Science.gov

Sample records for acremonium sp ea0810

  1. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

  2. Activation of prothrombin by two subtilisin-like serine proteases from Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunli; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Kosuke; Makimura, Koichi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2007-06-22

    Two novel subtilisin-like serine proteases (AS-E1 and -E2) that activate prothrombin have been identified in a culture of the fungus Acremonium sp. The enzymes were purified through repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The N-terminal sequences of AS-E1 (34.4 kDa) and AS-E2 (32 kDa) showed high similarity to the internal sequences of two distinct subtilisin-like hypothetical proteins from Chaetomium globosum. Both enzymes proteolytically activated prothrombin to meizothrombin(desF1)-like molecules, while the activation cleavage seemed to occur at a site (Tyr(316)-Ile(317)) that is four residues proximal to the canonical Xa cleavage site (Arg(320)-Ile(321)). Both enzymes inhibited plasma clotting, possibly due to extensive degradation of fibrinogen and production of meizothrombin(desF1)-like molecule.

  3. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    PubMed

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus.

  4. Elucidation of the factors affecting the oxidative activity of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase by an electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenichi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-07

    Steady-state kinetics of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase toward p-hydroquinone derivatives have been examined by using an electrochemical analysis based on the theory of steady-state bioelectrocatalysis. The electrochemical technique has enabled one to examine the influence of electronic and chemical properties of substrates on the activity. It was proven that the oxidative activity of ascorbate oxidase was dominated by the highly selective substrate-binding affinity based on electrostatic interaction beyond the one-electron redox potential difference between ascorbate oxidase's type 1 copper site and substrate.

  5. Elucidation of the factors affecting the oxidative activity of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase by an electrochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Kenichi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-07

    Steady-state kinetics of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase toward p-hydroquinone derivatives have been examined by using an electrochemical analysis based on the theory of steady-state bioelectrocatalysis. The electrochemical technique has enabled one to examine the influence of electronic and chemical properties of substrates on the activity. It was proven that the oxidative activity of ascorbate oxidase was dominated by the highly selective substrate-binding affinity based on electrostatic interaction beyond the one-electron redox potential difference between ascorbate oxidase's type 1 copper site and substrate.

  6. The Structure of manganese oxide formed by the fungus Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saratovsky, Ian; Gurr, Sarah J.; Hayward, Michael A.

    2009-06-01

    Manganese oxides are observed to form by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of Mn(II) catalyzed by the action of microorganisms. In contrast to the widely studied material produced by bacteria, manganese oxide phases produced by the action of fungi have received only limited attention. A detailed study of the MnO x material produced by the action of the fungus Acremonium KR21-2, utilizing X-ray diffraction, XANES, EXAFS and transmission electron microscopy is reported. The MnO x material is produced as small crystalline particles which adopt a todorokite-like tunnel structure, in striking contrast to previously reported microbial MnO x materials which adopt layered birnessite-type structures. ICPMS measurements reveal there are no templating metal ions present in the fungally mediated MnO x material, in contrast to analogous bacterially mediated material, suggesting these cations play a critical role in determining the structure of the material precipitated. A phylogenetic analysis places KR21-2 with other Acremonium species in the Hypocreales.

  7. A specific Ce oxidation process during sorption of rare earth elements on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Tani, Yukinori; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2010-10-01

