed that physical exercises could reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma. However, the effect of IOP reduction varied with exercise type and intensity, as well as the duration after exercise. Difference of lowering the IOP in glaucoma patients and healthy people were also observed. The mechanisms of reducing the IOP by exercise were very complicated and believed to be associated with the lower concentration of norepinephrine, the rising of colloid osmotic pressure, the co-action of nitric oxide and endothelin after exercise, and also related to the gene polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  20. Understanding the accommodating intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Rana, Azhar; Miller, David; Magnante, Peter

    2003-12-01

    To review current accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) designs and introduce a new design consisting of a plus lens and a minus lens. Cornea Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Computer simulation studies of a model eye calculated the pseudoaccommodation range with different powers of 1 IOL or of 2 IOLs acting as a doublet. The doublet consisting of a convex (plus) lens and a concave (minus) lens gave a greater range of power change than a single convex lens or a doublet consisting of 2 convex lenses. The greater range of power results from the plus lens moving forward. The results show that an IOL design consisting of positive and negative lenses that move closer or farther from each other offers a greater range of pseudoaccommodation than other designs.

  1. [Free-Floating Intraocular Cysts].

    PubMed

    Werner, Jens Ulrich; Lang, Gerhard K; Enders, Christian

    2017-05-03

    Background Free-floating intraocular cysts may be found in the anterior chamber (FZV) and the vitreous (FZG). The first description of a cyst was 150 years ago, and they are considered to be ocular rarities. Materials and Methods The actual knowledge about FZV and FZG is shown on the basis of two exemplary patients. Results and Discussion Patient 1 had a FZV as an incidental finding which had a smooth surface, a slight pigmentation and was translucent. The ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an echo-free interior space. Without the patient's discomfort and missing treatment indication, a watch-and-wait strategy was chosen. Cysts of the iris can be classified as primary and secondary cysts. Primary cysts of the iris can arise from the stroma as the pigment epithelium wherein it is believed that FZV descend from the pigment epithelium. Secondary cysts and FZV can be generated by tumors, inflammation, epithelial ingrowth, the use of eye-drops or intraocular foreign bodies. Patient 2 showed marked myopic fundus changes and an FZG with a yellowish-greenish surface; the transparency was reduced and the surface was not pigmented. The ultrasound examination also revealed an echo-free interior space. Clinical controls were advised. Congenital and acquired causes are discussed for the formation of FZG. FZG could originate from the pigment epithelium of the iris, but there are conflicting study results. Trauma, inflammation and chorioretinal diseases are considered as a reason for acquired causes of FZG. The genesis, especially of FZG, is still unclear. For the treatment of patients with FZV and FZG, it is important to know the potential causes to be able to make a therapeutic decision. High quality photographic and sonographic documentation is needed in the watch-and-wait strategy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Consequences of eyelid squeezing on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Green, K; Luxenberg, M N

    1979-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a forcible eyelid squeeze (two-second squeeze and two-second rest) over one minute, on intraocular pressure in volunteer groups of normal volunteers, ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients, and those with a family history of glaucoma. The normal volunteers fell into two groups: responders and nonresonders, with the responders showing about a 2-mm Hg decrease and the nonresponders a small increase in intraocular pressure. It was possible to arrange the groups into an order dependent upon the change in intraocular pressure induced by eyelid squeezing; normal responders (-1.98 mm Hg), family history of glaucoma (-0.48 mm Hg), ocular hypertensive patients (-0.07 mm Hg), normal nonresponders (+ 0.04 mm Hg) and glaucoma patients (taking medication) (+ 0.25 mm Hg). Correlation of disease entity with other ocular factors such as intraocular pressure and total outflow facility was poor.

  3. Iris fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Yazdani-Abyaneh, Alireza; Djalilian, Ali R; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a technique for iris fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in which most of the procedure is done outside the eye. This minimizes intraocular manipulation, maximizes corneal endothelial preservation, and avoids the risk for IOL drop into the vitreous cavity intraoperatively. The IOL is fixated to the most peripheral part of the iris, resulting in a rounder pupil. Sutures are placed at exact positions on the haptics, resulting in a well-centered IOL.

  4. Resection of intraocular squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Crawford, J B; Howes, E L; Weinstein, A J

    1992-01-01

    A patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was referred with 20/20 vision in an eye with obvious intraocular extension. A modified iridocyclochoroidectomy was performed and the tumour was removed. Three and a half years later the patient's vision is 20/30 and there is no recurrence. This is the first case in which an eye has been successfully salvaged with documented intraocular squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Images PMID:1739709

  5. Occurrence of intraocular air bubbles during intravitreal injections for retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Sukgen, Emine Alyamac; Gunay, Murat; Kocluk, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to present five cases with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) who were found to have intraocular air bubbles after intravitreal injection (IVI) treatment. The medical records of 148 infants who underwent IVI for ROP were retrospectively reviewed and the ones who demonstrated post-injection intraocular air bubble formation were recruited. Of the 148 patients (31 babies received ranibizumab, 20 babies received aflibercept, 97 babies received bevacizumab), five were found to have intraocular air bubbles right after the IVI. Two infants received intravitreal ranibizumab and three received intravitreal bevacizumab injections. Although intraocular pressure increased temporarily, no intraocular sterile or infective reactions were observed in the postoperative period. The air bubble was found to resorb spontaneously within 72 h. The occurrence rate of the intravitreal air bubbles in our series was 3.37 % despite previously not been reported in the literature. Due to the intravitreal air injection risk, it is important to be more careful while preparing the intravitreal medication before treatment in premature babies.

  6. The first promoter for conditional gene expression in Acremonium chrysogenum: iron starvation-inducible mir1(P).

    PubMed

    Gsaller, Fabio; Blatzer, Michael; Abt, Beate; Schrettl, Markus; Lindner, Herbert; Haas, Hubertus

    2013-01-10

    The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is of enormous biotechnological importance as it represents the natural producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. However, a limitation in genetic tools, e.g. promoters for conditional gene expression, impedes genetic engineering of this fungus. Here we demonstrate that in A. chrysogenum iron starvation induces the production of the extracellular siderophores dimerumic acid, coprogen B, 2-N-methylcoprogen B and dimethylcoprogen as well as expression of the putative siderophore transporter gene, mir1. Moreover, we show that the promoter of mir1, mir1(P), is suitable for conditional expression of target genes in A. chrysogenum as shown by mir1(P)-driven and iron starvation-induced expression of genes encoding green fluorescence protein and phleomycin resistance. The obtained iron-starvation dependent phleomycin resistance indicates the potential use of this promoter for selection marker recycling. Together with easy scorable siderophore production, the co-regulation of mir1 expression and siderophore production facilitates the optimization of the inducing conditions of this expression system.

  7. High-coverage gene expression profiling analysis of the cellulase-producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus cultured using different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Yano, Shinichi; Tsukahara, Kenichiro; Murakami, Katsuji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2013-06-01

    The gene expression of a cellulase-producing fungus, Acremonium cellulolyticus, was investigated after culturing with three different carbon sources: glycerol, lactose, and Solka-Floc powdered cellulose (SF). High-coverage gene expression profiling (HiCEP) analysis, a method requiring no prior sequence knowledge, was used to screen genes upregulated at the early stage of cellulase production. SF was used as a strong inducer of cellulase production, lactose was used as an inducer of the expression of cellulase genes at the early stage of the culture, and glycerol was used as a negative control. Approximately 15,000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected in each sample prepared from the culture grown for 16 h. Based on the expression profiles of the cultured cells, 36 fragments upregulated in both the SF and lactose cultures were selected and sequenced. The deduced gene products of 31 TDFs were likely related to biomass degradation, sugar metabolism, transcriptional regulation, protein modification and metabolism, cell wall recycling, fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis, and other functions. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis verified that almost all of the transcripts obtained by HiCEP analysis were upregulated in the SF and lactose cultures grown for 18 h. Some of the TDFs in the SF culture were further upregulated over the course of 72 h. The gene products from these TDFs would provide insight into improving the cellulase productivity of A. cellulolyticus.

  8. RNA-silencing in Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum: validation studies using beta-lactam genes expression.

    PubMed

    Ullán, Ricardo V; Godio, Ramiro P; Teijeira, Fernando; Vaca, Inmaculada; García-Estrada, Carlos; Feltrer, Raúl; Kosalkova, Katarina; Martín, Juan F

    2008-10-01

    In this work we report the development and validation of a new RNA interference vector (pJL43-RNAi) containing a double-stranded RNA expression cassette for gene silencing in the filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. Classical targeted gene disruption in these fungi is very laborious and inefficient due to the low frequency of homologous recombination. The RNAi vector has been validated by testing the attenuation of two different genes of the beta-lactam pathway; pcbC in P. chrysogenum and cefEF in A. chrysogenum. Quantification of mRNA transcript levels and antibiotic production showed knockdown of pcbC and cefEF genes in randomly isolated transformants of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum, respectively. The process is efficient; 15 to 20% of the selected transformants were found to be knockdown mutants showing reduced penicillin or cephalosporin production. This new RNAi vector opens the way for exploring gene function in the genomes of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum.

  9. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  10. Colour vision through intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, M; Syrjäkoski, J; Tuppurainen, K; Honkonen, V

    1997-04-01

    Fifty patients aged from 30 to 69 years (mean 54.7 +/- 11.3 years, SD) with a UV-protected monofocal polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens (IOL) were examined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM 100) test and the Color Vision Meter 712 anomaloscope. The spectral transmission of the same kind of IOLs as was used surgically was measured with Lambda 2 UV/VIS Spectrometer. In the FM 100 test, there was no significant difference between the results of the IOL eyes and normal eyes. However, the IOL eyes showed better error scores than the normal eyes in the blue-purple box IV in the FM 100 test. In the anomaloscope testing, the Rayleigh (red-green) equation showed no differences between the IOL patients and controls. In the Moreland (blue) equation, however, the mid matching point was significantly shifted towards more green (meaning better blue colour sensitivity) in the IOL eyes than in the control eyes. This is due to the spectral transmission of the IOLs which showed 80-90% transmission already starting at the wavelength of about 420 nm. In comparison, the transmission of the normal human lens reaches those percentages near 500 nm or even further at advanced age.

  11. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; Cheng, George Pak-Man; Chiu, Kin; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2016-01-20

    This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol), polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO 2 , heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs.

  12. The genetics of intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Pallavi; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, yet there is little known about the molecular events that regulate IOP. Genetic and genomic studies have helped identify genes that influence IOP and could lead to the identification of biological pathways that serve as targets for novel pressure-modifying therapies. Genetic linkage studies resulted in the identification of several genes that cause Mendelian (autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive) forms of high-pressure glaucoma, including MYOC. PITX2, FOXC1, and CYP1B1. Classical twin studies suggest that IOP is a heritable trait. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that common genetic variants in the GAS7 and TMCO1 genomic regions are associated with elevated IOP. TMCO1 has also been associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with advanced disease. A further study identifying additional genes contributing to IOP will be necessary to fully define the underlying genetic architecture of IOP.

  13. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Cheng, George Pak-Man; Chiu, Kin; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol), polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO2, heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs. PMID:26830993

  14. Characterization of the reverse transsulfuration gene mecB of Acremonium chrysogenum, which encodes a functional cystathionine-gamma-lyase.

    PubMed

    Marcos, A T; Kosalková, K; Cardoza, R E; Fierro, F; Gutiérrez, S; Martín, J F

    2001-02-01

    In Acremonium chrysogenum, biosynthesis of cysteine for the formation of cephalosporin has been proposed to occur through the reverse transsulfuration pathway. A gene, named mecB, has been cloned from an A. chrysogenum C10 genomic library in lambdaEMBL3-ble. The cloned DNA fragment encodes a protein of 423 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 45 kDa that shows great similarity to cystathionine-gamma-lyases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotic organisms. The protein was shown to be functional because it restores growth on methionine to A. nidulans C47 (mecB10), a mutant that is known to be defective in cystathionine-gamma-lyase. The cloned gene did not complement A. nidulans mecA or metG mutants. Enzyme activity assays confirmed that the cloned mecB gene encodes a cystathionine-gamma-lyase activity. The mecB gene is present in a single copy in the wild-type A. chrysogenum (Brotzu's strain) and also in the A. chrysogenum strain C10, a high cephalosporin producer. The gene is localized on chromosome VIII (5.3 Mb), as shown by hybridization to A. chrysogenum chromosomes resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Transcription of the mecB gene gives rise to a major transcript of 1.5 kb and a minor one of 1.7 kb. The transcript levels were not significantly affected by addition of DL-methionine to the culture, indicating that expression of this gene is not regulated by methionine. The availability of this gene provides a very useful tool for understanding the proposed role of cystathionine-gamma-lyase in splitting cystathionine to supply cysteine for cephalosporin biosynthesis.

  15. Purification and characterization of AsES protein: a subtilisin secreted by Acremonium strictum is a novel plant defense elicitor.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Nadia R; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C

    2013-05-17

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2(˙)) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity.

  16. A septation related gene AcsepH in Acremonium chrysogenum is involved in the cellular differentiation and cephalosporin production.

    PubMed

    Long, Liang-Kun; Wang, Yanling; Yang, Jing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA inserted mutants of Acremonium chrysogenum were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). One mutant 1223 which grew slowly was selected. TAIL-PCR and sequence analysis indicated that a putative septation protein encoding gene AcsepH was partially deleted in this mutant. AcsepH contains nine introns, and its deduced protein AcSEPH has a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S_TKc) domain at its N-terminal region. AcSEPH shows high similarity with septation H proteins from other filamentous fungi based on the phylogenetic analysis of S_TKc domains. In sporulation (LPE) medium, the conidia of AcsepH mutant was only about one-seventh of the wild-type, and more than 20% of conidia produced by the mutant contain multiple nuclei which were rare in the wild-type. During fermentation, the AcsepH disruption mutant grew slowly and its cephalosporin production was only about one quarter of the wild-type, and the transcription analysis showed that pcbC expression was delayed and the expressions of cefEF, cefD1 and cefD2 were significantly decreased. The vegetative hyphae of AcsepH mutant swelled abnormally and hardly formed the typical yeast-like cells. The amount of yeast-like cells was about one-tenth of the wild-type after fermentation for 5days. Comparison of hyphal viabilities revealed that the cells of AcsepH mutant died easily than the wild-type at the late stage of fermentation. Fluorescent stains revealed that the absence of AcsepH in A. chrysogenum led to reduction of septation and formation of multinucleate cells. These data indicates that AcsepH is required for the normal cellular septation and differentiation of A. chrysogenum, and its absence may change the cellular physiological status and causes the decline in cephalosporin production.

  17. Characterization of the lys2 gene of Acremonium chrysogenum encoding a functional alpha-aminoadipate activating and reducing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hijarrubia, M J; Aparicio, J F; Casqueiro, J; Martín, J F

    2001-02-01

    A 5.2-kb NotI DNA fragment isolated from a genomic library of Acremonium chrysogenum by hybridization with a probe internal to the Penicillium chrysogenum lys2 gene, was able to complement an alpha-aminoadipate reductase-deficient mutant of P. chrysogenum (lysine auxotroph L-G-). Enzyme assays showed that the alpha-aminoadipate reductase activity was restored in all the transformants tested. The lys2-encoded enzyme catalyzed both the activation and reduction of alpha-aminoadipic acid to its semialdehyde, as shown by reaction of the product with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. The reaction required NADPH, and was not observed in the presence of NADH. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a protein with relatively high similarity to members of the superfamily of acyladenylate-forming enzymes. The Lys2 protein contained all nine motifs that are conserved in the adenylating domain of this enzyme family, a peptidyl carrier domain, and a reduction domain. In addition, a new NADP-binding motif located at the N-terminus of the reduction domain that may form a Rossmann-like betaalphabeta-fold has been identified and found to be shared by all known Lys2 proteins. The lys2 gene was mapped to chromosome I (2.2 Mb, the smallest chromosome) of A. chrysogenum C10 (the chromosome that contains the "late" cephalosporin cluster) and is transcribed as a monocistronic 4.5-kb mRNA although at relatively low levels compared with the beta-actin gene.

  18. Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in intra-ocular fluid samples of herpetic uveitis patients.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Monique; Missotten, Tom; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; Luider, Theo M; Baarsma, G Seerp; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2013-07-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral drug of choice to treat patients with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) uveitis. The prevalence of intra-ocular ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 in herpetic uveitis is unknown and may have clinical consequences. In addition to its predictive value on ACV susceptibility, the polymorphic HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene facilitates differentiation between HSV-1 strains. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic composition and ACV susceptibility of the causative virus in intra-ocular fluid samples (IOF) of HSV-1 uveitis patients. The intra-ocular HSV-1 pool from 11 HSV-1 uveitis patients was determined by sequencing IOF-derived viral TK genes. The ACV susceptibility profile of the cloned intra-ocular TK variants was defined by mass spectrometry. In addition, the ganciclovir (GCV) susceptibility of the ACV(R) HSV-1 TK variants was defined. Intra-ocular fluid samples of HSV-1 uveitis patients contain HSV-1 quasispecies, principally consisting of one major and multiple genetically related minor patient-specific TK variants. Four of 10 patients analyzed had an intra-ocular ACV(R) HSV-1 of which 3 were cross-resistant to GCV. The ACV(R) profile of intra-ocular HSV-1 did not correlate with symptomatic ACV treatment. Affected eyes of HSV-1 uveitis patients are commonly infected with a patient-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major and multiple genetically related minor variants. A relatively high prevalence of intra-ocular ACV(R) HSV-1, mainly ACV/GCV cross-resistant viruses, was detected in HSV-1 uveitis patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  20. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered device...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered device...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered device...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered device...

  9. Lasers for the treatment of intraocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Houston, Samuel K; Wykoff, Charles C; Berrocal, Audina M; Hess, Ditte J; Murray, Timothy G

    2013-05-01

    Lasers are used extensively in ophthalmology for a variety of conditions, including many choroidal and retinal tumors. With technologic advances, current therapy attempts not only to maximize survival with globe-salvaging treatment, but also to preserve vision. Each neoplasm has different indications for primary and adjuvant therapy, as well as differing laser treatment protocols. Additionally, there are numerous laser applications available for use, including laser photocoagulation, transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT), and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The current review outlines the basic principles of laser treatment for intraocular tumors, focusing on the indications, treatment protocols, efficacy, and safety, while also presenting the latest advances in intraocular tumor treatment.

  10. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M

    1991-01-01

    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots. PMID:1768669

  11. Intraocular Silicone Oil Masquerading as Terson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Samavat, Bijan; Mehrian, Payam; Hedayatfar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Terson syndrome is described as intraocular hemorrhage in association with any type of intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with higher mortality rate and vision loss. Intraocular hemorrhage in Terson syndrome may be diagnosed using computed tomography but there are false positive results. Silicone oil which is widely used for internal tamponade of complicated retinal detachments has high attenuation on computed tomography and hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging that can mimic intraocular hemorrhage. This report shows that silicone oil is another origin of false positive results in interpreting CT findings for detecting Terson syndrome. Case Report. A 71-year-old diabetic woman presented with loss of consciousness. Brain computed tomography revealed right cerebellar hemorrhage and ventricular hemorrhage and hyperdensity in vitreous cavity of the left eye that was initially interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. Terson syndrome was the initial diagnosis but ophthalmoscopic examination and brain MRI showed that the left eye had silicone oil tamponade. Conclusion. Without knowing the history of previous vitreoretinal surgery, CT scan findings of intraocular silicone oil may be interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. In patients with concomitant intracranial hemorrhage, it can masquerade as Terson syndrome. PMID:27747119

  12. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Park, Enoch Y; Naruse, Kazuya; Kato, Tatsuya

    2012-08-31

    While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP) is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF) as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v) of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8-12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50-300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7-46.3 g/l and 0.15-0.18 (g ethanol/g SF), respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50-300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5-35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12-0.19 (g/g) respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. A. cellulolyticus cells produce cellulase using SF

  13. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP) is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Results Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF) as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v) of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8–12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50–300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7–46.3 g/l and 0.15–0.18 (g ethanol/g SF), respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50–300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5–35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12–0.19 (g/g) respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. Conclusion A. cellulolyticus

  14. [Intraocular fluid antibody quotients following inoculation with two different antigens in experimental herpes simplex virus retinochoroiditis].

    PubMed

    Rai, T; Takamura, K; Ichikawa, T; Usui, M

    1989-05-01

    Viral retinochoroiditis was induced experimentally by inoculation of herpes simplex virus into the vitreous body in rabbits. The animals were sensitized systemically using 2 pathogens as antigens (herpes simplex virus and toxoplasma gondii) 3 weeks prior to intraocular inoculation. Serum and intraocular fluid were collected 2 weeks after inoculation. The intraocular fluid antibody titers and quotients for these 2 pathogens were then measured to determine the effects of serum antibodies, which are thought to enter the eyes as a result of destruction of the blood-ocular barrier. Experimental criteria for antibody quotients were also determined. Antibody quotients for the etiological virus (herpes simplex virus) ranged from 2 to 20, with an average of 9.7. Those for toxoplasma gondii, the antibody of which is thought to enter the eye from the blood, were all less than 5 with average of 1.9. From these results, it would seem that when the antibody quotient of a pathogen in more than 6 in the intraocular fluid, it is likely to be an etiological organism, while the possibility of infection is very low when the quotient is under 2. More precise studies are required to identify an etiological pathogen when the quotient is 2-6.

  15. A novel in vitro model to study staphylococcal biofilm formation on intraocular lenses under hydrodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Baillif, Stéphanie; Casoli, Emmanuelle; Marion, Karine; Roques, Christine; Pellon, Gérard; Hartmann, Daniel Jean; Freney, Jean; Burillon, Carole; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2006-08-01

    To develop a novel in vitro model to study the formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on intraocular lenses (IOLs) from the primary-attachment phase to the biofilm-accumulation phase. The model was designed to replicate intraocular conditions especially by taking into account intraocular hydrodynamics. The model consisted of Tygon tubing connected to a vial containing acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. Three septa, placed along the tubing, allowed, respectively, the artificial aqueous humor's arrival and its elimination and the bacterial suspension's inoculation. A first pump allowed the aqueous humor's movement along the circuit, whereas a second one regulated the flow at which the nutritive environment was regenerated. The whole circuit was placed in a 34 degrees C water bath. Every 2 to 4 hours, lenses were taken from this environment. Bound bacteria were removed by scraping of optical faces and counted. All data are presented as the mean, SD, and coefficient of variation (CV). Comparisons among experiments were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Calculated CVs were close to 30, showing that biofilm formation was homogeneous. Differences between experiments were nonsignificant for each removal time. The model provided the full kinetics of S. epidermidis biofilm growth on acrylic hydrophobic IOLs, with a stationary phase reached after 28 hours of incubation. Biofilm development is modulated by many variables, including environmental factors. The findings in the present study of bacterial colonization of IOLs under intraocular physiological conditions allow understanding and more accurate targeting of biomedical device-related infections such as endophthalmitis.

  16. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  17. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endophthalmitis following phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Pierre-Yves; Chainier, Delphine; Garnier, Fabien; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Parneix, Pierre; Adenis, Jean-Paul; Martin, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of endophthalmitis that developed after cataract extraction by a single surgeon using the same operating room during one morning session are described. Following preoperative topical administration of ciprofloxacin, surgery consisted of phacoemulsification with peristaltic pump and fluid venting, polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens implantation, and corneal suture. No complications occurred during surgery. All five patients developed endophthalmitis caused by infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in less than 24 hours. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to prove similarity between strains. Bacterial inquiry on contamination of the operating room environment revealed massive colonization of phacoemulsifier irrigation channels by Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria from an unestablished source. Four of the five patients ultimately recovered visual acuity better than 20/60.

  18. Factors affecting intraocular pressure in lions.

    PubMed

    Ofri, Ron; Steinmetz, Andrea; Thielebein, Jens; Horowitz, Igal H; Oechtering, Gerhard; Kass, Philip H

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed analysis of the relationship between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in lions. Tonometry was conducted in 33 lions aged 5 days to 80 months. Age was significantly associated with IOP (P<0.005). Mean IOP was 12.8+/- and 23.9+/-4.1 mmHg in lions < or =1 year old and >1 year old, respectively. IOP linearly rose with age during the first 20 months of life, plateaued until approximately 40 months, and then gradually declined (r=0.85). Age-related changes in IOP were highly correlated with ultrasonographic measurements of intraocular dimensions (r > or = 0.72), and may be a determinant factor in developmental ocular growth. The dramatic rise in IOP of young lions is similar to that observed in children, but has not been previously demonstrated in animals. Significant IOP differences between lion sub-species were also demonstrated.

  19. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Billy R.

    2012-01-01

    Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids) into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans. PMID:24278692

  20. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes.

  1. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Oral ... Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Vaginal Yeast Infections Immunizations Do My Kids Need Vaccines Before ...

  2. Introduction to the development of intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Peng, Runling; Hu, Shuilan; Wei, Maowei; Chen, Jiabi

    2013-08-01

    In order to cure the cataract disease or injuries in eyes, intraocular lens(IOL) has been studied all the time to replace the crystalline lens in human eyes. Researches on IOL are started early from 19th century, and it develops greatly in the hundreds years after. This article introduces several main kinds of IOLs that appear in the development history of IOL, and raises the double-liquid zoom IOL based on electrowetting, which will be the trend of IOL study.

  3. Additive intraocular pressure lowering effect of various medications with latanoprost.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daniel J; Martone, James F; Mead, Alden

    2002-06-01

    To determine the additive intraocular pressure reduction of various topical glaucoma agents used adjunctively with latanoprost. Retrospective interventional case series. Retrospective evaluation of 73 eyes of 73 patients with glaucoma and inadequate intraocular pressure control on latanoprost alone. Each patient received adjunctive treatment with an additional glaucoma agent (dorzolamide, brimonidine, timolol, or other beta-blockers) for 1 year. When added to latanoprost, dorzolamide lowered intraocular pressure an additional 3.9 mm Hg (19.7%, P <.001); beta-blockers further reduced intraocular pressure by 2.0 mm Hg (12.3%, P <.001), and brimonidine further reduced intraocular pressure by 2.0 mm Hg (9.3%, P =.0011). Dorzolamide dosed twice or three times daily was as effective as adjunctive therapy with latanoprost (P =.92). Adjunctive therapy with dorzolamide provided a statistically significant intraocular pressure reduction at 1 year in eyes that were inadequately controlled with latanoprost alone.

  4. An overview of the taxonomy, phylogeny, and typification of nectriaceous fungi in Cosmospora, Acremonium, Fusarium, Stilbella, and Volutella

    PubMed Central

    Gräfenhan, T.; Schroers, H.-J.; Nirenberg, H.I.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive phylogenetic reassessment of the ascomycete genus Cosmospora (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is undertaken using fresh isolates and historical strains, sequences of two protein encoding genes, the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2), and a new phylogenetic marker, the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1). The result is an extensive revision of taxonomic concepts, typification, and nomenclatural details of many anamorph- and teleomorph-typified genera of the Nectriaceae, most notably Cosmospora and Fusarium. The combined phylogenetic analysis shows that the present concept of Fusarium is not monophyletic and that the genus divides into two large groups, one basal in the family, the other terminal, separated by a large group of species classified in genera such as Calonectria, Neonectria, and Volutella. All accepted genera received high statistical support in the phylogenetic analyses. Preliminary polythetic morphological descriptions are presented for each genus, providing details of perithecia, micro- and/or macro-conidial synanamorphs, cultural characters, and ecological traits. Eight species are included in our restricted concept of Cosmospora, two of which have previously documented teleomorphs and all of which have Acremonium-like microconidial anamorphs. A key is provided to the three anamorphic species recognised in Atractium, which is removed from synonymy with Fusarium and epitypified for two macroconidial synnematous species and one sporodochial species associated with waterlogged wood. Dialonectria is recognised as distinct from Cosmospora and two species with teleomorph, macroconidia and microconidia are accepted, including the new species D. ullevolea. Seven species, one with a known teleomorph, are classified in Fusicolla, formerly considered a synonym of Fusarium including members of the F. aquaeductuum and F. merismoides species complex, with several former varieties raised to species rank. Originally a section of

  5. In vitro oxygen sensing using intraocular microrobots.

    PubMed

    Ergeneman, Olgaç; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Pokki, Juho; Marín-Suárez, Marta; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sánchez, Jorge F Fernández; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J

    2012-11-01

    We present a luminescence oxygen sensor integrated with a wireless intraocular microrobot for minimally-invasive diagnosis. This microrobot can be accurately controlled in the intraocular cavity by applying magnetic fields. The microrobot consists of a magnetic body susceptible to magnetic fields and a sensor coating. This coating embodies Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) dyes as the luminescence material and polystyrene as a supporting matrix, and it can be wirelessly excited and read out by optical means. The sensor works based on quenching of luminescence in the presence of oxygen. The excitation and emission spectrum, response time, and oxygen sensitivity of the sensor were characterized using a spectrometer. A custom device was designed and built to use this sensor for intraocular measurements with the microrobot. Due to the intrinsic nature of luminescence lifetimes, a frequency-domain lifetime measurement approach was used. An alternative sensor design with increased performance was demonstrated by using poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PS-MA) and PtOEP nanospheres.

  6. Brucellar uveitis: intraocular fluids and biopsy studies.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Isaías; Vilchez, Gustavo; Olarte, Liset; Lluncor, Marina; Carrillo, Carlos; Paris, Mark; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    Ocular brucellosis is usually diagnosed by clinical criteria and serological tests. Little is known with regard to the ocular immunology of brucellosis and the use of intraocular diagnostic tests. We report retrospectively the laboratory findings of patients with ocular involvement associated with brucellosis. Patients with uveitis with no evident etiologic diagnosis were evaluated at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Patients were tested for brucellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1. Blood and intraocular fluid samples were examined. Patients with a diagnosis of brucellar uveitis were selected as cases and patients with a diagnosis of uveitis of other etiology were included as controls. The Goldmann-Witmer coefficient was determined. Twelve patients with clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of brucellar uveitis were considered as cases. Seven patients with uveitis of other etiology were selected as controls. Four (33.3%) patients with ocular brucellosis had negative ocular agglutinations and eight (66.7%) had positive agglutinations. No control cases had positive agglutinations for Brucella melitensis. The sensitivity of the test was 66.7% and the specificity 100%. Only one patient had a positive culture for B. melitensis in subretinal fluid. The Goldmann-Witmer coefficient was calculated in six cases of brucellosis uveitis and five uveitis controls. It was highly positive in three patients with ocular brucellosis. Tissue samples showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Intraocular serological tests could be used to support the diagnosis of ocular brucellosis.

  7. [Changes in intraocular pressure depending on posture].

    PubMed

    Barac, Ramona; Pop, Monica; Tătaru, C; Gheorghe, A; Bădescu, Silvia; Stanciu, Maria; Burcea, M

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an important eye disease that, left untreated, causes irreversible blindness by affecting optic nerve threads. Decreasing intraocular pressure and maintaining it at a low level throughout the day is one of the objectives of antiglaucoma therapy. This is a prospective study conducted on a sample of 80 patients who presented at "Emergency Eye Hospital" Bucharest between 1st of December 2013 30th of July 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: 40 patients with glaucoma and 40 patients without glaucoma (control group). THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine changes in intraocular pressure that may occur depending on body posture and the correlations between changes in intraocular pressure and glaucoma, obesity, hypertension. These IOP changes may be important in the progression of glaucoma regarding that one third of our time is spent on supine position during night. RESULTS AND CONCLUZIONS: IOP varies from sitting down to supine position. IOP increases in supine in most patients (with or without glaucoma) with an average of 1.25 mmHg. The increase among patients with glaucoma is higher (1.67 mmHg) compared to those without glaucoma (0.82 mmHg). In patients with hypertension and glaucoma, IOP increased with 2.62 mmHg. In patients with hypertension and obesity IOP increased with 2.5 mmHg.

  8. Intraocular pressure following systemic administration of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Green, K; Symonds, C M; Oliver, N W; Elijah, R D

    Various cannabinoids have been tested for activity compared to delta 9-THC in reducing intraocular pressure after intravenous administration in rabbits at 0.1 mg or 1 mg/animal. Comparison of l-delta 9-, delta 8-, 11-OH-delta 9- and 11-OH- delta 8-THC indicates that minor configurational changes have only a small influence on activity with regard to induction of a fall in intraocular pressure, although 11-OH-delta 8-THC has increased activity. 8 alpha-OH-, 8 alpha-diOH- and 8 beta-diOH-delta 9-THC have little or no activity but 8 beta-OH-delta 9-THC is as active as delta 9-THC indicating that the hydroxyl group in the beta-position does not influence activity. Modification of the C5H11 alkyl side chain (3'-OH-delta 9-THC) reduced activity to 20% relative to delta 9-THC. Cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene, cannabigerol and olivetol had no activity, but 10-OH-CBD had some activity at 2 mg/animal. Cannabinol (CBN) had about half the activity of delta 9-THC and activity was reduced further with 1'-OH-CBN, indicating that side chain modification reduced activity. Neither delta 9-THC, nor cannabigerol, had any effect on intraocular pressure or total outflow facility in the rhesus monkey, suggesting species differences in ocular responses to cannabinoids. Further studies on modification of these compounds is warranted in order to further delineate the structure-activity relationships.

  9. [A universal laser for intraocular treatment].

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, O; Vallat, M; Pankratov, M M; Pflibsen, K P; Schepens, C L

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single apparatus incorporating the different lasers applicable to intraocular pathology derives from the idea of possessing the means, with one device, of objectively comparing the effects and parameters of various lasers in order to pursue a more precise line of treatment. This has led to our fabrication of the universal intraocular laser. The word universal means the ability of the machine to act on each kind of intraocular tissues with all of the various infrared or other-colored radiations, as well as with different modalities. The unit is transportable. It only requires a source of electric power (110 or 220 V) and includes an independent cooling system. The Nd: YAG laser has selectable operating parameters: pulsed or continuous excitation, Q-switched or mode-locked mode, mirror or fiber optic transmission. It is used also as the basic system of the coloured module. The colour module can provide the three clinically useful radiations: green, red, yellow. The green (532 nm) is obtained by transmission of the I.R. beam brought a birefringent crystal (KTP). Red (650 nm) and yellow (575 nm) come from two incorporated dye lasers excited by the green radiation.

  10. Regulatory properties of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Cephalosporium acremonium: evidence of an isoenzyme and its importance in cephalosporin C biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Döbeli, H; Nüesch, J

    1980-07-01

    O-Acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine from H2S and O-acetyl-L-serine in the fungus Cephalosporsium acremonium, a cephalosporin C-producing organism. We separated this enzyme from the closely related but less specific O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase and showed that O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase also catalyzes the formation of cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and H2S. The expression of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase was regulated by exogenous methionine. In addition, this enzyme was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid. The inhibition of both S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid was noncompetitive. Results obtained with gel filtraton experiments in various buffer systems indicate an association-dissociation behavior of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase.

  11. Regulatory properties of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Cephalosporium acremonium: evidence of an isoenzyme and its importance in cephalosporin C biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Döbeli, H; Nüesch, J

    1980-01-01

    O-Acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine from H2S and O-acetyl-L-serine in the fungus Cephalosporsium acremonium, a cephalosporin C-producing organism. We separated this enzyme from the closely related but less specific O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase and showed that O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase also catalyzes the formation of cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and H2S. The expression of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase was regulated by exogenous methionine. In addition, this enzyme was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid. The inhibition of both S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid was noncompetitive. Results obtained with gel filtraton experiments in various buffer systems indicate an association-dissociation behavior of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase. PMID:7191238

  12. Evaluating the Biostability of Yellow and Clear Intraocular Lenses with a System Simulating Natural Intraocular Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Yoshida, Shinichirou; Chikuda, Makoto; Machida, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Blue light–filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) are thought to protect the retina from blue light damage after cataract surgery, and the implantation of yellow-tinted IOLs has been commonly used in cataract surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation measuring the long-term biostability of yellow-tinted IOLs using an in vitro system simulating natural intraocular environment. Methods Six hydrophobic acrylic IOLs, three clear IOLs, and three yellow-tinted IOLs were included in the study. Each yellow-tinted IOL was a matching counterpart of a clear IOL, with the only difference being the lens color. The IOLs were kept in conditions replicating the intraocular environment using a perfusion culture system for 7 months. Resolution, light transmittance rate, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) were measured before and after culturing. Surface roughness of the anterior and posterior surfaces was also measured. Results After culturing for 7 months, there were no changes in the resolution, the light transmittance rate, and MTF. The surface roughness of the anterior and posterior surfaces increased after culturing; however, this increase was clinically insignificant. There were no differences in surface roughness between the clear and yellow-tinted IOLs, either before or after culturing. Conclusions A novel in vitro system replicating intraocular environment was used to investigate the biostability of yellow-tinted IOLs. The surface roughness showed no clinically significant increase after culturing for 7 months. Translational Relevance This system is useful for evaluating the biostability of IOLs. PMID:27933221

  13. Primary cilia signaling mediates intraocular pressure sensation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Na; Conwell, Michael D; Chen, Xingjuan; Kettenhofen, Christine Insinna; Westlake, Christopher J; Cantor, Louis B; Wells, Clark D; Weinreb, Robert N; Corson, Timothy W; Spandau, Dan F; Joos, Karen M; Iomini, Carlo; Obukhov, Alexander G; Sun, Yang

    2014-09-02

    Lowe syndrome is a rare X-linked congenital disease that presents with congenital cataracts and glaucoma, as well as renal and cerebral dysfunction. OCRL, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is mutated in Lowe syndrome. We previously showed that OCRL is involved in vesicular trafficking to the primary cilium. Primary cilia are sensory organelles on the surface of eukaryotic cells that mediate mechanotransduction in the kidney, brain, and bone. However, their potential role in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the eye, which regulates intraocular pressure, is unknown. Here, we show that TM cells, which are defective in glaucoma, have primary cilia that are critical for response to pressure changes. Primary cilia in TM cells shorten in response to fluid flow and elevated hydrostatic pressure, and promote increased transcription of TNF-α, TGF-β, and GLI1 genes. Furthermore, OCRL is found to be required for primary cilia to respond to pressure stimulation. The interaction of OCRL with transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a ciliary mechanosensory channel, suggests that OCRL may act through regulation of this channel. A novel disease-causing OCRL allele prevents TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling. In addition, TRPV4 agonist GSK 1016790A treatment reduced intraocular pressure in mice; TRPV4 knockout animals exhibited elevated intraocular pressure and shortened cilia. Thus, mechanotransduction by primary cilia in TM cells is implicated in how the eye senses pressure changes and highlights OCRL and TRPV4 as attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of glaucoma. Implications of OCRL and TRPV4 in primary cilia function may also shed light on mechanosensation in other organ systems.

  14. Primary cilia signaling mediates intraocular pressure sensation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Na; Conwell, Michael D.; Chen, Xingjuan; Kettenhofen, Christine Insinna; Westlake, Christopher J.; Cantor, Louis B.; Wells, Clark D.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Corson, Timothy W.; Spandau, Dan F.; Joos, Karen M.; Iomini, Carlo; Obukhov, Alexander G.; Sun, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Lowe syndrome is a rare X-linked congenital disease that presents with congenital cataracts and glaucoma, as well as renal and cerebral dysfunction. OCRL, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is mutated in Lowe syndrome. We previously showed that OCRL is involved in vesicular trafficking to the primary cilium. Primary cilia are sensory organelles on the surface of eukaryotic cells that mediate mechanotransduction in the kidney, brain, and bone. However, their potential role in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the eye, which regulates intraocular pressure, is unknown. Here, we show that TM cells, which are defective in glaucoma, have primary cilia that are critical for response to pressure changes. Primary cilia in TM cells shorten in response to fluid flow and elevated hydrostatic pressure, and promote increased transcription of TNF-α, TGF-β, and GLI1 genes. Furthermore, OCRL is found to be required for primary cilia to respond to pressure stimulation. The interaction of OCRL with transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a ciliary mechanosensory channel, suggests that OCRL may act through regulation of this channel. A novel disease-causing OCRL allele prevents TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling. In addition, TRPV4 agonist GSK 1016790A treatment reduced intraocular pressure in mice; TRPV4 knockout animals exhibited elevated intraocular pressure and shortened cilia. Thus, mechanotransduction by primary cilia in TM cells is implicated in how the eye senses pressure changes and highlights OCRL and TRPV4 as attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of glaucoma. Implications of OCRL and TRPV4 in primary cilia function may also shed light on mechanosensation in other organ systems. PMID:25143588

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Handheld Robot-Aided Intraocular Laser Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Martel, Joseph N.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents robot-aided intraocular laser surgery using a handheld robot known as Micron. The micromanipulator incorporated in Micron enables visual servoing of a laser probe, while maintaining a constant distance of the tool tip from the retinal surface. The comparative study was conducted with various control methods for evaluation of robot-aided intraocular laser surgery. PMID:27019653

  16. Piggyback intraocular lens implantation to correct pseudophakic refractive error after segmental multifocal intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Venter, Jan A; Oberholster, Andre; Schallhorn, Steven C; Pelouskova, Martina

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate refractive and visual outcomes of secondary piggyback intraocular lens implantation in patients diagnosed as having residual ametropia following segmental multifocal lens implantation. Data of 80 pseudophakic eyes with ametropia that underwent Sulcoflex aspheric 653L intraocular lens implantation (Rayner Intraocular Lenses Ltd., East Sussex, United Kingdom) to correct residual refractive error were analyzed. All eyes previously had in-the-bag zonal refractive multifocal intraocular lens implantation (Lentis Mplus MF30, models LS-312 and LS-313; Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and required residual refractive error correction. Outcome measurements included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected near visual acuity, distance-corrected near visual acuity, manifest refraction, and complications. One-year data are presented in this study. The mean spherical equivalent ranged from -1.75 to +3.25 diopters (D) preoperatively (mean: +0.58 ± 1.15 D) and reduced to -1.25 to +0.50 D (mean: -0.14 ± 0.28 D; P < .01). Postoperatively, 93.8% of eyes were within ±0.50 D and 98.8% were within ±1.00 D of emmetropia. The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity improved significantly from 0.28 ± 0.16 to 0.01 ± 0.10 logMAR and 78.8% of eyes achieved 6/6 (Snellen 20/20) or better postoperatively. The mean uncorrected near visual acuity changed from 0.43 ± 0.28 to 0.19 ± 0.15 logMAR. There was no significant change in corrected distance visual acuity or distance-corrected near visual acuity. No serious intraoperative or postoperative complications requiring secondary intraocular lens removal occurred. Sulcoflex lenses proved to be a predictable and safe option for correcting residual refractive error in patients diagnosed as having pseudophakia. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Slipknot for scleral fixation of intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Tseng, S H; Cheng, H C; Chen, F K

    2001-05-01

    We describe a simple, quick technique to construct a slipknot that can be snared around the haptic of an intraocular lens (IOL) during transscleral fixation of a posterior chamber IOL or repositioning of a dislocated IOL. An in vitro experiment showed that the time required for the slipknot method was significantly less than that for the traditional triple-knot method. An additional advantage is that the slipknot technique can be performed by a single surgeon using standard ophthalmic instrumentation. In addition, the slipknot is as secure as a triple knot.

  18. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bonafonte Marquez, Elena; Bonafonte Royo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma. PMID:25713742

  19. Fungal infection of mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) caused by two anamorphic fungi found in Japan.

    PubMed

    Duc, Pham Minh; Hatai, Kishio; Kurata, Osamu; Tensha, Kozue; Yoshitaka, Uchida; Yaguchi, Takashi; Udagawa, Shun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Two fungal pathogens of the mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) in Yamaguchi and Aichi Prefectures, Japan are described as the new species Plectosporium oratosquillae and Acremonium sp. (a member of the Emericellopsis marine clade). Both fungi infect the gills of the mantis shrimp, which become brown or black due to melanization. The former species is characterized by its slow growth on artificial seawater yeast extract peptone glucose (PYGS) agar, pale yellow to pale orange or grayish yellow colonies, short cylindrical solitary phialides with a wavy tip, and one-celled ellipsoidal conidia. Although lacking the two-celled conidia demonstrated by the type species Plectosporium tabacinum, the taxonomic placement of the new species was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Acremonium sp., the other causal pathogen, differs from P. oratosquillae by its fast growth on PYGS agar, pale orange to salmon-colored colonies, long, slender conidiophores consisting of solitary phialides with tips lacking an undulate outline, and typically cylindrical conidia. Analysis of ITS and beta-tubulin gene sequences placed this fungus within the phylogenetically distinct Emericellopsis (anam. Acremonium) marine clade. Various physiological characteristics of both pathogens were also investigated. This is the first report of a fungal infection found on the mantis shrimp in Japan.

  20. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  1. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Diana C; Hartwick, Andrew T E; Twa, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for developing glaucoma, which consists of a group of optic neuropathies characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent irreversible vision loss. Our understanding of how intraocular pressure damages the optic nerve is based on clinical measures of intraocular pressure that only gives a partial view of the dynamic pressure load inside the eye. Intraocular pressure varies over the course of the day and the oscillator regulating these daily changes has not yet been conclusively identified. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the circadian rhythms of intraocular pressure and body temperature in Brown Norway rats when these animals are housed in standard light-dark and continuous dim light (40-90 lux) conditions. The results from this study show that the temperature rhythm measured in continuous dim light drifted forward relative to external time, indicating that the rhythm was free running and being regulated by an internal biological clock. Also, the results show that there is a persistent, but dampened, circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in continuous dim light and that the circadian rhythms of temperature and intraocular pressure are not synchronized by the same central oscillator. We conclude that once- or twice-daily clinical measures of intraocular pressure are insufficient to describe intraocular pressure dynamics. Similarly, our results indicate that, in experimental animal models of glaucoma, the common practice of housing animals in constant light does not necessarily eliminate the potential influence of intraocular pressure rhythms on the progression of nerve damage. Future studies should aim to determine whether an oscillator within the eye regulates the rhythm of intraocular pressure and to better characterize the impact of glaucoma on this rhythm.

  2. Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Christaras, Dimitrios; Ginis, Harilaos; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular scattering affects fundus imaging in a similar way that affects vision; it causes a decrease in contrast which depends on both the intrinsic scattering of the eye but also on the dynamic range of the image. Consequently, in cases where the absolute intensity in the fundus image is important, scattering can lead to a wrong estimation. In this paper, a setup capable of acquiring fundus images and estimating objectively intraocular scattering was built, and the acquired images were then used for scattering compensation in fundus imaging. The method consists of two parts: first, reconstruct the individual’s wide-angle Point Spread Function (PSF) at a specific wavelength to be used within an enhancement algorithm on an acquired fundus image to compensate for scattering. As a proof of concept, a single pass measurement with a scatter filter was carried out first and the complete algorithm of the PSF reconstruction and the scattering compensation was applied. The advantage of the single pass test is that one can compare the reconstructed image with the original one and see the validity, thus testing the efficiency of the method. Following the test, the algorithm was applied in actual fundus images in human eyes and the effect on the contrast of the image before and after the compensation was compared. The comparison showed that depending on the wavelength, contrast can be reduced by 8.6% under certain conditions. PMID:27867710

  3. Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Christaras, Dimitrios; Ginis, Harilaos; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Intraocular scattering affects fundus imaging in a similar way that affects vision; it causes a decrease in contrast which depends on both the intrinsic scattering of the eye but also on the dynamic range of the image. Consequently, in cases where the absolute intensity in the fundus image is important, scattering can lead to a wrong estimation. In this paper, a setup capable of acquiring fundus images and estimating objectively intraocular scattering was built, and the acquired images were then used for scattering compensation in fundus imaging. The method consists of two parts: first, reconstruct the individual's wide-angle Point Spread Function (PSF) at a specific wavelength to be used within an enhancement algorithm on an acquired fundus image to compensate for scattering. As a proof of concept, a single pass measurement with a scatter filter was carried out first and the complete algorithm of the PSF reconstruction and the scattering compensation was applied. The advantage of the single pass test is that one can compare the reconstructed image with the original one and see the validity, thus testing the efficiency of the method. Following the test, the algorithm was applied in actual fundus images in human eyes and the effect on the contrast of the image before and after the compensation was compared. The comparison showed that depending on the wavelength, contrast can be reduced by 8.6% under certain conditions.

  4. Intraocular lens implants and risk of endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, J; Teimory, M; Tabandeh, H; Kirwan, J; Dalton, R; Reid, F; Rostron, C

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the possible association between the use of three piece foldable silicone polypropylene (SPP) intraocular lenses (IOLs) and an increased risk of postoperative endophthalmitis.
METHODS—A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of postoperative endophthalmitis following phacoemulsification surgery in a single unit over a 3 year period. The incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis in eyes with SPP IOLs was compared with the incidence in eyes with single piece polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) IOLs.
RESULTS—772 cataract extractions by phacoemulsification were performed. One (0.16%) of the 622 patients with PMMA IOLs developed endophthalmitis. Excluding one patient who had aplastic anaemia, five (3.33%) of 150 patients with SPP IOLs developed endophthalmitis. The relative risk for postoperative endophthalmitis associated with the use of the SPP IOL compared with the PMMA IOL was 20.1 (p=0.015).
CONCLUSION—This study adds further evidence to the concept that SPP IOLs can be a significant risk factor in the development of postoperative endophthamitis.

 Keywords: cataract surgery; phacoemulsification; intraocular lenses; endophthalmitis PMID:9924340

  5. Severe South American Ocular Toxoplasmosis Is Associated with Decreased Ifn-γ/Il-17a and Increased Il-6/Il-13 Intraocular Levels

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sauer, Arnaud; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Bourcier, Tristan; Brunet, Julie; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Ballonzoli, Laurent; Villard, Odile; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Sundar, Natarajan; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-γ and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-γ. PMID:24278490

  6. [Iritis with destabilization of the intraocular pressure due to dislocation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens].

    PubMed

    Handzel, D M

    2012-04-01

    This report concerns the case of a 67-year-old male patient who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). After an interval of 2 months the patient developed iritis together with an uncontrollable increase in intraocular pressure. After a detailed examination a dislocated haptic of the IOL was identified as the cause of the symptoms. The dislocation had led to uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome although no hemorrhage was observed. In addition to this complication the haptic had arroded the zonular complex which made implantation of an anterior chamber lens necessary. Although improvements in operating techniques, lens materials and designs have been made uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome has to be kept in mind. Surgical intervention is the only therapeutic option.

  7. Intraocular Implants for the Treatment of Autoimmune Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is the third leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Currently, the most widely used treatment of non-infectious uveitis is corticosteroids. Posterior uveitis and macular edema can be treated with intraocular injection of corticosteroids, however, this is problematic in chronic cases because of the need for repeat injections. Another option is systemic immunosuppressive therapies that have their own undesirable side effects. These systemic therapies result in a widespread suppression of the entire immune system, leaving the patient susceptible to infection. Therefore, an effective localized treatment option is preferred. With the recent advances in bioengineering, biodegradable polymers that allow for a slow sustained-release of a medication. These advances have culminated in drug delivery implants that are food and drug administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis. In this review, we discuss the types of ocular implants available and some of the polymers used, implants used for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis, and bioengineered alternatives that are on the horizon. PMID:26264035

  8. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  9. Mechanical properties of intra-ocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Klaus; Kim, Eon; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Cataract surgery usually involves the replacement of the natural crystalline lens with a rigid or foldable intraocular lens to restore clear vision for the patient. While great efforts have been placed on optimising the shape and optical characteristics of IOLs, little is know about the mechanical properties of these devices and how they interact with the capsular bag once implanted. Mechanical properties measurements were performed on 8 of the most commonly implanted IOLs using a custom build micro tensometer. Measurement data will be presented for the stiffness of the haptic elements, the buckling resistance of foldable IOLs, the dynamic behaviour of the different lens materials and the axial compressibility. The biggest difference between the lens types was found between one-piece and 3-piece lenses with respect to the flexibility of the haptic elements

  10. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noohi, P.; Abdekhodaie, M. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  11. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics.

    PubMed

    Noohi, P; Abdekhodaie, M J; Cheng, Y L

    2015-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  12. Longitudinal study of intraocular lens exchange.

    PubMed

    Marques, Frederico F; Marques, Daniela M V; Osher, Robert H; Freitas, Lincoln L

    2007-02-01

    To analyze the indications for intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, interval between the first IOL implantation and the exchange, type and mix of IOLs used, effect on vision, and frequency of complications. Cincinnati Eye Institute-Cincinnati-Ohio-USA. This retrospective study comprised 49 eyes of 49 adult patients who had IOL exchange between 1986 and 2002 performed by the same surgeon. The mean age was 70 years old, and 55% were women. The mean interval between surgeries was 53.8 months and the mean follow-up, 35.6 months. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the type of IOL originally implanted: anterior chamber (AC) or posterior chamber (PC). There were 15 eyes with an AC IOL and 34 eyes with a PC IOL. The difference in mean age and follow-up were not statistically significant between groups. The mean interval between the primary surgery and IOL explantation was 82.3 months in the AC IOL group and 37.9 months in the PC IOL group. The main reason for IOL exchange was inflammation (53.34%) and dislocation/decentration (85.30%), respectively. The preoperative best corrected visual acuity was similar in both groups, and visual acuity was maintained or improved in 80%. Vitreous prolapse was the main intraoperative complication. The primary indication for IOL exchange was intraocular inflammation in patients with an AC IOL and IOL malposition in patients with a PC IOL. The results confirm the safety and positive visual outcome in this complex group of patients.

  13. Expression of the Acremonium chrysogenum cefT gene in Penicillum chrysogenum indicates that it encodes an hydrophilic beta-lactam transporter.

    PubMed

    Ullán, Ricardo V; Teijeira, Fernando; Martín, Juan F

    2008-09-01

    The Acremonium chryrsogenum cefT gene encoding a membrane protein of the major facilitator superfamily implicated in the cephalosporin biosynthesis in A. chrysogenum was introduced into Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (a benzylpenicillin producer), P. chrysogenum npe6 pyrG(-) (a derivative of Wisconsin 54-1255 lacking a functional penDE gene) and P. chrysogenum TA98 (a deacetylcephalosporin producer containing the cefD1, cefD2, cefEF and cefG genes from A. chrysogenum). RT-PCR analysis revealed that the cefT gene was expressed in P. chrysogenum strains. HPLC analysis of the culture broths of the TA98 transformants showed an increase in the secretion of deacetylcephalosporin C and hydrophilic penicillins (isopenicillin N and penicillin N). P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 strain transformed with cefT showed increased secretion of the isopenicillin N intermediate and a drastic decrease in the benzylpenicillin production. Southern and northern blot analysis indicated that the untransformed P. chrysogenum strains contain an endogenous gene similar to cefT that may be involved in the well-known secretion of the isopenicillin N intermediate. In summary, the cefT transporter is a hydrophilic beta-lactam transporter that is involved in the secretion of hydrophilic beta-lactams containing alpha-aminoadipic acid side chain (isopenicillin N, penicillin N and deacetylcephalosporin C).

  14. Effects of environmental heat and intake of tall fescue seed infested with Acremonium coenophialum on the acid-base status of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L L; Vogt, D W; Lipsey, R J; Garner, G B; Cornell, C N

    1996-04-01

    Effects of high environmental temperature and dietary intake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) seed containing the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on bovine acid-base status were studied using 3 groups of bull calves (2 Simmental, 1 Angus). Experimental animals were housed in controlled-climate chambers and subjected to gradual increases in environmental temperature, first while being fed an endophyte-free diet and then while being fed a diet containing 17% endophyte-infested fescue seed. Marked acid-base disturbances were not observed in any animals. In general, Pco2, HCO3-, base excess, and arterial blood pH values were reduced in response to heat stress, both with endophyte-free and endophyte-containing diets. In most individuals anion gap increased. These results reflected metabolic compensation for mild chronic alveolar hyperventilation and retention of organic acids. These findings suggest that, under conditions similar to those found during the summer in central Missouri, normal cattle should not be at great risk of developing respiratory alkalosis or other severe acid-base disturbances as a result of heat stress and/or intake of tall fescue endophyte.

  15. A GATA-type transcription factor AcAREB for nitrogen metabolism is involved in regulation of cephalosporin biosynthesis in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Guan, Feifei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Li, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2017-09-01

    In filamentous fungi, nitrogen metabolism is repressed by GATA-type zinc finger transcription factors. Nitrogen metabolite repression has been found to affect antibiotic production, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. AcareB, encoding a homologue of fungal GATA-type regulatory protein, was cloned from Acremonium chrysogenum. Gene disruption and genetic complementation demonstrated that AcareB plays a key role in utilization of ammonium, glutamine and urea. In addition, significant reduction of cephalosporin production in the AcareB disruption mutant indicated that AcareB is important for cephalosporin production. In consistence with it, the transcriptional level of cephalosporin biosynthetic genes was significantly decreased in the AcareB disruption mutant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that AcAREB directly bound to the intergenic regions of pcbAB-pcbC, cefD1-cefD2 and cefEF-cefG. Sequence analysis showed that all the AcAREB binding sites contained the consensus GATA elements. AcareB is negatively autoregulated during cephalosporin production. Moreover, another GATA zinc-finger protein encoded by AcareA positively regulates the transcription of AcareB. However, AcareB does not regulate the transcription of AcareA. These results indicated that AcAREB plays an important role in both regulation of nitrogen metabolism and cephalosporin production in A. chrysogenum.

  16. Continual monitoring of intraocular pressure: effect of central venous pressure, respiration, and eye movements on continual recordings of intraocular pressure in the rabbit, dog, and man.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R. L.; Beale, D. G.; Constable, I. J.; Grose, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    A new method has been devised for continual monitoring of intraocular pressure by radiotelemetry. The use of this instrument for monitoring intraocular pressure by a variety of ophthalmic conditions is described. Images PMID:526459

  17. Effects of Different Intensities of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deryl; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The decrease in intraocular pressure during exercise and the first few minutes of recovery is related to a decrease in blood pH and an increase in blood lactate concentration, not to the intensity of the exercise. (MB)

  18. Opaque intraocular lens implantation: a case series and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard Mh; Dubois, Vincent Djp; Mavrikakis, Ioannis; Okera, Salim; Ainsworth, Gerard; Vickers, Sarah; Liu, Christopher Sc

    2012-01-01

    To report the use of opaque intraocular devices in three patients with complex neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. A case series of three patients with neuro-ophthalmic symptoms requiring occlusion of one eye when alternative methods had failed to control symptoms. Morcher (Stuttgart, Germany) opaque intraocular implants were used in all patients. All three patients observed an improvement in symptoms following opaque intraocular device implantation. One patient (Case 2) required multiple devices for symptom relief. Opaque intraocular occlusive devices are an increasingly popular choice for clinicians in patients with intractable diplopia but we highlight their use in patients with other complex neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We learned a number of useful lessons in these patients as summarized in this case series.

  19. [Intraocular hydrodynamics failure as a part of age cataract etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ignat'ev, S G; Shilkin, G A; Iartseva, N S; Ignat'eva, S G; Al'-Dandan, I Kh

    2011-01-01

    59 (105 eyes) patients with initial, premature and mature cataract are studied. Besides 14 patients (19 eyes) 1-2 years after cataract phacoemulsification with IOL implantation were examined. All patients underwent routine ophthalmological examination and tonography. Average indexes of intraocular hydrodynamics coefficients differed from normal rates: in initial and premature cataract F- coefficient was lower by 34% compared to normal, in mature cataract it was higher by 8,9% than upper limit of normal, in pseudophakia by 86,8% lower. In all groups with cataract patients disbalance of intraocular hydrodynamics was revealed in more than 70% cases, and in pseudophakia group it was found in 100%. Disbalance of intraocular hydrodynamics in cataract confirms hypothesis that intraocular hydrodynamics failure is an important part of cataract etiopathogenesis.

  20. [Intraocular lens implantation in developmental lens disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Kepa, Beata; Chipczyńska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric cataract surgery in eyes with developmental disorders, stay with still considerable challenge. At children, the lasting vision development extorts necessity quick settlement of refraction defect formed after operation. The intraocular lens old boy with cataract in microspherophakia and 12 years old boy with cataract in lens with coloboma. One-piece flexible and rigid PMMA intraocular lens was placed with success at posterior chamber without scleral fixations and without using capsular tension ring in this cases. After 3 years of observation there were no decentration or dislocation of intraocular lens in both children. Authors concluded that in some cases posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation despite defective zonular or capsular support, can make up the effective method of surgical treatment without risk of early dislocation.

  1. Effects of Different Intensities of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deryl; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The decrease in intraocular pressure during exercise and the first few minutes of recovery is related to a decrease in blood pH and an increase in blood lactate concentration, not to the intensity of the exercise. (MB)

  2. Effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Dadeya, S; Kamlesh; Shibal, F; Khurana, C; Khanna, A

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure. Intra-ocular pressure by applanation tonometer was measured four times a day in 38 healthy young adult male patients. The mean age of patients was 29 years. Body weight was measured to assess the extent of dehydration caused by fasting. There was a statistically significant difference between the intra-ocular pressure during fasting and the non-fasting period (P < 0.001). There was weight loss ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 kg. Fasting alters the diurnal intra-ocular pressure in the study population, ie young males 22-38 years.

  3. Chronic intraocular copper foreign body and candida: a unique combination.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta; Nicol, David A; Jones, Nicholas P; Charles, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    To describe a case of unilateral intermediate uveitis, retained copper intraocular foreign body (IOFB) and fungus. Interventional case report. Brown-orange discoloration of the iris, lens and opacified vitreous was observed. Computed tomography revealed a retained IOFB, which was composed of copper. IOFB was removed during vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Copper deposition was demonstrated on the anterior capsule. Incidentally, dimorphic fungus were found in the vitreous. The presence of intraocular copper might have reduced the virulence of the fungus preventing endophthalmitis.

  4. Intraocular Lymphoma after Cardiac Transplantation: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging. PMID:23323042

  5. [Treatment for penetrating wound caused by metallic intraocular foreign body].

    PubMed

    Pienaru, M; Şerban, Ramona; Baltă, F

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating wounds with intraocular foreign body are ophthalmologic emergencies due to their severity and complexity and may require multiple surgeries for final resolution. 30-years-old patient with penetrating wound and metallic intraocular foreign body in the posterior vitreous requires successive operations for IOFB extraction, lensectomy, posterior vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and then silicone oil extraction with final visual acuity 0, 4 PH.

  6. Achromatic doublet intraocular lens for full aberration correction

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    A doublet intraocular lens optimized for both chromatic and monochromatic aberration correction in pseudophakic eyes is presented. Ray-tracing techniques were applied to design the lens in white light within a chromatic eye model. Combinations of two materials, already commonly used in intraocular lenses, as acrylic and silicone, were used. Iterative optimization algorithms were employed to correct for longitudinal chromatic aberration, spherical aberration and off-axis aberrations within 10 degrees of visual field. The performance of this lens was compared with a standard single-material aspheric intraocular lens. Near full aberration correction was achieved with the doublet intraocular lens. The modulation transfer function and Strehl ratio were superior for the doublet lens. Through-focus calculations were also conducted showing better optical quality for the doublet. Real higher-order aberrations from normal eyes were incorporated in the model to evaluate the effect on the doublet intraocular lens performance. Results showed that the doublet lens preserved its benefits under realistic conditions. This doublet intraocular lens should provide patients with a better quality of vision after it is further developed in terms of manufacturing and surgical limitations. PMID:28663881

  7. Postprandial Glucose as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Jung; Fang, Wen-Hui; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Gia-Chi; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure in a relatively healthy population. We examined 1,439 adults getting a health check-up in a health promotion center at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. All participants underwent examinations to measure metabolic variables and intraocular pressure. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure. The levels of postprandial glucose were divided into quartiles with subjects in the lowest quartile being regarded as the reference group to perform quartile-based analysis. Covariate adjustment was designed for three models for further analysis. Subjects with higher quartiles of postprandial glucose level had a higher systolic blood pressure, a greater waist circumference and an elevated fasting glucose level (all p < 0.001). The β coefficient with adjusted covariates showed a significant positive association between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure. The trends of intraocular pressure across increasing quartiles of postprandial glucose were statistically significant (all p for trend < 0.001). Thus, higher levels of postprandial glucose positively correlated with elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:27977733

  8. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or articles contaminated by them is an important component of infection control and isolation precautions. To help protect exposure to infectious materials, wash your hands: Wear gloves: In addition to ...

  9. Ocular Biocompatibility of Nitinol Intraocular Clips

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Erlanger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the tolerance and biocompatibility of a preformed nitinol intraocular clip in an animal model after anterior segment surgery. Methods. Yucatan mini-pigs were used. A 30-gauge prototype injector was used to attach a shape memory nitinol clip to the iris of five pigs. Another five eyes received conventional polypropylene suture with a modified Seipser slip knot. The authors compared the surgical time of each technique. All eyes underwent standard full-field electroretinogram at baseline and 8 weeks after surgery. The animals were euthanized and eyes collected for histologic analysis after 70 days (10 weeks) postsurgery. The corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell counts, specular microscopy parameters, retina cell counts, and electroretinogram parameters were compared between the groups. A two sample t-test for means and a P value of 0.05 were use for assessing statistical differences between measurements. Results. The injection of the nitinol clip was 15 times faster than conventional suturing. There were no statistical differences between the groups for corneal thickness, endothelial cell counts, specular microscopy parameters, retina cell counts, and electroretinogram measurements. Conclusions. The nitinol clip prototype is well tolerated and showed no evidence of toxicity in the short-term. The injectable delivery system was faster and technically less challenging than conventional suture techniques. PMID:22064995

  10. Intraocular lens short wavelength light filtering.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Keith H; Gibson, G Anthony

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing interest in the effects of reactive oxygen species ('free radicals') in ageing, both in the body overall and specifically in the eye. Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two major causes of blindness, with cataract accounting for 48 per cent of world blindness and AMD accounting for 8.7 per cent. Both cataract and AMD affect an older population (over 50 years of age) and while cataract is largely treatable provided resources are available, AMD is a common cause of untreatable, progressive visual loss. There is evidence that AMD is linked to exposure to short wavelength electromagnetic radiation, which includes ultraviolet, blue and violet wavelengths. The ageing crystalline lens provides some protection to the posterior pole because, as it yellows with age, its spectral absorption increasingly blocks the shorter wavelengths of light. Ultraviolet blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) have been the standard of care for many years but a more recent trend is to include blue-blocking filters based on theoretical benefits. As these filters absorb part of the visible spectrum, they may affect visual function. This review looks at the risks and the benefits of filtering out short wavelength light in pseudophakic patients.

  11. Intraocular pressure variations: causes and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Sit, Arthur J

    2014-12-01

    Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only known effective treatment for glaucoma. However, IOP is a highly variable and dynamic parameter, undergoing virtually constant changes from numerous factors, including body position and circadian rhythms. Despite this variability, evidence for the efficacy of IOP reduction in glaucoma is based on studies designed to assess mean IOP and not IOP variations. Post hoc analysis of data from major clinical trials has suggested that IOP variations may be an independent risk factor for the development of glaucoma or glaucomatous progression, at least in some patients, but the evidence is incomplete and further studies are required. In the interim, judicious selection of existing therapies can help to minimize IOP variations. In general, therapies that improve outflow instead of suppressing aqueous humor production result in more stable IOP. However, new technology to allow better monitoring of IOP, ideally in a continuous 24-hour manner, is required to fully understand the role of IOP variations in glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masato; Ogata, Nahoko; Matsuyama, Kayako; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Takahashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients. Methods The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma. Results A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error) IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206), and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497) in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001). The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = −0.202; P = 0.024) in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015) in the group with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes. PMID:22815643

  13. [Vision with bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses].

    PubMed

    Kirschfeld, K; Land, M F

    2011-12-01

    Bifocal or multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) can be used to replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These lenses are recommended by cataract surgeons as the replacement lenses of choice when patients wish to avoid wearing spectacles. There are, however, drawbacks to these lenses: one drawback is that the contrast in the images of bifocal and multifocal lenses is reduced as documented in the ophthalmology literature. It is claimed that acuity is similar in multifocal compared to monofocal lenses, however, we show that any loss in contrast inevitably reduces visual acuity. The other drawback is that the sharp in-focus image is always seen superimposed on one or more blurred out of focus images of the same object. In the ophthalmology literature it is assumed that the brain can suppress the undesired blurred image and only perceive the sharp image. We argue that there are no known mechanisms that would make this possible. This means that vision with bifocal or multifocal implanted lenses cannot be as good as vision with monofocal implants supplemented by spectacles, and this should be explained to patients before undergoing surgery for lens replacement. The results also hold for bifocal and multifocal contact lenses.

  14. UV laser ablation patterns in intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagiou, D. P.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Apostolopoulos, A.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of UV solid state laser radiation on intraocular lens (IOL) polymer surfaces as an alternative method to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs customization. Laser ablation experiments were performed on PMMA plates and commercially available hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic IOLs with the 5th harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=213 nm). Circular arrays of holes were drilled on the polymer surface, covering the centre and the peripheries of the IOL. The morphology of the ablated IOL surface was examined with a conventional optical microscope (Leitz GMBH Wetzlar) and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fei - Innova Nanoscope) at various laser parameters. Quantitative measurements of ablation rates were performed with a contact profilometer (Dektak-150), in which a mechanical stylus scanned across the surface of gold-coated IOLs (after SEM imaging) to measure variationsF in surface height. Laser interaction with IOLs depends on optical and mechanical material properties, in addition to laser radiation parameters. The exact ablation mechanism is discussed. Some polymer materials, depending on their properties, are more susceptible to the photothermal mechanism than the photochemical one or vice versa. In summary, every IOL polymer exhibits specific attributes in its interaction with the 5th harmonic of Nd:YAG laser.

  15. Heavy Silicone Oil and Intraocular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Morescalchi, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Barbara; Romano, Mario R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, many advances have been made in vitrectomy instrumentation, surgical techniques, and the use of different tamponade agents. These agents serve close retinal breaks, confine eventual retinal redetachment, and prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Long-acting gases and silicone oil are effective internal tamponade agents; however, because their specific gravity is lower than that of the vitreous fluid, they may provide adequate support for the superior retina but lack efficacy for the inferior retina, especially when the fill is subtotal. Thus, a specific role may exist for an internal tamponade agent with a higher specific gravity, such as heavy silicone oils (HSOs), Densiron 68, Oxane HD, HWS 45-300, HWS 46-3000, and HeavySil. Some clinical evidence seems to presume that heavy tamponades are more prone to intraocular inflammation than standard silicone if they remain in the eye for several months. In this review, we discuss the fundamental clinical and biochemical/molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response after the use of heavy tamponade: toxicity due to impurities or instability of the agent, direct toxicity and immunogenicity, oil emulsification, and mechanical injury due to gravity. The physical and chemical properties of various HSOs and their efficacy and safety profiles are also described. PMID:25114909

  16. Measurement of intraocular pressure in awake mice.

    PubMed

    Cohan, B E; Bohr, D F

    2001-10-01

    To determine whether the Goldmann applanation tonometer can be modified to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in the awake mouse. Tonometers with reduction of the biprism angles in the applanating tips and in the weight applied by the instrument were tested in anesthetized mice in calibration experiments. Then a tonometer with the appropriate configuration of tip and weight was used in conscious, unsedated mice. Tonometry in mice required a biprism angle of 36 degrees and weight applied of 25 mg per scale division (2 g full scale). This tonometer was calibrated in mice against manometrically measured IOP and showed good agreement across the range of IOP tested (0-50 mm Hg). In conscious mice the measured mean Goldmann value was 13.7 +/- 3.2 mm Hg (mean +/- SD; 95% confidence interval, 13.1, 14.2 mm Hg). The Goldmann tonometer, the standard for measuring the IOP in the human eye, was modified to measure this fundamental physiologic parameter in the awake mouse. This measurement is required to confirm success in genetically engineering a model in the powerful mouse system, which mimics elevated IOP in humans. The model will open new avenues for studying the causes of the optic neuropathy of glaucoma, the regulation of IOP, and new therapeutic approaches to prevent the irreversible loss of vision from this disease.

  17. The intraocular pressure response to dehydration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew P; Feigl, Beatrix; Stewart, Ian B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intraocular pressure response to differing levels of dehydration. Seven males participated in 90 min of treadmill walking (5 km h(-1) and 1% grade) in both temperate (22 °C) and hot (43 °C) conditions. At baseline and 30 min intervals intraocular pressure, nude body mass, body temperature and heart rate were recorded. Statistically significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed for intraocular pressure (hot condition: baseline 17.0 ± 2.9, 30 min 15.6 ± 3.5, 60 min 14.5 ± 3.7 and 90 min 13.6 ± 2.9 mmHg; temperate condition: baseline 16.8 ± 2.7, 30 min 16.5 ± 2.6, 60 min 15.8 ± 2.5 and 90 min 15.7 ± 1.8 mmHg) and body mass loss (hot condition: 30 min -1.07 ± 0.35, 60 min -2.17 ± 0.55 and 90 min -3.13 ± 0.74%; temperate condition: 30 min -0.15 ± 0.11, 60 min -0.47 ± 0.18 and 90 min -0.78 ± 0.25%). Significant linear regressions (p < 0.05) were observed for intraocular pressure and body mass loss (adjusted r(2) = 0.24) and intraocular pressure change and body mass loss (adjusted r(2) = 0.51). In conclusion, intraocular pressure was progressively reduced during a period of exercise causing dehydration, but remained relatively stable when hydration was maintained. The present study revealed a moderate relationship between dehydration (body mass loss) and intraocular pressure change.

  18. The effect of intraocular gas and fluid volumes on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Simone, J N; Whitacre, M M

    1990-02-01

    Large increases in the intraocular pressure (IOP) of postoperative gas-containing eyes may require the removal of gas or fluid to reduce the IOP to the normal range. Application of the ideal gas law to Friedenwald's equation provides a mathematical model of the relationship between IOP, intraocular gas and fluid volumes, and the coefficient of scleral rigidity. This mathematic model shows that removal of a given volume of gas or fluid produces an identical decrease in IOP and that the more gas an eye contains, the greater the volume reduction necessary to reduce the pressure. Application of the model shows that the effective coefficient of scleral rigidity is low (mean K, 0.0021) in eyes with elevated IOP that have undergone vitrectomy and retinal cryopexy and very low (mean K, 0.0013) in eyes with elevated IOP that have undergone placement of a scleral buckle and band. By using the appropriate mean coefficient of rigidity, the volume of material to be aspirated to produce a given decrease in IOP can be predicted with clinically useful accuracy.

  19. Intraocular pressure elevation during early postoperative period after secondary intraocular lens implantation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rupal H; Boden, John H; Mickler, Casey; Wilson, M Edward

    2012-09-01

    To look at the intraocular pressure (IOP) spike in the early postoperative period after secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in children. Miles Center for Pediatric Ophthalmology, Medical University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA. Retrospective chart review. The postoperative day-1 examination of patients having secondary IOL implantation by the same surgeon was reviewed for an IOP greater than 26 mm Hg. In patients with an IOP spike, the medical history and examination findings that might be associated with the rise were evaluated. Review of 85 patient charts (133 eyes) identified 9 eyes that developed an IOP spike during the early postoperative period. Six eyes were symptomatic, with symptoms including pain, ocular discomfort, nausea, and emesis, and 6 eyes had preoperative aphakic glaucoma, which was controlled with medication. Six of 22 eyes (27%) with preoperative aphakic glaucoma and 3 of 111 eyes (3%) without glaucoma (P<.001) developed an acute IOP rise (relative risk, 10.1). The high incidence of a symptomatic early IOP spike in patients with aphakic glaucoma warrants meticulous ophthalmic viscosurgical device removal at the end of surgery, consideration of the routine use of prophylactic topical and/or systemic glaucoma medication, and monitoring during the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between homocysteine and intraocular pressure in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Leibovitzh, Haim; Cohen, Eytan; levi, Amos; Kramer, Michal; Shochat, Tzippy; Goldberg, Elad; Krause, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between homocysteine levels and glaucoma has been questioned in previous studies without conclusive results. In the current study, we assessed the relationship between homocysteine levels and intraocular pressure which is one of the main factors in the development of glaucoma in men and women. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a database from a screening center in Israel which assessed 11,850 subjects, within an age range 20 to 80 years. The relationship between homocysteine and intraocular pressure has been investigated by comparing intraocular pressure in subjects with elevated and normal homocysteine and by comparing homocysteine levels in subjects with elevated and normal intraocular pressure. In addition, we compared the levels of homocysteine in subjects with and without a confirmed diagnosis of glaucoma. The mean IOP (±SD) in subjects with normal homocysteine levels(≤15 μmol/L) was 13.2 ± 2.3 mm Hg and 13.4 ± 2.4 mm Hg in those with high homocysteine levels (>15 μmol/L) (P < 0.008, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3–0.09).Nonetheless, after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, vitamin B12, and folic acid statistical significance was no longer demonstrated (P = 0.37). Mean homocysteine levels (±SD) in subjects with normal intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mm Hg was 11.7 ± 5.5 μmol/L and 12.09 ± 3.43 μmol/L in those with elevated intraocular pressure (P = 0.4, 95%CI 1.1–1.8). Mean homocysteine levels (±SD) in subjects with glaucoma were 11.2 ± 3.5 μmol/L compared to 11.7 ± 5.5 μmol/L in subjects without glaucoma and normal intraocular pressure ≤ 21 mm Hg (P = 0.4, 95% CI 1.2–2.1). The current study displays no clinical correlation between the homocysteine level and the intraocular pressure. Homocysteine may not be used as a predictive parameter to recognize those subjects prone to develop elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:27661027

  1. New trends in intraocular lens imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.; Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel

    2011-08-01

    As a result of modern technological advances, cataract surgery can be seen as not only a rehabilitative operation, but a customized procedure to compensate for important sources of image degradation in the visual system of a patient, such as defocus and some aberrations. With the development of new materials, instruments and surgical techniques in ophthalmology, great progress has been achieved in the imaging capability of a pseudophakic eye implanted with an intraocular lens (IOL). From the very beginning, optical design has played an essential role in this progress. New IOL designs need, on the one hand, theoretical eye models able to predict optical imaging performance and on the other hand, testing methods, verification through in vitro and in vivo measurements, and clinical validation. The implant of an IOL requires a precise biometry of the eye, a prior calculation from physiological data, and an accurate position inside the eye. Otherwise, the effects of IOL calculation errors or misplacements degrade the image very quickly. The incorporation of wavefront aberrometry into clinical ophthalmology practice has motivated new designs of IOLs to compensate for high order aberrations in some extent. Thus, for instance, IOLs with an aspheric design have the potential to improve optical performance and contrast sensitivity by reducing the positive spherical aberration of human cornea. Monofocal IOLs cause a complete loss of accommodation that requires further correction for either distance or near vision. Multifocal IOLs address this limitation using the principle of simultaneous vision. Some multifocal IOLs include a diffractive zone that covers the aperture in part or totally. Reduced image contrast and undesired visual phenomena, such as halos and glare, have been associated to the performance of multifocal IOLs. Based on a different principle, accommodating IOLs rely on the effort of the ciliary body to increase the effective power of the optical system of the

  2. Secondary diffractive bifocal piggyback intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, José F; Fernández-Vega, Luis; Baamonde, M Begoña

    2006-11-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of implanting a bifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) using the piggyback technique to provide pseudoaccommodation. Instituto Oftalmológico Fernández-Vega, Oviedo, Spain. This prospective noncomparative case series included 6 pseudophakic emmetropic patients who had a monofocal IOL implanted in the capsular bag. All eyes had secondary piggyback Acri. Twin bifocal diffractive IOL (Acri.Tec) implantation in the ciliary sulcus to provide pseudoaccommodation. Contralateral implantation of 1 Acri. Twin near-weighted 733D IOL in the nondominant eye and 1 Acri. Twin distance-weighted 737D IOL in the dominant eye was performed. Monocular and binocular best distance-corrected visual acuity and distance-corrected near visual acuity were evaluated 6 months after surgery. The mean binocular best distance-corrected visual acuity and distance-corrected near visual acuity were -0.080 +/- 0.056 logMAR and -0.016 +/- 0.037 logMAR, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in binocular best distance-corrected acuity after the piggyback IOL implantation (P>.01). The differences between monocular and binocular visual acuity were the result of the distance- and near-weighted light distribution of the Acri. Twin IOLs. All IOLs were well centered with no tilt. Two eyes had pupillary capture of the optic. The Acri. Twin bifocal diffractive IOL implanted in the ciliary sulcus using the piggyback technique provided pseudoaccommodation in emmetropic pseudophakic eyes. Binocular implantation of these IOLs should be performed considering the differences in light distribution of the distance-weighted IOL and the near-weighted IOL models.

  3. Change in intraocular pressure during scleral depression.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Richard; Stewart, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    Manometric studies have found that intraocular pressure (IOP) rises 116-350 mmHg during scleral depression in surgical settings. No information is available regarding the effect of scleral depression on IOP in routine clinical settings. The aim of this study is to quantify the change in IOP that occurs when scleral depression is performed on normal eyes in a routine clinical setting. A total of 28 eyes from 28 normal subjects were included. Tono-Pen tonometry was performed while scleral depression was performed in each of the two quadrants: superotemporal (ST) and inferonasal (IN). A post-procedure IOP measurement was obtained following each scleral depression examination. Both ST and IN quadrants were tested on all eyes, with the quadrant tested first chosen at random (15 ST, 13 IN). The mean IOP during scleral depression was 65.3 mmHg ST and 47.8 mmHg IN, with a maximum recorded IOP of 88 mmHg. The mean change in IOP for the ST quadrant was 51.9 ± 17.3 mmHg and 46.4 ± 16.0 mmHg for the right and left eyes, respectively. The mean change in IOP for the IN quadrant was 45.3 ± 22.7 mmHg and 16.8 ± 15.8 mmHg for the right and left eyes, respectively. Scleral depression as performed in a routine office setting produces wide fluctuations in IOP and may impair ocular perfusion. Additional studies are needed to determine the long-term consequences of routine scleral depression. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Refractive outcomes after multifocal intraocular lens exchange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric J; Sajjad, Ahmar; Montes de Oca, Ildamaris; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li; Weikert, Mitchell P; Al-Mohtaseb, Zaina N

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the refractive outcomes after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) exchange. Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Retrospective case series. Patients had multifocal IOL explantation followed by IOL implantation. Outcome measures included type of IOL, surgical indication, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and refractive prediction error. The study comprised 29 patients (35 eyes). The types of IOLs implanted after multifocal IOL explantation included in-the-bag IOLs (74%), iris-sutured IOLs (6%), sulcus-fixated IOLs with optic capture (9%), sulcus-fixated IOLs without optic capture (9%), and anterior chamber IOLs (3%). The surgical indication for exchange included blurred vision (60%), photic phenomena (57%), photophobia (9%), loss of contrast sensitivity (3%), and multiple complaints (29%). The CDVA was 20/40 or better in 94% of eyes before the exchange and 100% of eyes after the exchange (P = .12). The mean refractive prediction error significantly decreased from 0.22 ± 0.81 diopter (D) before the exchange to -0.09 ± 0.53 D after the exchange (P < .05). The median absolute refractive prediction error significantly decreased from 0.43 D before the exchange to 0.23 D after the exchange (P < .05). Multifocal IOL exchange can be performed safely with good visual outcomes using different types of IOLs. A lower refractive prediction error and a higher likelihood of 20/40 or better vision can be achieved with the implantation of the second IOL compared with the original multifocal IOL, regardless of the final IOL position. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraocular Pressure Changes With Positioning During Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin H.; Adenekan, Anthony T.; Awe, Oluwaseun. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy can produce changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) that may be influenced by several factors. In this study, we investigated changes in IOP during laparoscopy with different positioning. Methods: We recruited adult patients without eye disease scheduled to undergo laparoscopic operation requiring a reverse Trendelenburg tilt (rTr; group A; n = 20) or Trendelenburg tilt (Tr; Group B; n = 20). IOP was measured at 7 time points (T1–T7). All procedures were performed with standardized anaesthetic protocol. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), peak and plateau airway pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measurements were taken at each time point. Results: Both groups were similar in age, sex, mean body mass index (BMI), duration of surgery, and preoperative IOP. A decrease in IOP was observed in both groups after induction of anaesthesia (T2), whereas induction of pneumoperitoneum produced a mild increase in IOP (T3) in both groups. The Trendelenburg tilt produced IOP elevations in 80% of patients compared to 45% after the reverse Trendelenburg tilt (P = .012). A significant IOP increase of 5 mm Hg or more was recorded in 3 (15%) patients in the Trendelenburg tilt group and in none in the reverse Trendelenburg group. At T7, IOP had returned to preoperative levels in all but 3 (15%) in the Trendelenburg and 1 (5%) in the reverse Trendelenburg group. Reversible changes were observed in the MAP, HR, ETCO2, and airway pressures in both groups. Conclusions: IOP changes induced by laparoscopy are realigned after evacuation of pneumoperitoneum. A Trendelenburg tilt however produced significant changes that may require careful patient monitoring during laparoscopic procedures. PMID:28028381

  6. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in cats.

    PubMed

    Del Sole, María J; Sande, Pablo H; Bernades, José M; Aba, Marcelo A; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy domestic cats with no evidence of ocular disease and to analyze the influence of photoperiod, age, gender and ocular diseases on diurnal-nocturnal variations of cat IOP. All animals were Domestic Short-haired cats; 30 were without systemic or ocular diseases, classified as follows: 12 male intact adult cats, five intact adult female, five adult spayed female, and eight male cats; the latter were less than 1 year of age. In addition, five adult cats with uveitis and three adult cats with secondary glaucoma were included. IOP was assessed with a Tono-Pen XL at 3-h intervals over a 24-h period in 12 healthy adult male cats kept under a photoperiod of 12-h light/12-h darkness for 2 weeks. Eight animals from the same group were then kept under constant darkness for 48 h, and IOP was measured at 3-h intervals for the following 24 h. In addition, IOP was assessed at 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. in five intact females, five spayed females, and in eight young cats, as well as in five adult cats with uveitis and three glaucomatous cats. Consistent, daily variations in IOP were observed in animals exposed to a light-dark cycle, with maximal values during the night. In cats exposed to constant darkness, maximal values of IOP were observed at subjective night. Differences of IOP values between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. (diurnal-nocturnal variations) persisted in intact females, spayed females, and young animals, as well as in uveitic and glaucomatous eyes. The present results indicate a daily rhythm of cat IOP, which appears to persist in constant darkness, suggesting some level of endogenous circadian control. In addition, daily variations of cat IOP seem to be independent of gender, age, or ocular diseases (particularly uveitis and glaucoma).

  7. Aspheric versus Spherical Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Baghi, Ahmad-Reza; Ziaie, Hossein; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare spherical aberration and contrast sensitivity function following implantation of four different foldable posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs), namely Sensar, Akreos AO, Tecnis, and AcrySof IQ. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 68 eyes of 68 patients with senile cataracts underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation with Sensar (n=17), Akreos AO (n=17), Tecnis (n=17), or AcrySof IQ (n=17). Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), spherical aberration and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) were compared among the study groups, 3 months after surgery. Results There was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of age (P = 0.21). Mean postoperative BSCVA with Sensar, Akreos AO, Tecnis, and AcrySof IQ was 0.15±0.10, 0.12±0.9, 0.08±0.08, and 0.08±0.07 logMAR, respectively (P=0.08). Spherical aberration measured over a 4 mm pupil was significantly higher with Sensar and Akreos AO than the two other IOLs. The difference between Tecnis and AcrySof IQ was significantly in favor of the former IOL. Over a 6 mm pupil, spherical aberrations were comparable with Sensar and Akreos AO, furthermore spherical aberration was also comparable among eyes implanted with Akreos AO, AcrySof IQ, and Tecnis. Sensar yielded significantly inferior results as compared to Acrysof IQ and Tecnis. CSF with Sensar was inferior to the three aspheric IOLs at the majority of spatial frequencies. Tecnis yielded significantly better mesopic CSF at 1.5 and 3 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. Conclusion Tecnis and AcrySof IQ provided significantly better visual function as compared to Sensar and Akreos AO, especially with smaller pupil size. However, this difference diminished with increasing pupil size. PMID:22737364

  8. Molecular pathology of primary intraocular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi-Chao

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements, cytokines and chemokines, and infectious agents in primary intraocular B-cell lymphoma (PIOL) cells, in order to better diagnose and understand PIOL. METHODS: We studied ocular specimens from 57 patients with PIOL at the National Eye Institute from 1991 to 2001. Specimens were analyzed for IgH gene rearrangements using microdissection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We measured vitreal interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-10 mRNA was studied in PIOL cells using microdissection and reverse transcribed (RT)-PCR. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression was examined by using immunohistochemistry. Infectious DNA of human herpetic virus-8 (HHV-8), Epstein-Bar virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii was detected by using microdissection and PCR and was confirmed with Southern blot hybridization. RESULTS: IgH rearrangement(s) were demonstrated in all 50 tested cases. Cytokine levels were measured in the vitreous of 39 patients. Thirty-one had measurable cytokine levels: 24 of 31 had elevation of IL-10 relative to that of IL-6, and, in contrast, only 7 of 31 had elevation of IL-6 relative to IL-10. IL-10 mRNA was abundant in lymphoma cells of 6 examined cases. Lymphoma cells expressed chemokine receptors of CXCR4 and CXCR5 in three tested cases. HHV-8 DNA was found in 6 of 32 cases (18.8%), EBV DNA in 2 of 21 (9.5%), and T gondii DNA in 2 of 16 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Molecular analyses detecting IgH rearrangements and vitreal levels of IL-10 and IL-6 are useful adjuncts for PIOL diagnosis. A role for specific infectious agents is hypothesized in the pathogenesis of some cases of PIOL. B-cell chemokine is likely involved in attracting PIOL cells into the eye. PMID:14971583

  9. Changes in intraocular pressure after exercise test

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Morteza Abdar; Gharipour, Mojgan; Fesharakinia, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: The decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) within exercise has been recently suggested; however, this change remained ambiguous following exercise test. The present study aimed to assess changes in IOP induced by exercise test in patients who suspected to coronary artery disease (CAD) and indicated for exercise test evaluation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study at the cardiovascular research center of Amin Heart Hospital in Isfahan, 101 eyes from 51 consecutive patients suspected to CAD aged 30–70 years referred for exercise testing were evaluated. IOP was measured at the three time points of before exercise test as well as 5 and 20 min after completing exercise test using Schiotz tonometer. All exercise tests were programmed by the treadmill. Results: The mean IOP in all assessed eyes was 16.12 ± 2.61 mmHg initially that was gradually decreased to 13.79 ± 2.40 mmHg 5 min after the exercise test, but elevated to 15.67 ± 2.26 mmHg 20 min after the test. Assessing IOP following exercise testing showed a significant decrease in IOP in 75 eyes (74.3%), remained unchanged in 19.8% of eyes, and even elevated in 5.9% of eyes. There was a significant direct association between patients' age and IOP changes assessed by the Pearson's correlation test (r = 0.350,P = 0.009). No significant difference was revealed in the trend of the changes in IOP after exercise test between men and women, between left-sided and right-sided eyes as well as between different body mass index subgroups. Conclusion: IOP temporarily reduced after exercise test, but return to baseline value shortly after test. This lowering is more evident in advanced aging. PMID:28298859

  10. Evaluation of the motion of surgical instruments during intraocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, J-P; Son, J; Allen, B; Schwartz, S D; Bourges, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Robot assistance in ocular microsurgery could improve precision, dexterity, save time or prevent complications by task automation, and provide access to ocular surgery in undeserved countries by teleoperation. However, to design robotic devices, the range of motion of surgical instruments needs to be precisely quantified. Methods An electromagnetic tracking system was developed for intraocular surgery in order to quantify the movements of ophthalmic surgeons. Kinematics of surgical steps during phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy procedures were determined by measuring the maximum translation and angular range of motion of intraocular surgical tools in the three planes. Conclusion Important variations in amplitudes of rotation and translation were measured between both hands and between surgical tasks. These parameters may be used to develop a robotic intraocular surgical system or to improve training. PMID:21527954

  11. Evaluation of the motion of surgical instruments during intraocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Hubschman, J-P; Son, J; Allen, B; Schwartz, S D; Bourges, J-L

    2011-07-01

    Robot assistance in ocular microsurgery could improve precision, dexterity, save time or prevent complications by task automation, and provide access to ocular surgery in undeserved countries by teleoperation. However, to design robotic devices, the range of motion of surgical instruments needs to be precisely quantified. An electromagnetic tracking system was developed for intraocular surgery in order to quantify the movements of ophthalmic surgeons. Kinematics of surgical steps during phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy procedures were determined by measuring the maximum translation and angular range of motion of intraocular surgical tools in the three planes. Important variations in amplitudes of rotation and translation were measured between both hands and between surgical tasks. These parameters may be used to develop a robotic intraocular surgical system or to improve training.