    Sorption of rare earth elements (REEs) and Ce oxidation on natural and synthetic Mn oxides have been investigated by many researchers. Although Mn(II)-oxidizing microorganisms are thought to play an important role in the formation of Mn oxides in most natural environments, Ce oxidation by biogenic Mn oxide and the relevance of microorganisms to the Ce oxidation process have not been well understood. Therefore, in this study, we conducted sorption experiments of REEs on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2. The distribution coefficients, Kd(REE), between biogenic Mn oxide (plus hyphae) and 10 mmol/L NaCl solution showed a large positive Ce anomaly and convex tetrad effect variations at pH 3.8, which was consistent with previous works using synthetic Mn oxide. The positive Ce anomaly was caused by oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by the biogenic Mn oxide, which was confirmed by analysis of the Ce L III-edge XANES spectra. With increasing pH, the positive Ce anomaly and convex tetrad effects became less pronounced. Furthermore, negative Ce anomalies were observed at a pH of more than 6.5, suggesting that Ce(IV) was stabilized in the solution (<0.2 μm) phase, although Ce(III) oxidation to Ce(IV) on the biogenic Mn oxide was confirmed by XANES analysis. It was demonstrated that no Ce(III) oxidation occurred during sorption on the hyphae of strain KR21-2 by the Kd(REE) patterns and XANES analysis. The analysis of size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS showed that some fractions of REEs in the filtrates (<0.2 μm) after sorption experiments were bound to organic molecules (40 and <670 kDa fractions), which were possibly released from hyphae. A line of our data indicates that the negative Ce anomalies under circumneutral pH conditions arose from Ce(III) oxidation on the biogenic Mn oxide and subsequent complexation of Ce(IV) with organic ligands. The suppression of tetrad effects is also explained by the complexation of REEs with organic ligands. The results of

  8. Oxidation of ethane by an Acremonium species.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J S; Wellman, A M; Zajic, J E

    1976-01-01

    Ethane oxidation was studied in ethane-grown resting cells (mycelia) of an Acremonium sp. and in cell-free preparations of such mycelia. From resting cell experiments evidence was found for a pathway of ethane oxidation via ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. In vitro studies indicated that ethane-oxidizing activity in such mycelia occurred predominantly in the microsomal fraction of crude homogenates. Microsomal preparations were inactive in the absence of added coenzyme. Marked stimulation of activity was obtained in such preparations with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and to a much lesser degree with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Ethane oxidation was inhibited by sodium azide and carbon monoxide. PMID:9900

  9. Two rare cases of Acremonium acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Larini, Sandra; Gorrini, Chiara; Martinelli, Monica; Piscopo, Giovanni; Benecchi, Magda; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Montecchini, Sara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Gandolfi, Stefano; Chezzi, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    This report describes two cases of Acremonium sp. endophthalmitis, occurring in two patients who underwent cataract surgery on the same day in the same operating room of our hospital ophthalmology clinic. Diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis was established by the repeated isolation of the same fungal agent from vitreous washing, acqueous fluid and intraocular lens samples and by its identification on the basis of morphological and molecular features. The cases reported in this study emphasize the need for clinical microbiology laboratories to be prepared to face the diagnosis of uncommon infectious diseases such as exogenous fungal endophthalmitis by Acremonium, and to enhance the awareness of surgeons and clinicians of this occurrence.

  10. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  11. Characterization of Acremonium and Isaria ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, the only known fungal ice nuclei (IN) were a few exponents of lichen mycobionts and Fusarium spp. [Kieft and Ruscetti 1990, Pouleur et al. 1992, Hasegawa et al. 1994, Tsumuki et al. 1995], as well as two strains of mold [Jayaweera and Flanagan 1982]. Other investigated species did not show any IN activity [Pouleur et al. 1992, Iannone et al. 2011, Pummer et al. 2013]. In the last few years, IN-activity has been discovered in some rust and smut fungi [Morris et al. 2013, Haga et al. 2013], Acremonium implicatum (Acr.) and Isaria farinosa (Isa.) [Huffman et al. 2013] and a handful of other airborne and soil fungi [unpublished data]. We started characterizing the IN of Acr. and Isa.: Like other non-bacterial biological IN, they can be easily separated from the cells in aqueous suspension, and keep their activity. The IN-active aqueous suspensions were processed by filtration (5 μm, 0.1 μm, 300 kDa, 100 kDa) and exposure to heat (60° C) or guanidinium chloride (6 M). The IN activity of the processed samples was measured by a freezing assay of droplets, as described by Pummer et al. [2013]. Via the Vali formula, we calculated the amount of IN per gram of mycelium, which is higher than 105 g-1. The initial freezing temperature was -4° C for Isaria and -8° C for Acremonium IN. Both were completely knocked out by 60° C or guanidinium chloride. The Acremonium IN are in a mass range between 100 and 300 kDa. The Isaria IN seem to be either a bit larger, or more attached to larger particles, since not all of them pass through the 300-kDa-filter. It is likely that both of these new IN are proteinaceous like the IN of Fusarium spp. and lichen mycobionts, which belong to the Ascomycota phylum. Since the Isaria IN show a high onset freezing temperature and are rather large for single molecules, they might be agglomerates. Haga D.I. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 118, 7260-7272 Hasegawa Y. et al. (1994) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58, 2273-2274 Huffman A