  12. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Due to Systemic Absorption of Intraocular Phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adam; Nguyen, Phong

    2016-12-01

    We present a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) with regional variation in left ventricular function precipitated by intraocular injection of phenylephrine. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of TTC occurring in the setting of an intraocular medication. Contrary to the traditional model of the β2-receptor underlying the pathophysiology behind Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, phenylephrine is a pure α1-agonist implicating alternative mechanisms of myocardial injury resulting in a similar clinical phenotype. One should be alert to the possibility of catecholamine induced TTC occurring in patients subject to medications administered via the intraocular route with the potential for significant systemic absorption. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno Pinto; Pinto, Joana Medeiros; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Leal, Ines; Neto, Eliana; Marques-Neves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs) and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL) are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL. Methods This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth. Results The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6–48 months). The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1) retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2) corneal edema was found in three patients, 3) high intraocular pressure was observed in twelve patients, 4) subluxation of the IOL was observed in one patient, and 5) macular edema was found in three eyes. Conclusion The results demonstrate that retropupillary ICIOL is an easy and effective method for the correction of aphakia in patients not receiving capsule support. The safety of this procedure must be interpreted in the context

  14. The control of aniseikonia after intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Hillman, J S; Hawkswell, A

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a study of postoperative refraction and eikonometry of 50 patients who had unilateral cataract extraction with implantation of a pupil-supported intraocular lens. The mean postoperative aniseikonia (+/- SD) was 1.97 (+/- 1.82). A statistically significant relationship was shown between anisometropia and aniseikonia. Despite aniseikonia of up to 7.8 per cent there were no diplopia problems as the visual system exhibits a high degree of tolerance. It is concluded that aniseikonia can be controlled to within clinically acceptable limits by the simple calculation of intraocular lens power for isometropia.

  15. Polyvinylidene Flouride Polymer Applied in an Intraocular Pressure Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Morán, Carlos Omar; González Ballesteros, Rubén; Rodríguez Guzmán, Maria Dolores Alicia; Suaste Gómez, Ernesto

    2005-06-01

    An indentation intraocular pressure sensor (IIOPS) was designed and manufactured. It is based on piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. This sensor will help in the detection and diagnosis of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eye diseases like glaucoma. The pressure in the normal aqueous and vitreous phases is, on average, 15.5 mmHg and up of 21 mmHg when glaucoma exists. The proposed IIOPS offers a measurement range from 10-29 mmHg with a resolution of 1 mmHg and an accuracy of ± 0.025.

  16. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ladan; Sikder, Shameema; Moshirfar, Majid

    2011-01-10

    Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD(™) lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.

  17. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Sikder, Shameema; Moshirfar, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed. PMID:21311658

  18. Recurrent corneal oedema following late migration of intraocular glass.

    PubMed Central

    Saar, I; Raniel, J; Neumann, E

    1991-01-01

    This is a report of very late complications following intraocular penetration of numerous fragments of glass as a result of a test tube explosion. Fifteen years after the initial injury glass splinters began to migrate from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, causing acute episodes of corneal oedema. Four such episodes occurred over the past nine years, the corneal oedema each time disappearing within a few days following surgical extraction of the glass splinters. The literature on intraocular glass and its movement within the eye is reviewed. PMID:2012792

  19. Late-onset Citrobacter koseri endophthalmitis with suture exposure after secondary intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Min; Chung, Eun Jee

    2011-08-01

    A 54-year-old male patient was seen in clinic for ocular pain and decreased vision in the right eye with duration of two days. He underwent a cataract operation for his right eye 12 years ago, then a sclera-fixated secondary intraocular implantation and pars plana vitrectomy three years ago due to intraocular lens dislocation. At the initial visit, his visual acuity was restricted to the perception of hand motion. An edematous cornea, cells, flare with hypopyon, and exposed suture material at were observed at the six o'clock direction by slit lamp. Vitreous opacity was noted from B-scan ultrasonography. The patient was diagnosed with late-onset endophthalmitis and an intravitreal cocktail injection was done. On the next day, the hypopyon was aggravated, and therefore a pars plana vitrectomy was performed. A vitreous culture tested positive for Citrobacter koseri. After 12 weeks, the best corrected visual acuity of the right eye improved to 0.7 and a fundus examination revealed a relatively normal optic disc and retinal vasculature. We herein report the first case of endophthalmitis caused by Citrobacter koseri in Korea. Exposed suture material was suspected as the source of infection in this case and prompt surgical intervention resulted in a relatively good visual outcome.

  20. Intraocular stability of an angle-supported phakic intraocular lens with changes in pupil diameter.

    PubMed

    Alió, Jorge L; Piñero, David P; Sala, Esperanza; Amparo, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    To use anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to evaluate the stability of a recently released angle-supported phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) in the anterior segment with changes in pupil diameter. Keratoconus Unit, Vissum Corporation, Alicante, Spain. In this observational cross-sectional study of consecutive eyes with moderate to high myopia, an AcrySof Cachet pIOL was implanted with the aim of minimizing the refractive error. An analysis of the position and stability of the pIOL before and after pharmacologic pupil dilation was performed 3 months postoperatively using the Visante AS-OCT system. A measurement protocol that included several anatomic parameters was developed and applied; the parameter values before and after dilation were compared. Twenty eyes of 20 patients ranging in age from 24 to 48 years old were evaluated. The anterior chamber depth increased significantly with pupil dilation (mean change 0.06 mm +/- 0.08 [SD]) (P<.01). A significant change was also observed in the distance between the center of the cornea at the endothelial plane and the anterior surface of the pIOL (mean change 0.03 +/- 0.05 mm) (P = .01). The distances between the peripheral edges of the pIOL and the corneal endothelium and the distance between the crystalline lens and the pIOL did not change significantly (P>or=.14). The angle-supported pIOL showed excellent intraocular behavior after pupil dilation, with no shortening of the distance between the pIOL and corneal endothelium at the center or peripheral edges of the pIOL. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A specific Ce oxidation process during sorption of rare earth elements on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Tani, Yukinori; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2010-10-01

    Sorption of rare earth elements (REEs) and Ce oxidation on natural and synthetic Mn oxides have been investigated by many researchers. Although Mn(II)-oxidizing microorganisms are thought to play an important role in the formation of Mn oxides in most natural environments, Ce oxidation by biogenic Mn oxide and the relevance of microorganisms to the Ce oxidation process have not been well understood. Therefore, in this study, we conducted sorption experiments of REEs on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2. The distribution coefficients, Kd(REE), between biogenic Mn oxide (plus hyphae) and 10 mmol/L NaCl solution showed a large positive Ce anomaly and convex tetrad effect variations at pH 3.8, which was consistent with previous works using synthetic Mn oxide. The positive Ce anomaly was caused by oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by the biogenic Mn oxide, which was confirmed by analysis of the Ce L III-edge XANES spectra. With increasing pH, the positive Ce anomaly and convex tetrad effects became less pronounced. Furthermore, negative Ce anomalies were observed at a pH of more than 6.5, suggesting that Ce(IV) was stabilized in the solution (<0.2 μm) phase, although Ce(III) oxidation to Ce(IV) on the biogenic Mn oxide was confirmed by XANES analysis. It was demonstrated that no Ce(III) oxidation occurred during sorption on the hyphae of strain KR21-2 by the Kd(REE) patterns and XANES analysis. The analysis of size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS showed that some fractions of REEs in the filtrates (<0.2 μm) after sorption experiments were bound to organic molecules (40 and <670 kDa fractions), which were possibly released from hyphae. A line of our data indicates that the negative Ce anomalies under circumneutral pH conditions arose from Ce(III) oxidation on the biogenic Mn oxide and subsequent complexation of Ce(IV) with organic ligands. The suppression of tetrad effects is also explained by the complexation of REEs with organic ligands. The results of

  2. Predicting postoperative intraocular lens position and refraction.

    PubMed

    Preussner, Paul-Rolf; Wahl, Jochen; Weitzel, Daniela; Berthold, Silke; Kriechbaum, Katharina; Findl, Oliver

    2004-10-01

    To predict the postoperative IOL position and refraction as accurately as possible independent of individualization of the parameters. Universitats-Augenklinik, Mainz, Germany, and Vienna, Austria. One patient cohort (189 eyes, Vienna) was used to calibrate the prediction method, which was then applied to a second cohort (65 eyes, Mainz). All calculations were based on consistent numerical ray tracing of the pseudophakic eye using the original manufacturer's intraocular lens (IOL) data (radii, thickness, refractive index). A new algorithm to predict IOL position was developed. Ultrasound (US) axial lengths were calibrated relative to partial coherence interferometry (PCI). Corneal radii extracted from topography were checked against radii measured with the IOLMaster (Zeiss) and by Littmann keratometry. Zero mean prediction errors for IOL position and refraction were obtained without adjusting the parameters and with PCI lengths or US lengths calibrated relative to the PCI values. There was no significant loss of accuracy of US data compared to PCI data. Corneal radii extracted from topography were slightly but statistically significantly different from the Littmann values, and they were more accurate than the latter with respect to prediction error. The measured mean central IOL position (distance from posterior corneal surface) for all IOL types was 4.580 mm, a value very close to the mean recalculated from A-constants (4.587 mm). The difference in the individual central IOL position relative to the mean value depended only linearly (ie, no higher orders such as square or cubic are needed) on axial length, with the mean central IOL position as a free parameter. This parameter should be 4.6 +/- 0.2 mm (the same value as independently measured or recalculated) to obtain zero steepness of the prediction error as a function of axial length, producing zero bias for long and short eyes. Calculation errors from formulas and confusing adjusting parameters can be avoided

  3. Antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite

    SciTech Connect

    Babin, A.A.; Konoplev, Yu.N.; Mamaev, Yu.A.

    1995-10-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite are calculated and implemented practically. Their residual reflectance in the liquid with a refracting index of 1.336 is below 0.2% from each face virtually over the entire visible region. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mid-infrared laser ablation of intraocular acrylic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Ablation rates measurements with free-running Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) were performed in hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses. We studied the role of water in the laser ablation mechanisms by using hydrophilic lenses with different concentrations of H II0 and D II0. A mathematical model simulated the experimental results.

  5. Use of betaxolol in the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1983-06-01

    Forty eyes in 20 patients with elevated intraocular pressure were treated with either a 0.125% betaxolol ophthalmic solution or a placebo. After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of twice-daily therapy, the eyes receiving the betaxolol had a mean percent reduction in IOP greater than that in the eyes treated only with the drug vehicle (placebo). Both solutions were well tolerated.

  6. Trabeculectomy for traumatic hyphema with increased intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Graul, T A; Ruttum, M S; Lloyd, M A; Radius, R L; Hyndiuk, R A

    1994-02-15

    We reviewed the medical records of 11 consecutive patients who underwent trabeculectomy with anterior chamber washout and peripheral iridectomy as the primary surgical treatment for traumatic hyphema that was unresponsive to medical management. The mean intraocular pressure before surgery was 48 mm Hg. In ten of the patients the intraocular pressure was lowered to 21 mm Hg or lower after surgery and remained below that level up to the most recent follow-up visit, which ranged from eight to 97 months. One patient required a topical beta-blocker and oral acetazolamide to lower pressure to this level after surgery. Eight patients had visual acuity of 20/60 or better at last follow-up. Corneal blood staining occurred in eight patients. Compared with other techniques for surgical management of traumatic hyphema, trabeculectomy provides a means to keep intraocular pressure lowered while the remaining blood is clearing from the anterior chamber. Trabeculectomy with anterior chamber washout and peripheral iridectomy appears to be a safe and reliable procedure in the management of traumatic hyphemas in which medical management fails to control intraocular pressure.

  7. Origin of intraocular metallic foreign bodies during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Arbisser, Lisa B

    2005-12-01

    This is the first report of a case of intraocular metallic foreign bodies retained after phacoemulsification in which the source was identified as silver emanating from the brazing of the irrigation tube as it entered the handpiece shell on its inner diameter. Although silver is considered to be inert in the eye and nonmagnetic, manufacturers should evaluate alternate methods of phacoemulsification handpiece design.

  8. Unexplained heterochromia. Intraocular foreign body demonstrated by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Barr, C C; Vine, A K; Martonyi, C L

    1984-01-01

    Standard radiographic techniques are often inadequate in demonstrating the presence and location of intraocular foreign bodies. Computerized axial tomography was used to confirm the presence of a metallic foreign body in a patient with heterochromia iridis and suspected ocular siderosis in whom no foreign material was found by conventional examination methods.

  9. Secondary implantation of a double intraocular lens after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gayton, J L

    1998-02-01

    Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) patients often have severe, visually disabling refractive errors. Astigmatism can be addressed by refractive surgery; however, correcting hyperopia is more problematic. Although pseudophakic PKP patients can have a lens exchange, it can be traumatic in this population. In this pseudophakic PKP patient, I added a second posterior chamber intraocular lens, correcting the hyperopia and resolving visual complaints.

  10. Ultrashort laser ablation of PMMA and intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafetinides, A. A.; Makropoulou, M.; Fabrikesi, E.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.

    2008-10-01

    The use of intraocular lenses (IOLs) is the most promising method to restore vision after cataract surgery. Several new materials, techniques, and patterns have been studied for forming and etching IOLs to improve their optical properties and reduce diffractive aberrations. This study is aimed at investigating the use of ultrashort laser pulses to ablate the surface of PMMA and intraocular lenses, and thus provide an alternative to conventional techniques. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates (PMMA samples, hydrophobic acrylic IOL, yellow azo dye doped IOL, and hydrophilic acrylic IOL consist of 25% H2O). The irradiation was performed using 100 fs pulses of 800 nm radiation from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the phenomenology of the ablated patterns by probing the ablation depth using a profilometer. The surface modification was examined using a high resolution optical microscope (IOLs) or atomic force microscope—AFM (PMMA samples). It was found that different polymers exhibited different ablation characteristics, a result that we attribute to the differing optical properties of the materials. In particular, it was observed that the topography of the ablation tracks created on the hydrophilic intraocular lenses was smoother in comparison to those created on the PMMA and hydrophobic lens. The yellow doped hydrophobic intraocular lenses show higher ablation efficiency than undoped hydrophobic acrylic lenses.

  11. Unilateral phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in a dachshund

    PubMed Central

    Kopala, Robyn L.

    2008-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, spayed, female dachshund was presented with a cataract and lens-induced uveitis in the left eye. The cataract progressed from immature to hypermature in 4 months. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation was performed and the dog remains visual in the left eye 1 year post-surgery. PMID:19119375

  12. Effects of angiotensin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, D. E.; Shue, S. G.; Keil, L. C.; Balaban, C. D.; Severs, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin (ANG) on blood and intraocular pressures of pentobarbital anesthetized rats were evaluated following intravenous, intracerebroventricular or anterior chamber routes of administration. Central injections did not affect intraocular pressure. Equipressor intravenous infusions of ANG raised, whereas AVP decreased, intraocular pressure. Direct infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter/min) raised intraocular pressure between 30 and 60 min. Adding ANG or ANP slightly reduced this solvent effect but AVP was markedly inhibitory. An AVP-V1 receptor antagonist reversed the blunting of the solvent-induced rise by the peptide, indicating receptor specificity. Acetazolamide pretreatment lowered intraocular pressure, but the solvent-induced rise in intraocular pressure and inhibition by AVP still occurred without altering the temporal pattern. Thus, these effects appear unrelated to aqueous humor synthesis rate. The data support the possibility of intraocular pressure regulation by peptides acting from the blood and aqueous humor.

  13. Effects of angiotensin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, D. E.; Shue, S. G.; Keil, L. C.; Balaban, C. D.; Severs, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin (ANG) on blood and intraocular pressures of pentobarbital anesthetized rats were evaluated following intravenous, intracerebroventricular or anterior chamber routes of administration. Central injections did not affect intraocular pressure. Equipressor intravenous infusions of ANG raised, whereas AVP decreased, intraocular pressure. Direct infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter/min) raised intraocular pressure between 30 and 60 min. Adding ANG or ANP slightly reduced this solvent effect but AVP was markedly inhibitory. An AVP-V1 receptor antagonist reversed the blunting of the solvent-induced rise by the peptide, indicating receptor specificity. Acetazolamide pretreatment lowered intraocular pressure, but the solvent-induced rise in intraocular pressure and inhibition by AVP still occurred without altering the temporal pattern. Thus, these effects appear unrelated to aqueous humor synthesis rate. The data support the possibility of intraocular pressure regulation by peptides acting from the blood and aqueous humor.

  14. [Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for intraocular metastases in choroid].

    PubMed

    Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena; Kowal, Joanna; Pogrzebielski, Arkadiusz; Markiewicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Uveal metastases are the most common intraocular malignant tumors. Most patients who develop metastatic carcinoma to the choroid are managed by radiation or chemotherapy. Since TTT is an optional treatment for choroidal melanomas and hemangiomas, we ought to determine whether TIT is suitable for treatment of solitary choroidal metastasis at the posterior pole. To evaluate effectivenes of TTT treatment for intraocular metastases. 45 patients (59 eyes) with intraocular metastases were treated in the Ophthalmological Department of Jagiellonian University in Kraków. There were 30 women and 15 man, at the age 31-84 years (av. 57.5). The primary tumor was a breast cancer in 22 women, lung cancer in 5 men and 2 women, kidney (3), colon (2), uterus (1), larynx (1), testicle (1), esophagus (1). 10 patients had also metastases in other organs. TTT was performed in all treated eyes, in 11 combined with 106Ru brachytherapy (BT). Chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment was performed in 18 patients. The results of treatment were evaluated in mean 14.5 months (1-61) follow-up. After TTT, tumor shrinking was observed in most treated tumors (in 37 eyes, 62.7%), inhibition of tumor growth in 5 (8.4%), and in 4 cases (6.7%) progression of tumor growth. In 3 cases (5.1%) with flat scar and intraocular tumor shrinking, extrascleral extension located close to the tumor base appeared after treatment (TTT in 2 eyes, TTT combined with BT in one case). TTT is an effective treatment method for small choroidal metastases located in the posterior pole. TTT combined with 106Ru brachytherapy can be useful treatment in medium sized choroidal metastases. Efficient results encourage further application of thermotherapy in the treatment of intraocular metastases. It allows for the conservative treatment of the eyeball and also useful visual acuity. Extraocular extension appearing after TT needs further study.

  15. Lack of effect of intraocular lens asphericity on visual performance with acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Albarrán-Diego, César; Galotto, M Ángeles; Pascual, Javier; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether implantation of acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) with aspheric design (Tecnis Z9003, AMO) results in improved visual acuity or contrast sensitivity compared with conventional spherical acrylic IOL (AR40e, AMO). In an intraindividual randomized prospective study of 60 patients with bilateral cataract, the Tecnis Z9003 IOL was compared with the AR40e IOL. Ocular aberrations for a 4.0-mm pupil and 6.0-mm pupil were measured with a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Quality of vision was measured using visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic and photopic conditions. Eyes with the Tecnis Z9003 IOL had significantly less spherical aberration and greater Strehl ratio after surgery, showing a better optical quality in comparison with the standard spherical IOL. However, visual acuity and both mesopic and photopic contrast sensitivity were not significantly different between the groups. The significantly better optical quality achieved with the aspheric acrylic IOL design did not result in improved visual acuity or contrast sensitivity in comparison with a conventional spherical acrylic IOL.

  16. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CHANGES DURING VITRECTOMY USING CONSTELLATION VISION SYSTEM'S INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CONTROL FEATURE.

    PubMed

    Falabella, Paulo; Stefanini, Francisco R; Lue, Jaw-Chyng L; Pfister, Marcel; Reyes-Mckinley, Jahlyn; Koss, Michael J; Teixeira, Anderson; Schor, Paulo; Humayun, Mark S

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during experimental vitrectomy and the efficacy of Constellation Vision System's IOP control (IOPc) feature in reestablishing baseline pressure. Using a pressure transducer in freshly enucleated porcine eyes, a broad range of parameters (baseline pressures, aspiration levels, and cut rates) were tested with 23- and 25-gauge probes and IOPc turned ON versus OFF. IOPc turned ON was significantly more effective than IOPc turned OFF in controlling IOP drop and stabilizing pressure during vitrectomy using a wide range of baseline pressures (20-70 mmHg). The 23-gauge system consistently presented a reduced drop from baseline compared with the 25-gauge system. The overall average drop for the 23- and 25-gauge systems was 12.79 mmHg and 21.17 mmHg, respectively. Both gauge sizes reestablished baseline pressure approximately 1.6 seconds after the initial pressure drop generated at the beginning of aspiration. A peak of IOP (overshooting) was observed when the pressure was returning to baseline using both 23- and 25-gauge systems. Using IOPc feature turned ON, 23- and 25-gauge probes were effective in reestablishing and sustaining baseline infusion pressures, although 23-gauge probes showed less IOP fluctuation than did 25-gauge probes.

  17. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis following intraocular involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, J A; Leveque, C; Coats, M; Lawrence, L; Barber, J C

    1988-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was treated with systemic steroids for a retinal inflammatory lesion before the diagnosis of cryptococcal retinitis and meningitis was suspected. He died from central nervous system disease despite treatment with parenteral antifungals. Histopathological studies demonstrated ocular and disseminated systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Direct cryptococcal involvement of the eye is rare and is usually associated with disseminated disease. Systemic steroids must be used with caution, and patients who take these drugs require frequent monitoring. Images PMID:3355803

  18. Eye lens crystallins: a component of intraocular pseudoexfoliative material.

    PubMed

    Veromann, Siiri; Sünter, Alar; Juronen, Erkki; Tasa, Gunnar; Panov, Aleksei

    2004-01-01

    Feeding experimental animals (19 pigs) with surplus sucrose and salt (NaCl) caused cataractous changes in lens tissue and triggered the formation of pseudoexfoliative material on the lens capsule. In the control animals (15 pigs) pseudoexfoliative material was absent. The avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical method was applied to the pseudoexfoliative material obtained from 15 porcine experimental precataractous lenses and 1 spontaneously cataractous eye and revealed crystallins as a component of the intraocular pseudoexfoliative material. To prevent the development of both intraocular pseudoexfoliative material and crystallin-dependent glaucomatous changes in the trabecular meshwork of the eye, it is important to avoid any cataractogenic insult, including surplus sucrose and salt consumption, causing crystallin leakage from the lens. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Performance of the Sulcoflex piggyback intraocular lens in pseudophakic patients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad I; Muhtaseb, Mohammed

    2011-09-01

    To present our experience with a pseudophakic piggyback intraocular lens (IOL) (Sulcoflex; Rayner Intraocular Lenses Ltd) in five eyes of four patients. One patient desired increased spectacle independence after bilateral LASIK and refractive lens exchange with an accommodating IOL. The remaining three patients with residual refractive error desired increased spectacle independence following cataract surgery with a monofocal IOL. Four eyes received a multifocal Sulcoflex IOL and one eye received a toric Sulcoflex IOL. All patients achieved uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 0.1 logMAR (Snellen 20/25) or better and those who received the multifocal Sulcoflex achieved uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) of N6 (Jaeger 4) or better. The Sulcoflex IOL may be a safe and effective method for enhancing the refractive outcome in pseudophakic eyes, providing good UDVA and UNVA when using the multifocal platform. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Multifocal Toric Intraocular Lens for Traumatic Cataract in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yanfeng; Fan, Licheng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    A child suffering from traumatic cataract and corneal astigmatism of 2.14 D had a phacoemulsification operation and implantation of a ReSTOR Toric intraocular lens (IOL) to correct the astigmatism. The primary outcome measurements were the uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), uncorrected near vision at 40 cm, intraocular pressure, spherical equivalent refraction, residual astigmatism, corneal astigmatism, presence of unusual optical phenomena, and use of spectacles. At 7 months postoperatively, UDVA was maintained between 16/20 and 24/20, near vision was between J1 and J3, residual spherical refraction was 0–0.37 D, and residual refractive cylinder was between 0 and 0.67 D. A multifocal toric IOL can provide the possibility of satisfactory vision for both distant and near conditions without the use of spectacles to meet children's needs when studying and doing sports. Additionally, binocular vision can be reconstructed. This intervention, therefore, seems to be a satisfactory alternative. PMID:28101039

  1. [Combined choroidal biopsy and cytology for diagnosis of intraocular tumour].

    PubMed

    Sala-Puigdollers, A; Rodríguez-de la Rúa, E; Saornil, M A; García-Álvarez, C; García-Lagarto, E; Ovelar Arribas, Y

    2013-09-01

    No intraocular biopsy technique is free of risk and all have the possibility of giving false negatives due to the difficulty in obtaining a sufficient sample. A modified chorioretinal biopsy was performed on a patient with suspected choroidal melanoma after negative biopsy with 25G vitrectomy. In addition to removing a solid fragment of tumor material using bimanual surgery, material from the lesion was obtained with the vitreotome to perform cytology, which confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. Cytology obtained through the vitreotome in association with removing a solid sample of the choroidal lesion may improve the efficiency of intraocular biopsy. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra-ocular pressure normalization technique and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for safely reducing abnormally high intraocular pressure in an eye during a predetermined time interval. This allows maintenance of normal intraocular pressure during glaucoma surgery. A pressure regulator of the spring-biassed diaphragm type is provided with additional bias by a column of liquid. The hypodermic needle can be safely inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. Liquid is then bled out of the column to reduce the bias on the diaphragm of the pressure regulator and, consequently, the output pressure of the regulator. This lowering pressure of the regulator also occurs in the eye by means of a small second bleed path provided between the pressure regulator and the hypodermic needle.

  3. An ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeng, Liu; Niansong, Mei; Zhaofeng, Zhang

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes an ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring system that is dedicated to sensing and transferring intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. Our system is comprised of a capacitive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit, which is designed on the SMIC 180 nm process, and a dipole antenna. The system is wirelessly powered and demonstrates a power consumption of 7.56 μW at 1.24 V during continuous monitoring, a significant reduction in active power dissipation compared to existing work. The input RF sensitivity is -13 dBm. A significant reduction in input RF sensitivity results from the reduction of mismatch time of the ASK modulation caused by FM0 encoding. The system exhibits an average error of ± 1.5 mmHg in measured pressure. Finally, a complete IOP system is demonstrated in the real biological environment, showing a successful reading of the pressure of an eye.

  4. Intraocular pressure following ECCE, phacoemulsification, and PC-IOL implantation.

    PubMed

    Kooner, K S; Cooksey, J C; Perry, P; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-09-01

    Abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP), either transient or permanent, may follow extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with phacoemulsification (PE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. We retrospectively studied IOP measurements at different intervals post ECCE and PE in 242 eyes of 211 patients: 105 males, 106 females, 198 Caucasians and 13 blacks. Elevated IOP (greater than 23 mm Hg) was observed in 20 eyes (8.2%). Only two patients (0.8%) had persistent (greater than 3 months) IOP elevation and needed antiglaucoma therapy. Six more eyes (2.5%), however, developed glaucoma after 1 year. Hence, the incidence of secondary pseudophakic glaucoma at the conclusion of this study was 3.3%. No patient required laser or other mechanical surgery for IOP control. ECCE and PE with PC-IOL does not appear to adversely affect IOP. Patients, however, must be followed closely, as some may develop glaucoma months after surgery.

  5. Endoscope-assisted transscleral suture fixation of intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, I; Lillo, J; Buil, J A; Castilla, M

    1996-09-01

    We describe a new method for placing transscleral sutures when fixating posterior chamber intraocular lenses to the sulcus. An intraocular microendoscope with an 18 gauge probe is used for direct sulcus observation and needle position assessment. The straight needle of a 10-0 polypropylene suture and the tip of the probe are placed in a 16 gauge silicone rubber tube to hold them together. Fixing the needle to the endoscope allows a direct view of its tip and requires only one hand. The other hand is used to grasp the tip of the needle when it comes out under the scleral flap after passing through the sulcus. Assessment of needle position with an endoscope avoids surgically induced iris root or ciliary body damage. Fixing the needle to the endoscope simplifies the surgical technique.

  6. Intraocular lens exchange-removing the optic intact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew Hao; Webster, Diane Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Current practice for intraocular lens (IOL) exchange is to cut the optic of the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) prior to removing it. Great care must be taken during this maneuver to avoid a posterior capsular tear. Removing the haptics from the fibrosed capsule can also be hazardous, as it may result in zonular stress and dehiscence. A technique is described for performing foldable (one-piece acrylic) IOL removal without cutting the optic. Careful visco-dissection of the haptics with a low viscosity ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) in the fibrosed peripheral capsular tunnel avoids zonular or capsular stress. Internal wound enlargement permits foldable IOL removal in one piece, whilst preserving a self-sealing sutureless corneal wound. This technique may enhance the safety and efficacy of foldable IOL exchange. PMID:27366699

  7. Management of the posterior capsule during pediatric intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, E G; Klombers, L A; Seaber, J H; Scalise-Gordy, A; Minzter, R

    1993-06-15

    One of the major obstacles in pediatric intraocular lens implantation has been the subsequent dense opacification of the posterior capsule. We used a modification of the standard pediatric cataract surgical procedure, which involved endocapsular cataract extraction, posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, pars plana posterior capsulotomy, and pars plana anterior vitrectomy in 20 consecutive patients with unilateral traumatic, radiation-induced, and developmental cataracts. Visual axes were rapidly restored in all patients without further intervention for posterior capsule opacification. Visual acuity returned to 20/40 or better in all patients and 75% of all patients (15 patients) reached maximum improvement by five weeks. No complications attributed to intraoperative removal of the posterior capsule occurred.

  8. Environmental and Genetic Factors Explain Differences in Intraocular Scattering.

    PubMed

    Benito, Antonio; Hervella, Lucía; Tabernero, Juan; Pennos, Alexandros; Ginis, Harilaos; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R; Ruiz-Sánchez, Marcos; Marín, José M; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    To study the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors on the variability of intraocular scattering within a classical twin study. A total of 64 twin pairs, 32 monozygotic (MZ) (mean age: 54.9 ± 6.3 years) and 32 dizygotic (DZ) (mean age: 56.4 ± 7.0 years), were measured after a complete ophthalmologic exam had been performed to exclude all ocular pathologies that increase intraocular scatter as cataracts. Intraocular scattering was evaluated by using two different techniques based on a straylight parameter log(S) estimation: a compact optical instrument based in the principle of optical integration and a psychophysical measurement. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used as descriptive statistics of twin resemblance, and genetic models were fitted to estimate heritability. No statistically significant difference was found for MZ and DZ groups for age (P = 0.203), best-corrected visual acuity (P = 0.626), cataract gradation (P = 0.701), sex (P = 0.941), optical log(S) (P = 0.386), or psychophysical log(S) (P = 0.568), with only a minor difference in equivalent sphere (P = 0.008). Intraclass correlation coefficients between siblings were similar for scatter parameters: 0.676 in MZ and 0.471 in DZ twins for optical log(S); 0.533 in MZ twins and 0.475 in DZ twins for psychophysical log(S). For equivalent sphere, ICCs were 0.767 in MZ and 0.228 in DZ twins. Conservative estimates of heritability for the measured scattering parameters were 0.39 and 0.20, respectively. Correlations of intraocular scatter (straylight) parameters in the groups of identical and nonidentical twins were similar. Heritability estimates were of limited magnitude, suggesting that genetic and environmental factors determine the variance of ocular straylight in healthy middle-aged adults.

  9. Pupillary block glaucoma associated with a secondary piggyback intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shane K; Lanciano, Ralph C; Sulewski, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    A 53-year-old woman developed pupillary block glaucoma associated with iris capture of a piggyback intraocular lens (IOL) that was treated with laser peripheral iridotomy. The piggyback IOL was repositioned by dilating the iris pharmacologically and reclining the patient. The IOL maintained its proper position behind the iris with the use of low-concentration pilocarpine eyedrops. Pupillary block glaucoma can occur as a complication of secondary piggyback IOL implantation.

  10. Towards a Completely Implantable, Light-Sensitive Intraocular Retinal Prosthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    electronic retinal prosthesis is under development to treat retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, two presently incurable...34Preservation of the inner retina in retinitis pigmentosa . A morphometric analysis," Arch Ophthalmol, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 511-515, Apr.1997...Towards a completely implantable, light-sensitive intraocular retinal prosthesis. M.S. Humayun, J.D. Weiland, B. Justus1, C. Merrit1, J. Whalen, D

  11. Quantification of intraocular surgery motions with an electromagnetic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Culjat, Martin O; Nistor, Vasile; Dutson, Erik P; Carman, Gregory P; Hubschman, Jean Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Motion tracking was performed during a combined phacoemulsification (PKE) and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) procedure on a pig eyeball. The UCLA Laparoscopic Training System (UCLA-LTS), which consists of electromagnetic sensors attached to the surgical tools to measure three-dimensional spatial vectors, was modified to enable quantification of intraocular surgery motions. The range of motion and time taken to complete the given task were successfully recorded.

  12. The mechanism of intraocular pressure rise during cyclocryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Geyer, O; Michaeli-Cohen, A; Silver, D M; Neudorfer, M; Lazar, M

    1997-04-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes that occur during cyclocryotherapy for advanced glaucoma may further injure the already damaged glaucomatous optic nerve and be responsible for visual impairment that may occur after this treatment. The authors investigated the mechanism of pressure rise to see whether it can be avoided and thus prevent further optic nerve injury. The authors postulated that intraocular ice forms during the cryo procedure and causes the pressure changes. Intraocular pressure was monitored using a pneumatonometer during 15 cryocycles of four patients with advanced glaucoma and 21 cryocycles of five normal rabbits. A simple thermal model was developed to analyze the relation between volume expansion and pressure rise in the eye. The physical effect of freezing rabbit eye structures was investigated in vitro. The largest pressure spikes observed during the cryocycles in this work were increases of 32 mm Hg for humans and 25 mm Hg for rabbits. The mean value of the IOP immediately before and after the cryo freezing stage was 53 +/- 1 and 68 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, for humans and 22 +/- 1 and 32 +/- 1 mm Hg for rabbits. The parameters of the thermal model were determined from the observed IOP spikes. Calculated thaw times were consistent with measured times for return to precryo IOPs. In vitro cryoapplication (rabbit eye) showed the formation of an ice ball internal to the eye. Volumetric increase of the intraocular content related to the formation of an ice ball in the eye, is the mechanism of pressure spikes during cyclocryotherapy. Because this complication is unavoidable, other cyclodestuctive methods may be more prudent, particularly in patients with advanced glaucoma.

  13. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  14. Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Alhalafi, Ali Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood-ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid) derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates), albumin, poly-ε-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and disadvantages. The second

  15. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira; Garcia, Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki; Allemann, Norma

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed). Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and measure the intraocular foreign body, directing

  16. Intraocular Penetration of Intravenous Micafungin in Inflamed Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Akira; Suemori, Shinsuke; Kawakami, Hideaki; Niwa, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Yuji; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Yamada, Noriaki; Ogura, Shinji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Kishino, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Eight eyes of 7 patients with fungal disease received intravenous injections of 150 to 300 mg micafungin, and samples of blood, cornea, retina-choroid, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor were collected. The micafungin levels in all collected samples exceeded the MICs; however, the levels in the vitreous and aqueous humors were lower. Our findings suggest that intravenous micafungin should be given in combination with intravitreal antifungal agents after vitrectomy in severe cases of intraocular fungal diseases. PMID:23689706

  17. Intraocular lens providing good vision 23 years after placement.

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    A Ridley Perspex lens was placed in the posterior chamber of a man's eye 23 years ago; 20/25 vision has been maintained since. This technique, first carried out in 1949, has been abandoned because of the high incidence of lens dislocation and glaucoma, but many modified versions of the lens have been produced. Implantation of intraocular lenses is still considered experimental, though careful selection of cases and meticulous surgical procedure can yield good results. PMID:608150

  18. Additional multifocal sulcus-based intraocular lens: alternative to multifocal intraocular lens in the capsular bag.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Jens; Kroeber, Sandra; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2013-04-01

    To compare the visual outcomes of additional multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) for sulcus fixation with those of standard multifocal IOLs in the capsular bag. Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, Germany. Prospective controlled clinical trial. Eyes had phacoemulsification and implantation of a monofocal IOL in the capsular bag and an additional aberration-free diffractive IOL in the ciliary sulcus (multifocal add-on IOL group). Measurements of uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; contrast sensitivity; and defocus curve were performed 3 months postoperatively. Results were compared with those in eyes with an aberration-correcting diffractive posterior chamber IOL (multifocal PC IOL group). The multifocal add-on IOL group comprised 34 eyes of 20 patients and the multifocal PC IOL group, 31 eyes of 17 patients. Cataract surgery, IOL implantation, and the postoperative course were uneventful in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, or near visual acuities between the 2 groups. The median uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.00 logMAR in both groups, and the median uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.10 logMAR in both groups. Contrast sensitivity testing yielded significantly better results in the multifocal add-on IOL group, especially at spatial frequencies over 1.5 cycles per degree. Defocus curves were similar in the 2 groups. Visual performance with a multifocal diffractive add-on IOL was equivalent to that achieved with a commonly used multifocal diffractive PC IOL. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intraocular pressure with rebound tonometry and effects of topical intraocular pressure reducing medications in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Di, Yue; Luo, Xiu-Mei; Qiao, Tong; Lu, Na

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP) of adult guinea pig eyes with rebound tonometry (RBT), and assess the effects of four distinctive topical IOP reducing medications including Carteolol, Brimonidine, Brinzolamide and Latanoprost. METHODS The IOPs of twenty-four 12-week-old guinea pigs (48 eyes) were measured every two hours in one day with RBT as baselines. All the animals were then divided into four groups (Carteolol, Brimonidine, Brinzolamide and Latanaprost groups, n=6). The IOPs were measured and compared to the baseline 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 15 and 24h after treatment. RESULTS The mean baseline IOP of 24 guinea pigs (48 eyes) was 10.3±0.36 mm Hg (6-13 mm Hg) and no binocular significant differences of IOPs were observed (t=1.76, P>0.05). No significant difference of IOP in Carteolol group at each time point was observed before and after treatment (t=1.48, P>0.05). In Brimonidine group, IOP was 2.2±1.9 mm Hg lower than the baseline after one hour (t=3.856, P=0.003) and lasted for one hour. In Brinzolamide group, IOP was 1.4±1.1 mm Hg lower than the baseline after one hour (t=4.53, P=0.001) and lasted for 7h and the IOP declined most at 3h. In Latanaprost group, IOP was 2.1±1.3 mm Hg lower than the baseline after one hour (t=6.11, P=0.001) and lasted for one hour. CONCLUSION The IOP of guinea pig eyes is relatively stable compared to human eyes. In four reducing IOP medications, no significant effect of Carteolol is observed. Brinzolamide has the longest duration, while the Brimonidine has the shortest duration and the maximum level of treatment. PMID:28251075

  20. Development of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) forceps for intraocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhisitkul, R B; Keller, C G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To develop silicon microforceps for intraocular surgery using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, the application of microchip fabrication techniques for the production of controllable three dimensional devices on the micrometre scale. Methods: Prototype MEMS forceps were designed and manufactured for intraocular surgery. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate device tip construction. Designs using both thermal expansion actuators and conventional mechanical activation were tested in human cadaver eyes and in vivo rabbit eyes to assess functionality in standard vitreoretinal surgery. Results: MEMS forceps were constructed with various tip designs ranging from 100 μm to 2 mm in length. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed accurate construction of micro features such as forceps teeth as small as tens of micrometres. In surgical testing, the silicon forceps tips were effective in surgical manoeuvres, including grasping retinal membranes and excising tissue. The mechanical actuator design on a 20 gauge handle was more operational in the intraocular environment than the thermal expansion actuator design. While handheld operation was possible, the precision of the forceps was best exploited when mounted on a three axis micromanipulator. Conclusion: MEMS microforceps are feasible for conventional vitreoretinal surgery, and offer advances in terms of small scale, operating precision, and construction tolerance. PMID:16299136

  1. [The efficacy of treating patients with intraocular hemorrhages with emoxypin].

    PubMed

    Mokhammad, I; Cherkasov, I S

    1990-01-01

    Emoxipin, a home-made preparation approved by the Pharmacological Committee for clinical usage in 1986, is a retinal protector. Its usage is indicated for treatment of chorioretinitis, diabetic retinopathy, thrombosis of retinal vessels as well as to protects the retina from a damaging action of light of high intensity. In order to study therapeutic effectiveness of emoxipin in intraocular hemorrhages of different genesis, the preparation was used subconjunctivally, 0.5 ml of a 1% solution daily for 10-15 days. Emoxipin was used in 29 patients (29 eyes) with intraocular hemorrhages, of them, due to contusion of the eye--in 19, hypertonic disease--in 6, thrombosis of the central retinal vein--in 2, after intraocular operations--in 2 patients. As a result of the treatment, partial or almost total resolution of hemorrhages and a rise of visual acuity of different degree were recorded in all patients. Before treatment, visual acuity was from light perception to 0.04 in 26 eyes, from 0.09 to 0.3 in 3 eyes. After treatment, it rose to 0.1-0.2 in 12 eyes, to 0.3-1.0--in 17 eyes.

  2. Angle-closure glaucoma after piggyback intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    García-Feijo, J; Saenz-Frances, F; Martinez-De-La-Casa, J M; Mendez-Hernandez, C; Fernandez-Vidal, A; Elias-de-Tejada, M; Reche-Frutos, J; Garcia-Sanchez, J

    2008-01-01

    To report a case of angle closure glaucoma after piggyback intraocular lens implantation and its treatment. The authors present the case of a 75-year-old woman who was seen in the emergency department with angle closure glaucoma. Two years before she had undergone piggyback intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in order to correct a refractive error after cataract surgery. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a closed angle with synechiae in 360 degrees as well as the presence of two IOLs: one in the capsular bag and the other in the ciliary sulcus. Extraction of the anterior IOL was precluded due to the poor endothelial count. Peripheral iridotomy and trabeculectomy were ineffective to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP); the authors decided to implant with an Ahmed valve and to place the valve's tube between the two IOLs to protect the endothelium. After Ahmed valve implantation, IOP maintains stable around 10-12 mmHg without medical treatment. Ahmed valve implantation is a good option in angle closure glaucoma due to piggyback. The placement of the valve's tube between the two IOLs is a good option to protect corneal endothelium.

  3. Calcification of intraocular hydrogel lens: evidence of dystrophic calcification.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jim L C; Lertsumitkul, Somsak; Killingsworth, Murray C; Filipic, Marijan

    2004-10-01

    To report and describe the surface calcification of three cases of implanted intraocular hydrogel lens. Three surgically extracted hydrogel intraocular lenses were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy as well as by energy dispersion X-ray microanalysis. The lens surfaces were covered by granular deposits of calcium phosphate, clearly delineated by von Kossa and alizarin stains for calcium. Transmission electron microscopy showed the deposits to be located within the superficial lens material to a depth of 7 microm and to be associated with what appear to be traces of cellular material including basement membrane and plasmalemma. To the authors' knowledge there has been only one other transmission electron microscopic study. Energy dispersion X-ray microanalysis showed the deposits to contain calcium and phosphorous in all cases. This study confirms and extends the previous reports of five cases of calcification of hydrogel intraocular lenses. The exact mechanism of calcification remains obscure but evidence suggesting cell-mediated dystrophic calcification of the lens surface is presented. Further study is required to monitor the incidence and development of this phenomenon.

  4. An Unusual Case of Marble Intraocular Foreign Body

    PubMed Central

    Omoti, Afekhide E.; Dawodu, Oseluese A.; Ogbeide, Osesogie U.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a case of marble intraocular foreign body that developed toxic complications during surgery. The patient is a 25 years old male who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with a history of trauma to the right eye while cutting marble. He was examined, had an ocular ultrasound scan and subsequently had an extracapsular cataract extraction. His visual acuity in the right eye was light perception. There was an entry point on the cornea, the lens was opaque, there was vitreous haemorrhage and the intraocular foreign body was localized in the posterior part of the posterior segment by ultrasound scan. He had extracapsular cataract extraction. During anterior capsulotomy, the cornea suddenly and rapidly became cloudy with a brownish tinge and the corneal epithelium started desquamating.Marble on its own may not be toxic but the other chemicals including cement, used in the processing of the marble were responsible for this delayed toxicity. Ultrasound scan is valuable in localisation of intraocular foreign bodies. PMID:20379429

  5. [The Use of Polymers for Intraocular Lenses in Cataract Surgery].