  12. Acremonium sclerotigenum-Acremonium egyptiacum: a multi-resistant fungal pathogen complicating the course of aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Guitard, J; Degulys, A; Buot, G; Aline-Fardin, A; Dannaoui, E; Rio, B; Marie, J P; Lapusan, S; Hennequin, C

    2014-01-01

    A patient with aplastic anaemia, successively treated with caspofungin then liposomal amphotericin, developed a disseminated infection due to Acremonium, further confirmed as resistant in vitro to these drugs. Successful treatment was achieved with voriconazole. Multiple antifungal treatments may expose to the risk of breakthrough of multi-resistant pathogens in haematology patients.

  13. An unusual case of lung abscess caused by Acremonium species treated with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Qazi, M S; Bowalekar, S S; Wanjare, V S; Shankar, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a report of a 37-year-old female with lung abscess due to Acremonium species that responded to oral itraconazole. There was a marked clinical as well as radiological improvement in patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of lung abscess due to Acremonium species which was treated by oral itraconazole. This cost-effective treatment modality proved to be significant in improving symptoms as well as morbidity in this patient.

  14. Structural Characterization of Glucooligosaccharide Oxidase from Acremonium strictum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Lin, Shuen-Fuh; Hsu, Cheng-Sheng; Liaw, Shwu-Huey; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    Glucooligosaccharide oxidase from Acremonium strictum was screened for potential applications in oligosaccharide acid production and carbohydrate detection. This protein is a unique covalent flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of carbohydrates with high selectivity for cello- and maltooligosaccharides. Kinetic measurements suggested that this enzyme possesses an open carbohydrate-binding groove, which is mainly composed of two glucosyl-binding subsites. The encoding gene was subsequently cloned, and one intron was detected in the genomic DNA. Large amounts of active enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris, with a yield of 300 mg per liter medium. The protein was predicted to share structural homology with plant cytokinin dehydrogenase and related flavoproteins that share a conserved flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain. The closest sequence matches are those of plant berberine bridge enzyme-like proteins, particularly the characteristic flavinylation site. Unexpectedly, mutation of the putative FAD-attaching residue, H70, to alanine, serine, cysteine, and tyrosine did not abolish the covalent FAD linkage and had little effect on the Km. Instead, the variants displayed kcat values that were 50- to 600-fold lower, indicating that H70 is crucial for efficient redox catalysis, perhaps through modulation of the oxidative power of the flavin. PMID:16332885

  15. Recombinant Acremonium chrysogenum strains for the industrial production of cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Díez, B; Mellado, E; Fouces, R; Rodríguez, M; Barredo, J L

    1996-09-01

    Conventional strain improvement programs based on random mutagenesis and rational screening have meant valuable results to the antibiotic producing companies. The development of recombinant DNA techniques and their applications to the industrially-used cephalosporin-producing fungus Acremonium chrysogenum has provided a new tool, complementary to classical mutation, promoting the design of alternative biosynthetic pathways making it possible to obtain new antibiotics and to improve cephalosporin production. Yield increases have been achieved by increasing the dosage of the biosynthetic genes cefEF (deacetoxycephalosporin C expandase/hydroxylase) and cefG (deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) or enhancing the oxygen uptake by expressing a bacterial oxygen-binding heme protein (Vitreoscilla hemoglobin). New biosynthetic capacities such as the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or penicillin G have been achieved through the expression of the foreign genes dao (D-amino acid oxidase) coupled with cephalosporin acylase or penDE(acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase) respectively. Confined manipulation of the above-mentioned recombinant strains must be performed according to standing rules.