    PubMed

    Fizia-Orlicz, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cataract remains the leading cause of the curable visual impairment worldwide. Cataract can only be cured by surgery during which the cloudy lens is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens. It is one of the most common surgeries being performed worldwide. There are age-related, congenital, traumatic and metabolic types of cataract which have been distinguished. Age-related cataract is the most common one and it affects people over 60 with the greatest frequency. In reference to patients whose cornea does not fulfill the requirements for a standard refractive surgery, the number of refractive intraocular lens replacement is increasing. Manufacturers aim to enhance materials in order to minimize surgical complication while increasing the patient’s eyesight. The increase in average lifespan along with patients’ expectations stimulate competition among manufacturers who bring new products and solutions into to the market. There is an augmented demand for premium lenses such as toric, multifocal or accommodating. These lenses bring patients the promise of life without the need for wearing glasses. As far as the main materials used in the production of intraocular lens are concerned, there are hydrophobic, hydrophilic, acrylic and silicone lenses in use. In this paper the author discusses characteristics as well as advantages and disadvantages of the above-mentioned materials. The associated surgical complications and the new areas of development regarding the materials used in lenses manufacturing are also examined.

  6. Near-infrared transillumination photography of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Jørgen; Ulltang, Erlend; Kjersem, Bård

    2013-10-01

    To present a technique for near-infrared transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours based on the modifications of a conventional digital slit lamp camera system. The Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG) was used for transillumination photography by gently pressing the tip of the background illumination cable against the surface of the patient's eye. Thus the light from the flash unit was transmitted into the eye, leading to improved illumination and image resolution. The modification for near-infrared photography was done by replacing the original camera with a Canon EOS 30D (Canon Inc) converted by Advanced Camera Services Ltd. In this camera, the infrared blocking filter was exchanged for a 720 nm long-pass filter, so that the near-infrared part of the spectrum was recorded by the sensor. The technique was applied in eight patients: three with anterior choroidal melanoma, three with ciliary body melanoma and two with ocular pigment alterations. The good diagnostic quality of the photographs made it possible to evaluate the exact location and extent of the lesions in relation to pigmented intraocular landmarks such as the ora serrata and ciliary body. The photographic procedure did not lead to any complications. We recommend near-infrared transillumination photography as a supplementary diagnostic tool for the evaluation and documentation of anteriorly located intraocular tumours.

  7. Validation of sensor for postoperative positioning with intraocular gas

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Frank L; Woo, Kelly Y; Balakrishna, Ashwin; Choo, Hyuck; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Surgical repair of retinal attachment or macular hole frequently requires intraocular gas. This necessitates specific postoperative positioning to improve outcomes and avoid complications. However, patients struggle with correct positioning. We have developed a novel sensor to detect the position of the gas bubble in the eye and provide feedback to patients in real time. In this paper, we determine the specificity and sensitivity of our sensor in vitro using a model eye. Methods We assessed the reliability of our sensor to detect when a gas bubble has deviated off a model retinal break in a model eye. Various bubble sizes representing the intraocular kinetics of sulfur hexafluoride gas and varying degrees of deviation from the correct position were tested using the sensor attached to a mannequin head with a model eye. Results We recorded 36 data points. The sensor acted appropriately in 33 (91.7%) of them. The sensor triggered the alarm every time the bubble deviated off the break (n=15, sensitivity =100%). However, it triggered the alarm (falsely) 3/21 times when the bubble was correctly positioned over the retinal break (specificity =86%). Conclusion Our device shows excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (86%) in detecting whether intraocular gas is tamponading a retinal break in a model eye. PMID:27307698

  8. Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of WIN55212-2.

    PubMed

    Song, Z H; Slowey, C A

    2000-01-01

    It is known that marijuana smoking and administration of natural cannabinoids reduce intraocular pressure. However, it has not been established whether the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of cannabinoids are mediated by cannabinoid receptors. Aminoalkylindoles are a new class of cannabimimetics with structures entirely different from those of natural cannabinoids. WIN55212-2, a prototypic aminoalkylindole, has been shown to bind cannabinoid receptors and to exhibit cannabinoid-like activities. The objective of this study was to determine whether aminoalkylindoles lower intraocular pressure and whether the effects of aminoalkylindoles are mediated by ocular cannabinoid receptors. The intraocular pressure of New Zealand White rabbits was measured with the use of applanation pneumatonography. After the measurement of baseline intraocular pressure, drugs were applied topically and the intraocular pressure was monitored. The topical application of WIN55212-2 significantly reduced intraocular pressure in the treated eyes. The intraocular pressure-lowering effects of WIN55212-2 were time and dose dependent, and the maximal reduction was 4.7 +/- 0.5 mm Hg at a dose of 100 microg. In contrast to treated eyes, the intraocular pressure on the contralateral eyes was not significantly affected. The topical application of WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, had no effect on intraocular pressure. Furthermore, the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of WIN55212-2 were significantly reduced by topically administered SR141716A, a selective antagonist for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. The dose-response curve of WIN55212-2 is shifted parallel to the right by SR141716A. These data demonstrate that like natural cannabinoids, WIN55212-2 also reduces intraocular pressure, and the effects of WIN55212-2 are mediated at least in part by the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the eye.

  9. Keeping an eye on dialysis: the association of hemodialysis with intraocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    William, Jeffrey H; Gilbert, Aubrey L; Rosas, Sylvia E

    2015-11-01

    Intraocular hypertension is common during hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and intraocular hypertension occur via similar pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may contribute to the development of glaucoma and cataracts in a patient population already at high risk for ocular abnormalities, given the common risk factors for chronic kidney disease and impaired aqueous humor outflow. We describe a patient with complicated diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and recent cataract surgery who developed severe intraocular hypertension during hemodialysis. We recommend increased awareness of the symptoms of intraocular hypertension and subsequent ophthalmologic surveillance in order to prevent long-term visual complications.

  10. Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Bruce H; Peiffer, Robert L; Cullen, Cheryl L; Haines, Deborah M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms. Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. Sections of these globes were then stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical (IHC) labels for various cellular markers. Histochemical staining and IHC labeling confirmed cellular differentiation in 73/75 neoplasms but was discordant with morphologic diagnoses in 8/75. These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1). Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas. Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.

  11. Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shinwook; Choi, Myoung; Xu, Zaiwei; Zhao, Zeyu; Alexander, Elsinore; Liu, Yueai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the optical characteristics of the novel PanOptix presbyopia-correcting trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and the multifocal ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL, through in vitro bench investigations. The optical characteristics of AcrySof(®) IQ PanOptix™ (PanOptix) and AcrySof(®) IQ ReSTOR +3.0 D (ReSTOR +3.0 D) IOLs were evaluated by through-focus Badal images, simulated headlight images, and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements which determine resolution, photic phenomena, and image quality. Through-focus Badal images of an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart were recorded at both photopic and mesopic pupil sizes. Simulated headlight images were taken on an MTF bench with a 50-μm pinhole target and a 5.0 mm pupil at the distance focus of the IOL. MTF curves were measured with a 3.0 mm pupil, and spatial frequencies equivalent to 20/40 and 20/20 visual acuities were recorded to illustrate the through-focus MTF curves. Far-, intermediate-, and near-focus MTF values were obtained. Bench Badal image testing and MTF measurements showed that PanOptix has a near focus at a distance of 42 cm and an additional intermediate focus at a distance of about 60 cm. The near focus for ReSTOR +3.0 D is at 45 cm. PanOptix and ReSTOR +3.0 D have comparable photopic distances and near MTF values. Additionally, PanOptix provided a substantial continuous range of vision from distance to intermediate and to near compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D. The halo propensity for PanOptix was slightly higher than that for ReSTOR +3.0 D. Laboratory-based in vitro simulations showed that PanOptix trifocal IOL has comparable resolution and image quality performance in distance and near foci compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PanOptix showed better resolution and image quality performance at the intermediate focus than ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL.

  12. Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shinwook; Choi, Myoung; Xu, Zaiwei; Zhao, Zeyu; Alexander, Elsinore; Liu, Yueai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the optical characteristics of the novel PanOptix presbyopia-correcting trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and the multifocal ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL, through in vitro bench investigations. Methods The optical characteristics of AcrySof® IQ PanOptix™ (PanOptix) and AcrySof® IQ ReSTOR +3.0 D (ReSTOR +3.0 D) IOLs were evaluated by through-focus Badal images, simulated headlight images, and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements which determine resolution, photic phenomena, and image quality. Through-focus Badal images of an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart were recorded at both photopic and mesopic pupil sizes. Simulated headlight images were taken on an MTF bench with a 50-μm pinhole target and a 5.0 mm pupil at the distance focus of the IOL. MTF curves were measured with a 3.0 mm pupil, and spatial frequencies equivalent to 20/40 and 20/20 visual acuities were recorded to illustrate the through-focus MTF curves. Far-, intermediate-, and near-focus MTF values were obtained. Results Bench Badal image testing and MTF measurements showed that PanOptix has a near focus at a distance of 42 cm and an additional intermediate focus at a distance of about 60 cm. The near focus for ReSTOR +3.0 D is at 45 cm. PanOptix and ReSTOR +3.0 D have comparable photopic distances and near MTF values. Additionally, PanOptix provided a substantial continuous range of vision from distance to intermediate and to near compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D. The halo propensity for PanOptix was slightly higher than that for ReSTOR +3.0 D. Conclusion Laboratory-based in vitro simulations showed that PanOptix trifocal IOL has comparable resolution and image quality performance in distance and near foci compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PanOptix showed better resolution and image quality performance at the intermediate focus than ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PMID:27330273

  13. Adjunctive steroid therapy versus antibiotics alone for acute endophthalmitis after intraocular procedure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Carole H; Chen, Monica F; Coleman, Anne L

    2017-02-22

    Endophthalmitis refers to severe infection within the eye that involves the aqueous humor or vitreous humor, or both, and threatens vision. Most cases of endophthalmitis are exogenous (i.e. due to inoculation of organisms from an outside source), and most exogenous endophthalmitis is acute and occurs after an intraocular procedure. The mainstay of treatment is emergent administration of broad-spectrum intravitreous antibiotics. Due to their anti-inflammatory effects, steroids in conjunction with antibiotics have been proposed to be beneficial in endophthalmitis management. To assess the effects of antibiotics combined with steroids versus antibiotics alone for the treatment of acute endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery or intravitreous injection. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 8 December 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 8 December 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 8 December 2016, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 8 December 2016, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 8 December 2016. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of adjunctive steroids with antibiotics alone in the management of acute, clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery or intravitreous injection. We excluded trials with participants with endogenous endophthalmitis unless outcomes were reported by source of infection. We imposed no restrictions on the method or order of administration, dose, frequency, or duration of antibiotics and steroids. Two review authors independently screened the

  14. Correlation between hand preference and intraocular pressure from right- and left-eyes in right- and left-handers.

    PubMed

    Dane, Senol; Gümüştekin, Kenan; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Baykal, Orhan

    2003-02-01

    To test whether there is a relationship between handedness and the intraocular pressure and there is a lateralization in the intraocular pressure, the intraocular pressures of the right- and left-eyes were compared in right- and left-handed students. The intraocular pressures were higher in the right-eye than in the left-eye in men, right-handers, and right-eyed subjects; there was no right-left difference in females, left-handers, left-eyed, and both-eyed subjects. The intraocular pressure of right- and left-eyes was higher in left-handers than right-handers. And there were significant negative correlations between hand preference and the intraocular pressure of both right- and left-eyes. We have concluded that the dominant eye has higher intraocular pressure compared to the nondominant one, and there is a relationship between hand preference and the intraocular pressure.

  15. UV solid state laser ablation of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolopoulos, A.; Lagiou, D. P.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Commercially available intraocular lenses (IOLs) are manufactured from silicone and acrylic, both rigid (e.g. PMMA) and foldable (hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic biomaterials), behaving different mechanical and optical properties. Recently, the use of apodizing technology to design new diffractive-refractive multifocals improved the refractive outcome of these intraocular lenses, providing good distant and near vision. There is also a major ongoing effort to refine laser refractive surgery to correct other defects besides conventional refractive errors. Using phakic IOLs to treat high myopia potentially provides better predictability and optical quality than corneal-based refractive surgery. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of laser ablation on IOL surface shaping, by drilling circular arrays of holes, with a homemade motorized rotation stage, and scattered holes on the polymer surface. In material science, the most popular lasers used for polymer machining are the UV lasers, and, therefore, we tried in this work the 3rd and the 5th harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=355 nm and λ=213 nm respectively). The morphology of the ablated IOL surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fei - Innova Nanoscope) at various laser parameters. Quantitative measurements were performed with a contact profilometer (Dektak-150), in which a mechanical stylus scanned across the surface of gold-coated IOLs (after SEM imaging) to measure variations in surface height and, finally, the ablation rates were also mathematically simulated for depicting the possible laser ablation mechanism(s). The experimental results and the theoretical modelling of UV laser interaction with polymeric IOLs are discussed in relation with the physical (optical, mechanical and thermal) properties of the material, in addition to laser radiation parameters (laser energy fluence, number of pulses). The qualitative aspects of laser ablation at λ=213 nm reveal a

  16. The Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Intraocular Celecoxib

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephen J.; Toma, Hassanain; Shah, Rohan; Kompella, Uday B.; Vooturi, Sunil K.; Sheng, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine safety, pharmacokinetics, and anti-inflammatory effects of intraocular celecoxib. Methods. The right eye of animals was injected with 1.5, 3, or 6 mg celecoxib prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Left eyes served as controls and received 0.1 mL DMSO. Electroretinograms (ERG) were obtained at baseline and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks, and eyes were enucleated afterward for histopathologic analysis. For pharmacokinetics, 3 mg celecoxib was injected, and vitreous and retina/choroid drug levels were then analyzed at specific time points. For efficacy, 1 μg lipopolysaccharide was injected to induce inflammation; the right eye was then injected with 3 mg celecoxib (six eyes) or 2 mg triamcinolone acetonide (six eyes) and the left eye with saline. Twenty-four hours later, aqueous fluid was removed, and total leukocyte concentration and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration were determined. Results. Histologic and ERG studies demonstrated no signs of retinal or optic nerve toxicity. After a single 3-mg injection, vitreous (0.06 μg/mL) and retina/choroid (132.31 μg/g) celecoxib concentrations at 8 weeks exceeded median inhibitory concentration. Treatment with celecoxib and triamcinolone significantly reduced total leukocyte count by 40% (P = 0.02) and 31% (P = 0.01), respectively. Reduction in PGE2 levels paralleled reduction in leukocyte counts (P < 0.05). There was no increase in intraocular pressure, but cataract formation was observed at higher concentrations. Conclusions. Intraocular injection of celecoxib appeared to be nontoxic and demonstrated excellent penetration into the retina/choroid and sustained drug levels out to 8 weeks. Celecoxib demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects, but there was an association with cataract formation at higher doses. PMID:24458149

  17. Foldable acrylic intraocular lens with distended haptics for transscleral fixation.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Saori; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Noda, Yoshiko; Taguchi, Yoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    We describe a foldable acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) with distended haptics suitable for transscleral fixation and the insertion procedure. The IOL has an acrylic optic and poly(methyl methacrylate) haptics with a microscopic indentation 1.3 mm from the tip. Transscleral fixation of the IOL was performed through corneal incisions in 22 eyes, and surgical results were retrospectively assessed. The IOL was sutured firmly in position using the cow-hitch procedure, and there was no suture loosening to the distended haptic. The IOL design provided suitable fixation and may be indicated for bag fixation as well as transscleral fixation.

  18. Repositioning a decentered intraocular lens with 4 haptics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiewei; Liu, Wenjie; Jia, Yading; Al-Mohtaseb, Zaina N; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    We describe a technique to reposition a decentered 4-haptic intraocular lens (IOL). Using an ophthalmic viscosurgical device, the haptic with the worst distortion is dissected from the capsular bag and pulled outside the bag. The opposite haptic (180 degrees away) is also dissected and placed in front of the anterior capsule. The remaining 2 haptics are left in the capsular bag. With this repositioning, the 2 haptics in the bag limit the IOL movement, the 2 haptics outside the bag are no longer distorted, and the IOL is centered. We present 2 cases in which this technique was used to reposition decentered 4-haptic IOLs.

  19. Cataract and keratoconus: minimizing complications in intraocular lens calculations.

    PubMed

    Bozorg, Sara; Pineda, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Patients with both cataract and keratoconus present unique challenges for the surgeon. Accurate keratometry (K) and axial length (AL) readings may be impossible, and uncertainty is introduced when estimating the corneal power for intraocular lens (IOL) selection. Different options on how to choose an IOL and how to manage irregular astigmatism of a keratoconic patient with cataract have been proposed and are reviewed. The stage of keratoconus and the history of the patient are both critical in determining the strategy used in treatment of cataracts.

  20. [Scheimpflug photography for the examination of phakic intraocular lenses].

    PubMed

    Baumeister, M

    2014-10-01

    High myopia phakic intraocular lenses (IOL) have become an established means of surgical correction for high ametropia. Scheimpflug photography is one of the methods which are frequently applied for postoperative examination of the implants. Results from published studies employing Scheimpflug photography for examination of anterior chamber angle-fixated, iris-fixated and sulcus-fixated phakic IOLs were evaluated. In several published studies Scheimpflug photography was used to examine the position of the implant and opacification of the crystalline lens. The results provided valuable evidence for the improvement of phakic IOL design. Scheimpflug photography offers an easy to use, rapid non-contact examination of phakic IOLs.

  1. Retro iris suture fixation of a rigid intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Haripriya, Aravind; Sharma, Sankalp S

    2016-11-01

    We present an iris suture fixation technique for a rigid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) intraocular lens (IOL). A 10-0 polypropylene suture on a long curved needle is used to preplace 2 iris suture bites 180 degrees apart. The suture loops below the iris are retracted through the main scleral tunnel using a Kuglen hook and a McPherson forceps. The 2 suture loops are twirled twice around the corresponding haptics of a standard 3-piece PMMA IOL, and the IOL is placed in the sulcus. After it is confirmed that the loop surrounds the haptic, the suture knot is tied to secure the IOL to the iris.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Elevated Intraocular Pressure with Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Velez, Gabriel; Roybal, C Nathaniel; Binkley, Elaine; Bassuk, Alexander G; Tsang, Stephen H; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2017-04-01

    To report a case of elevated intraocular pressure with retinal detachment. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was performed on the patient aqueous biopsy. Protein levels were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and unbiased clustering. High levels of rod outer segment proteins were not detected, suggesting that this was not a case of Schwartz-Matsuo syndrome. Instead, elevated levels of Hepcidin (HEPC) and Cystatin C (CYTC; candidate biomarkers for primary open angle glaucoma) were detected, suggesting a different, unknown etiology. Molecular diagnoses can differentiate between clinical diagnoses and point to common biomarkers or disease mechanisms.

  3. Spontaneous Late Intraocular Lens and Capsule Tension Ring Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Koçak Altıntaş, Ayşe Gül; Omay, Aslıhan Esra; Çelik, Selda

    2017-01-01

    In this report, three cases with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and advanced age with spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL) and capsule tension ring (CTR) dislocation were presented. All of our cases experienced progressive vision loss without an episode of strenuous physical activity, trauma, or any other ocular disease. Spontaneous dislocation was observed 2.5 to 8 years after uneventful phacosurgery. Each patient underwent complete IOL and CTR removal combined with anterior chamber IOL implantation. No complications were noticed during follow-up. As a result, capsule tension ring does not prevent late IOL dislocation after uncomplicated phacosurgery in the presence of PEX. Therefore, close follow-up is essential for patients with PEX. PMID:28405485

  4. Unilateral Crystalline Vitreoretinopathy: A Rare Entity Associated with Intraocular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Harshey, Kaustubh B.; Srinivasan, Karthik; Rengappa, Ramakrishnan; Ramasamy, Kim

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old Indian male presented with floaters and diminution of vision in the right eye. Ocular examination showed features of old anterior uveitis with posterior subcapsular cataract and fine, refractile crystals in the vitreous cavity and on the retinal surface. A thorough workup for all known causes of crystalline retinopathy was inconclusive. Unilateral crystalline retinopathy has been sparingly reported. This is the first report of unilateral, crystalline vitreoretinopathy in the absence of any demonstrable and known cause for intraocular crystals. PMID:26688764

  5. Enucleated eye model for intraocular retinal prosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Ameri, Hossein; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D

    2006-01-01

    An enucleated porcine eye model was developed to assess intraocular retinal prosthesis implantation surgery. The surgical technique consists of corneal and crystalline lens removal, keratoprosthesis replacement, and vitrectomy. To test the eye model, the scleral incision was increased to 5 mm and a 10-mm wide retinal prosthesis folded and inserted. One retinal tack was used to fix the prosthesis to the retina. A retinal prosthesis array was inserted without significant damage to the array and conformed to the curvature of the eye. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography were performed at the end of surgery.

  6. Effect of transscleral neodymium: YAG cyclophotocoagulation on intraocular lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, P.H.; Gross, R.L.; Koch, D.D. )

    1990-03-01

    A neodymium: YAG laser operating in the thermal mode was used to irradiate isolated intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to perform transscleral cyclophotocoagulation on pseudophakic autopsy eyes to investigate the potential damage to IOL haptics such irradiation may cause. In the isolated IOLs, 70 mJ of energy deformed and partially melted both polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polypropylene haptics. One of the capsular-fixated PC-IOL haptics in an autopsy eye partially melted when irradiated with the maximum energy level (8.8 J), with the aiming beam focused 1 mm posterior to the limbus and maximal posterior focus offset.

  7. Is 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring Necessary in Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2013-01-01

    Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Conflicting information is available in the literature with regard to the importance and predictive value of IOP peaks and fluctuations on the risk of glaucoma development and progression. This may be secondary to lack of prospective studies designed to address this issue. This article critically reviews the current evidence for the importance of 24-h IOP measurements in glaucoma and discusses shortcomings of current methods to assess 24-h IOP data, drawing attention to new developments in this field. PMID:23697618

  8. Method for in vitro assessment of straylight from intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Łabuz, Grzegorz; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; van den Berg, Thomas J T P; López-Gil, Norberto

    2015-11-01

    Ocular straylight has been measured by means of psychophysical methods over the years. This approach gives a functional parameter yielding a straight comparison with optically defined light scattering, and the point-spread-function. This is of particular importance when the effect of intraocular lenses (IOLs) on postoperative straylight is sought. An optical system for straylight measurements of IOLs was adapted to a commercial device (C-Quant, Oculus), which employs such psychophysical method. The proposed modifications were validated using light-scattering filters and some sample IOLs. The measurements were performed by 3 observers to prove that results are independent from straylight of the eye. Other applications will be discussed.

  9. First reported case of intraocular Gnathostoma spinigerum in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hem, S; Tarantola, A; Chheang, R; Nop, P; Kerléguer, A

    2015-12-01

    A live intraocular nematode was identified from a 37 year-old man presented with iritis, pain, redness, lacrimation, swelling, vision loss and intermittent blindness during many hours per day of the left eye. By using slit lamp examination, a worm was removed from iris in an ophthalmology outpatient department setting and sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge. Gnathostoma spinigerum was identified, based on its typical morphology via microscopic examination. Based on our diagnosis, the patient was treated by oral albendazole and responded well to this therapy.

  10. Method for in vitro assessment of straylight from intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Łabuz, Grzegorz; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; van den Berg, Thomas J.T.P.; López-Gil, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Ocular straylight has been measured by means of psychophysical methods over the years. This approach gives a functional parameter yielding a straight comparison with optically defined light scattering, and the point-spread-function. This is of particular importance when the effect of intraocular lenses (IOLs) on postoperative straylight is sought. An optical system for straylight measurements of IOLs was adapted to a commercial device (C-Quant, Oculus), which employs such psychophysical method. The proposed modifications were validated using light-scattering filters and some sample IOLs. The measurements were performed by 3 observers to prove that results are independent from straylight of the eye. Other applications will be discussed. PMID:26601008

  11. Hypotonous malignant glaucoma: aqueous misdirection with low intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schuman, Joel S

    2008-01-01

    Two patients who underwent trabeculectomy and postoperatively manifested axially shallow anterior chamber associated with hypotony but without choroidal effusion are described. The first patient was treated conservatively with topical cycloplegics. The second patient was treated with pars plana anterior vitrectomy. The interventions resulted in deepening of the anterior chamber and posterior rotation of the ciliary body to a natural position as observed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Intraocular pressure remained low in both cases. These cases demonstrate that hypotony and axial shallowing of the anterior chamber after trabeculectomy can result in a malignant glaucoma-like appearance.

  12. Long-term change in intraocular pressure after extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation versus phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in Indians.

    PubMed

    Pal, Virendra K; Agrawal, Ajai; Suman, Suwarna; Pratap, V B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the long-term changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation versus phacoemulsification with PCIOL implantation in otherwise normal cataract patients in India. The study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, King George's Medical College, Lucknow between August 2000 and August 2001. One hundred and seventeen eyes of 115 patients were included in the study. 84 patients were randomly selected for ECCE with PCIOL implantation (ECCE group) and 31 patients were selected for phacoemulsification with PCIOL implantation (Phaco group). IOP was measured pre-operatively and post-operatively, from the 1(st) month to the 12(th) month. Statistical significance was indicated by P > 0.05. There was a mean fall in IOP of 2.70 mm Hg (19.74%) in the ECCE group and 2.74 mm Hg (20.57%) in the phaco group. The decrease in the mean post-operative IOP from baseline was statistically significant (P > 0.01) at the end of 2 months in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in post-operative IOP at any visit between groups (P < 0.05, all post-operative visits). After 4(th) monthpost-operatively, the IOP was mostly stable, but it was significantly lower than the pre-operative IOP. Significant IOP reduction may be expected after cataract surgery with either ECCE or phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. The lowering of IOP became statistically significant at about 2 months post-operatively, but became almost stable after the 4(th) month.

  13. Long-Term Change in Intraocular Pressure after Extracapsular Cataract Extraction with Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation Versus Phacoemulsification with Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation in Indians

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Virendra K; Agrawal, Ajai; Suman, Suwarna; Pratap, V B

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the long-term changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation versus phacoemulsification with PCIOL implantation in otherwise normal cataract patients in India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, King George's Medical College, Lucknow between August 2000 and August 2001. One hundred and seventeen eyes of 115 patients were included in the study. 84 patients were randomly selected for ECCE with PCIOL implantation (ECCE group) and 31 patients were selected for phacoemulsification with PCIOL implantation (Phaco group). IOP was measured pre-operatively and post-operatively, from the 1st month to the 12th month. Statistical significance was indicated by P > 0.05. Results: There was a mean fall in IOP of 2.70 mm Hg (19.74%) in the ECCE group and 2.74 mm Hg (20.57%) in the phaco group. The decrease in the mean post-operative IOP from baseline was statistically significant (P > 0.01) at the end of 2 months in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in post-operative IOP at any visit between groups (P < 0.05, all post-operative visits). After 4th monthpost-operatively, the IOP was mostly stable, but it was significantly lower than the pre-operative IOP. Conclusion: Significant IOP reduction may be expected after cataract surgery with either ECCE or phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. The lowering of IOP became statistically significant at about 2 months post-operatively, but became almost stable after the 4th month. PMID:24339684

  14. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Jordana, M Isabel Canut; Formigó, Daniel Pérez; González, Rodrigo Abreu; Reus, Jeroni Nadal

    2010-01-01

    Aims We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact. Methods Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment were performed. Results Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control. Conclusion Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively. PMID:21151331

  15. [Opacification of an intraocular lens: calcification of hydrophilic intraocular lenses after gas tamponade of the anterior chamber].

    PubMed

    Schmidinger, G; Pemp, B; Werner, L

    2013-11-01

    A patient with endothelial dystrophy was treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) combined with cataract extraction and implantation of a hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL, Lentis-L312, Oculentis) but visual acuity dropped from 0.15 logMAR to 0.52 logMAR 18 months later due to calcification of the IOL. With new methods of lamellar corneal transplantation being used more frequently the number of necessary anterior chamber tamponades with air/gas are increasing. In cataract cases in which a gas tamponade and transplantation might be necessary later on (cornea guttata), hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN THE DOMESTIC PIGEON (COLUMBIA LIVIA).

    PubMed

    Ansari Mood, Maneli; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Hashemi, Seyed Sohail Ghazanfari; Williams, David L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish intraocular pressure values in clinically normal pigeons. One hundred (52 male and 48 female) healthy pigeons ( Columbia livia ) of six different breeds, ranging in age from 20 to 51 mo were used in the study. Pigeons were gently physically restrained in a dorsoventral position without any pressure or extension to the head and neck. A rebound tonometer with a disposable probe was held horizontally and 4-5 mm from the central corneal surface. Calibration of the device was set to "P." Overall, the mean ± SD intraocular pressure values of all eyes were 6.1 ± 0.9 mmHg (ranging from 3 to 9 mmHg). Mean ± SD values for left and right eyes were 6.1 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 1.2 mmHg, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in IOP between the left eye and right eye or between males and females (P = 0.49; P = 0.74). Analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant differences in the IOP between the breeds (P = 0.22).

  17. Extended depth of focus intraocular lens: Chromatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Maria S.; Vega, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first-and-second-diffractive-order intraocular lens ((1st,2nd)DIOL) within the class of hybrid refractive-diffractive designs for intraocular lenses (IOLs) and analyse its properties of focus extension and compensation of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), particularly for lenses with low addition. Power, energy efficiency and their wavelength dependence are extended from monofocal IOL and conventional bifocal zeroth-and-first-diffractive-order IOL ((0th,1st)DIOL) to (1st,2nd)DIOL of low addition. Compensation of LCA is experimentally assessed in optical bench through the through-focus energy efficiency of three Tecnis IOLs with red, green and blue illuminations: ZA9003 (monofocal), ZKB00 (bifocal (0th,1st)DIOL with + 2.75 D add) and Symfony ZXR00. We prove Tecnis Symfony ZXR00 IOL can be considered an example of (1st,2nd)DIOL design of low addition, with LCA compensation in both the distance and intermediate foci, whereas the bifocal (0th,1st)DIOL does not compensate in the distance focus. However, the energy efficiency of (1st,2nd)DIOL for wavelengths other than the design wavelength is markedly more asymmetric.

  18. Posterior Iris Fixated Intraocular Lens for Pediatric Traumatic Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, V.; Balasubramanian, Preethi; Heralgi, Mallikarjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the postoperative visual outcomes and complications of posterior iris fixated intraocular lens (IFIOL) implantation for pediatric traumatic cataract. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was performed of all the pediatric traumatic cataract patients who underwent lens removal and iris fixated lens implantation due to inadequate capsular support with or without corneal tear repair between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative and postoperative visual outcomes and complications. Results: Twenty-five children (25 eyes; 21 males and 4 females) were enrolled with the mean age of 11 ± 4.0 years. There were 72% of eyes that underwent primary cataract removal with IFIOL implantation. Twenty-eight percent of eyes underwent corneal tear repair prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in 32% eyes, counting fingers in 24%, and perception of light in 44%. Postoperative BCVA of 0-0.2 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was reported in the 64% of eyes. One eye developed secondary glaucoma, one eye underwent re-enclavation, and none developed retinal complications. Conclusion: Posterior IFIOL implantation resulted in an improved visual outcome, low incidence of postoperative complications, and is a good alternative to other IOL, in the cases of pediatric traumatic cataract without adequate capsular support. PMID:27162456

  19. Short-term intraocular tamponade with perfluorocarbon heavy liquid.

    PubMed

    Drury, Brett; Bourke, Robert D

    2011-05-01

    Inferior retinal detachment pathology can be difficult to manage due to inadequate tamponade with low specific gravity tamponade agents and the propensity for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We report the efficacy and adverse effects associated with the use of perfluorocarbon heavy liquid as a short-term tamponade in managing such pathologies. Retrospective analysis of 17 eyes treated with short-term perfluoro-n-octane tamponade for complex inferior retinal pathology, including inferior detachment and PVR. Mean follow-up time was 14 months and mean tamponade duration was 7 days. Reattachment of the retina during the study period was achieved with a single set of operations in 13/17 (76%) eyes, with four eyes requiring a subsequent set of vitreoretinal operations. Postoperative visual acuity (VA) was equal to or better than preoperative VA in 14 (82%) of 17 eyes. Complications arising during the follow-up period included superior redetachment, atrophic macular changes, minor macular haemorrhage, cataract, elevated intraocular pressure, corneal defects, PVR, epiretinal membrane and retained perfluorocarbon heavy liquid. One case of intraocular inflammation occurred >6 months after removal of perfluoro-n-octane tamponade. Short-term perfluoro-n-octane tamponade achieved a stable reattachment rate of 76% when used to manage challenging retinal pathologies.

  20. Intra-ocular pressure normalization technique and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgannon, W. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for safely reducing abnormally high intraocular pressure in an eye during a predetermined time interval is presented. This allows maintenance of normal intraocular pressure during glaucoma surgery. According to the invention, a pressure regulator of the spring biased diaphragm type is provided with additional bias by a column of liquid. The height of the column of liquid is selected such that the pressure at a hypodermic needle connected to the output of the pressure regulator is equal to the measured pressure of the eye. The hypodermic needle can then be safely inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. Liquid is then bled out of the column to reduce the bias on the diaphragm of the pressure regulator and, consequently, the output pressure of the regulator. This lowering pressure of the regulator also occurs in the eye by means of a small second bleed path provided between the pressure regulator and the hypodermic needle. Alternately, a second hypodermic needle may be inserted into the eye to provide a controlled leak off path for excessive pressure and clouded fluid from the anterior chamber.

  1. Intraocular epiretinal prosthesis to restore vision in blind humans.

    PubMed

    Mokwa, W; Goertz, M; Koch, C; Krisch, I; Trieu, H K; Walter, P

    2008-01-01

    Visual sensations in blind patients suffering from retinal degenerations may be restored by electrical stimulation of retinal neurons using implantable microelectrode arrays. The EPI-RET-3 project was initiated to evaluate a wireless intraocular retinal implant system for human use in terms of safety and efficiency. The implant is a remotely controlled fully intraocular prosthesis consisting of a receiver and a stimulator module. The stimulator is placed onto the retina's surface. Data and energy are transmitted via an inductive link from outside the eye to the implant. The EPI-RET-3 device was implanted into six legally blind patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) for a period of four weeks. The surgery was performed without complications. The implants were activated on days 7, 14 and 27 after implantation. All patients reported visual sensations such as dots, arcs, or lines of different colours and intensities. The required stimulation thresholds were found to be very low. Implantation of the wireless EPI-RET-3 device is safe and the system is suitable to elicit visual sensations in blind RP patients. Major problems in the design and fabrication of a prosthesis for artificial vision could be solved in this approach.

  2. Intraocular beta-radiation for proliferative vitreo-retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Paritosh; Kon, Chee; Rassam, Sal

    2014-04-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the most common cause of failure in retinal detachment surgery. PVR is a result of an enhanced healing process. Various surgical and pharmacological methods have failed to provide a definite solution to the problem. Radiation has since long been shown to be effective in similar situations like keloids, pterygia, and post trabeculectomy. Externally delivered radiation has also been tried in PVR, but with limited success. We propose that treatment with intraocularly delivered beta-radiation is a viable method to try and reduce the incidence of PVR after retinal detachment. This can improve the safety of the treatment, reduce potential side effects to surrounding tissues and help achieve a targeted treatment. However, the treatment was limited by the absence of a practical method for intraocular delivery of radiation. This is now possible, as we now have a method which has been shown to be safe in the CABERNET trial. If this can be proved, then it will be an important step towards treating PVR and hence reducing blindness after retinal detachment.

  3. Intraocular Pressure Response to Moderate Exercise during 30-Min Recovery.

    PubMed

    Najmanova, Eliska; Pluhacek, Frantisek; Botek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after moderate exercise in normal healthy individuals with defined physical exertion. The second aim of this investigation was to determine the correlation between resting IOP (IOPr) and its change induced by exercise as well as the relationship between resting heart rate (HRr) and changes in IOP after exercise. Forty-one healthy volunteers between the ages of 19 and 25 years were recruited for the study. First, the resting (reference) values IOPr and HRr were measured after 30 min of resting time. Volunteers consequently performed 30 min of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Intraocular pressure was remeasured immediately after the end of exercise (the relevant IOP change was denoted as ΔIOP0) and subsequently repeated 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after exercise. A significant decrease in IOP compared with the resting value (post hoc Tukey honest significant difference test) was found immediately after exercise (p = 2 × 10) and 5 and 10 min after exercise (p = 2 × 10 and p = 3 × 10). Significant relationships were found between the change in IOP (ΔIOP0) and baseline IOP (IOPr) and between the baseline resting heart rate (HRr) and the change in IOP (ΔIOP0). There was a significant IOP-lowering effect, which was persistent for 10 min after 30 min of exercise. The IOP change was dependent on the initial IOP reading and initial HR.

  4. Factors affecting near vision after monofocal intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Hui; Han, Jong Chul; Kim, Myung Hun; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young

    2013-03-01

    To identify factors that influence near vision after monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for distance vision. A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation from October 2009 to April 2010 at Samsung Medical Center. Eyes were classified as having good (⩾ J4) or poor (< J4) near vision. Factors analyzed included age, sex, intraocular lens (IOL) movement, axial length, pupil size, degree and type of astigmatism, IOL type, total aberration, and higher-order aberrations. Binary logistic regression and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were determined. This retrospective study involved 84 eyes of 84 patients. Thirty-four eyes were classified as having good near vision and 50 eyes as having poor near vision. All groups had a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity greater than 0.2 logMAR (Snellen 20/32) and a refractive error within ± 0.5 diopter of spherical equivalent. Pupil size and axial length were inversely associated with good near vision (P = .034 and .039, respectively). A pupil size smaller than 2.6 mm and an axial length less than 23.0 mm resulted in better near vision than larger measurements after monofocal IOL implantation for distant target. Among the factors analyzed, small pupil size and short axial length predicted good near vision after phacoemulsification and monofocal IOL implantation. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Biomechanics of Schlemm's canal endothelium and intraocular pressure reduction.

    PubMed

    Stamer, W Daniel; Braakman, Sietse T; Zhou, Enhua H; Ethier, C Ross; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Overby, Darryl R; Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ocular hypertension in glaucoma develops due to age-related cellular dysfunction in the conventional outflow tract, resulting in increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Two cell types, trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelia, interact in the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) region of the conventional outflow tract to regulate outflow resistance. Unlike endothelial cells lining the systemic vasculature, endothelial cells lining the inner wall of SC support a transcellular pressure gradient in the basal to apical direction, thus acting to push the cells off their basal lamina. The resulting biomechanical strain in SC cells is quite large and is likely to be an important determinant of endothelial barrier function, outflow resistance and intraocular pressure. This review summarizes recent work demonstrating how biomechanical properties of SC cells impact glaucoma. SC cells are highly contractile, and such contraction greatly increases cell stiffness. Elevated cell stiffness in glaucoma may reduce the strain experienced by SC cells, decrease the propensity of SC cells to form pores, and thus impair the egress of aqueous humor from the eye. Furthermore, SC cells are sensitive to the stiffness of their local mechanical microenvironment, altering their own cell stiffness and modulating gene expression in response. Significantly, glaucomatous SC cells appear to be hyper-responsive to substrate stiffness. Thus, evidence suggests that targeting the material properties of SC cells will have therapeutic benefits for lowering intraocular pressure in glaucoma.

  6. Piggybacking intraocular implants to correct pseudophakic refractive error.

    PubMed

    Gayton, J L; Sanders, V; Van der Karr, M; Raanan, M G

    1999-01-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of implanting a second intraocular lens (IOL) to correct pseudophakic refractive error. Noncomparative, prospective, consecutive case series. Eight eyes of eight normal pseudophakes and seven eyes of seven postpenetrating keratoplasty (PK) pseudophakes were included in the study. A second intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted anterior to the first in each eye in the study. Efficacy was determined based on the achieved refractive correction and Snellen uncorrected visual acuity measurements. Safety was determined based on loss of best-corrected visual acuity and operative and postoperative complications. Before surgery, spherical equivalents ranged from -5.12 diopters (D) to 7.5 D, with a mean absolute deviation from emmetropia of 3.38 D (1.62). After surgery, spherical equivalents ranged from -2.75 D to 0.5 D, with a mean absolute deviation from emmetropia of 1.21 D (0.90). Before surgery, only 7% of patients had 20/40 or better uncorrected vision, whereas after surgery, 50% had that level of vision. Implanting a second IOL is a viable option for correcting pseudophakic refractive error.

  7. An examination of the hypothesis that intraocular pressure elevation episodes can have prognostic significance in glaucoma suspects.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of intraocular pressure reduction in retarding the progression of glaucoma has been demonstrated. This review examines the potential for prognostic advantage for glaucoma suspects in reducing their optic nerve head exposure to elevated intraocular pressure associated with activities which have been shown to elevate intraocular pressure. In this observational study, patients examined at the Centre for Eye Health (University of New South Wales) with a diagnosis of glaucoma suspect were surveyed to determine their histories for participation in activities which are known to elevate intraocular pressure. The evidence regarding the pathological significance of these sources of elevation in susceptible patients was examined. Apart from the universality of sleep-related intraocular pressure elevations, the histories from 183 confirmed glaucoma suspects indicate a wide range and variation in frequency of participation in other intraocular pressure elevating activities. A reduction in exposure to elevated intraocular pressure may improve the prognosis for glaucoma suspects. Additional patient specific assessment of the results of this screening could provide an indication of the degree (frequency, intensity level and duration) of exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Such information may provide the basis for improving a patient's prognosis by helping them to identify opportunities to reduce such exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Any benefit of reduction of such exposure appears likely to be greater if activities which elevate intraocular pressure are of long duration, occur frequently, occur over a long period of time, and/or involve high levels of intraocular pressure elevation.

  8. Exogenous methionine increases levels of mRNAs transcribed from pcbAB, pcbC, and cefEF genes, encoding enzymes of the cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway, in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, J; Gutierrez, S; Fernandez, F J; Marcos, A T; Arenos, C; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    Methionine stimulated cephalosporin production in cultures of three different strains of Acremonium chrysogenum when added either at inoculation time or at 72 h to cells grown previously in the absence of methionine. When methionine was added at 72 h, the stimulation of cephalosporin biosynthesis was observed only 12 h later and required de novo protein synthesis. Methionine increased the levels of enzymes (isopenicillin N synthase and deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) expressed from genes (pcbC and cefG, respectively) located in the two clusters of cephalosporin biosynthesis genes in the wild-type A. chrysogenum strain and also in the two improved strains, CW19 and C10. Methionine-supplemented cells showed higher levels of transcripts of the four known genes (pcbAB, pcbC, cefEF and, to a slight extent, cefG) of the cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway than cells grown in the absence of methionine. The levels of the cefG transcript were much lower than those of the pcbAB, pcbC, and cefEF transcripts. The induction by methionine of transcription of the four cephalosporin biosynthesis genes and the known effect of this amino acid on the differentiation of A. chrysogenum indicate that methionine exerts a pleiotropic effect that coordinately regulates cephalosporin biosynthesis and differentiation. Images PMID:8106341

  9. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Bingsheng; Lin, Lixia; Tan, Junlian; Yang, Yao; Yuan, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR) code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014. A total of 153 (30.6%) of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9%) and intravitreal injection (42.0%). Cephalosporins (53.8%) and vancomycin (42.0%) were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%), and aminoglycosides (13.4%). Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7%) replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4%) (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  10. Decrease of intraocular pressure after subconjunctival injection of mitomycin in human glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, S A; Vecchi, M; Braccio, L

    1995-05-01

    To investigate the effects of a subconjunctival injection of mitomycin on the intraocular pressure in human eyes affected by glaucoma. Consecutive case series, prospective study, intraocular pairwise comparison (paired samples Student's t test adopted). Hospital-based glaucoma clinic. Twelve consecutive patients with bilateral glaucoma and monolateral blindness, intraocular pressure greater than 30 mm Hg in the blind eye (mean of the two highest values of the diurnal curve, confirmed at 96-hour interval), and no previous bulbar surgery. Subconjunctival injection of 0.5 mL of 0.2% mitomycin in the upper temporal quadrant, preceded and followed by treatment with topical indomethacin. Analysis of the variance of the mean intraocular pressure before and after the injection of mitomycin in each eligible eye. An intraocular pressure decrease was observed in each eligible eye the day after the treatment (mean [+/- SD] decrease, 7.15 +/- 1.46 mm Hg). The effect was still detectable at the end of the 60 days of follow-up (mean [+/- SD] decrease, 5.67 +/- 1.61 mm Hg). No change of intraocular pressure, in the meantime, was observed in the fellow eye. Topically applied mitomycin induces a decrease of intraocular pressure in human glaucomatous eyes. Our data confirm previous results obtained in albino rabbits and support the hypothesis that mitomycin exerts a still unknown direct effect on aqueous humor dynamics in the eye.

  11. Intraocular pressure in cats is lowered by drops of hornet venom.

    PubMed

    Kam, J; Waron, M; Barishak, Y R; Schachner, E; Ishay, J S

    1989-01-01

    1. Nine cats were given an intravenous injection of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae; Hymenoptera) venom sac extract (VSE) and seven cats had the same VSE administered as eye drops. 2. When injected intravenously, the hornet VSE decreased the intraocular pressure in both eyes sharply during the first 20 min and with a slower rate later on until the end of the 3 hr experiment. The intraocular pressure dropped to zero in some cases. 3. VSE eye drops decreased the intraocular pressure only in the treated eye, while in the second eye (left as a control) the intraocular pressure remained the same throughout the experiment. 4. The decrease in the intraocular pressure was sharp during the first 20 min and slowed down afterwards until the end of the experiment. 5. The intraocular pressure did not reduce to zero. 6. This study shows that the active components of the hornet venom which caused a decrease in the intraocular pressure can cross the cornea and exert a hypotensive effect in the eye.

  12. The Role of QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold and Tuberculin Skin Test as Diagnostic Tests for Intraocular Tuberculosis in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Smit, Derrick P; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Meyer, David

    2017-06-19

    To compare QuantiFERON®-TB Gold and tuberculin skin testing as diagnostic tests for intraocular tuberculosis in HIV positive and negative patients. A prospective study evaluating two different tests to help diagnose intraocular tuberculosis. Thirty-five of 106 patients (33.0%) were diagnosed with intraocular tuberculosis including 11 (31.4%) with HIV infection. Patients were 6.95 times more likely to have intraocular tuberculosis if TST alone was positive (p < 0.001) versus 2.19 times more likely if Quantiferon alone was positive (p = 0.04). Tuberculin skin testing showed superior specificity (60.3% vs 33.3%) (p = 0.001) but similar sensitivity (90.3% vs 85.7%), positive (54.9% vs 40.5%) and negative predictive values (92.1% vs 81.5%) compared to Quantiferon. Specificity did not increase significantly if both skin testing and Quantiferon were positive. In South Africa, with its high HIV burden and limited public health resources, Quantiferon testing should not replace tuberculin skin testing as it provides little additional diagnostic information.

  13. Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, Yosuke; IWASAKI, Tadashi; TAJIMA, Tomoko; YUBA, Eiji; KONO, Kenji; WATARAI, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis. PMID:27916762

  14. Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yosuke; Iwasaki, Tadashi; Tajima, Tomoko; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji; Watarai, Shinobu

    2017-02-14

    Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis.

  15. Intraocular metastasis: comparison of clinical presentation with a known and unknown primary tumour.

    PubMed

    Ramoa, R; Saornil, M A; García-Alvarez, C; Diezhandino, P; Alonso-Martínez, P; García-Lagarto, E; Muñoz-Moreno, M F; Lopez-Lara, F

    2017-07-21

    The purpose of the present study is to review the frequency of intraocular metastases as first presentation of systemic disease, and to identify clinical and tumour characteristics. Retrospective study of consecutive cases diagnosed of intraocular metástasis at a referral intraocular tumours unit between 1993 and 2014. General, epidemiological and ophthalmological characteristics were recorded. A total of 21 patients, with a mean age 62.7 years (31-89) were diagnosed with intraocular metástasis between 1993 and 2014. Both eyes were affected in 4 cases. Location was choroid in 20 cases. The intraocular tumour was the first manifestation of the systemic disease in 13 patients (61.9%). Primary tumour was breast in 47.6% and lung in 23.8%. Diagnosis of the primary tumour was performed by systemic studies, and only 1 patient required intraocular biopsy. Regarding the treatment, the majority of cases were controlled with systemic therapy, with 4 cases requiring additional external beam radiotherapy, and only one enucleation. No clinical differences were found between the cases with known and unknown systemic neoplasia, except in exudative retinal detachment, which was more frequent in the second group. Although intraocular metastases are the most frequent intraocular tumour, they are not a frequent cause of consultation. In more than half of the cases it is the first presentation of unknown systemic neoplasia as a solitary non-pigmented intraocular mass. Early diagnosis is crucial to establish the appropriate treatment, preserve visual function, and improve the prognosis of the patient. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Coculture with intraocular lens material-activated macrophages induces an inflammatory phenotype in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pintwala, Robert; Postnikoff, Cameron; Molladavoodi, Sara; Gorbet, Maud

    2015-03-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, requiring surgical implantation of an intraocular lens. Despite evidence of leukocyte ingress into the postoperative lens, few studies have investigated the leukocyte response to intraocular lens materials. A novel coculture model was developed to examine macrophage activation by hydrophilic acrylic (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophobic acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate) commercial intraocular lens. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was differentiated into macrophages and cocultured with human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3) with or without an intraocular lens for one, two, four, or six days. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, expression of the macrophage activation marker CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and production of reactive oxygen species via the fluorogenic probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate were examined in macrophages. α-Smooth muscle actin, a transdifferentiation marker, was characterized in lens epithelial cells. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) intraocular lens prevented adhesion but induced significant macrophage activation (p < 0.03) versus control (no intraocular lens), while the polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens enabled adhesion and multinucleated fusion, but induced no significant activation. Coculture with either intraocular lens increased reactive oxygen species production in macrophages after one day (p < 0.03) and increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin in HLE B-3 after six days, although only poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) induced a significant difference versus control (p < 0.01). Our results imply that-contrary to prior uveal biocompatibility understanding-macrophage adherence is not necessary for a strong inflammatory response to an intraocular lens, with hydrophilic surfaces inducing higher activation than hydrophobic surfaces. These findings provide a new method of inquiry into uveal

  17. Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hon Shing; Evans, Jennifer R; Allan, Bruce D S

    2014-05-01

    Following cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, loss of accommodation or postoperative presbyopia occurs and remains a challenge. Standard monofocal IOLs correct only distance vision; patients require spectacles for near vision. Accommodative IOLs have been designed to overcome loss of accommodation after cataract surgery. To define (a) the extent to which accommodative IOLs improve unaided near visual function, in comparison with monofocal IOLs; (b) the extent of compromise to unaided distance visual acuity; c) whether a higher rate of additional complications is associated the use of accommodative IOLs. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 10 October 2013. We include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared implantation of accommodative IOLs to implantation of monofocal IOLs in cataract surgery. Two authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. All included trials used the 1CU accommodative IOL (HumanOptics, Erlangen, Germany) for their intervention group. One trial had an additional arm with the AT-45 Crystalens accommodative IOL (Eyeonics Vision). We performed a separate analysis comparing 1CU and AT-45 IOL. We included four RCTs, including 229 participants (256 eyes

  18. Optical quality of toric intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xian-Wen; Hao, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    AIM To analyze the optical quality after implantation of toric intraocular lens with optical quality analysis system. METHODS Fifty-two eyes of forty-four patients with regular corneal astigmatism of at least 1.00 D underwent implantation of AcrySof toric intraocular lens, including T3 group 19 eyes, T4 group 18 eyes, T5 group 10 eyes, T6 group 5 eyes. Main outcomes evaluated at 3mo of follow-up, included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), residual refractive cylinder and intraocular lens (IOL) axis rotation. Objective optical quality were measured using optical quality analysis system (OQAS II®, Visiometrics, Spain), included the cutoff frequency of modulation transfer function (MTFcutoff), objective scattering index (OSI), Strehl ratio, optical quality analysis system value (OV) 100%, OV 20% and OV 9% [the optical quality analysis system (OQAS) values at contrasts of 100%, 20%, and 9%]. RESULTS At 3mo postoperative, the mean UDVA and CDVA was 0.18±0.11 and 0.07±0.08 logMAR; the mean residual refractive cylinder was 0.50±0.29 D; the mean toric IOL axis rotation was 3.62±1.76 degrees, the mean MTFcutoff, OSI, Strehl ratio, OV 100%, OV 20% and OV 9% were 22.862±5.584, 1.80±0.84, 0.155±0.038, 0.76±0.18, 0.77±0.19 and 0.78±0.21. The values of UDVA, CDVA, IOL axis rotation, MTFcutoff, OSI, Strehl ratio, OV100%, OV20% and OV9% depending on the power of the cylinder of the implantation were not significantly different (P>0.05), except the residual refractive cylinder (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The optical quality analysis system was useful for characterizing the optical quality of AcrySof toric IOL implantation. Implantation of an AcrySof toric IOL is an effective and safe method to correct corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery. PMID:25709910

  19. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Pediatric Noninfectious Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Srishti; Foster, C Stephen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Liesegang, Teresa L; Daniel, Ebenezer; Sen, H Nida; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Lawrence, Scott D; Kempen, John H

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric noninfectious uveitis. Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) younger than 18 years at presentation with noninfectious uveitis followed up between January 1978 and December 2007 at 5 academic uveitis centers in the United States. Medical records review by trained, certified experts. Prevalence and incidence of IOP of 21 mmHg or more and 30 mmHg or more and incidence of a rise in IOP by 10 mmHg or more. To avoid underascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. Initially, 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP ≥21 mmHg and ≥30 mmHg, respectively. Factors significantly associated with presenting IOP elevation included age of 6 to 12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, duration of uveitis ≥6 months, contralateral IOP elevation, presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40, and topical corticosteroid use (in a dose-response relationship). The median follow-up was 1.25 years (interquartile range, 0.4-3.66). The estimated incidence of any observed IOP elevation to ≥21 mmHg, to ≥30 mmHg, and increase in IOP by ≥10 mmHg was 33.4%, 14.8%, and 24.4%, respectively, within 2 years. Factors associated with IOP elevation included pars plana vitrectomy, contralateral IOP elevation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], up to 9.54; P < 0.001), and the use of topical (aHR, up to 8.77 that followed a dose-response relationship; P < 0.001), periocular (aHR, up to 7.96; P < 0.001), and intraocular (aHR, up to 19.7; P < 0.001) corticosteroids. Intraocular pressure elevation affects a large minority of children with noninfectious uveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship

  20. Ocular onchocerciasis in the Yanomami communities from Brazilian Amazon: effects on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Herzog-Neto, Guilherme; Jaegger, Karen; Nascimento, Erika S do; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Banic, Dalma M; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2014-01-01

    To determine the influence of onchocercal eye disease on the intraocular pressure of the Yanomami Tribe Aratha-ú of Roraima State, Brazil, considered endemic for onchocerciasis, a total of 86 patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic exam that included external examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus ophthalmoscope examination. A high prevalence of onchocerciasis-related eye lesions was encountered in 68.6% of the patients. Punctate keratitis and microfilariae in the anterior chamber were found in ∼28%. The mean of intraocular eye pressure found was 10.47 mm of Hg.

  1. Ghost cell glaucoma following sutureless scleral-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens placement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jordan M; Chang, Jonathan S; Bermudez-Magner, J Antonio; Dubovy, Sander R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intraocular lens (IOL) placement in the absence of a capsular bag may result in several complications. The authors report the clinicopathologic features of a case of ghost cell glaucoma after the placement of a sutureless posterior chamber IOL. A 47-year-old male presented with a dislocated IOL and underwent lens exchange using a sutureless scleral-fixation technique. Over the following year, the patient developed recurrent vitreous hemorrhages and elevated intraocular pressure despite medical therapy, and an aqueous specimen disclosed ghost cells. Although uncommon, mechanical contact between the iris and a secondary IOL may produce persistent vitreous hemorrhage and elevated intraocular pressures with the formation of ghost cells.

  2. Ocular Onchocerciasis in the Yanomami Communities from Brazilian Amazon: Effects on Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Herzog-Neto, Guilherme; Jaegger, Karen; do Nascimento, Erika S.; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Banic, Dalma M.; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2014-01-01

    To determine the influence of onchocercal eye disease on the intraocular pressure of the Yanomami Tribe Aratha-ú of Roraima State, Brazil, considered endemic for onchocerciasis, a total of 86 patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic exam that included external examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus ophthalmoscope examination. A high prevalence of onchocerciasis-related eye lesions was encountered in 68.6% of the patients. Punctate keratitis and microfilariae in the anterior chamber were found in ∼28%. The mean of intraocular eye pressure found was 10.47 mm of Hg. PMID:24297812

  3. Effect of Head Position on Intraocular Pressure During Lumbar Spine Fusion: A Randomized, Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Emery, Sanford E; Daffner, Scott D; France, John C; Ellison, Matthew; Grose, Brian W; Hobbs, Gerald R; Clovis, Nina B

    2015-11-18

    Ischemic optic neuropathy resulting in visual loss is a rare but devastating complication of spine surgery. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) results in decreased perfusion and possibly ischemic optic neuropathy. We performed a randomized, prospective trial to evaluate the effect of head positioning on IOP during lumbar spine fusion. The study included fifty-two patients treated at one institution. Inclusion criteria were a lumbar spine fusion and an age of eighteen to eighty years. Exclusion criteria were a diagnosis of tumor, infection, or traumatic injury or a history of eye disease, ocular surgery, cervical spine surgery, chronic neck pain, or cervical stenosis. The control group underwent the surgery with the head in neutral and the face parallel to the level operating room table whereas, in the experimental group, the neck was extended so that the face had a 10° angle of inclination in relation to the table. IOP measurements were recorded along with the corresponding blood pressure and PCO2 values at the same time points. The primary outcome measure was the change in intraocular pressure (ΔIOP, defined as the maximum IOP minus the initial IOP). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for categorical risk factors, and regression analysis was used for continuous risk factors. The mean ΔIOP, corrected for duration of surgery, was significantly (p = 0.0074) lower in the group treated with the head elevated than it was in the group treated with the head in neutral (difference between the two groups, 4.53 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 7.79 mm Hg]). No patient sustained visual loss or any cervical-spine-related complications. Head elevation for adult lumbar spine fusion performed with the patient prone resulted in significantly lower IOP measurements than those seen when the operation was done with the patient's head in neutral. As lower IOP correlates with increased optic nerve perfusion, this intervention could mitigate the risk of perioperative

  4. High intraocular pressure produces learning and memory impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Zhiqi; Li, Lu; Li, Xing; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Qiming; Zhao, Yin

    2017-11-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Previous MRI studies have revealed that POAG can be associated with alterations in hippocampal function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) and hippocampal changes in a rat model. We used behavioural tests to assess learning and memory ability, and additionally investigated the hippocampal expression of pathological amyloid beta (Aβ), phospho-tau, and related pathway proteins. Chronic high IOP impaired learning and memory in rats and concurrently increased Aβ and phospho-tau expression in the hippocampus by altering the activation of different kinase (GSK-3β, BACE1) and phosphatase (PP2A) proteins in the hippocampus. This study provides novel evidence for the relationship between high IOP and hippocampal alterations, especially in the context of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sources of error in intraocular lens power calculation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, T

    1992-03-01

    The hypothesis that the minimum error in predicted refraction after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) of calculated power is the sum of the random error in (1) the measurement of the axial length, (2) the measurement of the corneal power, and (3) the estimation of the pseudophakic anterior chamber depth (ACD) is proposed. Based on preoperative and postoperative biometry of 584 IOL implantations, 54% of the error was attributed to axial length errors, 8% to corneal power errors, and 38% to errors in the estimation of the postoperative ACD, when a fixed ACD was used in the IOL calculations. However, if the ACD was predicted according to a previously described regression method, the contribution of error from the ACD source was reduced to 22%, thereby reducing the total refractive prediction error from +/- 1.03 diopters (D) (+/- SD) to +/- 0.92 D (+/- SD). These predictions accord with clinical results.

  6. Customized eye models for determining optimized intraocular lenses power

    PubMed Central

    Canovas, Carmen; Artal, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a new optical procedure to determine the optimum power of intraocular lenses (IOLs) for cataract surgery. The procedure is based on personalized eye models, where biometric data of anterior corneal shape and eye axial length are used. A polychromatic exact ray-tracing through the surfaces defining the eye model is performed for each possible IOL power and the area under the radial MTF is used as a metric. The IOL power chosen by the procedure maximizes this parameter. The IOL power for 19 normal eyes has been determined and compared with standard regression-based predictions. The impact of the anterior corneal monochromatic aberrations and the eye’s chromatic aberration on the power predictions has been studied, being significant for those eyes with severe monochromatic aberrations, such as post-LASIK cataract patients, and for specific IOLs with low Abbe numbers. PMID:21698026

  7. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  8. Bifocal, Electrically Switched Intraocular And Eyeglass Molecular Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Seymour P.

    1986-05-01

    A bifocal electronic molecular lens is described which can be switched between two foci without any grossly visible change in displacement, geometry, temperature or chemical composition. The lens requires very little power to change focus (on the order of tens to hundreds of nanoamps) so that long-term remote operation is anticipated. The principle of operation is based upon electronic control of optical polarization through a birefringent lens. Switching of focus is accomplished by controlling the molecular alignment of a film of liquid crystal molecules and thereby selecting between two orthogonal optical polarizations (P1 and P2). Polarization P1 is associated with focal point S1 and P2 is associated with focal point S2 through the birefringent lens. A number of useful new products are made possible by this lens. Specifically discussed are an electronic intraocular lens and electronic eyeglasses, both of which can be powered independently.

  9. [Combination surgery (ECCE+IOL+TE) and intraocular pressure levels].

    PubMed

    Hornová, J

    1997-08-01

    The authors investigated the effect of a combined operation, ECCE + TE + IOL, on reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), changes in antiglaucomatous treatment and on vision six months after operation. In 1994 36 eyes were operated, 16 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 8 eyes with angular glaucoma (PACG) and 12 eyes with marked exfoliative syndrome (CG). Six months after operation the IOP declined from 26.4 mm Hg to 13.3 mm Hg (P 0.05), antiglaucomatous treatment was reduced from 2.55 to 1.11 (P 0.05), vision improved by 0.39, i.e. by 2-3 lines of optotypes (P 0.05). 89% of the operated patients have a vision better than 0.5. Comparison of values before and after operation revealed a more marked drop of IOP in CG (P 0.05) than in POAG.

  10. [Laser magnetotherapy after cataract extraction with implantation of intraocular lens].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, V Iu; Zakharova, N V; Maksimova, I S; Golushkov, G A; Evseev, S Iu

    2002-01-01

    Effects of low-intensive laser and alternating magnetic field on the course of the postoperative period were studied in patients with exudative reaction after extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of intraocular lens (IOL). The results are analyzed for 148 eyes with early exudative reaction after IOL implantation (136 patients aged 42-75 years). The patients were observed for up to 6 months. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the clinical picture of inflammatory reaction, visual acuity, and results of biochemical analysis of the lacrimal fluid (the ratio of lipid peroxidation products to antioxidants in cell membrane). The course of the postoperative period was more benign and recovery sooner in patients of the main group in comparison with the control.

  11. Reversible opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with diabetic retinopathy and chronic myelogenous leukemia had phacoemulsification cataract removal and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (Akreos MI-60) implantation in both eyes. One month after surgery, significant IOL opacity and severe cystoid macular edema were observed in both eyes. After bilateral intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) to control macular edema, central clearing of the IOL opacity was observed in both eyes. Two months after the injection, the IOL opacity had almost disappeared from both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of early postoperative bilateral IOL opacity in a hydrophilic acrylic IOL cleared after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injection. The role of anti-VEGF therapy in clearing IOL opacification requires further investigation.

  12. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunhai; Huang, Yusen; Liu, Ting; Xie, Lixin

    2014-06-01

    Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  13. Effects of medications and surgery on intraocular pressure fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Sit, Arthur J; Asrani, Sanjay

    2008-11-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) varies dynamically throughout the circadian cycle. IOP elevations during the nocturnal period may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, although sleeping IOP cannot be measured at this time. Additionally, IOP fluctuations may be an independent risk factor for glaucoma. However, not all glaucoma therapies are equally effective at lowering IOP throughout the 24-hour period. The prostaglandin analogs have excellent IOP control throughout the 24-hour period, although less at night than during the day. In contrast, some other classes of medications, such as the beta-blockers, have little or no IOP-lowering effect at night. The prostaglandin analogs also have excellent persistency of IOP lowering, lasting at least as long as the 24-hour dosing period, and likely much longer. Glaucoma filtering surgery appears to have even better 24-hour IOP reduction and smaller fluctuations than maximal medical therapy including prostaglandin analogs.

  14. Image acquisition and image processing for the intraocular vision aid.

    PubMed

    Krisch, I; Hijazi, N; Hosticka, B J

    2002-01-01

    The contribution describes an "intraocular vision aid (IOVA)" system for patients suffering from corneal opacification. In order to gain patients' acceptance the system has to be miniaturized to a magnitude that image acquisition, image processing, and power supply can be integrated into a portable unit. A CMOS camera whose dynamic range covers more than 100 dB takes pictures of the scenery. Its image sensor has a resolution of 380 x 300 pixel. In order to reduce fixed pattern noise correlated double sampling is implemented on-chip. In addition, this sensor stands out for low power consumption, random pixel access, and local brightness adaptation. An analog-digital-converter allows direct coupling to an external signal processor or a monolithically integrated unit for image processing to compress data.

  15. Experimental intraocular malignancy: the effect of intracameral perfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, V G; Green, W R; Liu, Y P; Marsden, E R

    1979-01-01

    Transplantable Brown-Pearce carcinoma was adapted successfully in the rabbit anterior chamber. Regression of tumor growth was attained on tri-weekly perfusion of the AC with 10 micromolar of methotrexate. Tumor cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and protein activator were found to be markedly depressed during the course of chemotherapy and the PDE cAMP/cGMP ratio was similarly altered. Corroborative light and electron-microscopic studies showed specific alterations of intracellular organelles in relation to MTX and tumor cell death. These findings suggest that metabolic pathways of cyclic nucleotides are important biochemical modulators of neoplastic cells. The method of intraocular perfusion precludes systemic toxic effects and avoids compromising the animals' immunocompetence. Images FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B PMID:232585

  16. Biomechanics of the sclera and effects on intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xu; Yu, Juan; Liao, Sheng-Hui; Duan, Xuan-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), resulting in gradual and progressive permanent loss of vision. Reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only proven method for preventing and delaying the progression of glaucomatous visual impairment. However, the specific role of IOP in optic nerve injury remains controversial, and little is known about the biomechanical mechanism by which elevated IOP leads to the loss of RGC. Published studies suggest that the biomechanical properties of the sclera and scleral lamina cribrosa determine the biomechanical changes of optic nerve head, and play an important role in the pathologic process of loss of RGC and optic nerve damage. This review focuses on the current understanding of biomechanics of sclera in glaucoma and provides an overview of the possible interactions between the sclera and IOP. Treatments and interventions aimed at the sclera are also discussed. PMID:28003987

  17. Artiflex Toric Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation in Congenital Nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Belda, Lurdes; Albarrán-Diego, César; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Case A 44-year-old woman with congenital nystagmus and myopic astigmatism in both eyes who was submitted to phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation. Methods Full ophthalmologic examination including refractive status, corrected (CDVA) and uncorrected (UCVA) monocular and binocular visual acuities, ocular motility, slit-lamp evaluation, tonometry and fundoscopy before and after implantation of toric pIOLs (Artiflex; Ophtec BV, The Netherlands) in both eyes. Results Preoperative logMAR CDVA were 0.699 and 0.420 in the right and left eye, respectively. Three months after surgery, logMAR UCVA were 0.398 and 0.182, reaching binocular logMAR UCVA of 0.132. There were no changes in nystagmus characteristics after surgery. Conclusions pIOL implantation may be a safe and suitable treatment to correct high refractive errors in patients with congenital nystagmus. Significant improvement in CDVA and UCVA can be achieved. PMID:21941505

  18. Artiflex toric phakic intraocular lens implantation in congenital nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Belda, Lurdes; Albarrán-Diego, César; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    A 44-year-old woman with congenital nystagmus and myopic astigmatism in both eyes who was submitted to phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation. Full ophthalmologic examination including refractive status, corrected (CDVA) and uncorrected (UCVA) monocular and binocular visual acuities, ocular motility, slit-lamp evaluation, tonometry and fundoscopy before and after implantation of toric pIOLs (Artiflex; Ophtec BV, The Netherlands) in both eyes. Preoperative logMAR CDVA were 0.699 and 0.420 in the right and left eye, respectively. Three months after surgery, logMAR UCVA were 0.398 and 0.182, reaching binocular logMAR UCVA of 0.132. There were no changes in nystagmus characteristics after surgery. pIOL implantation may be a safe and suitable treatment to correct high refractive errors in patients with congenital nystagmus. Significant improvement in CDVA and UCVA can be achieved.

  19. Prostaglandin Pathway Gene Therapy for Sustained Reduction of Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Román A; McLaren, Jay W; Poeschla, Eric M

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis. In the eye, loss of COX-2 expression in aqueous humor–secreting cells has been associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main treatment goal in this disease. We used lentiviral vectors to stably express COX-2 and other PG biosynthesis and response transgenes in the ciliary body epithelium and trabecular meshwork (TM), the ocular suborgans that produce aqueous humor and regulate its outflow, respectively. We show that robust ectopic COX-2 expression and PG production require COX-2 complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence optimization. When COX-2 expression was coupled with a similarly optimized synthetic PGF2α receptor transgene to enable downstream signaling, gene therapy produced substantial and sustained reductions in IOP in a large animal model, the domestic cat. This study provides the first gene therapy for correcting the main cause of glaucoma. PMID:19953083

  20. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  1. Changes in intraocular pressure in anesthetized prone patients.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katharine; Bajekal, Rahul; Calder, Ian; Meacher, Rosanne; Eliahoo, Joseph; Acheson, James F

    2004-10-01

    Postoperative visual loss occurs more commonly in patients placed prone. The mechanism may be raised intraocular pressure (IOP) causing an ischemic oculopathy. IOP was measured in 20 patients undergoing spinal surgery. The IOP was measured prior to intubation, immediately after pronation, and at the end of surgery before the patient was returned to the supine position. Duration of surgery, method of head stabilization and standard physiological parameters were recorded. Both measurements of median IOP in the prone position were significantly higher than that in the supine position (P < 0.001). There was no evidence of a relationship between rise in IOP and duration of surgery, age, or body mass index. There was weak evidence of a tendency for patients whose heads were on pillows to have higher values of IOP at the end of surgery than patients whose heads were supported in pins. IOP increases when anesthetized patients are placed in the prone position.

  2. [To guard against mistakes in selection of intraocular lenses].

    PubMed

    He, Shou-zhi

    2008-04-01

    Development of different kinds of new intraocular lenses (IOL) provide more selections to meet various clinical requirements, which may plays an active role in making cataract surgery more perfectible. But there are many misunderstandings about how to select the proper IOL. For example, "the expensive one is the best one", "new product is absolutely perfect", and so on. Some surgeons prefer more practice and ignore the summary of the experiences. Someone unilaterally exaggerates some special function of IOL When selecting the IOL, it is a common challenge for us to fully consider the patients needs, and properly manage the relationship between the basic need and special need, and to avoid fanaticism, and provide the best benefits to the patients.

  3. Diagnostic Vitrectomy for Primary Intraocular Lymphoma: When, Why, How?

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Cindy S.; Yeh, Steven; Bergstrom, Chris S.

    2014-01-01

    Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) can present with uveitis, vitritis, or chorioretinal lesions. While fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography may aid in the diagnosis of PIOL, a definitive diagnosis can only be achieved with tissue analysis. The specimen may be obtained with a vitreous or aqueous tap, however, a diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy with acquisition of diluted and undilated vitreous fluid or a chorioretinal biopsy is preferable. Once a specimen is obtained, cytopathology, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, gene rearrangement studies with polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine analysis can be performed to confirm the diagnosis of PIOL. Treatment is dependent on the presentation of PIOL and may include systemic chemotherapy, local intravitreal chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of therapies. PMID:24613891

  4. Intracorneal and Intraocular Invasion of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia after Intraocular Surgery: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Juan C.; Galor, Anat; Wu, Michael C.; Kye, Natasha K.; Wong, James; Ahmed, Ibrahim O.; Joag, Madhura; Shalabi, Nabeel; Lahners, William; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper was to describe 2 cases of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) of the conjunctiva with intracorneal and intraocular extension following intraocular surgery. Methods We conducted a clinical pathological retrospective case series. Results Case 1 underwent cataract surgery in the setting of an unnoticed adjacent OSSN. An excisional biopsy with cryotherapy and intraoperative mitomycin C was subsequently performed, confirming OSSN. The patient had two recurrences treated topically with resolution. While the conjunctiva remained clear, a corneal haze emanating from the cataract incision site was noted. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for this haze revealed midstromal infiltrative carcinoma. Case 2 had a history of herpes simplex keratitis that ultimately required corneal grafts. Fifteen years later, he developed an OSSN treated with excisional biopsy and had clear margins. Eight months later, he presented with a recurrence of his OSSN and was treated briefly with topical interferon for 4 weeks; however, he developed an infectious keratitis with a corneal perforation requiring another PK. Four months after PK, low-grade inflammation was noted. Cytology of the anterior chamber aspirate revealed neoplastic squamous cells. Another PK was then performed. Pathology confirmed extensive intraocular neoplasia. Limited exenteration was performed. Conclusion Patients with a history of OSSN may be at increased risk of neoplastic intraocular extension following intraocular surgery. PMID:28275607

  5. Intracorneal and Intraocular Invasion of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia after Intraocular Surgery: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Juan C; Galor, Anat; Wu, Michael C; Kye, Natasha K; Wong, James; Ahmed, Ibrahim O; Joag, Madhura; Shalabi, Nabeel; Lahners, William; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe 2 cases of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) of the conjunctiva with intracorneal and intraocular extension following intraocular surgery. We conducted a clinical pathological retrospective case series. Case 1 underwent cataract surgery in the setting of an unnoticed adjacent OSSN. An excisional biopsy with cryotherapy and intraoperative mitomycin C was subsequently performed, confirming OSSN. The patient had two recurrences treated topically with resolution. While the conjunctiva remained clear, a corneal haze emanating from the cataract incision site was noted. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for this haze revealed midstromal infiltrative carcinoma. Case 2 had a history of herpes simplex keratitis that ultimately required corneal grafts. Fifteen years later, he developed an OSSN treated with excisional biopsy and had clear margins. Eight months later, he presented with a recurrence of his OSSN and was treated briefly with topical interferon for 4 weeks; however, he developed an infectious keratitis with a corneal perforation requiring another PK. Four months after PK, low-grade inflammation was noted. Cytology of the anterior chamber aspirate revealed neoplastic squamous cells. Another PK was then performed. Pathology confirmed extensive intraocular neoplasia. Limited exenteration was performed. Patients with a history of OSSN may be at increased risk of neoplastic intraocular extension following intraocular surgery.

  6. Visual performance with accommodating and multifocal intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jie; Huang, Yu-Sen; Dai, Yun-Hai; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Jia-Jun; Xie, Li-Xin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the visual functional outcomes with accommodating and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS Our retrospective comparative study included 51 patients (60 eyes) received implantation of an accommodating IOL (Tetraflex; 16 patients, 20 eyes), a refractive multifocal IOL (ReZoom; 18 patients, 20 eyes), or a diffractive multifocal IOL (ZMA00; 17 patients, 20 eyes). Subjective refraction, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), intraocular aberration, and subjective photic phenomena were detected at 3mo after surgery. RESULTS The spherical equivalent in the three groups was -0.38±0.54 D, 0.14±0.56 D, and 0.35±0.41 D, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity and uncorrected intermediate visual acuity among the groups (P=0.39). The ReZoom group had significantly better distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity than the ZMA00 group (P=0.003). The ZMA00 group had significantly better near visual acuity than the other groups (P<0.05). Better contrast sensitivity values were observed in the Tetraflex group under most of the spatial frequencies conditions (P=0.025). The total aberration was lowest in the ZMA00 group (P=0.000), and the spherical aberration was highest in the Tetraflex group (P=0.000). The three groups had similar frequency of ghosting and glare, and the Tetraflex group had a low rate of halos (P=0.01). CONCLUSION Both accommodating and multifocal IOLs can successfully restore distance and uncorrected intermediate visual acuities. Tetraflex accommodating IOLs perform better in CS and with less halos of photic phenomena. ReZoom refractive multifocal IOLs have better performance in distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity than ZMA00 diffractive multifocal IOLs, and the latter achieved better near visual acuity and efficiently decreased the optical aberration. PMID:28251082

  7. Intraocular lens implantation for patients with coloboma of the iris

    PubMed Central

    LI, JUANJUAN; LI, YAN; HU, ZHULIN; KONG, LEI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the techniques for intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with coloboma of the iris. A retrospective cohort study was used to analyze the degree of iris coloboma and the characteristics of the crystalline lens in 56 patients with iris coloboma. The patients with a lesser degree of coloboma of the iris and an intact lens capsule were treated by iris suture and IOL implantation into the posterior chamber. Patients with an iris coloboma confined to one quadrant, severe iris atrophy and significant lens capsule coloboma were treated with an annular suture at the edge of the pupil and IOL implantation into the anterior chamber. Patients with a greater degree of iris coloboma and an intact lens capsule were treated with an artificial iris and IOL implantation. The patients were followed up for between five months and five years after surgery. Data relating to vision, photophobia, IOL location, postoperative complications and treatment were also obtained at follow-up. The vision of the patients was improved to varying degrees following the surgery, with the exception of those with amblyopia or serious corneal scars. The photophobia of the patients had also improved. The patients’ levels of satisfaction and comfort were deemed to be satisfactory. Early postoperative complications included hyphema, increased intraocular pressure and uveitis. However, serious complications such as corneal decompensation and IOL dislocation were not observed. Various techniques for IOL implantation were selected based on the degree of iris and lens capsule coloboma; these techniques were capable of improving the vision and photophobia of the patients. PMID:24926350

  8. Intraocular Lens Fragmentation Using Femtosecond Laser: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Chandra; Shi, Jeffrey; Meades, Kerrie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To transect intraocular lenses (IOLs) using a femtosecond laser in cadaveric human eyes. To determine the optimal in vitro settings, to detect and characterize gasses or particles generated during this process. Methods: A femtosecond laser was used to transect hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic lenses. The settings required to enable easy separation of the lens fragment were determined. The gasses and particles generated were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and total organic carbon analyzer (TOC), respectively. Results: In vitro the IOL fragments easily separated at the lowest commercially available energy setting of 1 μJ, 8-μm spot, and 2-μm line separation. No particles were detected in the 0.5- to 900-μm range. No significant gasses or other organic breakdown by products were detected at this setting. At much higher energy levels 12 μJ (4 × 6 μm spot and line separation) significant pyrolytic products were detected, which could be harmful to the eye. In cadaveric explanted IOL capsule complex the laser pulses could be applied through the capsule to the IOL and successfully fragment the IOL. Conclusion: IOL transection is feasible with femtosecond lasers. Further in vivo animal studies are required to confirm safety. Translational Relevance: In clinical practice there are a number of large intraocular lenses that can be difficult to explant. This in-vitro study examines the possibility of transecting the lasers quickly using femtosecond lasers. If in-vivo studies are successful, then this innovation could help ophthalmic surgeons in IOL explantation. PMID:26101721

  9. Intravitreal infusion: A novel approach for intraocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiao; Liu, Jia; Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Yangyan; Tang, Luosheng

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular injection has become an increasingly important intervention in the treatment of posterior segment diseases. However, an acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after intravitreal injection is a common concern. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal infusion in maintaining stable IOP in a rabbit model. Trypan blue (TB) 0.06% with an external pump was used to evaluate intravitreal infusion in rabbit eyes. Groups A (50 μL), B (100 μL), C (150 μL), and D (200 μL) were slowly infused over 30 minutes with TB. As a control, Group E underwent conventional intravitreal injection of 100 μL of TB. Group F received a bolus infusion of 100 μL of TB within 1 minute. The mean increases in IOP during infusion for each group were: Group A (7.93 ± 3.80 mmHg), B (13.97 ± 3.17 mmHg), C (19.91 ± 6.06 mmHg) and D (29.38 ± 8.97 mmHg). Immediately post-injection in group E the mean increase in IOP amounted to 34.33 ± 6.57 mmHg. The mean increase in IOP of group F after bolus infusion was 49.89 ± 1.71 mmHg. Intravitreal infusion maintains a stable IOP and provides a controlled infusion speed compared with intravitreal injection. PMID:27886224

  10. Combining zonal refractive and diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Albarrán-Diego, César; Javaloy, Jaime; Sakla, Hani F; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    To assess visual performance with the combination of a zonal refractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) (Lentis Mplus, Oculentis GmbH) and a diffractive aspheric MIOL (Acri.Lisa 366, Acri.Tech GmbH). This prospective interventional cohort study comprised 80 eyes from 40 cataract patients (mean age: 65.5±7.3 years) who underwent implantation of the Lentis Mplus MIOL in one eye and Acri.Lisa 366 MIOL in the fellow eye. The main outcome measures were refraction; monocular and binocular uncorrected and corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; monocular and binocular defocus curves; binocular photopic contrast sensitivity function compared to a monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) control group (40 age-matched pseudophakic patients implanted with the AR-40e [Abbott Medical Optics]); and quality of vision questionnaire. Binocular uncorrected visual acuities were 0.12 logMAR (0.76 decimal) or better at all distances measured between 6 m and 33 cm. The Lentis Mplus provided statistically significant better vision than the Acri.Lisa at distances between 2 m and 40 cm, and the Acri.Lisa provided statistically significant better vision than the Lentis Mplus at 33 cm. Binocular defocus curve showed little drop-off at intermediate distances. Photopic contrast sensitivity function for distance and near were similar to the monofocal IOL control group except for higher frequencies. Moderate glare (15%), night vision problems (12.5%), and halos (10%) were reported. Complete independence of spectacles was achieved by 92.5% of patients. The combination of zonal refractive aspheric and diffractive aspheric MIOLs resulted in excellent uncorrected binocular distance, intermediate, and near vision, with low incidence of significant photic phenomena and high patient satisfaction. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Evaluation of an unused 1952 Ridley intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Patel, A S; Carson, D R; Patel, P H

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate an unused 1952 historic Ridley intraocular lens (IOL) brought to Bombay, India, in 1952 from an Oxford Ophthalmologic Conference in England and given to 1 of the authors during his residency. Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. The Ridley IOL was evaluated at Alcon Laboratories, Inc., using the established procedures of its Intraocular R&D Laboratories. Various optical and physical aspects of the Ridley lens were evaluated including (1) dimensions, (2) weight, (3) power, (4) resolution efficiency and modulation transfer function (MTF), (5) surface sphericity by interferometry, (6) ultraviolet (UV)-visible transmission characteristic, (7) attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectrum, and (8) cosmetics by visual inspection using light microscopy. This 8.5 mm diameter, 2.4 mm thick, 23 diopter biconvex IOL weighed 108 mg. The ATR spectrum, UV-visible transmission, and refractive index confirmed its poly-(methyl methacrylate) material. The 0.56 MTF value at 100 line pairs/mm, per the International Standards Organization--IOL Optics Standard, and 93% resolution efficiency in water, per the American National Standard Institute IOL Optics Standard, revealed the IOL's excellent optics. This was confirmed by 0.278 wave root mean square surface figure as measured by Zygo interferometer using a 633 nm wavelength. Visual inspection revealed rough edges with sharp corners and some surface scratches. Early clinical experience with Ridley IOLs in Bombay, India, is briefly given. The Ridley IOL had excellent optical quality, meeting the requirements of current IOL optics standards. The selection of its dimensions was guided by the human crystalline lens, and the Ridley IOL was half as bulky. Although its clinical results were mixed, successful cases inspired subsequent improvements, leading to modern, highly satisfactory IOLs. This IOL represented a revolutionary innovation in ophthalmology.

  12. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  13. Association of intraocular pressure and myopia in children.

    PubMed

    Quinn, G E; Berlin, J A; Young, T L; Ziylan, S; Stone, R A

    1995-02-01

    While elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is associated with myopia in adults, its potential influence on the growth of eyes in juveniles without glaucoma is controversial. To address this issue, a possible relation between IOP and refraction in children was sought. A cross-sectional survey of IOP was conducted in children presenting to the Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for a complete eye examination. Measurement of IOP was attempted in all children, including those with amblyopia, prematurity, and strabismus. Exclusion criteria were abnormalities of the posterior pole and/or conditions such as cataract that precluded assessment of refractive error. For analysis, myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent of more than 1 diopter (D) of myopia. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between other patient characteristics and presence of myopia. Intraocular pressure testing was attempted in all age groups, but was more successful in older children. Reliable readings were obtained on 321 subjects. The mean age was 9.8 years, with a mean IOP of 17.3 mmHg in the right eye and 17.2 mmHg in the left and a mean spherical equivalent of +0.2 D in the right eye and +0.1 D in the left. Increasing age, a family history of myopia, and amblyopia were associated myopia. Increasing IOP also was related to myopia. Even when patients with amblyopia, strabismus, and prematurity were exclude, age, family history of myopia, and IOP again were associated with myopia. These results indicate that IOP in children may be higher in myopic than nonmyopic eyes. Whether IOP could contribute to the mechanisms causing the abnormal eye growth of childhood myopia requires further study.

  14. Sustained Antibiotic-Eluting Intra-Ocular Lenses: A New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dulcia W. N.; Lim, Soo Ghim; Wong, Tina T.; Venkatraman, Subbu S.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, infections following cataract surgery are not as effectively managed with antibiotic eye drops, which suffer from poor bioavailability of drug and low patient compliance. The ideal solution, which can help to overcome the issue of drug wastage and poor bioavailabilty, as well as the need for frequent applications (patient inconvenience), is a drug-eluting intraocular lens (IOL). We describe a novel approach to such a drug-eluting lens by using a peripheral IOL attachment as a drug depot to deliver antibiotics, Levofloxacin (LFX) or Moxifloxacin (MFX). In this work, drug was entrapped within a fully-degradable polymer, poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLC). The effects of drug loading and solvent type on drug release and film morphology were investigated using cast films. The study clearly demonstrated that a slower-evaporating solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF) resulted in a better surface morphology, as well as lower initial burst compared to dichloromethane (DCM), and hence, was better suited to developing a drug-eluting attachment with sustained release of drug. When attachments were fabricated with drugs at high loading percentages (20% and 25% in polymer), significant burst was observed compared to films: this is attributed to the higher surface-to-volume ratio of the attachments. When the levofloxacin (LFX) loading percentage was decreased to 3% and 5%, the attachments presented lower burst and sustained release with therapeutic efficacy. This work has demonstrated the potential of using an IOL attachment as a more efficacious anti-infective option compared to daily eye drops. PMID:27741256

  15. Argon laser trabeculoplasty as a means of decreasing intraocular pressure from ''normal'' levels in glaucomatous eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, E.D.; Simmons, R.J.

    1985-06-15

    The authors conducted a retrospective study of 67 patients (85 eyes) with severe glaucoma to determine whether argon laser trabeculoplasty could reduce intraocular pressures below the ''normal'' range. All patients had initial intraocular pressures of less than or equal to 19 mm Hg. Success was defined as a decrease in intraocular pressure of at least 20%, no increase in medications, stable visual field, and no subsequent glaucoma surgery. After an average follow-up period of 30 months, treatment was successful in 31 cases. One half of the failures occurred by six months and 11 failures (30%) occurred after 12 months. Sixteen patients were able to decrease their medications. Two patients achieved intraocular pressures between 6 and 9 mm Hg and 20 between 10 and 12 mm Hg.

  16. Capsular Block Syndrome Following Combined Cataract and Vitrectomy Surgery in a Patient With Intraocular Gas.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Diamond M; Casey, Richard; Tsui, Irena

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the rare complication of capsular block syndrome following combined cataract and vitrectomy surgery in a patient with intraocular gas.

  17. [Eye diseases in dwarf rabbits. 2. Diseases of the cornea, intraocular and retrobulbar disorders, and neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Heider, H J; Görig, C; Fehr, M

    1998-09-01

    In the second part of this review article the diseases affecting the cornea, intraocular and retrobulbar disorders, and eye-neoplasia of dwarf rabbits are described. These are illustrated by means of selected photographs.

  18. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-Villarreal, Dante A.

    2016-01-01

    Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB) is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon. PMID:28025619

  19. [A new permanent magnet for removal of intra-ocular ferromagnetic foreign bodies].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, F; Heimann, K

    1991-04-01

    The permanent-magnet (Sm-Co-Magnet) is described with a length of 35 mm and a diameter of 18 gauge. This magnet enables a controlled atraumatic removal of small or even larger intraocular ferromagnetic foreign bodies.

  20. New two-point scleral-fixation technique for foldable intraocular lenses with four hollow haptics.

    PubMed

    Liu, He-Ting; Jiang, Zheng-Xuan; Tao, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The study was to report a new two-point scleral-fixation technique for foldable intraocular lenses with four haptics. Lenses were slid into the anterior chamber from a 2.8 mm corneal incision and fixed under two sclera flaps at two opposite points. The postoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) of all patients were significantly better than their preoperative BCVA. The results demonstrate that two-point, scleral fixations of foldable, intraocular lenses might be practicable and effective.

  1. Black-on-clear piggyback technique for a black occlusive intraocular device in intractable diplopia.

    PubMed

    Byard, Stephen D; Lee, Richard M H; Lam, Fook Chang; Simpson, Andrew R H; Liu, Christopher S C

    2012-01-01

    Black occlusive intraocular devices have been used successfully for intractable binocular diplopia. We describe a novel technique of implanting both a black occlusive device and a clear poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag during phacoemulsification surgery. If the need should arise at a later date, this approach will allow safer and easier explantation of the black occlusive device, avoiding the need for IOL exchange. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The synergistic effect of inflammation and metabolic syndrome on intraocular pressure: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Te; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Chang, Chia-Jen; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2017-09-01

    Intraocular pressure is associated with metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with cardiovascular disease, irrespective of the presence of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we examined the synergistic effect of CRP and metabolic syndrome on intraocular pressure.A total of 1041 subjects were included for data analyses in this cross-sectional study. Intraocular pressure was measured using a noncontact tonometer, and serum CRP levels were measured using a commercially available kit.The intraocular pressure was significantly higher in the subjects with metabolic syndrome than in those without (14.1 ± 3.0 vs 13.4 ± 3.0 mm Hg, P = .002). Furthermore, intraocular pressures significantly increased according to CRP tertiles (13.1 ± 3.0, 13.7 ± 3.0, and 13.8 ± 3.0 mm Hg from the lowest to highest tertile of CRP, respectively; P = .002). The highest intraocular pressure was observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome in the highest CRP tertile (P value for trend < .001). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that the influence of CRP was independent of metabolic syndrome and that high CRP levels were significantly associated with high intraocular pressure (95% confidence interval: 0.080-1.297, P = .027).In conclusion, systemic inflammation, reflected by serum CRP levels, is associated with high intraocular pressure in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

  3. Electron probe X-ray analysis of an intraocular foreign body.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, I A; Lalonde, J M; Ghadially, F N

    1977-10-01

    We describe a simple and rapid method of electron probe x-ray analysis on a foreign body removed from the eye. We demonstrated the presence of copper in an intraocular foreign body which has originated from a blank 0.22 calibre cartridge. Sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sulpher and chlorine were also detected. It seems likely that these elements were derived from the biological milieu in which the intraocular foreign body had rested for some 2 years and 9 months.