  16. Isolation of an Isocoumarin and an Isobenzofuran Derivatives from a Fungicolous Isolate of Acremonium crotocinigenum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6,8-dimethoxy-4,5-dimethyl-3-methyleneisochroman-1-one (1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-isobenzofuranone (2), have been isolated from an organic extract of the fungicolous fungus Acremonium crotocinigenum (NRRL 40192). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of NM...

  17. Occurrence of Pyrrocidine and Dihydroresorcyclide Production among Acremonium zeae Populations from Maize Grown in Different Regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acremonium zeae is recognized as a protective endophyte of maize. It is thus a potential confounding variable in maize variety trials for resistance to pathogenic microbes and their mycotoxins. This fungus grows systemically in maize and produces pyrrocidines A and B, polyketide amino acid derived...

  18. Synthesis of a natural gamma-butyrolactone from nerylacetone by Acremonium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum cultures.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Switalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2011-03-01

    Natural gamma-butyrolactone - (4R, 5R)-5-(4'-methyl-3'pentenyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-dihydrofuran-2-one (2) was isolated as the product of microbial transformation of nerylacetone (1) by fungal strains. This product was obtained as the enantiomer (+) in high yields 24% and 61% with ee=94% and 82% by the biotransformation in the cultures of Acremonium roseum AM336 and Fusarium oxysporum AM13 respectively.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the endophytic fungus Acremonium implicatum associated with Brachiaria grasses.

    PubMed

    Abello, Javier; Kelemu, Segenet; García, Celsa

    2008-03-01

    Acremonium implicatum is a seed-transmitted endophytic fungus that forms symbiotic associations with the economically significant tropical forage grasses, Brachiaria species. To take advantage of the endophyte's plant protective properties, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Acremonium implicatum, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and vector pSK1019 (trpC promoter) or pCAMBIA1300 (CaMV35S promoter). We found that transformation efficiency doubled for both mycelial and conidial transformation as the co-cultivation period for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Acremonium implicatum was increased from 48 to 72h. Significantly, optimal results were obtained for either mycelial or conidial transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL-1 and vector pSK1019 under the control of the trpC promoter. However, mycelial transformation consistently generated a significantly higher number of transformants than did conidial transformation. The mitotic stability of the transferred DNA was confirmed by growing ten transformants in liquid and agar media for six generations. In all cases, resistance to the selection pressure (hygromycin B) was maintained. Fluorescence emission was retained by the transformants and also expressed in Brachiaria tissues from plants inoculated with GFP-transformed A. implicatum. This technology will help in the transfer and expression of agronomically important genes in host plants.

  20. The production and characterization of a new active lipase from Acremonium alcalophilum using a plant bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microorganisms are the most proficient decomposers in nature, using secreted enzymes in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose. As such, they present the most abundant source for discovery of new enzymes. Acremonium alcalophilum is the only known cellulolytic fungus that thrives in alkaline conditions and can be cultured readily in the laboratory. Its optimal conditions for growth are 30°C and pH 9.0-9.2. The genome sequence of Acremonium alcalophilum has revealed a large number of genes encoding biomass-degrading enzymes. Among these enzymes, lipases are interesting because of several industrial applications including biofuels, detergent, food processing and textile industries. Results We identified a lipA gene in the genome sequence of Acremonium alcalophilum, encoding a protein with a predicted lipase domain with weak sequence identity to characterized enzymes. Unusually, the predicted lipase displays ≈ 30% amino acid sequence identity to both feruloyl esterase and lipase of Aspergillus niger. LipA, when transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana, accumulated to over 9% of total soluble protein. Plant-produced recombinant LipA is active towards p-nitrophenol esters of various carbon chain lengths with peak activity on medium-chain fatty acid (C8). The enzyme is also highly active on xylose tetra-acetate and oat spelt xylan. These results suggests that LipA is a novel lipolytic enzyme that possesses both lipase and acetylxylan esterase activity. We determined that LipA is a glycoprotein with pH and temperature optima at 8.0 and 40°C, respectively. Conclusion Besides being the first heterologous expression and characterization of a gene coding for a lipase from A. alcalophilum, this report shows that LipA is very versatile exhibiting both acetylxylan esterase and lipase activities potentially useful for diverse industry sectors, and that tobacco is a suitable bioreactor for producing fungal proteins. PMID:23915965

  1. Expression of cefF significantly decreased deacetoxycephalosporin C formation during cephalosporin C production in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    An, Yang; Dong, Hailing; Liu, Gang

    2012-02-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC) is not only the precursor but also one of the by-products during cephalosporin C (CPC) biosynthesis. One enzyme (DAOC/DAC synthase) is responsible for the two-step conversion of penicillin N into deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC) in Acremonium chrysogenum, while two enzymes (DAOC synthase and DAOC hydroxylase) were involved in this reaction in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Amycolatopsis lactamdurans (Nocardia lactamdurans). In this study, the DAOC hydroxylase gene cefF was cloned from Streptomyces clavuligerus and introduced into Acremonium chrysogenum through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. When cefF was expressed under the promoter of pcbC, the ratio of DAOC/CPC in the fermentation broth significantly decreased. These results suggested that introduction of cefF could function quite well in Acremonium chrysogenum and successfully reduce the content of DAOC in the CPC fermentation broth. This work offered a practical way to improve the CPC purification and reduce its production cost.

  2. A glucuronoyl esterase from Acremonium alcalophilum cleaves native lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds.

    PubMed

    Arnling Bååth, Jenny; Giummarella, Nicola; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lawoko, Martin; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2016-08-01

    The Glucuronoyl esterases (GE) have been proposed to target lignin-carbohydrate (LC) ester bonds between lignin moieties and glucuronic acid side groups of xylan, but to date, no direct observations of enzymatic cleavage on native LC ester bonds have been demonstrated. In the present investigation, LCC fractions from spruce and birch were treated with a recombinantly produced GE originating from Acremonium alcalophilum (AaGE1). A combination of size exclusion chromatography and (31) P NMR analyses of phosphitylated LCC samples, before and after AaGE1 treatment provided the first evidence for cleavage of the LC ester linkages existing in wood.

  3. A Battle in a Kernel: Molecular Exploration of Antagonisms between Two Maize Endophytes, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a prevalent seed-borne maize endophyte capable of causing severe kernel rot and fumonisin mycotoxin contamination. Within maize kernels, Fv is primarily confined to the pedicel, while another seed-borne fungal endophyte, Acremonium zeae (Az), is observed in embryos. ...

  4. Cellulase production from a new strain Acremonium strictum isolated from the Brazilian Biome using different substrates.

    PubMed

    Goldbeck, Rosana; Ramos, Mayla M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Maugeri-Filho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the production of cellulolytic enzymes by Acremonium strictum isolated from Brazilian Biome using different substrates. Fermentations were initially carried out using commercial substrates, including microcrystalline cellulose (AVICEL® and SERVACEL®) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). This was followed by fermentations performed using lignocellulosic biomass: sugarcane bagasse pretreated at different intensities. The fermentations were carried out in shakers at 150 rpm, 30 °C for 240 h. Four enzyme activities were determined: CMCase, FPase, cellobiase and β-glucosidase. Among the substrates used, results showed that the sugarcane bagasse submitted to mild pretreatment was that which induced the microorganism to produce greater cellulolytic activities. This substrate was employed in the optimization study of cellulase production by A. strictum.

  5. Asexual cephalosporin C producer Acremonium chrysogenum carries a functional mating type locus.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the alpha-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The alpha-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the PaDeltaMAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT(+)) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum.

  6. Kinetics and Thermostability of NADP-Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Cephalosporium acremonium

    PubMed Central

    Olano, J.; de Arriaga, D.; Busto, F.; Soler, J.