  4. Implanting two posterior chamber intraocular lenses in a case of microphthalmos.

    PubMed

    Gayton, J L; Sanders, V N

    1993-11-01

    A 31-year-old male with bilateral microphthalmos and a history of severe refractive amblyopia presented with early nuclear sclerosis. Intraocular lens calculations determined the patient would need about a 46.0 diopter power intraocular lens in both eyes to achieve satisfactory vision postoperatively. When no manufacturer could or was willing to make such a high-power lens, we chose to implant two lenses in each eye. The patient is satisfied with his postoperative vision and overall outcome.

  5. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections in South India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, S; Ramakrishnan, R; Bharathi, M Jayahar; Amuthan, M; Viswanathan, S

    2010-01-01

    The eye may be infected from external sources or through intra-ocular invasion of micro-organisms carried by the blood stream. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify the specific bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections and to determine their in-vitro antibacterial susceptibilities to commonly used antibacterial agents. A retrospective analysis of all patients with clinically diagnosed bacterial ocular infections such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis, internal and external hordeolum, suppurative scleritis, canaliculitis, keratitis, dacryocystitis, preseptal cellulitis, endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis presenting between January 2005 and December 2005 was performed. Extra-ocular and intra-ocular specimens were collected and were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. A total of 756 patients with bacterial ocular infections were analyzed, of which 462(61%) eyes had adnexal bacterial infection, 217(28.7%) had corneal infection, 6 (0.8%) had scleral involvement and the remaining 71(9.39%) eyes had infection of the intra-ocular tissues. The predominant bacterial species isolated was S. aureus (195 of 776; 25%) followed by S. pneumoniae (169 of 776; 21.78%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (142 of 776; 18.3%). The largest number of gram-positive isolates were susceptible to cefazolin (545 of 624; 87.34%), chloramphenicol (522 of 624; 83.65%) and gatifloxacin (511 of 624; 81.89%) and gram-negative isolates were to amikacin (127 of 136; 93.38%), gatifloxacin (125 of 136; 91.91%) and ofloxacin (119 of 136; 87.5%), while aerobic actinomycetes were to amikacin (100%), gatifloxacin (14 of 16; 87.5%), chloramphenicol (14 of 16; 87.5%) and ofloxacin (13 of 16; 81.25%). S. aureus frequently causes infections of eyelids and conjunctiva, S. pneumoniae of lacrimal apparatus and cornea and coagulase negative staphylococci causes intra-ocular infections. Of all routinely used antibacterials tested, flouroquinolones, especially gatifloxacin and ofloxacin

  6. Prevalence of increased intraocular pressure in Graves' disease--evidence of frequent subclinical ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gamblin, G T; Harper, D G; Galentine, P; Buck, D R; Chernow, B; Eil, C

    1983-02-24

    Graves' exophthalmos is frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure on upgaze. Eighty patients with Graves' disease were evaluated prospectively by applanation tonometry to assess the prevalence of ophthalmopathy in this disorder. Whereas 21 (26 per cent) of the 80 patients had exophthalmos, 61 (76 per cent) had abnormal intraocular pressure (delta greater than or equal to 3 mm Hg). All patients with exophthalmos had elevated intraocular pressure on upgaze; 40 (68 per cent) of 59 patients without proptosis had abnormal pressure readings. The mean interval between the onset of Graves' disease and this study was 6.3 +/- 1.0 years (S.E.M.) for those patients who had exaggerated positional changes in intraocular pressure, as compared with 3.0 +/- 1.0 years for those with normal intraocular pressure (P less than 0.005). All but 1 of 15 patients in whom the diagnosis of Graves' disease had been documented 10 or more years earlier had increased intraocular pressure on upgaze. We conclude that Graves' ophthalmopathy is more common than is recognized clinically and that eye involvement is an inevitable complication of the disease.

  7. The significance of intraocular pressure elevation during sleep-related postures.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2014-05-01

    Intraocular pressure and its fluctuations are associated with the development and progression of glaucoma. This review examines the potential for sleep-related intraocular pressure elevations to contribute to the onset and progression of glaucoma. Also considered is the potential for patient education and appropriate changes in behaviour as a means of reducing exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. A PubMed search using the combination key words 'glaucoma and sleep' was conducted. Information was taken from representative articles from the 187 yielded from the search. Additional papers were found after accessing references in selected papers. Several studies have indicated an association between the progression of glaucoma and both lateral decubitus (side sleep) and supine sleep positions. Evidence that prone sleep positions could raise intraocular pressure to high levels suggests a similar if not stronger association. Intraocular pressure elevation and progression of glaucoma associated with sleep positions suggest that there are similar risks of progression associated with sleep-related body postures adopted during non-sleep activities, such as reading, watching television and sun-bathing. Posture-related management of patients with glaucoma, which is intended to reduce the risk or degree of progression may include the use of specially designed pillows, bed-head elevation and recommendations to avoid postures which induce higher intraocular pressure.

  8. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    PubMed Central

    Korenfeld, Michael S; Dueker, David K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulated eyes. Methods A thin fluid-filled bladder was constructed from flexible and inelastic plastic sheeting and was connected to a pressure transducer with high pressure tubing. The output of the pressure transducer was sent to an amplifier and recorded. This device was validated by measuring induced pressure in the fluid-filled bladder while digital pressure was applied to one surface, and the other surface was placed directly against a human cadaver eye or in vivo pig eye. The human cadaver and in vivo pig eyes were each cannulated to provide a manometric intraocular pressure control. Results The measurements obtained with the newly described device were within ~5% of simultaneously measured manometric intraocular pressures in both a human cadaver and in vivo pig eye model for a pressure range of ~15–100 mmHg. Conclusion This novel noninvasive device is useful for estimating the intraocular pressure transients induced during any form of external globe compression; this is a clinical setting where no other devices can be used to estimate intraocular pressure. PMID:26955260

  9. Comparison of dose calculation methods for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, Mark J.; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Finger, Paul T.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E.; Rogers, D. W. O.; Thomson, Rowan M.; Nath, Ravinder

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric differences among several clinical treatment planning systems (TPS) and Monte Carlo (MC) codes for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors using {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd plaques, and to evaluate the impact on the prescription dose of the adoption of MC codes and certain versions of a TPS (Plaque Simulator with optional modules). Methods: Three clinical brachytherapy TPS capable of intraocular brachytherapy treatment planning and two MC codes were compared. The TPS investigated were Pinnacle v8.0dp1, BrachyVision v8.1, and Plaque Simulator v5.3.9, all of which use the AAPM TG-43 formalism in water. The Plaque Simulator software can also handle some correction factors from MC simulations. The MC codes used are MCNP5 v1.40 and BrachyDose/EGSnrc. Using these TPS and MC codes, three types of calculations were performed: homogeneous medium with point sources (for the TPS only, using the 1D TG-43 dose calculation formalism); homogeneous medium with line sources (TPS with 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes); and plaque heterogeneity-corrected line sources (Plaque Simulator with modified 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes). Comparisons were made of doses calculated at points-of-interest on the plaque central-axis and at off-axis points of clinical interest within a standardized model of the right eye. Results: For the homogeneous water medium case, agreement was within {approx}2% for the point- and line-source models when comparing between TPS and between TPS and MC codes, respectively. For the heterogeneous medium case, dose differences (as calculated using the MC codes and Plaque Simulator) differ by up to 37% on the central-axis in comparison to the homogeneous water calculations. A prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth based on calculations in a homogeneous medium delivers 76 Gy and 67 Gy for specific {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS-plaque heterogeneities. For off

  10. A possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in a patient with systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Svozílková, Petra; Heissigerová, Jarmila; Brichová, Michaela; Kalvodová, Bohdana; Dvořák, Jan; Ríhová, Eva

    2013-01-07

    To present a possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in a patient with systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A 47-year-old woman presented with decreased visual acuity associated with white retinal lesions in both eyes. A history of pneumonia of unknown aetiology closely preceded the deterioration of vision. Five years previously the patient was diagnosed with follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. She was treated with a chemotherapy regimen comprised of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristin, and prednisone with later addition of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. She experienced a relapse 19 months later with involvement of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and commenced treatment with rituximab and 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. A second relapse occurred 22 months after radioimmunotherapy and was treated with a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone followed by rituximab. The patient experienced no further relapses until the current presentation (April, 2010).Pars plana vitrectomy with vitreous fluid analysis was performed in the right eye. PCR testing confirmed the presence of cytomegalovirus in the vitreous. Atypical lymphoid elements, highly suspicious of malignancy were also found on cytologic examination. Intravenous foscarnet was administered continually for three weeks, followed by oral valganciclovir given in a dose of 900 mg twice per day. In addition, the rituximab therapy continued at three monthly intervals. Nevertheless, cessation of foscarnet therapy was followed by a recurrence of retinitis on three separate occasions during a 3-month period instigating its reinduction to the treatment regime after each recurrence. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is an opportunistic infection found in AIDS patients as well as in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients being treated with systemic immunosuppressive drugs. This case presents a less common incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis occurring in a patient

  11. Functionalised Polysiloxanes as Injectable, In Situ Curable Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L.; Wilkie, John S.; Meijs, Gordon; Clayton, Anthony; Watling, Jason; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G. M.; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    The aged eye’s ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D4H concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 minutes under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photorheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels were biocompatible with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted optical and

  12. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L; Wilkie, John S; Meijs, Gordon F; Clayton, Anthony B; Watling, Jason D; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G M; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C

    2010-11-01

    The aged eye's ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D(4)(H) concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 min under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photo-rheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels had good biocompatibility with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted

  13. Sonothrombolysis for intraocular fibrin formation in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshifumi; Ohtsuka, Hiroki; Arimura, Noboru; Sonoda, Shozo; Kato, Chihiro; Ushimaru, Kaneo; Hara, Naoko; Tachibana, Katsuro; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2009-11-01

    Vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or retinal arterial occlusion are always associated with retinal and/or choroidal vasculopathy and intravascular thrombosis is commonly found. The ultrasound (US) therapy is a recently developed technique to accelerate fibrinolysis and it is being applied to some clinical fields. The present study was to observe the effects of extraocular US exposure on intraocular fibrin, which is a deteriorating factor in various ocular diseases. Tubes containing human blood (2 mL) in the following groups were irradiated with US; US alone, US with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), tPA alone, and saline (control). Fibrinolysis was quantified by measuring D-dimer after 2h. In rat eyes, intracameral fibrin (fibrin formation in the anterior chamber of the eye) was induced by YAG-laser-induced iris bleeding. Then, eyes in the following groups were irradiated with US; US alone, subconjunctival tPA alone, US and subconjunctival tPA, control. Intracameral fibrin was scored on day 3 (3+ maximum to 0). The temperatures of rat eyes were measured by infrared thermography. Histologic evaluation was also performed. D-dimer was increased by US with statistical significance (p <0.05) or tPA (p <0.01). D-dimer in US with tPA group was significantly higher than either US alone or tPA alone group (p <0.01). In rat eyes, the average intracameral fibrin score on day 3 was 1.4 in control group and 1.2 in subconjunctival tPA alone group; however, it decreased significantly in the US alone group (0.75; p <0.05, vs. control), US and subconjunctival tPA group (0.71; p <0.01, vs. control). The temperature was less than 34 degrees C after US exposure. No histologic damage was observed. US irradiation from outside accelerated intracameral fibrinolysis without causing apparent tissue damage. This noninvasive method might have therapeutic value for intraocular fibrin.

  14. Comparative intraocular penetration of 4 fluoroquinolones after topical instillation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Lim; Lim, Eun Hye; Song, Sang Wroul; Kim, Byung Yeop; Lee, Joon H; Mah, Francis S; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2013-07-01

    To compare the intraocular penetration of 4 fluoroquinolone eye drops after topical instillation into rabbit eyes. The tested drugs were levofloxacin 1.5% (LVFX), gatifloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5% (MFLX), and besifloxacin 0.6% (BFLX). Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into 2 groups. For group 1 (40 rabbits, 80 eyes), single instillation was performed, and tissue samples were acquired after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. For group 2 (8 rabbits, 16 eyes), repeated instillation was performed (4 times, every 15 minutes), and tissues were acquired 1 hour after the fourth instillation. The drug concentrations in ocular tissues (cornea, aqueous, conjunctiva, and trisected vitreous) were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. The AUC 0-6 h (area under the curve, in microgram.hour/gram) in group 1 and the mean concentration (in micrograms/gram) in group 2 for LVFX, gatifloxacin 0.3%, MFLX, and BFLX, respectively, were 22.97, 6.44, 13.54, and 3.29 and 22.60, 6.99, 13.69, and 1.91 in cornea; 5.66, 1.43, 3.38, and 0.42 and 5.52, 1.29, 2.47, and 0.19 in aqueous humor; 2.33, 0.91, 2.17, and 9.83 and 4.51, 0.78, 1.48, and 2.09 in bulbar conjunctiva; 0.243, 0.051, 0.134, and 0.018 and 0.182, 0.055, 0.122, and 0.015 in anterior vitreous; none of the drugs achieved enough concentration in equatorial and posterior vitreous. Repeated instillation resulted in approximately 2.1 times greater penetration than single instillation. LVFX and MFLX demonstrated good intraocular penetration particularly in cornea, aqueous humor, and anterior vitreous, and they may be considered the penetrative fluoroquinolones. BFLX showed high concentration in bulbar conjunctiva and may be considered the retentive fluoroquinolone.

  15. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  16. Pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK) for intraocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Palanker, D V; Miller, J M; Marmor, M F; Sanislo, S R; Huie, P; Blumenkranz, M S

    2001-10-01

    To develop a better and more economical instrument for precise, tractionless, "cold" cutting during intraocular surgery. The use of highly localized electric fields rather than laser light as the means of tissue dissection was investigated. A high electric field at the tip of a fine wire can, like lasers, initiate plasma formation. Micrometer-length plasma streamers are generated when an insulated 25 micron (microm) wire, exposed to physiological medium at one end, is subjected to nanosecond electrical pulses between 1 and 8 kV in magnitude. The explosive evaporation of water in the vicinity of these streamers cuts soft tissue without heat deposition into surrounding material (cold cutting). Streamers of plasma and the dynamics of water evaporation were imaged using an inverted microscope and fast flash photography. Cutting effectiveness was evaluated on both polyacrylamide gels, on different tissues from excised bovine eyes, and in vivo on rabbit retina. Standard histology techniques were used to examine the tissue. Electric pulses with energies between 150 and 670 microJ produced plasma streamers in saline between 10 and 200 microm in length. Application of electric discharges to dense (10%) polyacrylamide gels resulted in fracturing of the gel without ejection of bulk material. In both dense and softer (6%) gels, layer by layer shaving was possible with pulse energy rather than number of pulses as the determinant of ultimate cutting depth. The instrument made precise partial or full-thickness cuts of retina, iris, lens, and lens capsule without any evidence of thermal damage. Because different tissues require distinct energies for dissection, tissue-selective cutting on complex structures can be performed if the appropriate pulse energies are used; for example, retina can be dissected without damage to the major retinal vessels. This instrument, called the Pulsed Electron Avalanche Knife (PEAK), can quickly and precisely cut intraocular tissues without traction

  17. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that primary tumor vascularity in a murine model of intraocular melanoma positively correlates with the development and hematogenous spread of metastasis. METHODS: Forty 12-week-old C57BL6 mice were inoculated in either the anterior chamber (AC) or posterior compartment (PC) of 1 eye with 5 x 10(5) cells/microL of Queens tissue culture melanoma cells. The inoculated eye was enucleated at 2 weeks; the mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postinoculation, and necropsies were performed. The enucleated eyes were examined for histologic and ultrastructural features, including relationship of tumor cells to tumor vascular channels, vascular pattern, and mean vascular density. RESULTS: Melanoma grew and was confined to the eye in 12 of 20 AC eyes and 10 of 20 PC eyes. Histologic and electron microscopic examination showed tumor invasion into vascular channels. Five of 12 AC tumors (42%) and 8 of 10 PC tumors (80%) metastasized. All of the AC tumors, but none of the PC tumors, that distantly metastasized also metastasized to ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes (P = .00535). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern between the melanomas that did and did not metastasize to lungs in the PC group (P = .24), although there was a significant difference in the AC group (P = .02). Tumors with high-grade vascular patterns were more likely to metastasize than tumors with low-grade vascular patterns in the AC group. The mean vascular density positively correlated with the presence and number of metastases in both groups (P = .0000 and P < .001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern and mean vascular density for AC versus PC melanoma (P = .97). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of metastasis in this murine intraocular melanoma model positively correlates with primary tumor vascularity. The melanoma metastasizes via invasion of tumor vascular channels. AC melanoma also

  18. Presbyopia correction with an anterior chamber phakic multifocal intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Alió, Jorge L; Mulet, M Emilia

    2005-08-01

    To investigate in a pilot study the potential of an anterior chamber phakic refractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) prototype for the correction of near and far vision in those with myopic and hyperopic presbyopia. A multicenter, open-label, prospective, noncomparative pilot evaluation. There were 17 patients (34 eyes), 16 women and 1 man, with a mean age of 52+/-3.94 years (range, 46-62 years). Six eyes were myopic (mean spherical equivalent [SE], -9.3+/-3.83 diopters (D)) and 28 were hyperopic (mean SE, +2.3+/-0.77 D), with astigmatism less than 1.5 D. The prototype multifocal phakic IOL was implanted through a 6.5-mm temporal incision. The dominant eye was targeted for emmetropia and the nondominant eye for -1.0 D. The efficacy of the implant was assessed after surgery by measuring monocular and binocular uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuity (VA) at distance, intermediate, and near, and distance-corrected near VA with near add. Distance-corrected distance and near VA also were determined in low contrast (25%). The safety index and efficacy index were calculated, and patient satisfaction questionnaires also were administered. Follow-up was at 1-3 days, 5-9 days, 21 days, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Spherical equivalent refraction ranged from -11.75 to +4.25 D before surgery, and from -2.0 to +1.85 D 1 year after surgery. The binocular efficacy index was 0.68 (near) and 1.0 (distance), and the binocular safety index was 1.0 for both near and distance. Mean binocular uncorrected distance VA improved from 20/59 (+/-4 lines) before surgery to 20/18 (+/-1 line) 1 year after surgery. Mean binocular uncorrected intermediate VA improved from 20/125 (+/-10 lines) to 20/21 (+/-1 line), and mean binocular uncorrected near VA improved from 20/78 (+/-5 lines) to 20/32 (+/-1 line). Binocular uncorrected visual acuity was at least 20/40 (distance and intermediate) and Jaeger 3 in 88.2% of patients, and it was at least 20/40 and Jaeger 5 in 100

  19. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  20. Visual outcomes after bilateral trifocal diffractive intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Alvarez, Jesús; Vazquez-Molini, Jose M; Sanz-Fernandez, Juan C; Garcia-Bella, Javier; Polo, Vicente; García-Feijoo, Julián; Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose M

    2015-03-14

    In recent years new models of intraocular lenses are appearing on the market to reduce requirements for additional optical correction. The purpose of this study is to assess visual outcomes following bilateral cataract surgery and the implant of a FineVision® trifocal intraocular lens (IOL). Prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Vision was assessed in 44 eyes of 22 patients (mean age 68.4 ± 5.5 years) before and 3 months after surgery. Aberrations were determined using the Topcon KR-1 W wave-front analyzer. LogMAR visual acuity was measured at distance (corrected distance visual acuity, CDVA 4 m), intermediate (distance corrected intermediate visual acuity, DCIVA 60 cm) and near (distance corrected near visual acuity, DCNVA 40 cm). The Pelli-Robson letter chart and the CSV-1000 test were used to estimate contrast sensitivity (CS). Defocus curve testing was performed in photopic and mesopic conditions. Adverse photic phenomena were assessed using the Halo v1.0 program. Mean aberration values for a mesopic pupil diameter were: total HOA RMS: 0.41 ± 0.30 μm, coma: 0.32 ± 0.22 μm and spherical aberration: 0.21 ± 0.20 μm. Binocular logMAR measurements were: CDVA -0.05 ± 0.05, DCIVA 0.15 ± 0.10, and DCNVA 0.06 ± 0.10. Mean Pelli-Robson CS was 1.40 ± 0.14 log units. Mean CSV100 CS for the 4 frequencies examined (A: 3 cycles/degree (cpd), B: 6 cpd, C: 12 cpd, D: 18 cpd) were 1.64 ± 0.14, 1.77 ± 0.18, 1.44 ± 0.24 and 0.98 ± 0.24 log units, respectively. Significant differences were observed in defocus curves for photopic and mesopic conditions (p < 0.0001). A mean disturbance index of 0.28 ± 0.22 was obtained. Bilateral FineVision IOL implant achieved a full range of adequate vision, satisfactory contrast sensitivity, and a lack of significant adverse photic phenomena. Eudract Clinical Trials Registry Number: 2014-003266-2.

  1. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo L.; Farias, Lucas; Mendonça, Taís; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Procianoy, Renato S.; Silveira, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight ≤1,500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks) admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination) in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7±1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7±222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9±4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.0035). The mean intraocular pressure (P10–P90) decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.52–22.16) at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28–18.92) at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9±4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased. PMID:23184197

  2. [Experimental investigations on the mode of action of alcoholic liquor on the intra-ocular pressure (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leydhecker, W; Krieglstein, G K; Uhlich, E

    1978-07-01

    The reasons for the decrease of intraocular pressure after drinking of alcohol were examined. The dose of alcohol was 2 ml 38% Weinbrand per kg body weight, which corresponds to 53 ml pure alcohol for a person of 70 kg body weight. The tonographic data gave no correlation between the blood-alcohol level and the changes of intraocular pressure. The antidiuretic hormon also had no correlation to the intraocular pressure changes. Tonometry with the same frequency as in this study but without alcohol showed no alteration of intraocular pressure. It is suggested that alcohol acts probably by a decrease of secretion of aqueous humour by central actions.

  3. Foldable antibacterial acrylic intraocular lenses of high refractive index.

    PubMed

    Parra, F; Vázquez, B; Benito, L; Barcenilla, J; San Román, J

    2009-11-09

    Hydrophilic copolymers with high refractive index and bactericide properties based on quaternary ammonium salts monomers and methacrylates bearing benzothiazole moieties have been developed for application as foldable intraocular lenses. Composition of the systems was adjusted to get materials with optimized flexibility, wettability, and refractive properties. All the materials have been characterized in terms of optical properties, glass transition temperature, water content, and wettability. Water contact values oscillated between 37 and 15% and refractive index values in the wet state between 1.49 and 1.53, depending on composition. Glass transition temperature interval was 63-77 degrees C. Values of surface free energy of the solid ranged from 49 to 54 mN/m, characteristic of IOL hydrogel materials. Bactericide properties of the quaternary ammonium salts methacrylates were higher than that of the benzothiazole derivative, showing inhibition halos as high as 23-25 mm in antibiogram tests against S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa , strains found in the ocular cavity and responsible for most postsurgical endolphthalmitis. Biocompatibility of the systems was evaluated in cell cultures using human fibroblasts. Cellular viability was higher than 90%, and close to 100% in many cases, for the extracts of selected formulations collected at different periods of time.

  4. Temporal multiplexing to simulate multifocal intraocular lenses: theoretical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Akondi, Vyas; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Gambra, Enrique; Marcos, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Fast tunable lenses allow an effective design of a portable simultaneous vision simulator (SimVis) of multifocal corrections. A novel method of evaluating the temporal profile of a tunable lens in simulating different multifocal intraocular lenses (M-IOLs) is presented. The proposed method involves the characteristic fitting of the through-focus (TF) optical quality of the multifocal component of a given M-IOL to a linear combination of TF optical quality of monofocal lenses viable with a tunable lens. Three different types of M-IOL designs are tested, namely: segmented refractive, diffractive and refractive extended depth of focus. The metric used for the optical evaluation of the temporal profile is the visual Strehl (VS) ratio. It is shown that the time profiles generated with the VS ratio as a metric in SimVis resulted in TF VS ratio and TF simulated images that closely matched the TF VS ratio and TF simulated images predicted with the M-IOL. The effects of temporal sampling, varying pupil size, monochromatic aberrations, longitudinal chromatic aberrations and temporal dynamics on SimVis are discussed. PMID:28717577

  5. [Intraocular pressure decrease after manual small incision cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Nganga Ngabou, C G F; Makita, C; Ndalla, S S; Nkokolo, F; Madzou, M

    2017-05-01

    We decided to evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure six months after cataract surgery. We evaluated patients' IOP using an applanation tonometer. The patients then underwent cataract surgery. Six months after cataract surgery, we reevaluated the IOP by the same method, and we determined the post-operative change. Among the 147 operated eyes, 123 eyes or 83.67% exhibited a decrease in IOP. The mean preoperative IOP for the operative eye was 15.61±4.5mmHg; the mean post-operative IOP was 12.57±3.5mmHg; the mean IOP decrease after surgery was 3.16±4mmHg, for a mean decrease of 20%. This decrease is statistically significant, P<001. The decrease in IOP varies proportionally to the initial IOP. In glaucomatous patients, the mean preoperative IOP was 23.16±5.68mmHg and mean post-operative IOP was 14.5±2.7mmHg, a decrease of 37.39%. The decrease in IOP after cataract surgery was generally moderate. However, this IOP decreased proportionally to the initial IOP, thus giving significant decreases for higher IOPs. This decrease in IOP, well known after phacoemulsification, was also obtained after Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, a surgical technique which is increasingly employed in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. INTRAOCULAR LENS POSITION IN COMBINED PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND VITREORETINAL SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Ozates, Serdar; Kiziltoprak, Hasan; Koc, Mustafa; Uzel, Mehmet Murat; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2017-10-09

    To assess the decentration and angle of tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) according to the intravitreal tamponade types used in combined phacoemulsification and vitreoretinal surgery. This prospective and randomized clinical study involved 73 eyes of 69 patients who underwent combined vitreoretinal surgery. Eyes with intravitreal tamponades formed the study group and eyes without intravitreal tamponades formed the control group. The study group was further divided into silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups. Cross-sectional IOL images were captured using a Pentacam HR (Oculus, Germany) and tilt and decentration were calculated with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, CA). The mean angle of tilt and decentration at the vertical meridian were significantly higher in both tamponade groups than in the control group (P < 0.05 for all). No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding IOL position parameters at the horizontal meridian (P > 0.05). When comparing the silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups, no significant differences were noted on the position of IOL at both meridians (P > 0.05 for all). Intravitreal tamponades have an important effect on the position of IOL in combined vitreoretinal surgery. Silicone oil and gas tamponades may induce postoperative tilt and decentration of one-piece acrylic IOLs.

  7. [Refractive long-term results after piggyback intraocular lens implantation].

    PubMed

    Moustafa, B; Häberle, H; Wirbelauer, C; Pham, D T

    2007-09-01

    Piggyback lens implantation is an alternative to exchange of the original intraocular lens (IOL) to treat high anisometropia in pseudophakic eyes. We present our results. A second IOL (piggyback) was implanted in 27 patients from 2000 to 2006. Nineteen patients were clinically investigated late postoperatively, and data for the other eight patients were evaluated from the patients' files. The patients were 65+/-9 years old. Follow-up time was 38+/-25 months. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) in the myopic eyes was -7.86+/-3.82 D and in the hyperopic eyes was 1.64+/-0.74 D. After surgery, the mean SE in the myopic eyes was -1.77+/-1.82 D and in the hyperopic eyes was -0.09+/-0.51 D. Postoperative anisometropia was reduced from 4.64+/-3.3 D. to 0.9+/-0.82 D. Piggyback lens implantation is a safe and effective surgical procedure and is less traumatic than exchange of the original IOL.

  8. Pseudophakic eye with obliquely crossed piggyback toric intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiying; Limberger, Il-Joo; Borkenstein, Andreas F M; Ehmer, Angela; Guo, Haike; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2010-03-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with high astigmatism (2.25 -5.0 x 45) induced by long-term rotation of a toric intraocular lens (IOL). Corneal astigmatism was 3.78 diopters (D). The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/32. Because of the risk of repositioning, a secondary toric IOL of -3.0/6.0 D especially designed for sulcus implantation was piggybacked through 3.5 mm sutureless clear-corneal incision with a cylindrical axis obliquely crossed with that of the primary IOL. Eight months postoperatively, the corneal astigmatism was 5.04 D. The CDVA was 20/25 with a refraction of 1.0 -2.5 x 70. No interlenticular opacification or significant rotation or decentration of the secondary toric IOL was observed. The refractive properties of this pseudophakic eye were analyzed using a mathematical approach. The calculated postoperative refraction was 0.84 -1.7 x 47. A piggyback toric IOL can be implanted in an obliquely crossed style that allows a secondary toric IOL to correct astigmatism induced by long-term toric IOL rotation. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleeveless-extrusion cannula for levitation of dislocated intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashvin; Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar; Kumar, Dhivya A

    2014-07-01

    To characterise a sleeveless-extrusion cannula-based suction technique to levitate dislocated intraocular lens (IOLs) and review the surgical outcome. This retrospective, non-comparative, single surgeon, interventional, consecutive case series examined 10 patients (10 eyes) who underwent the surgical procedure from October 2011 to December 2012. Reliability, reproducibility, and intraoperative and postoperative complications of the technique were analysed. The technique involved suction levitation of a 3-piece acrylic foldable IOL in six cases, 1-piece acrylic foldable IOL in three cases and a plate haptic IOL in one case. The IOL was exchanged in four eyes whereas the same IOL was repositioned in six eyes with sulcus repositioning in two eyes and glued intrascleral fixation in four eyes. Intraoperative suction loss and a subsequent IOL dislocation were reported in 1 (10%) eye. Early preoperative complications included pigment dispersion in 1 (10%) eye, grade 2 anterior chamber cellular reaction in 2 (20%) eyes and intraoperative corneal oedema in 1 (10%) eye which resolved with medical line of management. Intermediate and late complications included macular oedema in one patient (10%) which resolved considerably with medical line of management. No incidence of postoperative vitreous or retinal haemorrhage, retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. The early results demonstrate this surgical intervention as a reliable, reproducible and an effective alternative treatment option for levitation of dislocated IOLs with a low complication rate.

  10. Noncontact measurement of intraocular pressure using a modified Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Joerg; Stork, Wilhelm; Hey, Stefan; Gundlach, Arnd; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus-Dieter; Kreiner, Christine F.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes a new method to examine the intraocular pressure (IOP) without any contact with the eye. In our new approach the IOP is determined indirectly from the acoustic properties of the eye, as the resonance frequencies of the bulbus are shifting with increasing IOP. In a first step simulations were made with the Finite Element Method to explore the correlation between the IOP and the acoustic properties of the bulbus. The results showed a significant rise of the resonance-frequencies with increasing IOP. Simultaneously a in-vitro measurement system was built comprising a modified michelson interferometer to measure the vibrations, a transducer to stimulate the eye and a controlling PC. With this system measurements were made with artificial eyes and enucleated pig eyes to prove the correlation experimentally. The eyes were stimulated both contacting the eye with a transducer by a stick and contactless with sonic waves. Several series of measurements showed a proportional constant of 1,25 Hz/mmHg in average, which can be detected easily. The standard deviation measuring different pig eyes was 4,5 mmHg. Next a in-vivo system was developed to study the acoustic behavior of the human eye in the real environment. The in-vivo system consists of a miniaturized semiconductor-laser interferometer complying laser safety requirements, an automatic positioning unit and an excitation unit to stimulate vibrations of the eye. Sub-micrometer vibrations of the eye can be measured in-vivo with this system.

  11. Intraocular Pressure in Premature Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Zhou, Zimei; Haji, Shamim; Khaja, Wassia; Sambhav, Kumar; Stass-Isern, Merrill; Chalam, K V

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in premature low birth weight (LBW) infants and their correlation with gestational age (GA). IOP and CCT were measured in premature LBW infants (defined as a birth weight ≤ 1,500 g or birth GA ≤ 30 weeks) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Florida Division of Neonatology, UF Health Jacksonville. Ninety eyes of 45 premature LBW infants with mean birth GA of 28.2 ± 2.3 weeks and mean birth weight of 1,131.5 ± 380.1 g were evaluated. The mean IOP and CCT were 29.0 ± 9.0 mm Hg and 660.0 ± 65.0 µm, respectively. There was no correlation between the IOP and CCT (r = 0.09; P = .38). There was a negative correlation between IOP and GA (r = -0.41) and between CCT and GA (r = -0.26). IOP is higher and CCT is thicker in premature infants compared to adults; however, there was no correlation between IOP and CCT. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(5):300-304.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Satoko; Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP.

  13. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP. PMID:27579175

  14. Mini-monovision versus multifocal intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Giarmoukakis, Athanassios; Patsiamanidi, Maria; Papadopoulos, Zois; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of monovision correction and multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on patient satisfaction, spectacle dependence, visual acuity, and dysphotopsia in cataract patients. University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Prospective randomized trial. Patients with a diagnosis of senile cataract with stage 2 nuclear opalescence were randomly assigned to 2 groups: monovision and multifocal IOL implantation. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity, Visual Function Index-14 (VF-14) scores, and spectacle dependence were assessed prior to surgery and 6 months postoperatively. The monovision group comprised 38 patients and the multifocal IOL implantation group, 37 patients. Both techniques provided excellent refractive outcomes in UDVA and VF-14 scores (all P < .01). No significant intergroup differences were detected in VF-14 scores at the final postoperative examination. The monovision group patients presented significantly more spectacle dependence for near vision but less glare. Monovision and multifocal IOL implantation provided excellent refractive outcomes for distance vision. Multifocal IOL insertion was associated with less dependence on glasses overall but significantly more dysphotopsia. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of scattering in intraocular lenses by spectrophotometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Artigas, José M; Felipe, Adelina; Navea, Amparo; García-Domene, M Carmen; Pons, Álvaro; Mataix, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a method for measuring scattering in explanted intraocular lenses (IOLs). Currently, determining scattering in IOLs is usually performed by Scheimpflug cameras and the results are expressed in the units used by this apparatus. The method we propose uses a spectrophotometer and this makes it possible to measure the total transmission of the IOL by using an integrating sphere; the direct transmission is determined by the double-beam mode. The difference between these two transmissions gives a value of the scattering in percentage values of light lost. In addition, by obtaining the spectral transmission curve, information about the most scattered wavelengths is also obtained. The IOL power introduces errors when directly measured, particularly with high powers. This problem can be overcome if a tailor-made cuvette is used that shortens the distance between the IOL and the condensing lens of the spectrophotometer when the IOL powers are below 24 diopters. We checked the effectiveness of this method by measuring the scattering of three explanted IOLs from cornea donors. This method, however, does not make it possible to ascertain whether the scattering measured is caused by surface light scattering or internal light scattering.

  16. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos.

    PubMed

    Nannini, Drew; Torres, Mina; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Varma, Rohit; Gao, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, as well as the only modifiable risk factor, for glaucoma. Racial differences have been observed in IOP measurements with individuals of African descent experiencing the highest IOP when compared with other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Population-based genetic association study. A total of 3541 participants recruited from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Study participants were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip (∼730K markers). We used STRUCTURE to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Simple and multiple linear regression, as well as quantile regression, analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP. The relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. African ancestry was significantly associated with higher IOP in Latinos in our simple linear regression analysis (P = 0.002). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, central corneal thickness, and type 2 diabetes, this association remained significant (P = 0.0005). The main association was modified by a significant interaction between African ancestry and hypertension (P = 0.037), with hypertensive individuals experiencing a greater increase in IOP with increasing African ancestry. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that African ancestry and its interaction with hypertension are associated with higher IOP in Latinos. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. African ancestry is associated with higher intraocular pressure in Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Nannini, Drew; Torres, Mina; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Varma, Rohit; Gao, Xiaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, as well as the only modifiable risk factor, for glaucoma. Racial differences have been observed in IOP measurements with individuals of African descent experiencing the highest IOP when compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Design Population-based genetic association study. Participants A total of 3541 participants recruited from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Methods Study participants were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip (~730K markers). We used STRUCTURE to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Simple and multiple linear regression, as well as quantile regression, analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP. Main Outcome Measures The relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Results African ancestry was significantly associated with higher IOP in Latinos in our simple linear regression analysis (P = 0.002). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, central corneal thickness, and type 2 diabetes, this association remained significant (P = 0.0005). The main association was modified by a significant interaction between African ancestry and hypertension (P = 0.037), with hypertensive individuals experiencing a larger increase in IOP with increasing African ancestry. Conclusions To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that African ancestry and its interaction with hypertension are associated with higher IOP in Latinos. PMID:26477841

  18. Micro-optical imaging concepts for an intraocular vision aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eix, Ilos; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus D.

    2004-03-01

    About 10 million people around the world are suffering from blindness, where the path of light is disturbed due to an opaque, irreversible damaged, and inoperable cornea. Although vision is not given to this group of population, the retina is still intact. To date, there is no artificial implant which is able to replace the natural cornea. The work presented here describes an approach to build and implant a micro-optical and microelectronic system to be used as an intraocular vision aid. By overcoming the disturbed light path, it yields to an improved visual acuity of the patient. The main aspect of this bio-mimetic system is to transfer information representing the patient's field of view to the retina. An image of the field of view is captured in real-time outside the eye. After employing data processing, it is wireless transferred to the implanted part of the vision aid. From there, the information emerging from a micro display is imaged to the retina via a micro-optical system. The limited display resolution available inside the eye and the limited dimensions of the eyeball build the constrains of the optical system. A combination of a spatial light modulator together with an imaging lens system realizes intelligent spatial information distribution schemes onto the retina. This ensures a high outcome of visual acuity in the central region of the retina. Various retinal acuities can be realized. The employment of in-vivo adjustment mechanisms of the focal plane is discussed.

  19. Retinal images in the human eye with implanted intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Marek; Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    A typical proceeding in cataract is based on the removal of opaque crystalline lens and inserting in its place the artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The quality of retinal image after such procedure depends, among others, on the parameters of the IOL, so the design of the implanted lens is of great importance. An appropriate choice of the IOL material, especially in relation to its biocompatibility, is often considered. However the parameter, which is often omitted during the IOL design is its chromatic aberration. In particular lack of its adequacy to the chromatic aberration of a crystalline lens may cause problems. In order to fit better chromatic aberration of the eye with implanted IOL to that of the healthy eye we propose a hybrid - refractive-diffractive IOL. It can be designed in such way that the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of an eye with implanted IOL equals the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of a healthy eye. In this study we compare the retinal image quality calculated numerically on the basis of the well known Liou-Brennan eye model with typical IOL implanted with that obtained if the IOL is done as hybrid (refractive-diffractive) design.

  20. Intraocular pressure changes during high-altitude acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Mitrofanis; Stupp, Tobias; Georgalas, Ilias; Georgiadou, Evi; Moschos, Michail; Thanos, Solon

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between hypobaric hypoxia acclimatization and intraocular pressure (IOP) during ascent, acclimatization, and descent between 2286 m and 5050 m. The following acclimatization-indicative physiological parameters were compared daily with IOP changes in eight healthy climbers of the 2003 Greek Karakorum expedition in altitude stages between 500 m and 5050 m: hemoglobin oxygen saturation (PO2), resting heart rate, blood pressure, retinal findings, and the Lake Louise score for acclimatization grading. IOP decreased significantly in the ascent phase (0.58 mmHg/100 m) and recovered (0.71 mmHg/100 m) during acclimatization and descent. A direct proportional correlation between decreases in PO2 and IOP was evaluated. Arterial blood pulse and pressure increased during acclimatization, while IOP decreased. No retinal hemorrhages were observed in well-acclimatized and incompletely acclimatized climbers. Every new active exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in the ascent phase induced a decrease in the IOP parallel to the PO2 decrease and to the level of acclimatization. The results from our study suggest that IOP changes are related to hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis and acclimatization stage, which could be used as a simple mobile screening test for acclimatization level to reveal acute mountain sickness and its severe consequences.

  1. Star testing: a novel evaluation of intraocular lens optical quality

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, L; Molteno, A C B; Bevin, T H; Sanderson, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of optical quality of an intraocular lens (IOL) on visual outcomes following cataract surgery, objective data on their optical quality are not readily available, and manufacturing standards are industry regulated. The star test is a classic test of optical quality based on examination of the Airy disc and expanded diffraction rings of a point source of light, used mainly for telescope and microscope objectives. Methods A physical model eye cell allowed star testing of IOLs under conditions similar to the optical environment in which they operate. 18 IOLs were tested and results compared to actual images produced by these lenses in the model eye cell. Quantitative measures of star testing performance were developed. Results The optical performance of the IOLs varied, some performing very poorly. Most lenses (13/17) performed better in reverse orientation, while aberrations induced by the haptics of foldable IOLs were also detected. There was excellent correlation between actual images formed and star testing parameters. Conclusion Star testing IOLs was a novel biomedical application of a centuries old, inexpensive method. A concerning variation of optical quality was found, suggesting IOL optical performance data should be more readily available. Independent, authority mandated IOL optical quality standards should be developed, and results readily available to ophthalmologists. PMID:16622088

  2. Hypobaric hypoxia: effects on intraocular pressure and corneal thickness.

    PubMed

    Nebbioso, Marcella; Fazio, Stefano; Di Blasio, Dario; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying ocular hydrodynamics and the changes which occur in the eyes of subjects exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) to permit the achievement of more detailed knowledge in glaucomatous disease. Twenty male subjects, aged 32±5 years, attending the Italian Air Force, were enrolled for this study. The research derived from hypobaric chamber, using helmet and mask supplied to jet pilotes connected to oxygen cylinder and equipped with a preset automatic mixer. The baseline values of intraocular pressure (IOP), recorded at T1, showed a mean of 16±2.23 mmHg, while climbing up to 18,000 feet the mean value was 13.7±4.17 mmHg, recorded at T2. The last assessment was performed returning to sea level (T4) where the mean IOP value was 12.8±2.57 mmHg, with a significant change (P<0.05) compared to T1. Pachymetry values related to corneal thickness in conditions of hypobarism revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05). The data collected in this research seem to confirm the increasing outflow of aqueous humor (AH) in the trabecular meshwork (TM) under conditions of HH.

  3. Hypobaric Hypoxia: Effects on Intraocular Pressure and Corneal Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Dario; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying ocular hydrodynamics and the changes which occur in the eyes of subjects exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) to permit the achievement of more detailed knowledge in glaucomatous disease. Methods. Twenty male subjects, aged 32 ± 5 years, attending the Italian Air Force, were enrolled for this study. The research derived from hypobaric chamber, using helmet and mask supplied to jet pilotes connected to oxygen cylinder and equipped with a preset automatic mixer. Results. The baseline values of intraocular pressure (IOP), recorded at T1, showed a mean of 16 ± 2.23 mmHg, while climbing up to 18,000 feet the mean value was 13.7 ± 4.17 mmHg, recorded at T2. The last assessment was performed returning to sea level (T4) where the mean IOP value was 12.8 ± 2.57 mmHg, with a significant change (P < 0.05) compared to T1. Pachymetry values related to corneal thickness in conditions of hypobarism revealed a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The data collected in this research seem to confirm the increasing outflow of aqueous humor (AH) in the trabecular meshwork (TM) under conditions of HH. PMID:24550712

  4. Intraocular Pressure Induced Retinal Changes Identified Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seong Hoong; Wang, Jiang-Hui; He, Zheng; Nguyen, Christine; Lin, Tsung-Wu; Bui, Bang V.

    2016-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been used to quantify chemical and structural characteristics of a wide range of materials including biological tissues. In this study, we examined spatial changes in the chemical characteristics of rat retina in response to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation using synchrotron infrared microscopy (SIRM), a non-destructive imaging approach. IOP elevation was induced by placing a suture around the eye of anaesthetised rats. Retinal sections were collected onto transparent CaF2 slides 10 days following IOP elevation. Using combined SIRM spectra and chemical mapping approaches it was possible to quantify IOP induced changes in protein conformation and chemical distribution in various layers of the rat retina. We showed that 10 days following IOP elevation there was an increase in lipid and protein levels in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL). IOP elevation also resulted in an increase in nucleic acids in the INL. Analysis of SIRM spectra revealed a shift in amide peaks to lower vibrational frequencies with a more prominent second shoulder, which is consistent with the presence of cell death in specific layers of the retina. These changes were more substantial in the INL and GCL layers compared with those occurring in the outer nuclear layer. These outcomes demonstrate the utility of SIRM to quantify the effect of IOP elevation on specific layers of the retina. Thus SIRM may be a useful tool for the study of localised tissue changes in glaucoma and other eye diseases. PMID:27711151

  5. Intraocular pressure is sensitive to cumulative and instantaneous mental workload.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García, José Antonio; Cárdenas, David

    2017-04-01

    We used a repeated-measures design to assess the impact of mental-task complexity on intraocular pressure (IOP). Fourteen participants performed three continuous 11-min blocks of a mental-workload task (3-back) and an oddball version of this task. Also, heart-rate variability (HRV), cognitive-performance scores, and subjective measure of mental load (NASA-TLX) were determined. IOP was taken before each block and afterwards as well as after recovery from mental tasks. We found that IOP increased during heavy mental workloads (p < 0.01). Consistent with this finding, the autonomic control (HRV) and the cognitive performance were significantly lower (p < 0.045, and p < 0.01, respectively), and the NASA-TLX scores were higher during the 3-back task (p < 0.01). We conclude that IOP is sensitive to mental workload, and it could provide a novel neuroergonomic tool to assess mental workload. Our study highlights a potential association between IOP and the nervous system's state of activation.

  6. Wrong intraocular lens implant; learning from reported patient safety incidents.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S P; Jalil, A

    2011-06-01

    To consider wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant events in cataract surgical care reported through a national incident reporting database. To propose potential solutions for such events where possible. Thematic retrospective review of wrong IOL implantation incidents, as reported through clinical incident reporting methods in NHS care in England and Wales from 2003 to 2010, ascertained from database mining at the National Patient Safety Agency. In total, 164 patient safety incident (PSI) reports of wrong IOL implantation were located from the study period and considered. There were 47 reports where further surgical intervention was required. All, but one of these required IOL exchange surgery. A total of 62 reports did not provide any causal reason for the wrong IOL implantation and thus provide little if any potential learning. Inaccurate biometry (n=29), wrong IOL selection (n=21), transcription errors (n=10) and handwriting misinterpretations (n=7) were causal reasons reported and are thus potential areas for ophthalmic teams to review and improve practice. Although infrequent, biometry/IOL implant errors or wrong implants do occasionally occur during cataract care and are thus a threat to quality. There is room for improvement in incident reporting in NHS cataract care as root causation of error was usually lacking in the PSI reports. Nevertheless, lessons for improvement of care from a national incident reporting database for a frequently undertaken surgical procedure were found. Suggestions are proposed for improving quality by reducing wrong IOL problems in cataract care based on analysis of such reports.

  7. Wrong intraocular lens implant; learning from reported patient safety incidents

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, S P; Jalil, A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To consider wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant events in cataract surgical care reported through a national incident reporting database. To propose potential solutions for such events where possible. Methods Thematic retrospective review of wrong IOL implantation incidents, as reported through clinical incident reporting methods in NHS care in England and Wales from 2003 to 2010, ascertained from database mining at the National Patient Safety Agency. Results In total, 164 patient safety incident (PSI) reports of wrong IOL implantation were located from the study period and considered. There were 47 reports where further surgical intervention was required. All, but one of these required IOL exchange surgery. A total of 62 reports did not provide any causal reason for the wrong IOL implantation and thus provide little if any potential learning. Inaccurate biometry (n=29), wrong IOL selection (n=21), transcription errors (n=10) and handwriting misinterpretations (n=7) were causal reasons reported and are thus potential areas for ophthalmic teams to review and improve practice. Conclusion Although infrequent, biometry/IOL implant errors or wrong implants do occasionally occur during cataract care and are thus a threat to quality. There is room for improvement in incident reporting in NHS cataract care as root causation of error was usually lacking in the PSI reports. Nevertheless, lessons for improvement of care from a national incident reporting database for a frequently undertaken surgical procedure were found. Suggestions are proposed for improving quality by reducing wrong IOL problems in cataract care based on analysis of such reports. PMID:21350567

  8. Ultra-widefield retinal imaging through a black intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Imran H; Fung, Timothy H M; Patel, Chetan K

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of ultra-widefield retinal imaging in patients with near infrared (IR)-transmitting black intraocular lenses (IOLs). Oxford Eye Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Laboratory evaluation of a diagnostic technology with interventional case report. The field of retinal imaging through a Morcher poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) black IOL was determined in a purpose-built adult schematic model eye with the HRA2 Spectralis confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope using standard imaging, Staurenghi retina lens-assisted imaging, and ultra-widefield noncontact imaging. Retinal imaging using each modality was then performed on a patient implanted with another Morcher PMMA black IOL model. Ultra-widefield noncontact imaging and lens-assisted imaging captured up to 150 degrees of field (versus 40 degrees with a standard confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope). Ultra-widefield retinal images were successfully acquired in a patient eye with a black IOL. This study has identified the first ultra-widefield retinal imaging modalities for patients with near IR-transmitting black IOLs. Should larger studies confirm this finding, noncontact ultra-widefield confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy might be considered the gold standard imaging technique for retinal surveillance in patients with near IR-transmitting black IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging features of intraocular tumors: Retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Özkurt, Zeynep Gürsel; Slimani, Naziha; Hu, Zizhong; Wang, Xueding; Xia, Kewen; Ma, Teng; Zhou, Qifa; Demirci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the capability of photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) in assessing the unique molecular and architectural features in ocular tumors. A real-time PA and ultrasonography (US) parallel imaging system based on a research US platform was developed to examine retinoblastoma in mice in vivo and human retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma ex vivo. PA signals were generated by optical illumination at 720, 750, 800, 850, 900 and 950 nm delivered through a fiber optical bundle. The optical absorption spectra of the tumors were derived from the PA images. The optical absorption spectrum of each tumor was quantified by fitting to a polynomial model. The microscopic architectures of the tumors were quantified by frequency domain analysis of the PA signals. Both the optical spectral and architectural features agree with the histological findings of the tumors. The mouse and human retinoblastoma showed comparable total optical absorption spectra at a correlation of 0.95 (p<0.005). The quantitative PAI features of human retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma have shown statistically significant difference in two tailed t-tests (p<0.05). Fully compatible with the concurrent procedures, PAI could be a potential tool complementary to other diagnostic modalities for characterizing intraocular tumors. PMID:28231293

  10. Effect of four different intraocular lenses on posterior capsule opacification

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Rahmi; Karel, Fatih; Özyol, Pelin; Ateş, Can

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the impact of 4 different intraocular lenses (IOLs) on posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by comparing the neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy rates. METHODS This retrospective study included 4970 eyes of 4013 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January 2000 and January 2008 by the same surgeon at one clinic. Four different IOLs were assessed. The outcome parameter was the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomies. RESULTS An Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 153 (3.07%) of the 4970 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 84mo for all of the IOL groups. The percentage of eyes developing PCO was significantly greater for the acrylic hydrophilic IOLs than for the hydrophobic IOLs, although eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs did not require Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy as soon as eyes with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. There was no difference between the long-term PCO rates when 1- and 3-piece acrylic hydrophobic IOLs were compared or when IOLs made of the same material but with different haptic angles were compared. CONCLUSION In this study, eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs were more likely to develop PCO than those with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. The lens design (1-piece versus 3-piece and varying haptic angles) did not affect the PCO rate. PMID:25709920

  11. Soft wearable contact lens sensor for continuous intraocular pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Zhen; Chan, Ion-Seng; Leung, Leo K K; Lam, David C C

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary indicator of glaucoma, but measurements from a single visit to the clinic miss the peak IOP that may occur at night during sleep. A soft chipless contact lens sensor that allows the IOP to be monitored throughout the day and at night is developed in this study. A resonance circuit composed of a thin film capacitor coupled with a sensing coil that can sense corneal curvature deformation is designed, fabricated and embedded into a soft contact lens. The resonance frequency of the sensor is designed to vary with the lens curvature as it changes with the IOP. The frequency responses and the ability of the sensor to track IOP cycles were tested using a silicone rubber model eye. The results showed that the sensor has excellent linearity with a frequency response of ∼8 kHz/mmHg, and the sensor can accurately track fluctuating IOP. These results showed that the chipless contact lens sensor can potentially be used to monitor IOP to improve diagnosis accuracy and treatment of glaucoma.

  12. Lower limits of intraocular pressure in glaucoma clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C; Limtong, Angela C; Magrath, George N; Rembold, Julie C; Nelson, Lindsay A; Stewart, Jeanette A

    2014-02-01

    To determine the association of the lower limit of intraocular pressure (IOP) specified in the inclusion criteria to baseline and active treatment visit IOPs for monotherapy treatments. A review of clinical trial articles evaluating currently used topical glaucoma medicines. Articles were published between January 1995 and December 2011. This study included 37 monotherapy treatment arms from 15 studies. There were 18 prostaglandin analogs, 8 β-blockers, 8 carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, 2 α-agonists, and 1 unoprostone. For all studies included generally there was a stepwise increase in the baseline 8 AM and diurnal IOP of approximately 1 mm Hg for each 1 mm Hg increase in entry criteria. This was true for all treatment arms together, with or without a PM entry criterion (P<0.0001). However, the inclusion of an afternoon entry criterion time point did not seem to affect average IOP at baseline for the 8 AM and diurnal IOP. The treated reductions from baseline were not statistically different based on morning or afternoon entry criteria for either the 8 AM or diurnal IOPs (P≥0.07). Progressively higher 8 AM entry criteria IOPs at untreated baseline may influence, depending on design, in a linear manner the 8 AM and diurnal baseline IOPs of glaucoma studies at baseline. However, this effect was not observed in the treated reductions from baseline. Further, the addition of an afternoon entry criterion time point does not seem to change baseline 8 AM and diurnal IOPs.

  13. Outcome of iris fixation of subluxated intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Adi; Soiberman, Uri; Loewenstein, Anat

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of iris fixation of subluxated intraocular lenses (IOLs). A retrospective study of 44 consecutive cases of subluxated IOLs that underwent iris fixation of the IOL. Demographic information, data regarding surgery, and follow-up were retrieved from patient files. All eyes were operated on in a similar fashion by the same anterior segment surgeon (A.M.) utilizing the McCannel suture technique and/or the Siepser slipknot technique. The main outcome measures were visual acuity improvement, surgically induced astigmatism, and assessment of complications. Ten eyes had a documented complication during primary cataract extraction. Pseudoexfoliation was present in 11 eyes (25 %). History of ocular trauma and high myopia were present in six eyes (each). Excluding eyes with macular disease and very low visual acuity, visual acuity improved from 0.4 (± 0.05) logMAR to 0.24 (± 0.05) logMAR (p = 0.047). Eyes with low pre-operative astigmatism did not worsen post-operatively (R square linear = 0.8, p < 0.01). Pupil ovalization was a major aesthetic complication (21 of 44 eyes). Major hemorrhagic complications were uncommon. One patient developed intermediate uveitis 1 year after IOL fixation. In this study of 44 eyes, iris fixation was proven to be a an effective method for treating subluxated IOLs.

  14. Transscleral fixation of a foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, Andrew C; Monson, Bryan K; Adelberg, Daniel A

    2015-09-01

    We describe an approach to transscleral fixation of a foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) using a 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. The technique was used in 80 consecutive eyes, and the results were analyzed for corrected distance visual acuity and safety indicators. Postoperative complications included retinal detachment in 2 eyes (2.5%), Irvine-Gass cystoid macular edema in 3 eyes (3.75%), persistent postoperative corneal edema in 1 eye (1.25%), hyphema in 2 eyes (2.5%), and postoperative vitreous hemorrhage with spontaneous clearing in 1 eye (1.25%). The modified external approach with a 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy had relatively few complications, improved visual acuity in patients requiring a transsclerally sutured PC IOL, and offered several advantages over traditional anterior chamber and conventional techniques of scleral suturing. Dr. Adelberg is a consultant to Bausch & Lomb. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, P.; Marcos, S.

    2007-03-01

    We compared experimental wave aberrations in pseudophakic eyes with aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) to simulate aberrations from numerical ray tracing on customized computer eye models using corneal topography, angle λ, ocular biometry, IOL geometry, and IOL tilt and decentration measured on the same eyes. We found high correlations between real and simulated aberrations even for the eye with only the cornea, and these increased on average when the IOL geometry and position were included. Relevant individual aberrations were well predicted by the complete eye model. Corneal spherical aberration and horizontal coma were compensated by the IOL, and in 58.3% of the cases IOL tilt and decentration contributed to compensation of horizontal coma. We conclude that customized computer eye models are a good representation of real eyes with IOLs and allow understanding of the relative contribution of optical, geometrical and surgically-related factors to image quality. Corneal spherical aberration is reduced by aspheric IOLs, although other corneal high order aberrations are still a major contributor to total aberrations in pseudophakic eyes. Tilt and decentration of the IOLs represent a relatively minor contribution of the overall optical quality of the eye.

  16. Intraocular camera for retinal prostheses: Refractive and diffractive lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauer, Michelle Christine

    The focus of this thesis is on the design and analysis of refractive, diffractive, and hybrid refractive/diffractive lens systems for a miniaturized camera that can be surgically implanted in the crystalline lens sac and is designed to work in conjunction with current and future generation retinal prostheses. The development of such an intraocular camera (IOC) would eliminate the need for an external head-mounted or eyeglass-mounted camera. Placing the camera inside the eye would allow subjects to use their natural eye movements for foveation (attention) instead of more cumbersome head tracking, would notably aid in personal navigation and mobility, and would also be significantly more psychologically appealing from the standpoint of personal appearances. The capability for accommodation with no moving parts or feedback control is incorporated by employing camera designs that exhibit nearly infinite depth of field. Such an ultracompact optical imaging system requires a unique combination of refractive and diffractive optical elements and relaxed system constraints derived from human psychophysics. This configuration necessitates an extremely compact, short focal-length lens system with an f-number close to unity. Initially, these constraints appear highly aggressive from an optical design perspective. However, after careful analysis of the unique imaging requirements of a camera intended to work in conjunction with the relatively low pixellation levels of a retinal microstimulator array, it becomes clear that such a design is not only feasible, but could possibly be implemented with a single lens system.

  17. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Wang, Shih-Hao; Teng, Yu-Ti; Hsu, Sheng-Min

    2017-03-01

    For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.05). No postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, IOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable.

  18. Influence of intraocular lens subsurface nanoglistenings on functional visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kazunori; Hayashidera, Takeshi; Iida, Masaharu; Takada, Keita; Minami, Keiichiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of intraocular lens subsurface nanoglistenings (SSNGs) on functional visual acuity (FVA), thirty-nine eyes of 29 patients were examined in this study. The SSNG group comprised 19 eyes of 14 patients (75.7± 5.4 years, mean ± standard deviation), and the control group comprised 20 eyes of 15 patients (73.6 ± 6.5 years). The SSNGs were diagnosed on the basis of the typical whitish IOL appearance upon slit-lamp examination and results of densitometry regarding surface light scattering using Scheimpflug images. The FVA measurement system (AS-28; Kowa, Aichi, Japan) was used to examine changes in continuous visual acuity (VA) over time, and visual function parameters such as FVA, visual maintenance ratio (VMR), maximum VA, minimum VA, standard deviation of VA, and number of blinks were assessed. The results were compared between the SSNG and control groups, and correlations of FVA parameters with the intensity of surface light scattering, time after surgery, and age were also evaluated. There were significant differences in VMR (P = 0.035) and standard deviation of VAs (P = 0.031) between the two groups, although no significant differences were found in baseline VA, FVA, maximum VA, minimum VA, and number of blinks. None of the FVA parameters showed any significant correlations with the intensity of surface light scattering, time after surgery, or age. There is a possibility that VA is unstable during a continuous gazing task in patients with SSNGs. PMID:28328997

  19. On the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Ginis, Harilaos S

    2007-10-01

    Primary properties of the optical materials used for intraocular lenses (IOLs) are biocompatibility and stability over time after implantation. Additionally, modern IOLs need to be flexible to be implanted through a small incision. Several compounds are usually added to existing materials (such as acrylic) to enhance the above-mentioned properties. Moreover, UV-absorbing substances are added in the IOL materials to mimic the spectral transmittance of the natural lens. Although manufacturers usually provide information for the geometry of IOLs, chromatic dispersion data are usually not available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dispersion properties of a few materials used for IOLs. We measured the chromatic focal shift of two common types of IOLs using a simple, optical method. From the chromatic focal shift, we calculated the dispersion properties of the materials (polymethylmethacrylate and acrylic) used for the IOLs under investigation. The results deviate from the existing data in the literature for the corresponding pure materials. The presence of the UV absorber in the optical material significantly affects its dispersive properties. Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the IOLs is approximately three times higher than LCA of the natural crystalline lens. It is expected that eyes implanted with IOLs suffer from increased LCA in comparison with intact eyes. It remains to be investigated if this increase in LCA has a significant impact on visual function.

  20. Dioptric changes in eyes with reversed intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki; Ueda, Tetsuo; Kanzaki, Mamiko; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2005-03-01

    To theoretically calculate refractive changes in eyes with reversed intraocular lenses (IOLs). Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. With the ray-tracing method, the refractive changes in a theoretical eye model with a reversed IOL in the capsular bag were calculated. Data for 3 models, anterior biconvex (MA60AC, Alcon), posterior biconvex (MA60BM, Alcon), and convex plano (UV2565T, Menicon), were provided by the manufacturer and used in the analysis. Using the assumption that the axial length varied from 22 to 27 mm, the anterior-biconvex IOLs elicited small refractive changes when reversed. The posterior-biconvex IOLs elicited a significant myopic shift (up to 0.90 diopter [D]) when reversed. The convex-plano IOLs elicited a significant hyperopic shift (up to 2.01 D) when reversed. Anterior-biconvex IOLs with similar anterior and posterior radii of curvature will not cause large diopter surprises when reversed. High-power posterior-convex IOLs will cause significant myopic diopter surprises when reversed. Both these changes shift toward myopic if the postoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) becomes shallow. Medium- to high-power convex-plano IOLs will cause a large hyperopic shift when reversed. This hyperopic shift decreases if the postoperative ACD becomes shallower.

  1. Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Piers, Patricia A; Fernandez, Enrique J; Manzanera, Silvestre; Norrby, Sverker; Artal, Pablo

    2004-12-01

    Adaptive optics systems can be used to investigate the potential visual benefit associated with correcting ocular wave-front aberration. In this study, adaptive optics techniques were used to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages associated with intraocular lenses (IOLs) with modified spherical aberration profiles. An adaptive optics vision simulator was constructed that allows psychophysical tests to be performed while viewing targets through any desired ocular wave-front profile. With this simulator, the subjective visual performance of four subjects was assessed by letter acuity and contrast sensitivity (at 3, 6, and 15 cyc/deg) for two different values of induced spherical aberration. The values of spherical aberration were chosen to reproduce two conditions: the average amount measured in pseudophakic patients with implanted IOLs having spherical surfaces and the complete correction of the individual's spherical aberration. Visual performance was assessed in both white and green light, at best focus and for defocus of +/-0.5 and +/-1.0 D. There was an average improvement in visual acuity associated with the correction of spherical aberration of 10% and 38% measured in white and green light, respectively. Similarly, average contrast sensitivity measurements improved 32% and 57% in white and green light. When spherical aberration was corrected, visual performance was as good as or better than for the normal spherical aberration case for defocus as large as +/-1 D. Correcting ocular spherical aberration improves spatial vision in the best-focus position without compromising the subjective tolerance to defocus.

  2. Experimental characterization of the imaging properties of multifocal intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Pier Giorgio; Fasce, Francesco; Bozza, Stefano; Brancato, Rosario

    2003-07-01

    Many different types of intraocular lenses (IOL) are currently available for implantation, both as crystalline lens replacements and as phakic refractive elements. Their optical design is increasingly sophisticated, including aspherical surface profiles and multi-zone multifocal structures, however a quantitative and comparative characterization of their imaging properties is lacking. Also a qualitative visualization of their properties would be very useful for patients in the lens choice process. To this end an experimental eye model has been developed to allow for simulated in-vivo testing of IOLs. The model cornea is made of PMMA with a dioptric power of 43 D, and it has an aspherical profile designed to minimize spherical aberration across the visible spectrum. The eye model has a variable iris and a mechanical support to accomodate IOLs, immersed in physiological solution. The eye length is variable and the retina is replaced by a glass plate. The image formed on this "retina" is optically conjugated to a CCD camera, with a suitable magnification in order to mimic the human fovea resolution, and displayed onto a monitor. With such an opto-mechanical eye model, two types of images have been used to characterize IOLs: letter charts and variable contrast gratings, in order to directly simulate human visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.

  3. Experimental investigation on mechanism of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens calcification.

    PubMed

    Drimtzias, Evangelos G; Rokidi, Stamatina G; Gartaganis, Sotirios P; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2011-11-01

    To construct a model simulating intraocular lens (IOL) opacification attributable to the formation of calcium phosphate deposits and to investigate the kinetics of deposit formation. Prospective laboratory investigation. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School and Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Patras, Greece. Three hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (26% water content) were placed inside a 10-mL double-walled thermostated reactor simulating the anterior chamber. Simulated aqueous humor was injected continuously into the reactor using a pump with variable speed. The observation of IOLs was carried out in situ daily by optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive radiographic spectroscopy were used for the identification of the morphologic features and the composition of the deposits. The lenses were removed and inspected 5, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of the experiment. Investigation showed deposits of calcium phosphate crystallites in the interior of opacified IOLs. However, these deposits were not observed on the surface of the IOLs. In agreement with earlier reports by our group and in the literature, IOL opacification is the result of calcification. It is suggested that the surface hydroxyl groups of the polyacrylic polymeric components of the IOLs are capable of inducing surface nucleation and crystal growth of calcium phosphates. However, most important is the finding that the calcification of IOLs is initiated from their interior through the development of sufficiently high local supersaturation, realized through the diffusion of calcium and phosphate ions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and fabrication of a microstructured bifocal intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Wilhelm; Wagner, Armin; Kreiner, Christine F.; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus-Dieter

    1999-06-01

    Intraocular lenses IOLs allow the vision restoration of cataract patients. However the ability of accommodation is lost after cataract surgery. Multifocal lenses show two or more foci with different refractive powers. Far and near objects can be at focus simultaneously. No additional spectacles are necessary. Bifocal lenses can be fabricated as multizone or as diffractive lenses. Diffractive multifocal lenses show in contrast to multi zone multifocal lenses no change of the brightness ratio for the far and near focus with change of the pupil diameter. Diffractive lenses show a saw tooth like microscopic shape with a geometrical height of the teeth in the order of microns. The lens was fabricated with a mold technique in a flexible silicone material. The molds have been lathed in metal with a ultra precision diamond lathe machine. For the test of the optical performance a MTF-measurement machine was constructed for multifocal lenses. With this machine the imaging quality and the intensity ratio of the two foci were measured. The optical quality of the lens turned out to be diffraction limited. At the University Hospital of Giessen, Germany a first clinical evaluation with 23 patients has been performed and proved for the high quality of the manufactured IOLs.

  5. Analysis of surface whitening of extracted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Koichiro; Nagata, Mayumi; Gotoh, Norihito; Matsui, Eiichiro; Senoo, Tadashi

    2009-11-01

    To identify the cause of light scattering on the surface (ie, whitening) of extracted AcrySof intraocular lenses (IOLs). Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan. Dislocated IOLs extracted from 3 patients were stored and the IOL surfaces examined under light microscopy. The effect of whitening on visual function was evaluated by measuring light transmission with a spectrophotometer. To determine the cause of opacification, the IOLs were examined for calcium phosphate deposits using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The IOL surface, including the presence of organic deposits and evidence of hydrolysis, was also examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry. The IOLs were then dried, immersed again in physiological saline, and serially examined for changes in opacification. The optic surfaces of all IOLs had opacification due to whitening. Light transmission in the visible range of 360 to 800 nm was 4% less than that of unused IOLs. The X-ray microanalysis showed no calcium phosphate deposits. Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry of the IOL optic material showed no evidence of hydrolysis. Opacification disappeared after the IOLs were dried and then reappeared over time when the IOL was immersed again in physiologic saline. The findings strongly suggest that whitening of the hydrophobic acrylic IOL was due to trace water molecules that infiltrate the optic. Within the 3-dimensional network of the polymeric lens material, the molecules are too small to form observable voids but can form water aggregates of sufficient size to scatter visible light, causing opacification (ie, whitening).

  6. Phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens for the correction of anisometropia and treatment of amblyopia.

    PubMed

    BenEzra, D; Cohen, E; Karshai, I

    2000-09-01

    To assess the potential visual benefits of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implants in eyes of children with anisometropic amblyopia. In a prospective study, three girls 9, 14, and 18 years old with high anisometropia and deep amblyopia were included in this study. The phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens (ICL; STAAR Surgical AG, Nidau, Switzerland) was used to correct the anisometropia. This intraocular lens was inserted in the anterior chamber through a 3.0-mm temporal clear cornea incision and manipulated into the posterior chamber using an iris manipulator. A peripheral iridectomy was performed using the Ocutome Probe (Storz; Premiere, St. Louis, Missouri). Local therapy with corticosteroids and antibiotics were prescribed for 2 weeks, and patients were followed regularly for a period of 6 to 9 months. In the three amblyopic eyes of the three patients, the preoperative best-corrected visual acuity of 6/30, 6/60, and 6/30 improved, to 6/7.5 (20/25), 6/30 (20/100), and 6/15 (20/50), respectively, 6 months after the surgery. Binocular functions with development of fusional abilities and stereopsis were observed in two of these patients after the intraocular lens implantation. In the third patient, the fusional abilities developed only after surgical correction of the exotropia. The intraocular pressure remained within normal limits, and there was no significant change in the corneal endothelial cell count during the period of follow-up. No major intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed, except for a temporary pigment dispersion. Implantation of phakic posterior chamber intraocular lenses may be beneficial for the treatment of amblyopia in children with anisometropia. Although additional cases and long-term follow-up observations are necessary, it appears that amblyopia may be overcome by the use of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implants, even in eyes of children beyond the age generally considered to be responsive to

  7. Relationship between homocysteine and intraocular pressure in men and women: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Leibovitzh, Haim; Cohen, Eytan; Levi, Amos; Kramer, Michal; Shochat, Tzippy; Goldberg, Elad; Krause, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between homocysteine levels and glaucoma has been questioned in previous studies without conclusive results. In the current study, we assessed the relationship between homocysteine levels and intraocular pressure which is one of the main factors in the development of glaucoma in men and women.A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a database from a screening center in Israel which assessed 11,850 subjects, within an age range 20 to 80 years. The relationship between homocysteine and intraocular pressure has been investigated by comparing intraocular pressure in subjects with elevated and normal homocysteine and by comparing homocysteine levels in subjects with elevated and normal intraocular pressure. In addition, we compared the levels of homocysteine in subjects with and without a confirmed diagnosis of glaucoma.The mean IOP (±SD) in subjects with normal homocysteine levels(≤15 μmol/L) was 13.2 ± 2.3 mm Hg and 13.4 ± 2.4 mm Hg in those with high homocysteine levels (>15 μmol/L) (P < 0.008, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.09).Nonetheless, after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, vitamin B12, and folic acid statistical significance was no longer demonstrated (P = 0.37). Mean homocysteine levels (±SD) in subjects with normal intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mm Hg was 11.7 ± 5.5 μmol/L and 12.09 ± 3.43 μmol/L in those with elevated intraocular pressure (P = 0.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8). Mean homocysteine levels (±SD) in subjects with glaucoma were 11.2 ± 3.5 μmol/L compared to 11.7 ± 5.5 μmol/L in subjects without glaucoma and normal intraocular pressure ≤ 21 mm Hg (P = 0.4, 95% CI 1.2-2.1).The current study displays no clinical correlation between the homocysteine level and the intraocular pressure. Homocysteine may not be used as a predictive parameter to recognize those subjects prone to develop elevated intraocular pressure.

  8. Rise of intraocular pressure in a caffeine test versus the water drinking test in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan; Niyadurupola, Nuwan; O'Connor, Jeremy; Ang, Ghee Soon; Crowston, Jonathan; Nguyen, Dan

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the importance of intraocular pressure peaks and fluctuations as risk factors for glaucoma progression. It is well recognized that the water drinking test raises intraocular pressure and there is reasonable evidence that caffeine can also raise intraocular pressure. The aim of this study is to directly compare the effect of a caffeine test to that of the water drinking test on intraocular pressure, in patients with glaucoma. Prospective, observer-masked, cross-over study. Fourteen eyes of 14 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Patients were initially randomized to either caffeine test or water drinking test. Intraocular pressure was measured in both eyes with a Goldmann applanation tonometer at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h, by a masked examiner. This was repeated the following week at the same time of day for the other test (the cross-over). Peak intraocular pressure and maximum fluctuation from baseline were compared between groups using paired t-tests. Peak and fluctuation of intraocular pressure, time of maximum frequency of peak intraocular pressure. The maximum intraocular pressure from the water drinking test (19.7 ± 4.1) was greater than the caffeine test (16.7 ± 4.1) and showed greater fluctuation in intraocular pressure (4.3 ± 2.7 mmHg [27.7%]; P < 0.0001) compared with the caffeine test (1.8 ± 1.9 mmHg [11.7%]); P = 0.004). The rise in intraocular pressure was greater with water drinking test than the caffeine test. Caffeine does not appear to provide an alternative for patients unable to tolerate the water drinking test. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: Is physical exercise beneficial or a risk?

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles William

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure may become elevated with muscle exertion, changes in body position and increased respiratory volumes, especially when Valsalva manoeuver mechanisms are involved. All of these factors may be present during physical exercise, especially if hydration levels are increased. This review examines the evidence for intraocular pressure changes during and after physical exercise. Intraocular pressure elevation may result in a reduction in ocular perfusion pressure with the associated possibility of mechanical and/or ischaemic damage to the optic nerve head. A key consideration is the possibility that, rather than being beneficial for patients who are susceptible to glaucomatous pathology, any intraocular pressure elevation could be detrimental. Lower intraocular pressure after exercise may result from its elevation causing accelerated aqueous outflow during exercise. Also examined is the possibility that people who have lower frailty are more likely to exercise as well as less likely to have or develop glaucoma. Consequently, lower prevalence of glaucoma would be expected among people who exercise. The evidence base for this topic is deficient and would be greatly improved by the availability of tonometry assessment during dynamic exercise, more studies which control for hydration levels, and methods for assessing the potential general health benefits of exercise against any possibility of exacerbated glaucomatous pathology for individual patients who are susceptible to such changes.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of Blood Pulsation on Intraocular Pressure Measurement Results in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Blood pulsation affects the results obtained using various medical devices in many different ways. Method. The paper proves the effect of blood pulsation on intraocular pressure measurements. Six measurements for each of the 10 healthy subjects were performed in various phases of blood pulsation. A total of 8400 corneal deformation images were recorded. The results of intraocular pressure measurements were related to the results of heartbeat phases measured with a pulse oximeter placed on the index finger of the subject's left hand. Results. The correlation between the heartbeat phase measured with a pulse oximeter and intraocular pressure is 0.69 ± 0.26 (p < 0.05). The phase shift calculated for the maximum correlation is equal to 60 ± 40° (p < 0.05). When the moment of measuring intraocular pressure with an air-puff tonometer is not synchronized, the changes in IOP for the analysed group of subjects can vary in the range of ±2.31 mmHg (p < 0.3). Conclusions. Blood pulsation has a statistically significant effect on the results of intraocular pressure measurement. For this reason, in modern ophthalmic devices, the measurement should be synchronized with the heartbeat phases. The paper proposes an additional method for synchronizing the time of pressure measurement with the blood pulsation phase. PMID:28250983

  11. Free volume study on calcification process in an intraocular lens after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Ramani, R; Parihar, J K S; Ranganathaiah, C; Awasthi, P; Alam, S; Mathur, G N

    2005-10-01

    An opacified intraocular lens explanted from a patient in the postoperative period after phacoemulsification was investigated to find the cause of opacification. From the UV-visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements, the opacification in the present case seems to be due to calcification of the intraocular lens and not due to modification in the UV absorber material of the lens. The average free volume size of the intraocular lens both in unimplanted and explanted state were obtained from positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). Further, the combined FTIR and PLS results indicate that calcium gets into the free volume cavities of the intraocular lens matrix as a cationic moiety, may be in the form of Ca(++). The small decrease in glass transition temperature of the calcified lens seems to indicate the plasticizing action of calcium ions. The present results could be of some use in the design of the intraocular lens material in which calcification would be minimum. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2005.

  12. Intraocular robotic interventional surgical system (IRISS): Mechanical design, evaluation, and master-slave manipulation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jason T; Gerber, Matthew J; Prince, Stephen W; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Schwartz, Steven D; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2017-07-31

    Since the advent of robotic-assisted surgery, the value of using robotic systems to assist in surgical procedures has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, existing technologies are unable to perform complete, multi-step procedures from start to finish. Many intraocular surgical steps continue to be manually performed. An intraocular robotic interventional surgical system (IRISS) capable of performing various intraocular surgical procedures was designed, fabricated, and evaluated. Methods were developed to evaluate the performance of the remote centers of motion (RCMs) using a stereo-camera setup and to assess the accuracy and precision of positioning the tool tip using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The IRISS can simultaneously manipulate multiple surgical instruments, change between mounted tools using an onboard tool-change mechanism, and visualize the otherwise invisible RCMs to facilitate alignment of the RCM to the surgical incision. The accuracy of positioning the tool tip was measured to be 0.205±0.003 mm. The IRISS was evaluated by trained surgeons in a remote surgical theatre using post-mortem pig eyes and shown to be effective in completing many key steps in a variety of intraocular surgical procedures as well as being capable of performing an entire cataract extraction from start to finish. The IRISS represents a necessary step towards fully automated intraocular surgery and demonstrated accurate and precise master-slave manipulation for cataract removal and-through visual feedback-retinal vein cannulation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab: changes in intraocular pressure related to ocular axial length.

    PubMed

    Cacciamani, Andrea; Oddone, Francesco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Scarinci, Fabio; Di Nicola, Marta; Lofoco, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the immediate and short-term effects of intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml of bevacizumab on intraocular pressure related to different ocular axial lengths. A prospective case series of consecutive patients referred to the Department of Ophthalmology, San Pietro-Fatebenefratelli Hospital, from September 2011 through January 2011. Twenty-five patients (10 men and 15 women, mean age 70.2 ± 8.98 years) scheduled for intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration were enrolled in this study. Axial length was measured preoperatively using IOLMaster. Intraocular pressure was measured before injection, after 1 min and after 15 min using Tono-Pen XL tonometry. The mean intraocular pressure change following the intravitreal bevacizumab injection was 21.92 ± 6.95 mmHg after 1 min and 6.24 ± 3.77 mmHg after 15 min. The mean axial length of the examined eyes was 23.2 ± 1.06 mm. A good correlation was observed between the axial length and intraocular pressure rise after both 1 (R (2) = 0.752, p < 0.001) and 15 min (R (2) = 0.559, p < 0.001). Patients undergoing intravitreal injection of 0.05 ml of bevacizumab can be exposed to intraocular pressure increases correlated to ocular axial length.

  14. Intraocular pressure in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) as measured by rebound tonometry.

    PubMed

    Molter, Christine M; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Kass, Philip H; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Wack, Raymund F

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure was measured using rebound tonometry in American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), with the head in an upright standing position and when lowered in a feeding position, to establish a reference range. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) (range) intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was right eye (OD)= 10.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (7-15 mm Hg) and left eye (OS) = 11.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg (8-21 mm Hg). Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was OD and OS = 11 mm Hg. Mean intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD = 14.3 +/- 2.5 mm Hg (10-22 mm Hg) and OS = 14.4 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (11-24 mm Hg), which were significantly higher. Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD and OS = 14 mm Hg.

  15. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sabin; Puri, Lila Raj; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur.

  16. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sabin; Puri, Lila Raj; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. Objective We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. Case presentation A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Conclusion Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur. PMID:28356777

  17. The effect of ionizing radiation on intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Ellerin, B E; Nisce, L Z; Roberts, C W; Thornell, C; Sabbas, A; Wang, H; Li, P M; Nori, D

    2001-09-01

    The native crystalline lens is the principal shield against ultraviolet radiation (UV), damage to the human retina. Every year in the United States, more than one million patients undergo removal of the natural lens in the course of cataract surgery (phakectomy), at which time an intraocular lens (IOL) is placed in the lens capsule. The IOL thenceforth serves as the principal barrier to ultraviolet radiation over the life of the implant, potentially for decades. The synthetic organic molecules of which IOLs are composed offer little UV protection unless ultraviolet-absorbing chromophores are incorporated into the lens material during manufacture. However, chromophores are alkenes potentially subject to radiolytic degradation. It is unknown whether ionizing radiation at clinical doses (e.g., to the brain or in the head-and-neck region) affects the UV-absorbing capacity of chromophore-bearing IOLs and consequently exposes the retina to potentially chronic UV damage. In addition, the polymers of which IOLs are composed are themselves subject to radiation damage, which theoretically might result in optical distortion in the visible light range. To determine whether megavoltage photon ionizing radiation alters the absorption spectra of ultraviolet-shielding polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and organopolysiloxane (silicone) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in the UV (280 nm < or = lambda < 400 nm), visible (400 nm < or = lambda < or = 700 nm), and low-end near-infrared (700 nm < lambda < or = 830 nm) ranges. Prospective, nonrandomized trial of dose-paired IOL cohorts. Fourteen IOLs, seven of PMMA (Chiron 6842B) and seven of silicone (IOLAB L141U), were paired and examined for absorption spectra in 1-nm intervals over the range lambda = 280-830 nm on a Cary 400 deuterium and quartz halogen source-lamp UV/visible spectrophotometer before and after undergoing megavoltage ionizing irradiation to doses of 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 Gray, respectively. Because of artifactual

  18. The value of routine polymerase chain reaction analysis of intraocular fluid specimens in the diagnosis of infectious posterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Marius A; Lecuona, Karin A; Rogers, Graeme; Bunce, Catey; Corcoran, Craig; Michaelides, Michel

    2013-01-01

    To assess the value of routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on intraocular fluid from patients presenting with a first episode of suspected active infectious posterior uveitis in a population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Retrospective, interventional case series. Participants. 159 consecutive patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital over a five-year period. PCR analysis was performed for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PCR analysis confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis in 55 patients (35%) and altered the initial clinical diagnosis in 36 patients (23%). The clinical diagnosis prior to PCR testing was nonspecific (uncertain) in 51 patients (32%), with PCR providing a definitive final diagnosis in 20 of these patients (39%); necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis were particularly difficult to diagnose correctly without the use of PCR analysis. The clinical phenotype alone was unreliable in diagnosing the underlying infectious cause in a quarter of patients in this study. Since the outcome of incorrectly treated infective uveitis can be blinding, PCR analysis of ocular fluids is recommended early in the disease even in resource poor settings.

  19. Heavy silicone oil: a "novel" intraocular tamponade agent.

    PubMed

    Cazabon, Sunildath; Hillier, Roxane J; Wong, David

    2011-06-01

    Advances in vitreoretinal surgery have greatly increased the anatomical re-attachment rate in cases with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Intraocular tamponade agents have been in use by vitreoretinal surgeons for nearly a century. The effectiveness of an internal agent relies on its ability to make contact with the internal surface of the vitreous cavity. In the short term, this is controlled by the agent's specific gravity and interfacial tensions. In the long term, the viscosity of the material is critical to maintaining its integrity and thus reducing dispersion. The commonly used tamponade agents such as perfluoropropane (C3F8), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and silicone oil are "lighter than water" hence, float upward in the aqueous. A consequence of this is that in the upright position the superior retina is very well supported, leaving the inferior retina less well so. More recently, there has been interest in the development of "heavier than water" long-term tamponade agents that sink in the eye. Heavy silicone oil is a transparent, homogenous solution of two substances used as a single tamponade agent with improved properties and a specific gravity greater than water. Densiron (one of the two available heavy silicone oil's) is a mixture of perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, with a specific gravity of 1.35 g/ml and viscosity of 2.5 mPas), and conventional silicone oil (specific gravity of 0.97 g/ml and viscosity of 5700 mPas depending on the molecular weight). The specific gravity of Densiron is 1.06 g/ml and the viscosity is 1400 mPas, making it a novel heavier-than-water, long-term internal tamponade agent, which means that in the upright position it sinks and provides support for the inferior retina.

  20. Long-term heavy silicone oil intraocular tamponade.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Ian J; Duignan, Emma S; Kilmartin, Dara J

    2016-02-01

    Heavy silicone oil tamponade is intended to be temporary, but may occasionally be indefinite in patients who refuse, or are deemed unsuitable for, further surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of patients with temporary versus indefinite heavy silicone oil intraocular tamponade. This retrospective, comparative case series identified 75 patients who underwent heavy silicone oil instillation (Oxane HD) over a 6 year period (2006-2012) in one institution. Thirty-nine patients had temporary heavy oil tamponade and 36 patients had indefinite tamponade. The majority (68 %) of patients had a history of previous vitreoretinal surgery prior to oil instillation and 66.7 % had pre-existing proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The mean final logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was significantly better in the temporary tamponade group (1.34 ± 0.66) than the indefinite tamponade group 1.82 ± 0.64 (p = 0.003). Ambulatory BCVA (≥ 4/200) was retained in 76.3 % of temporary tamponade patients versus 54.3 % of indefinite tamponade patients (p = 0.093). Successful retinal reattachment was significantly more likely in temporary tamponade patients (92.3 %) than indefinite tamponade patients (75 %; p = 0.04). Complications in the patients with indefinite heavy silicone oil tamponade included redetachment (38.9 %), corneal pathology (13.8 %), secondary glaucoma (11.1 %) and anterior segment emulsification (8.3 %).While temporary tamponade patients had better outcomes than those with indefinite tamponade, the majority of indefinite tamponade patients still retained ambulatory vision in the affected eye. Indefinite heavy silicone oil tamponade remains a viable option for those who cannot undergo removal of oil surgery.

  1. Energy Efficiency of a New Trifocal Intraocular Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, F.; Alba-Bueno, F.; Millán, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    The light distribution among the far, intermediate and near foci of a new trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) is experimentally determined, as a function of the pupil size, from image analysis. The concept of focus energy efficiency is introduced because, in addition to the theoretical diffraction efficiency of the focus, it accounts for other factors that are naturally presented in the human eye such as the level of spherical aberration (SA) upon the IOL, light scattering at the diffractive steps or the depth of focus. The trifocal IOL is tested in-vitro in two eye models: the aberration-free ISO model, and a so called modified-ISO one that uses an artificial cornea with positive spherical SA in instead. The SA upon the IOL is measured with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and compared to the values of theoretical eye models. The results show, for large pupils, a notorious reduction of the energy efficiency of the far and near foci of the trifocal IOL due to two facts: the level of SA upon the IOL is larger than the value the lens is able to compensate for and there is significant light scattering at the diffractive steps. On the other hand, the energy efficiency of the intermediate focus for small pupils is enhanced by the contribution of the extended depth of focus of the near and far foci. Thus, while IOLs manufacturers tend to provide just the theoretical diffraction efficiency of the foci to show which would be the performance of the lens in terms of light distribution among the foci, our results put into evidence that this is better described by using the energy efficiency of the foci.

  2. Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception.

    PubMed

    Mainster, M A

    2006-06-01

    To analyse how intraocular lens (IOL) chromophores affect retinal photoprotection and the sensitivity of scotopic vision, melanopsin photoreception, and melatonin suppression. Transmittance spectra of IOLs, high pass spectral filters, human crystalline lenses, and sunglasses are used with spectral data for acute ultraviolet (UV)-blue photic retinopathy ("blue light hazard" phototoxicity), aphakic scotopic luminous efficiency, melanopsin sensitivity, and melatonin suppression to compute the effect of spectral filters on retinal photoprotection, scotopic sensitivity, and circadian photoentrainment. Retinal photoprotection increases and photoreception decreases as high pass filters progressively attenuate additional short wavelength light. Violet blocking IOLs reduce retinal exposure to UV (200-400 nm) radiation and violet (400-440 nm) light. Blue blocking IOLs attenuate blue (440-500 nm) and shorter wavelength optical radiation. Blue blocking IOLs theoretically provide better photoprotection but worse photoreception than conventional UV only blocking IOLs. Violet blocking IOLs offer similar UV-blue photoprotection but better scotopic and melanopsin photoreception than blue blocking IOLs. Sunglasses provide roughly 50% more UV-blue photoprotection than either violet or blue blocking IOLs. Action spectra for most retinal photosensitisers increase or peak in the violet part of the spectrum. Melanopsin, melatonin suppression, and rhodopsin sensitivities are all maximal in the blue part of the spectrum. Scotopic sensitivity and circadian photoentrainment decline with ageing. UV blocking IOLs provide older adults with the best possible rhodopsin and melanopsin sensitivity. Blue and violet blocking IOLs provide less photoprotection than middle aged crystalline lenses, which do not prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments if the unproved phototoxicity-AMD hypothesis is valid.

  3. Effects of ethacrynic acid on intraocular pressure of anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Searles, R V; Johnson, M; Shikher, V; Balaban, C D; Severs, W B

    1999-03-01

    Ethacrynic acid (ECA) lowers intraocular pressure (i.o.p.) by an effect usually ascribed to increased drainage of aqueous humor by the trabecular meshwork. Here, we describe the effects of a continuous 2-hr intracameral infusion of balanced salt solution (BSS), with or without 2 mM ECA (sodium salt), on IOP of pentobarbital anesthetized rats. The infusion was divided into a constant (0.05 microliter/min) and a periodic (0.25 microliter/min) component that cycled 4 min on then 4 min off. This permitted the calculation of dynamic changes in resistive (trabecular and uveoslceral drainage) and nonresistive (aqueous synthesis, episcleral venous pressure) components of IOP by fitting a second-order transfer function to the responses. ECA markedly blunted the BSS-induced rise in IOP (P < 0.01). The rise in resistive mechanisms (ocular impedance) was transiently blunted by ECA (P < 0.05) during the third and fourth 8-min cycles, and nonresistive mechanisms were reduced by ECA from cycles 3-10 (P < 0.05). Then, at the end of the infusion, the control and ECA dynamic values were similar (P < 0.05), although IOP of ECA-treated rats was still slightly reduced (P < 0.05). The most likely explanation is a summation of small changes in both resistive and nonresistive components of IOP dynamics. Systemic blood pressure was unchanged within either group. The well-known effects of ECA on the trabecular meshwork, alone, are insufficient to explain the dynamic changes in IOP observed in this model.