    1995-01-01

    NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase [isocitrate:NADP(sup+) oxidoreductase (decarboxylating); EC 1.1.1.42] was purified from Cephalosporium acremonium as a single species. The enzyme is a dimer of 140 kDa with identical subunits of 75 kDa. The existence of a monomer-dimer equilibrium is apparent as revealed by an enzyme dilution approach. The chelate complex of the tribasic form of isocitrate and Mg(sup2+) is the true substrate. The V(infmax) depends on a basic form of an ionizable group of the enzyme-substrate complex with a pK(infes) (pK of the enzyme-substrate complex) of 6.9 and a (Delta)H(infion) (activation enthalpy) of -2 (plusmn) 0.4 kcal mol(sup-1) (ca. 8 (plusmn) 2 kJ mol(sup-1)). The enzyme showed maximum activity at 60(deg)C, an unusually high temperature for a nonthermophilic fungus. The thermodynamic parameters for isocitrate oxidative decarboxylation and for the binding of isocitrate and NADP(sup+) were calculated. We analyzed the kinetic thermal stability of the enzyme at pH 6.5 and 7.6. It was inactivated above 40(deg)C following a first-order kinetics. The presence of 12 mM Mg(sup2+) plus 10 mM dl-isocitrate led to 100% protection of enzyme activity against inactivation at 60(deg)C for 120 min. Removal of either or both compounds led to activity loss. A greater stabilizing role for Mg(sup2+) was seen at pH 6.5 than at pH 7.6, whereas the stabilizing effect of isocitrate was not dependent on pH. PMID:16535052

  7. Cephalosporin C production by immobilized Cephalosporium acremonium cells in a repeated batch tower bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio J G; Pan, Tai; Giordano, Roberto C; Araujo, Maria Lucia G C; Hokka, Carlos O

    2004-01-05

    The industrial production of antibiotics with filamentous fungi is usually carried out in conventional aerated and agitated tank fermentors. Highly viscous non-Newtonian broths are produced and a compromise must be found between convenient shear stress and adequate oxygen transfer. In this work, cephalosporin C production by bioparticles of immobilized cells of Cephalosporium acremonium ATCC 48272 was studied in a repeated batch tower bioreactor as an alternative to the conventional process. Also, gas-liquid oxygen transfer volumetric coefficients, k(L)a, were determined at various air flow-rates and alumina contents in the bioparticle. The bioparticles were composed of calcium alginate (2.0% w/w), alumina ( < 44 micra), cells, and water. A model describing the cell growth, cephalosporin C production, oxygen, glucose, and sucrose consumption was proposed. To describe the radial variation of oxygen concentration within the pellet, the reaction-diffusion model forecasting a dead core bioparticle was adopted. The k(L)a measurements with gel beads prepared with 0.0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% alumina showed that a higher k(L)a value is attained with 1.5 and 2.0%. An expression relating this coefficient to particle density, liquid density, and air velocity was obtained and further utilized in the simulation of the proposed model. Batch, followed by repeated batch experiments, were accomplished by draining the spent medium, washing with saline solution, and pouring fresh medium into the bioreactor. Results showed that glucose is consumed very quickly, within 24 h, followed by sucrose consumption and cephalosporin C production. Higher productivities were attained during the second batch, as cell concentration was already high, resulting in rapid glucose consumption and an early derepression of cephalosporin C synthesizing enzymes. The model incorporated this improvement predicting higher cephalosporin C productivity.

  8. An endogenous promoter for conditional gene expression in Acremonium chrysogenum: the xylan and xylose inducible promoter xyl1(P.).

    PubMed

    Blatzer, Michael; Gsaller, Fabio; Abt, Beate; Schrettl, Markus; Specht, Thomas; Haas, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum is the natural producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C and therefore of significant biotechnological importance. Here we identified and characterized the xylanase-encoding xyl1 gene and demonstrate that its promoter, xyl1(P), is suitable for conditional expression of heterologous genes in A. chrysogenum. This was shown by xylose and xylan-inducible xyl1(P)-driven expression of genes encoding green fluorescence protein and phleomycin resistance. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of the xyl1(P) promoter for selection marker recycling. Taken together, these finding will help to overcome the limitation in genetic tools in this important filamentous fungus.

  9. Soluble inhibitors generated during hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber suppressed the catalytic activity of Acremonium cellulase.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm mesocarp fiber was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The pretreated slurries were separated by filtration, pretreated liquids and solids were characterized. An enzymatic digestibility study was performed for both pretreated slurries and solids to understand the effect of soluble inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process. The highest glucose yield obtained from pretreated slurries was 70.1%, and gradually decreased with higher pretreatment severities. The highest glucose yield obtained in pretreated solids was 100%, after pretreatment at 210°C for 20min. In order to study the inhibitory effects of compounds generated during pretreatment with cellulase, technical grade solutions that mimic the pretreated liquid were prepared and their effect on Acremonium cellulase activity was monitored using Avicel. Xylo-oligomers and tannic acid were identified as powerful inhibitors of Acremonium cellulase, and the lowest hydrolysis rate of Avicel of 0.18g/g-glucose released/L/h was obtained from tannic acid.