  4. Evaluation of monkey intraocular pressure by rebound tonometer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenhan; Cao, Guiqun; Qiu, Jinghua; Ma, Jia; Li, Ni; Yu, Man; Yan, Naihong; Chen, Lei; Pang, Iok-Hou

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of the TonoVet™ rebound tonometer in measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) of monkeys. Methods The accuracy of the TonoVet™ rebound tonometer was determined in cannulated eyes of anesthetized rhesus monkeys where IOP was controlled by adjusting the height of a connected perfusate reservoir. To assess the applicability of the equipment through in vivo studies, the diurnal fluctuation of IOP and effects of IOP-lowering compounds were evaluated in monkeys. Results IOP readings generated by the TonoVet™ tonometer correlated very well with the actual pressure in the cannulated monkey eye. The linear correlation had a slope of 0.922±0.014 (mean±SEM, n=4), a y-intercept of 3.04±0.61, and a correlation coefficient of r2=0.97. Using this method, diurnal IOP fluctuation of the rhesus monkey was demonstrated. The tonometer was also able to detect IOP changes induced by pharmacologically active compounds. A single topical ocular instillation (15 μg) of the rho kinase inhibitor, H1152, produced a 5–6 mmHg reduction (p<0.001) in IOP, lasting at least 4 h. In addition, topical administration of Travatan®, a prostaglandin agonist, induced a small transient IOP increase (1.1 mmHg versus vehicle control; p=0.26) at 2 h after treatment followed by a pressure reduction at 23 h (−2.4 mmHg; p<0.05). Multiple daily dosing with the drug produced a persistent IOP-lowering effect. Three consecutive days of Travatan treatment produced ocular hypotension of −2.0 to −2.2 mmHg (p<0.05) the following day. Conclusions The rebound tonometer was easy to use and accurately measured IOP in the rhesus monkey eye. PMID:19898690

  5. Retreatments after multifocal intraocular lens implantation: an analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Kjell Gunnar; Makari, Sarah; Ostenstad, Steffen; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and etiology of required retreatment after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and to evaluate the methods and clinical outcomes of retreatment. Patients and methods A retrospective chart review of 416 eyes of 209 patients from one site that underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery with multifocal IOL implantation. Biometry, the IOL, and refractive data were recorded after the original implantation, with the same data recorded after retreatment. Comments related to vision were obtained both before and after retreatment for retreated patients. Results The multifocal retreatment rate was 10.8% (45/416 eyes). The eyes that required retreatment had significantly higher residual refractive astigmatism compared with those who did not require retreatment (1.21±0.51 D vs 0.51±0.39 D, P<0.01). The retreatment rate for the two most commonly implanted primary IOLs, blended bifocal (10.5%, 16/152) and bilateral trifocal (6.9%, 14/202) IOLs, was not statistically significantly different (P=0.12). In those requiring retreatment, refractive-related complaints were most common. Retreatment with refractive corneal surgery, in 11% of the eyes, and piggyback IOLs, in 89% of the eyes, was similarly successful, improving patient complaints 78% of the time. Conclusion Complaints related to ametropia were the main reasons for retreatment. Residual astigmatism appears to be an important determinant of retreatment rate after multifocal IOL implantation. Retreatment can improve symptoms for a high percentage of patients; a piggyback IOL is a viable retreatment option. PMID:27041983

  6. Interlenticular opacification: dual-optic versus piggyback intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick; Stevens, Scott; Hunter, Brian; Chew, Jesse J L; Vargas, Luis G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the incidence of capsular bag opacification, particularly interlenticular opacification (ILO), in rabbit eyes implanted with a dual-optic silicone intraocular lens (IOL) or piggyback lenses. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Ten dual-optic study IOLs (Synchrony), 10 control pairs of piggyback silicone-plate lenses, and 10 control pairs of piggyback single-piece hydrophobic acrylic lenses were implanted in the capsular bag of 30 rabbit eyes following phacoemulsification. After a 6-week follow-up, the rabbits were killed and their eyes enucleated. Anterior capsule opacification and posterior capsule opacification were graded on a 0 to 4 scale from a posterior or Miyake-Apple view. Interlenticular opacification was noted in relation to the center of the interlenticular space (periphery, paracentral, and central area) and to the number of quadrants involved. The eyes were then evaluated histopathologically. Postoperative inflammatory reaction was similar in all groups. Interlenticular opacification formation was statistically different among the 3 groups of lenses (ILO extension, P = .0013, and ILO extension x ILO quadrants, P = .0023; Kruskal-Wallis test). Pairwise post comparisons of ILO formation showed that the differences between the study IOL group and the silicone-plate lens group were not significant. Interlenticular opacification post comparisons between the hydrophobic acrylic lenses and the study lens or the silicone-plate lenses were significant (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Histopathologic examination showed extension of the proliferating cortical material from the peripheral Soemmering's ring into the interlenticular space, causing ILO, especially with the pairs of hydrophobic acrylic lenses. In this rabbit model, ILO was significantly associated with pairs of hydrophobic acrylic lenses implanted in the bag. This study appears to confirm clinical observations that implantation of 2

  7. Opaque intraocular lens for intractable diplopia-UK survey.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Thomas; Watts, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To assess the practice of the use of an opaque intraocular lens (IOL) for intractable diplopia in the UK. A questionnaire was sent to 892 consultant ophthalmologists in practice requesting information on the treatment of intractable diplopia with an opaque IOL. Respondents were asked whether they would consider using an opaque IOL for intractable diplopia. Information was gathered on the numbers of lenses implanted, the type of lens used, and whether the lens was implanted inside or outside the capsular bag. In addition, we asked for the causes of intractable diplopia, the success in eliminating diplopia, the use of postoperative pilocarpine, and whether postoperative surveillance was part of the follow-up protocol. Of the 481 completed questionnaires received, 72% would consider implanting an opaque IOL. A total of 48 surgeons had implanted 1 or more lenses. There were 97 patients who were implanted with an opaque IOL over the past 15 years. Strabismus, nerve palsies, and previous retinal detachment surgery with diplopia were the main indications. Pseudophakic lenses were used by 38 surgeons in the capsular bag, 6 used iris-supported phakic lenses, and 2 used phakic lenses in the anterior chamber angle. The use of postoperative pilocarpine was reported by 9 surgeons, and 6 surgeons used regular ultrasound fundal surveillance. Patients were reported to be completely asymptomatic at discharge by 31 surgeons, with 15 surgeons reporting patients who were still symptomatic postoperatively. Only 1 intraoperative complication was reported. An opaque IOL is a safe method for treating intractable diplopia. This survey confirms that its practice is widely accepted in the UK.

  8. Intraocular lens exchange for high myopia in pseudophakic children.

    PubMed

    Kraus, C L; Trivedi, R H; Wilson, M E

    2016-09-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to examine the preoperative factors and postoperative outcomes following intraocular lens (IOL) exchange for high myopia in pseudophakic children.MethodsThe medical records of all patients undergoing IOL exchange for high myopia were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsA total of 15 eyes were identified that had undergone an IOL exchange for myopic shift. Average age of cataract extraction (CE) was 5.4 months. In all, 10/15 had a unilateral cataract. IOL exchange usually occurred at an average of 6 years following cataract surgery. The average spherical equivalent (SE) of the refractive error at that time was -9.6 D. Following IOL exchange, SE was -1.3 D. A two-line reduction in best-corrected visual acuity was observed in 1/13 of our patients for whom pre- and post-exchange data were available. The average axial length (AL) of the eye undergoing the IOL exchange was 24.0 mm, average AL in the non-operative eye was 22.1 mm. On average, the operative eyes grew 4.4 mm and the non-operative eyes 3.02 mm. No adverse events were seen in the operative eyes.ConclusionYounger age at the time of CE creates a greater likelihood of AL elongation and predisposes a child to myopic shift. IOL exchange should be considered an option to reduce anisometropia and associated aniseikonia to improve visual outcomes. Successful visual rehabilitation and predictable post-exchange refractions were seen with our patients.

  9. Postoperative surface deposits on intraocular lenses in children.

    PubMed

    Kleinmann, Guy; Apple, David J; Werner, Liliana; Pandey, Suresh K; Neuhann, Irmingard M; Assia, Ehud I; Laws, David E; de Borin, O Arambulo; Mamalis, Nick

    2006-11-01

    To report the clinicopathologic features of 4 intraocular lenses (IOLs) composed of 3 different hydrophilic biomaterials explanted from children who had postoperative opacification of the IOL optic. David J Apple, MD, Laboratories for Ophthalmic Devices Research, John A. Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The IOLs were explanted 20, 11, 22, and 25 months postoperatively from children aged 10, 3, 36, and 20 months old, respectively, at IOL implantation. Clinical data were obtained to correlate the findings with possible associated risk factors. The explanted IOLs were examined by gross and light microscopy. They were further analyzed with a stain for calcium, alizarin red 1%. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were also performed. The primary reason for cataract surgery in Case 1 and Case 2 was persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV); 1 patient received a B-Lens IOL (Hanita) and the other a Centerflex IOL (Rayner). The primary reason in Case 3 was familial bilateral congenital cataract and in Case 4, rubella cataract; both patients received a Hydroview IOL (Bausch & Lomb). All 4 IOLs had surface deposits on the optic, but the morphology of the deposits on the B-Lens and Centerflex IOLs was different than that in previously reported cases. The deposits in all four cases stained positive with alizarin red and consisted of calcium and phosphorus when imaged with EDS. Calcified deposits on 2 Hydroview IOLs explanted from children were similar to those seen in adults with the same IOL. The deposits on the B-Lens and Centerflex IOLs were probably secondary to a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier caused by preexisting PHPV.

  10. Intraocular caspofungin: in vitro safety profile for human ocular cells.

    PubMed

    Kernt, M; Kampik, A

    2011-07-01

    Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis is sight-threatening, difficult to treat and sometimes leads to loss of the eye. Only a few therapeutic agents are available for its treatment. Caspofungin is the first of a new class of antifungal drugs (echinocandins) with a high activity against Candida species, the most common pathogens found in endogenous endophthalmitis. This study investigates the safety profile of caspofungin for intraocular application in a cell-culture model. Endothelial toxicity of caspofungin was evaluated in cultured human corneas. Possible toxic effects of caspofungin (5-300 μg ml(-1)) in corneal endothelial cells (CEC), primary human trabecular meshwork cells (TMC) and primary human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were evaluated after 24 h and under conditions of inflammatory stress by treatment with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Toxicity was evaluated by tetrazolium dye-reduction assay; cell viability was quantified by a microscopic live-dead assay. No corneal endothelial toxicity could be detected after 30 days of treatment with 75 μg ml(-1) of caspofungin. Concentrations up to 75 μg ml(-1) had no influence on CEC, TMC or RPE cell proliferation, or on cell viability when administered for 24 h. Exposure to H(2)O(2) did not increase cellular toxicity of caspofungin at concentrations of 5-50 μg ml(-1). After preincubation with TNF-α, LPS or IL-6 for 24 h followed by treatment with caspofungin for 24 h, no significant decrease in cell proliferation or viability was observed. This study showed no significant toxicity for caspofungin on CEC, TMC or RPE cells, or human corneal endothelium when administered in therapeutic concentrations up to 50 μg ml(-1).

  11. Refractive lens exchange with foldable toric intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Mesa, Ramón; Carrasco-Sánchez, Daniel; Díaz-Alvarez, Sara B; Ruíz-Mateos, M Angeles; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2009-06-01

    To assess visual and refractive outcomes, and rotational stability after refractive lens exchange (RLE) with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation to correct ametropia and preexisting astigmatism. Prospective, nonrandomized, observational case series (self-controlled). This prospective, nonrandomized, and self-controlled study included 32 eyes of 19 consecutive patients with more than 1.00 diopter (D) of preexisting corneal astigmatism having RLE with AcrySof Toric IOL implantation (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, Texas, USA). Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive sphere, and keratometric and refractive cylinder were recorded preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Toric IOL axis shift was also measured. A patient satisfaction, visual phenomena, and spectacle dependency questionnaire was also carried out. At 6 months postoperatively, UCVA was 20/32 or better in 100% of the eyes, with 84.3% achieving 20/25 or better. One hundred percent of eyes achieved 20/25 or better BCVA. No eye lost >or=2 lines, 1 eye lost 1 line, 16 eyes did not change, 4 eyes gained 1 line, and 11 eyes gained >or=2 lines of BCVA after the surgery. Mean refractive cylinder was reduced significantly after surgery from -2.46 +/- 0.99 D to -0.53 +/- 0.30 D (P < .001). Vector analysis to compare attempted vs achieved correction showed that 100% of eyes were within +/- 1.00 D for the spherical equivalent, and 100% of eyes were within +/-0.50 D for the astigmatic components (J(0) and J(45)). Mean toric IOL axis rotation was 0.90 +/- 1.76 degrees, being

  12. Nanosponge-Mediated Drug Delivery Lowers Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Wendi S.; Carlson, Brian J.; van der Ende, Alice E.; Shih, Grace; Dobish, Julia N.; Calkins, David J.; Harth, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the efficacy of an extended-release drug delivery system, nanosponge (NS) encapsulated compounds, administered intravitreally to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in mice. Methods Bilateral ocular hypertension was induced in mice by injecting microbeads into the anterior chamber. Hypertensive mice received NS loaded with ocular hypotensive drugs via intravitreal injection and IOP was monitored. Retinal deposition and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) uptake of Neuro-DiO were examined following intravitreal injection of Neuro-DiO-NS using confocal microscopy. Results Brimonidine-loaded NS lowered IOP 12% to 30% for up to 6 days (P < 0.02), whereas travoprost-NS lowered IOP 19% to 29% for up to 4 days (P < 0.02) compared to saline injection. Three bimatoprost NS were tested: a 400-nm NS and two 700-nm NS with amorphous (A-NS) or amorphous/crystalline (AC-NS) crosslinkers. A single injection of 400 nm NS lowered IOP 24% to 33% for up to 17 days compared to saline, while A-NS and AC-NS lowered IOP 22% to 32% and 18% to 26%, respectively, for up to 32 days (P < 0.046). Over time retinal deposition of Neuro-DiO increased from 19% to 71%; Neuro-DiO released from NS was internalized by RGCs. Conclusions A single injection of NS can effectively deliver ocular hypotensive drugs in a linear and continuous manner for up to 32 days. Also, NS may be effective at targeting RGCs, the neurons that degenerate in glaucoma. Translational Relevance Patient compliance is a major issue in glaucoma. The use of NS to deliver a controlled, sustained release of therapeutics could drastically reduce the number of patients that progress to vision loss in this disease. PMID:25599009

  13. Refractive accuracy with light-adjustable intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Eloy A; Alcon, Encarna; Rubio, Elena; Marín, José M; Artal, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate efficacy, predictability, and stability of refractive treatments using light-adjustable intraocular lenses (IOLs). University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. Eyes with a light-adjustable IOL (LAL) were treated with spatial intensity profiles to correct refractive errors. The effective changes in refraction in the light-adjustable IOL after every treatment were estimated by subtracting those in the whole eye and the cornea, which were measured with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and a corneal topographer, respectively. The refractive changes in the whole eye and light-adjustable IOL, manifest refraction, and visual acuity were obtained after every light treatment and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The study enrolled 53 eyes (49 patients). Each tested light spatial pattern (5 spherical; 3 astigmatic) produced a different refractive change (P<.01). The combination of 2 light adjustments induced a maximum change in spherical power of the light-adjustable IOL of between -1.98 diopters (D) and +2.30 D and in astigmatism of up to -2.68 D with axis errors below 9 degrees. Intersubject variability (standard deviation) ranged between 0.10 D and 0.40 D. The 2 required lock-in procedures induced a small myopic shift (range +0.01 to +0.57 D) that depended on previous adjustments. Light-adjustable IOL implantation achieved accurate refractive outcomes (around emmetropia) with good uncorrected distance visual acuity, which remained stable over time. Further refinements in nomograms and in the treatment's protocol would improve the predictability of refractive and visual outcomes with these IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraocular Lens Calcifications After (Triple-) Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Schrittenlocher, Silvia; Penier, Marius; Schaub, Friederike; Bock, Felix; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn

    2017-07-01

    To identify incidence of and risk factors for calcifications of intraocular lenses (IOLs) after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Retrospective cohort study. Retrospective review of charts and slit-lamp images of 564 consecutive patients from the prospective Cologne DMEK database who underwent DMEK in pseudophakic eyes or DMEK in combination with cataract surgery (triple-DMEK) between September 3, 2013 and October 30, 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne. IOL calcifications after (triple-)DMEK occurred in 14 patients (2.5%). Visual acuities in affected and unaffected eyes were 0.33 ± 0.24 logMAR and 0.16 ± 0.01 logMAR after 3 months (P < .001) as well as 0.28 ± 0.16 logMAR and 0.13 ± 0.08 logMAR (P < .001) after 6 months, respectively. The proportions of triple-DMEK vs DMEK, the use of SF6 gas vs room air for anterior chamber tamponade, and the presence of hydrophilic vs hydrophobic acrylic IOLs were comparable in affected and unaffected eyes. Patients with IOL calcifications had higher rebubbling rates than patients without. Larger pupil diameters at the time of surgery showed a tendency to slightly larger areas of IOL calcifications. IOL calcifications after anterior chamber gas tamponade in DMEK lead to visual impairment and are associated with the number of rebubblings after DMEK. IOL calcifications also occur in hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of intraocular lens surface adhesiveness by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Marco; Carbone, Giovanni; Lombardo, Giuseppe; De Santo, Maria P; Barberi, Riccardo

    2009-07-01

    To analyze intraocular lens (IOL) optic surface adhesiveness using atomic force microscopy (AFM). LiCryL Laboratory, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. The surface adhesive properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), silicone, hydrophilic acrylic, and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs were evaluated by AFM. Analysis was performed at room temperature (21 degrees C) in a liquid environment using the force-versus-distance mode of a commercial instrument (NanoScope III). Measurements were acquired with rectangular silicon cantilevers of a nominal elastic constant of 10 Newton/m. The nominal value of the tip's radius of curvature was 1 mum, and the scanning speed during the acquisitions ranged from 10 to 400 nm/s. The adhesion force measurements showed different characteristics for the various types of IOLs (P<.001, analysis of variance). The hydrophobic acrylic IOL had the largest mean adhesive force (283.75 nanoNewton [nN] +/- 0.14 [SD]) followed by the hydrophilic acrylic (84.76 +/- 0.94 nN), PMMA (45.77 +/- 0.47 nN), and silicone (2.10 +/- 0.01 nN) IOLs. The surface properties of the biomaterials used to manufacture IOLs are important because they can influence the incidence and severity of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of PCO development and the interface interactions between the IOL and capsule, the results in this study may bolster the theory of manufacturing more-adhesive materials to prevent PCO.

  16. Relationship of Intraocular Pressure with Central Aortic Systolic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andrew S H; Aung, Tin; Yip, Wanfen; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) and intraocular pressure (IOP), and to compare the strength of any association with that of peripheral blood pressure and IOP. Adults ranging in age from 40 to 80 years were consecutively recruited from the population-based Singapore Chinese Eye Study. We measured CASP using arterial tonometry (BPro) and IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometry. All participants had a standardized examination including a complete ophthalmic and systemic examination. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using peripheral blood pressure cuff. Univariable and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between CASP and IOP. Standardized regression coefficients (sβ) were calculated to compare the associations between CASP and SBP with IOP. A total of 372 consecutive Chinese participants were analyzed. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, total cholesterol, use of antihypertensive medication and central corneal thickness, each 10 mmHg increase in CASP was associated with 0.32 mmHg of IOP elevation [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.53, sβ = 0.160, p value = 0.004]. SBP also had a positive relationship with IOP (β = 0.279, 95% CI: 0.079-0.479, sβ = 0.152, p value = 0.006). Associations between IOP and CASP, SBP and DBP were similar in participants using antihypertensive medication to participant not using antihypertensives. Increased CASP, as measured by arterial tonometry, is associated with higher IOP. Our results strengthen the relationship between systemic blood pressure and IOP.

  17. Intraocular and crystalline lens protection from ultraviolet damage.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H

    2011-07-01

    Although the risks of excess solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the skin are well recognized, the need for eye protection is frequently overlooked, or when sunglasses are also recommended, specific guidance is wrong or is not explained. Guidance from the World Health Organization at its InterSun webpage advises people to wear "wrap-around" sunglasses under many conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the need for UV filtration in prescription lenses, contact lenses, and sunglasses. The geometry of UV exposure of both eyes, solar position, ground reflection, pupil size, and lid opening were studied. Because an accurate determination of cumulative ocular exposure is difficult, the cornea itself can serve as a biologic dosimeter, because photokeratitis is not experienced on a daily basis but does under certain ground-surface and sunlight conditions. From a knowledge of the UV-threshold dose required to produce photokeratitis, we have an upper level of routine ocular exposure to ambient UV. From ambient UV measurements and observed photokeratitis, the upper limits of UV exposure of the crystalline lens or an intraocular lens implant are estimated. The risk of excess UV exposure of the germinative cells of the lens is greatest from the side. Sunglasses can actually increase UV exposure of the germinative region of the crystalline lens and the corneal limbus by disabling the eyes' natural protective mechanisms of lid closure and pupil constriction! The level of UV-A risk is difficult to define. Proper UV-absorbing contact lenses offer the best mode for filtering needless exposure of UV radiation of the lens and limbus.

  18. Heritability of intraocular pressure: a classical twin study.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, F; Andrew, T; Mackey, D A; Spector, T D; Hammond, C J

    2008-08-01

    To estimate the heritability of intraocular pressure (IOP) by performing a classical twin study and to determine whether the use of different instruments influences calculation of eye IOP heritability. Twin pairs were recruited to participate from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry at St. Thomas' Hospital London. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). A subset of twins also had their IOP measured using the Ocular Response Analyser (ORA; Reichert, Buffalo, NY) and the Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, Pascal; Swiss Microtechnology AG, Port, Switzerland). We compared the covariance of IOP within monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) pairs using genetic modelling techniques to determine the relative contribution of genes and environment to the variation in IOP seen in this population. Data for 422 twin pairs (211 MZ; 211 DZ) were analysed. The mean IOP for GAT was 15.4 (SD 2.7) mm Hg (range: 8.7-26.2 mm Hg). The MZ correlations were significantly higher than DZ for IOP measured by GAT, DCT and ORA (correlation coefficients: GAT: 0.57:0.39, DCT: 0.62:0.36, Goldmann-correlated ORA (IOPg) 0.73:0.47, for MZ:DZ twins, respectively). Modelling suggested heritability for GAT IOP of 0.62, with individual environmental factors accounting for 0.38 of the variation. This study demonstrated that genetic effects are important in determining IOP in this twin population. IOP readings differed depending upon the instrument used, and this resulted in different heritability values; genetic factors explained 62%, 63% and 74% of the variation in IOP using GAT, DCT and ORA IOPg, respectively. Environmental factors determined the remainder of the variation.

  19. [Phacoemulsification and acrylic intraocular lens in uveitis: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    González-Guijarro, J Jacobo; Tamés Haye, I; Valdivia Pérez, A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the outcomes of phacoemulsification with the implant of an acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in cataracts of adult patients with and without uveitis Descriptive retrospective comparative study of 35 patients (45 eyes) with uveitis (group 1) and 38 (44 eyes) control patients (group 2), who were operated on by the same surgeon, and were homogeneous as regards sex, surgical technique, IOL (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) and follow-up. The pre-surgical characteristics of risk, the difficulties and intra-surgical and postsurgical complications, the date of posterior capsulotomy (PC) and the pre- and post-surgical visual acuity (VA), were analysed. In both groups the coaxial phacoemulsification was used in 75% of the eyes, bimanual microincision cataract surgery (MICS) in 20% and micro-coaxial in the rest. The pre-surgical risk factors (P = .002, OR 6.83), the surgical difficulties and complications (P = .001, OR 7.54) and postsurgical complications (P = .069, OR 3.42) were more frequent in the uveitis group. In both 93% and 91% respectively of eyes improved 2 or more lines of VA. After an average follow-up of 4.9 years in both groups, 22.7% and 32% eyes (log-rank P = .357) needed PC. The hydrophilic IOLs needed PC earlier than the hydrophobic ones (log rank P = .001), neither the location nor the uveitis course influenced the PC rate. The consequences because of previous ocular inflammation make cataract surgery in uveitis more difficult, but with postsurgical complications, visual results and need of PC similar to our patients without inflammation. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. [First results with a new aberration correcting bifocal intraocular lens].

    PubMed

    Kaymak, H; Mester, U

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the functional results with a new bifocal intraocular lens. The *Acri.LISA (*Acri.Tec) was implanted bilaterally in 20 patients after uneventful cataract surgery. The new bifocal IOL has a light distribution of 65% for distance and 35% for the near range. The diffractive optics of the lens are designed to be independent of pupil size. Smooth steps in diffractive structure should reduce glare. An aspheric design of the posterior optic surface is engineered to counteract the asphericity of the cornea (-0.26). Postoperative evaluation included 6 weeks after surgery: uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected (BCVA) visual acuity for distance (ETDRS charts) and near (C.A.T. charts, Birkhäuser charts) monocular and binocular, defocus curve, contrast sensitivity under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions (F.A.C.T.), and subjective assessment of halos At the 6-week follow-up mean binocular UCVA and BCVA (LogMAR) were -0.02+/-0.10 and -0.07+/-0.09, respectively, for distance. Near UCVA (LogMAR) was 0.09+/-0.16; distance corrected near VA was 0.04+/-0.13. Visual acuity was significantly superior when tested binocularly compared to monocular testing (p<0.01). The depth of field showed an intermediate decimal VA of 0.6+/-0.21 at 70 cm and a pseudoaccommodation range of 5.5 D. Of 20 patients, 16 reported slight halos, but no patient was seriously impaired. The *Acri.LISA showed very good visual performance 6 weeks after bilateral surgery.

  1. Psychophysical Vision Simulation of Diffractive Bifocal and Trifocal Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Brezna, Wolfgang; Lux, Kirsten; Dragostinoff, Nikolaus; Krutzler, Christian; Plank, Nicole; Tobisch, Rainer; Boltz, Agnes; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Told, Reinhard; Witkowska, Katarzyna; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The visual performance of monofocal, bifocal, and trifocal intraocular lenses was evaluated by human individuals using a vision simulator device. This allowed investigation of the visual impression after cataract surgery, without the need actually to implant the lenses. Methods The randomized, double-masked, three-way cross-over study was conducted on 60 healthy male and female subjects aged between 18 and 35 years. Visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; ETDRS) and contrast sensitivity tests (Pelli-Robson) under different lighting conditions (luminosities from 0.14–55 cd/m2, mesopic to photopic) were performed at different distances. Results Visual acuity tests showed no difference for corrected distance visual acuity data of bi- and trifocal lens prototypes (P = 0.851), but better results for the trifocal than for the bifocal lenses at distance corrected intermediate (P = 0.021) and distance corrected near visual acuity (P = 0.044). Contrast sensitivity showed no differences between bifocal and trifocal lenses at the distant (P = 0.984) and at the near position (P = 0.925), but better results for the trifocal lens at the intermediate position (P = 0.043). Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity showed a strong dependence on luminosity (P < 0.001). Conclusions At all investigated distances and all lighting conditions, the trifocal lens prototype often performed better, but never worse than the bifocal lens prototype. Translational Relevance The vision simulator can fill the gap between preclinical lens development and implantation studies by providing information of the perceived vision quality after cataract surgery without implantation. This can reduce implantation risks and promotes the development of new lens concepts due to the cost effective test procedure. PMID:27777828

  2. The early phase of vascularization in intraocular telencephalic transplants.

    PubMed

    Tuba, A; Kálmán, M

    1997-01-01

    The present study focused on the early events of vascularization of intraocular cerebral transplants. Telencephalic pieces of rat embryos (E15) were transplanted into the anterior eye chamber of adult rats in deep ketamine-xylazine narcosis. At 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-day postoperative survival periods, the rats were perfused and the transplants, with their iridic beds, were processed into serial, semi-thin sections. In 3- and 4-day transplants, neither dilated (perfused) nor collapsed blood vessels were found, but tissue defects, without proper wall and filled by non-nucleated (mature, host) erythrocytes, were seen. On post-operative day 5, large sinusoids were seen lines by endothelium and free of blood cells (as a consequence of perfusion). On days 6 and 7, the usual, although large, blood vessels were found. Our results suggest that the critical period of transplant vascularization is between postoperative days 4 and 5, and that the original vessels of donor tissue degenerate and disappear during the first postoperative days and thus, do not participate directly in transplant vascularization. Our hypothesis is that vascular invasion begins with the opening of host blood vessels into clefts formed by degeneration of graft tissue. For a period, a hemostasis occurs in these blood-filled lacunae, and then endothelium invasion from host vessels forms the proper wall. The transplant vasculature develops from these large sinusoids. The results challenge the role of the pre-existing donor vessels in transplant vascularization. A possible explanation of such paradoxical results is that the donor tissue must reach a stage of maturation to receive the ingrowing vessels, either host vessels, and the presence of vessels in the donor brain is the sign of this stage of maturation but has no direct role in transplant vascularization.

  3. Intraocular pressure fluctuation during microincision vitrectomy with constellation vision system.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshimi; Okamoto, Fumiki; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2013-11-01

    To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation during various vitrectomy maneuvers using the vitrectomy system (Alcon Constellation Vision System). An experimental study as laboratory investigation. In porcine eyes, 23- and 25-gauge vitrectomy was performed, and IOP fluctuations were evaluated in vitreous cutting mode, in aspiration mode, and during scleral compression. The measurements were performed with the IOP control setting turned on or off. Using the 23-gauge system with the IOP control setting turned on, IOP decreased from 30 to 23.7 mm Hg after starting vitreous cutting, and then returned to 30 mm Hg in 2.6 seconds. When the IOP control setting was turned off, IOP decreased to 19.1 mm Hg in 0.9 seconds, and remained at that pressure. Under aspiration at 650 mm Hg without cutting, IOP showed a sharp depression from 30 to 12.2 mm Hg, and then returned to 30.6 mm Hg in 2.6 seconds with the IOP control setting turned on. When the IOP control setting was turned off, IOP decreased to 2.2 mm Hg in 9.7 seconds, and did not recover. When the sclera was compressed without aspiration, IOP rapidly increased to 70-100 mm Hg, and then slowly decreased to 30 mm Hg in 3.5-4.0 seconds, with or without the IOP control system. Similar data were obtained with 25-gauge vitrectomy. The IOP control system can attenuate IOP fluctuations during vitrectomy maneuvers. There was no significant difference in IOP fluctuations between 23- and 25-gauge systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraocular pressure and cerebral oxygenation during prolonged headward acceleration.

    PubMed

    Eiken, Ola; Keramidas, Michail E; Taylor, Nigel A S; Grönkvist, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i.e., improves provisions for retinal perfusion), or the cerebral anoxia reserve. Subjects were exposed to 4-min +Gz plateaux either at 2 and 3 G (n = 10), or at 4 and 5 G (n = 12). Measurements included eye-level mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygenation of the cerebral frontal cortex, and at 2 and 3 G, IOP. IOP was similar at 1 (14.1 ± 1.6 mmHg), 2 (14.0 ± 1.6 mmHg), and 3 G (14.0 ± 1.6 mmHg). During the G exposures, MAP exhibited an initial prompt drop followed by a partial recovery, end-exposure values being reduced by ≤30 mmHg. Cerebral oxygenation showed a similar initial drop, but without recovery, and was followed by either a plateau or a further slight decrement to a minimum of about -14 μM. Gz loading did not affect IOP. That cerebral oxygenation remained suppressed throughout these G exposures, despite a concomitant partial recovery of MAP, suggests that the increased risk of unconsciousness upon G-garment failure after prolonged +Gz exposure is due to reduced cerebral anoxia reserve.

  5. Open Globe Injuries Presenting With Normal or High Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Margo, Jordan A; Feldman, Samantha; Addis, Hampton; Bodanapally, Uttam K; Ellish, Nancy; Saeedi, Osamah

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, and visual outcomes of patients who present with high or normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and open globe injuries. Retrospective chart review. University of Maryland Medical Center, a level 1 trauma center. All cases of open globe injury presenting to The University of Maryland Medical Center from July 2005 to January 2014. Demographics, initial physical examination, computed tomography findings, IOP of the affected and unaffected eyes, and follow-up evaluations. (1) IOP 10 mm Hg or greater and (2) visual acuity. Of 132 eyes presenting with open globe injury, IOP was recorded in 38 (28%). Mean IOP for the affected and unaffected eyes was 14±10.3 mm Hg and 16.6±4.1 mm Hg, respectively. Twenty-three (59.4%) eyes had IOP greater than 10 mm Hg. Six eyes (16.2%) had IOP greater than 21 mm Hg. Using bivariate analysis, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with posterior open globe injury (P=0.01), posterior hemorrhage (P=0.04), and intraconal retrobulbar hemorrhage (P=0.05). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with the presence of posterior open globe injury on clinical examination (P=0.04). Higher presenting IOP was found to predict light perception or worse vision (P=0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that poor presenting vision was the best predictor of poor final vision (P<0.01). High IOP does not exclude open globe injury. It is a frequent finding in patients with open globe injuries and may be associated with posterior injury and poor visual prognosis.

  6. Unilateral retinopathy secondary to occult primary intraocular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Barile, Gaetano R.; Hood, Donald C.; Marr, Brian; Hussein, Shafinaz; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to report the clinical case of a 53-year-old woman whose presenting manifestation of primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) was unilateral retinal degeneration. Method A case report was created with review of clinical, imaging, electrophysiologic, and pathological investigations. Results A 53-year-old woman with a distant history of ocular herpes simplex developed progressive central visual loss and intermittent photopsia over 4 years in her right eye. Ophthalmic examination revealed reduced visual acuity OD, central scotoma, and minimal ocular findings. Autofluorescence and infrared imaging revealed mild reflectance changes in the temporal macula, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography identified mild disruptions of inner segment/outer segment junctions in the subfoveal region of the right eye. A mild window defect was seen on fluorescein angiography. Electrophysiology with multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) revealed evidence of unilateral macular dysfunction. Full-field ERGs revealed progressive global retinal dysfunction over 6 months, with unilateral decreases in amplitude and implicit time shifts, as seen in cases of autoimmune retinopathies. The eye eventually exhibited mild vitreous cellular infiltration on ophthalmoscopic examination, and vitrectomy diagnosed B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Further evaluation revealed no evidence of central nervous system or systemic disease, consistent with occult PIOL. Conclusions This case illustrates an atypical presentation of PIOL characterized by unilateral retinal disease presenting with symptoms and signs of macular dysfunction. Clinical and ERG features evolved into an acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR)-like phenotype. PIOL should be considered in atypical cases of AZOOR with vitreal reactions, and some cases of AZOOR may be related to B cell lymphocyte disorders. PMID:24081663

  7. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of intraocular lens haptic design on refractive error.

    PubMed

    Savini, Giacomo; Barboni, Piero; Ducoli, Pietro; Borrelli, Enrico; Hoffer, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    To assess the influence of intraocular (IOL) haptic design on the refraction prediction error in patients having cataract surgery. Private practice. Comparative case series. Corneal power and axial length were measured with the same devices in eyes with a 3-piece Acrysof IOL and eyes with a 1-piece Acrysof IOL and were entered into the Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas. The median absolute error and mean absolute error in refraction prediction (ie, difference between expected refraction and actual refraction) were assessed 1 month postoperatively. The study evaluated 110 eyes with the 3-piece IOL and 84 eyes with the 1-piece IOL. With all formulas, the median absolute error was lower with the 3-piece IOL. It ranged between 0.15 diopter (D) (Haigis and Holladay 1) and 0.19 D (SRK/T) with the 3-piece IOL and between 0.23 D (Haigis) and 0.30 D (SRK/T) with the 1-piece IOL. With all formulas, a higher percentage of eyes with the 3-piece IOL were within ±0.25 D and ±0.50 D of the target refraction. Three-piece IOLs may yield better refractive outcomes than 1-piece IOLs. A possible reason is that once the early forward IOL shift previously observed with the 3-piece design occurs because of the haptic-compression force decay typical of these IOLs, the rigid haptics of 3-piece IOLs still exert more pressure against the capsular bag than the haptics of 1-piece IOLs. Therefore, 3-piece IOLs may better resist subsequent capsule contraction and provide a more predictable effective lens position. Dr. Hoffer receives royalties for his book IOL Power, Slack, Inc., and formula royalties from all manufacturers using the Hoffer Q formula. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photochemical generation of antimicrobial Ag-nanoparticles in intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badur, Thorben; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NP) have been investigated in depth during the last decades.[1] For cataract treatment minimal invasive surgery has become state-of-the-art. The physicians are still fighting against postoperative inflammations, such as endophthalmitis.[2] We present a novel approach to reduce these postoperative complications by equipping the hydrophilic intraocular lenses (IOL) with a Ag NP depot. As the Ag NP are completely entrapped inside the polymeric IOL no direct contact of the nanoparticles with epithelial cells may occur. Using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) or 7-hydroxycumarine (7HOCum) as photo reduction mediators (PRM) the formation of the Ag NP is accomplished in situ. PRM and Ag nitrate are diffused into the ready made IOL. By means of two-photon-absorption (TPA) photochemistry at λTPA = 532 nm the Ag NP generation is precisely controlled to occur inside the IOL only. At no point NP are directly exposed to the surface.[3] Interesting dependencies between the used PRM and the resulting particle size distribution or the effectiveness of the silver ion reduction inside the polymer matrix are reported. The Ag NP were prepared in the outer area of the IOL not to affect the optical properties of the ophthalmic implant. The amount of Ag ions released was determined and found to be sufficient to effectively reduce the counts of airborne germs. Besides HOBt and 7HOCum we also investigated the photo reductive properties of several other organic reagents, such as benzophenone (BP) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HOBP) for the ability to produce even three-dimensional nanoparticle structures inside a polymer matrix.

  10. Correlation between Central Corneal Thickness and Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry or Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometry.

    PubMed

    Katsimpris, J M; Theoulakis, P E; Vasilopoulos, K; Skourtis, G; Papadopoulos, G E; Petropoulos, I K

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. The study included 45 persons (90 eyes), divided into 4 groups: a) 10 normal volunteers (20 eyes); b) 16 patients (32 eyes) with primary open-angle glaucoma; c) 8 patients (16 eyes) with normal-tension glaucoma; and d) 11 patients (22 eyes) with ocular hypertension. Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and Pascal dynamic contour tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry. The relationship between intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness was evaluated. Intraocular pressure was correlated positively but not strongly enough with central corneal thickness when it was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. On the contrary, there was no correlation between intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness when intraocular pressure was measured by Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. Central corneal thickness is an important variable in the evaluation of intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry. This factor does not interfere with the intraocular pressure measurements taken by Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Intraocular pressure following ECCE and IOL implantation in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kooner, K S; Dulaney, D D; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-08-01

    Patients with glaucoma may suffer optic nerve head damage due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after any intraocular procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the IOP data in 82 consecutive patients (103 eyes) with glaucoma after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Nine eyes had previous trabeculectomy and three eyes required combined trabeculectomy with ECCE and PC-IOL. The average follow-up period is 1.5 years (range 0.5 to 6 years). The postoperative IOP rise of 8 mm Hg over baseline or above 23 mm Hg was observed in 45 eyes (49.5%). Two eyes needed argon laser trabeculoplasty and one required trabeculectomy to control postoperative IOP elevation. Most of the patients required the same or lesser number of medications for IOP control after surgery. Results suggest that ECCE with PC-IOL may be a relatively safe procedure in cataract patients with preexisting glaucoma.

  12. [Intraocular lenses for the correction of refraction errors. Part 1: phakic anterior chamber lenses].

    PubMed

    Kohnen, T; Baumeister, M; Cichocki, M

    2005-10-01

    In this overview, the current status of intraocular lens surgery to correct refractive error is reviewed. The interventions are divided into additive surgery with intraocular lens implantation without extraction of the crystalline lens (phakic intraocular lens, PIOL) or the removal of the crystalline lens with implantation of an IOL (refractive lens exchange, RLE). Phakic IOLs are constructed as angle-supported or iris-fixated anterior chamber lenses and posterior chamber lenses that are fixated in the ciliary sulcus. The implantation of phakic IOLs has been demonstrated to be an effective, safe, predictable and stable procedure to correct higher refractive errors. Complications are rare and differ for the three types of PIOL; for anterior chamber lenses these are mainly pupil ovalization and endothelial cell loss.

  13. Suction-based grasping tool for removal of regular- and irregular-shaped intraocular foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Michael S; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Mackenzie, Douglas; Olson, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a suction-based grasping tool for the surgical removal of irregular-shaped and nonferromagnetic intraocular foreign bodies. A surgical tool with suction capabilities, consisting of a stainless steel shaft with a plastic handle and a customizable and interchangeable suction tip, was designed in order to better engage and manipulate irregular-shaped in-traocular foreign bodies of various sizes and physical properties. The maximal suction force and surgical capabilities were assessed in the laboratory and on a cadaveric eye vitrectomy model. The suction force of the water-tight seal between the intraocular foreign body and the suction tip was estimated to be approximately 40 MN. During an open-sky vitrectomy in a porcine model, the device was successful in engaging and firmly securing foreign bodies of different sizes and shapes. The suction-based grasping tool enables removal of irregular-shaped and nonferromagnetic foreign bodies. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. STS-41 crewmembers conduct DSO 0472 Intraocular Pressure on OV-103's middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-10

    STS-41 crewmembers conduct Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 0472 Intraocular Pressure on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Mission Specialist (MS) William M. Shepherd rests his head on the stowed treadmill while Pilot Robert D. Cabana, holding Shepherd's eye open, prepares to measure Shepherd's intraocular pressure using a tono pen (in his right hand). Objectives include: establishing a database of changes in intraocular pressures that can be used to evaluate crew health; validating ten degree head down bedrest as a model for cephalad fluid shifts in microgravity; facilitating the interpretation of data by providing a quantative measure of microgravity induced cephalad fluid shifts; and validating the tono pen as an effective tool for diagnostic and scientific data collection.

  15. Precrystalline posterior chamber intraocular lens for surgical correction of severe myopia.

    PubMed

    Barraquer, J

    1999-08-01

    To report early experience with a posterior chamber precrystalline intraocular lens designed for correction of severe myopia from -10 to -30 diopters. This intraocular lens respects the transparent crystalline lens and does not interfere with accommodation. The concave-convex methylmethacrylate lens, with flexible haptics that are supported in the sulcus, is placed behind the iris, in front of the lens, and centered with the pupil. From July 1995 to November 1998, 149 precrystalline lenses have been inserted with few, generally reversible complications, which are now largely prevented by adequate modification of the intraocular lens. Correction has been satisfactory and stable. Although follow-up is relatively short, precrystalline lens placement may be considered an important contribution to the surgical management of severe myopia to improve the patient's vision and, consequently, quality of life.

  16. Continuous assessment of intraocular pressure - telematic transmission, even under flight- or space mission conditions.

    PubMed

    Draeger, J; Michelson, G; Rumberger, E

    2000-01-26

    Fluid shift after entering into microgravity, but also under equivalent flight conditions leads to enormous increase of intraocular pressure. To assess this precisely position - and gravity independent, handsome, automatic tonometers have been developed (German-Spacelab D1-Mission, German-Spacelab D2-Mission, German-Russian-MIR-Mission) telemetric transmission of measuring results of course would find scientific but also functional interest. The same is true for recently designed automatic intraocular pressure sensors, registering intraocular pressure continuously, day and night. Also recently designed new automatic ophthalmodynamometer, allowing directly to assess the intracranial pressure, but also perfusion pressure within the eye also could benefit from a direct telemetric transmission. New technical solutions allowing for the first time even telematic data transmission, are reported.

  17. Influence of untreated chronic plastic iridocyclitis on intraocular pressure in leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Karaçorlu, M A; Cakiner, T; Saylan, T

    1991-02-01

    The intraocular pressures of a total of 286 eyes of patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous leprosy who never had regular ophthalmological care or local eye treatment were measured. The patients were categorised according to the type of leprosy they had, and the eyes were categorised as without or with chronic plastic iridocyclitis. In patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous types of leprosy the intraocular pressure was significantly lower in eyes with chronic plastic iridocylitis 10.1 (3.6) mmHg than in both unaffected eyes 11.0 (3.2) mmHg and control eyes 13.5 (2.5) mmHg. It has been shown that chronic plastic iridocyclitis which remains untreated for years results in a lower intraocular pressure than normal.

  18. Influence of untreated chronic plastic iridocyclitis on intraocular pressure in leprosy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Karaçorlu, M A; Cakiner, T; Saylan, T

    1991-01-01

    The intraocular pressures of a total of 286 eyes of patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous leprosy who never had regular ophthalmological care or local eye treatment were measured. The patients were categorised according to the type of leprosy they had, and the eyes were categorised as without or with chronic plastic iridocyclitis. In patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous types of leprosy the intraocular pressure was significantly lower in eyes with chronic plastic iridocylitis 10.1 (3.6) mmHg than in both unaffected eyes 11.0 (3.2) mmHg and control eyes 13.5 (2.5) mmHg. It has been shown that chronic plastic iridocyclitis which remains untreated for years results in a lower intraocular pressure than normal. PMID:1995040

  19. Post-operative endophthalmitis: the application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to an infection control problem.

    PubMed

    Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G

    2001-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  20. Experimental implantation and long-term testing of an intraocular vision aid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Szurman, Peter; Warga, Max; Roters, Sigrid; Grisanti, Salvatore; Heimann, Uta; Aisenbrey, Sabine; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sellhaus, Bernd; Ziemssen, Focke; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U

    2005-07-01

    To develop an intraocular vision aid to provide artificial vision in severely traumatized eyes, where neuroretinal function could be preserved but irreversible anterior segment opacification resulted in blindness. The basis of an intraocular vision aid is in principle a telemetric circuit to bridge the opaque cornea and to allow for artificial light stimulation of the retina. The visual prosthesis comprises an external high-dynamic range complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera and digital signal processing unit and an intraocular miniaturized light-emitting diode array to project the image onto the retina. For in vivo testing of long-term function and biocompatibility, silicone-encapsulated active photodiodes were implanted in 13 pigmented rabbits and were followed up for up to 21 months. Lens extraction and stable fixation of the device in the ciliary sulcus were successful in all cases. For up to 21 months inductive energy transmission and wireless stimulation of the implants could be maintained. Electrophysiologic data and histology demonstrated a good tissue biocompatibility in the long-term follow-up. The results demonstrate the general feasibility and biocompatibility to implant and fixate an intraocular light-emitting diode prosthesis. Inductive energy transmission to the intraocular device and wireless light stimulation are assured in the long term but depend on meticulous water-impermeable encapsulation of the delicate microelectronic components. Clinical Relevance An intraocular vision aid compound system with a high-resolution light-emitting diode matrix might be a future treatment option to restore vision in blind eyes with severe anterior segment disorders.