  10. Acremoxanthone E, a Novel Member of Heterodimeric Polyketides with a Bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene Ring, Produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae) Endophytic Fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Acremonium camptosporum was isolated as an endophyte from the leaves of the plant Bursera simaruba. Extracts from cultures of the fungus were shown to have inhibitory effects on the growth of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The chemical compounds in the extracts were identified, and a group...

  11. Direct ethanol production from glucose, xylose and sugarcane bagasse by the corn endophytic fungi Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Visser, Evan M; Siqueira, Germano A; Milagres, Adriane M F; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2013-10-10

    Production of ethanol with two corn endophytic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae, was studied. The yield of ethanol from glucose, xylose and a mixture of both sugars were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.50g/g ethanol/sugar for F. verticillioides and 0.37, 0.39 and 0.48g/g ethanol/sugar for A. zeae. Both fungi were able to co-ferment glucose and xylose. Ethanol production from 40g/L of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was 4.6 and 3.9g/L for F. verticillioides and A. zeae, respectively, yielding 0.31g/g of ethanol per consumed sugar. Both fungi studied were capable of co-fermenting glucose and xylose at high yields. Moreover, they were able to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulosic biomass, demonstrating to be suitable microorganisms for consolidated bioprocessing.

  12. Expression of the transporter encoded by the cefT gene of Acremonium chrysogenum increases cephalosporin production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Kovalchuk, Andriy; van den Berg, Marco A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-10-01

    By introduction of the cefEF genes of Acremonium chrysogenum and the cmcH gene of Streptomyces clavuligerus, Penicillium chrysogenum can be reprogrammed to form adipoyl-7-amino-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (ad7-ACCCA), a carbamoylated derivate of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid. The cefT gene of A. chrysogenum encodes a cephalosporin C transporter that belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Introduction of cefT into an ad7-ACCCA-producing P. chrysogenum strain results in an almost 2-fold increase in cephalosporin production with a concomitant decrease in penicillin by-product formation. These data suggest that cephalosporin production by recombinant P. chrysogenum strains is limited by the ability of the fungus to secrete these compounds.

  13. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  14. RNA-silencing in Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum: validation studies using beta-lactam genes expression.

    PubMed

    Ullán, Ricardo V; Godio, Ramiro P; Teijeira, Fernando; Vaca, Inmaculada; García-Estrada, Carlos; Feltrer, Raúl; Kosalkova, Katarina; Martín, Juan F

    2008-10-01

    In this work we report the development and validation of a new RNA interference vector (pJL43-RNAi) containing a double-stranded RNA expression cassette for gene silencing in the filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. Classical targeted gene disruption in these fungi is very laborious and inefficient due to the low frequency of homologous recombination. The RNAi vector has been validated by testing the attenuation of two different genes of the beta-lactam pathway; pcbC in P. chrysogenum and cefEF in A. chrysogenum. Quantification of mRNA transcript levels and antibiotic production showed knockdown of pcbC and cefEF genes in randomly isolated transformants of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum, respectively. The process is efficient; 15 to 20% of the selected transformants were found to be knockdown mutants showing reduced penicillin or cephalosporin production. This new RNAi vector opens the way for exploring gene function in the genomes of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum.

  15. The first promoter for conditional gene expression in Acremonium chrysogenum: iron starvation-inducible mir1(P).

    PubMed

    Gsaller, Fabio; Blatzer, Michael; Abt, Beate; Schrettl, Markus; Lindner, Herbert; Haas, Hubertus

    2013-01-10

    The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is of enormous biotechnological importance as it represents the natural producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. However, a limitation in genetic tools, e.g. promoters for conditional gene expression, impedes genetic engineering of this fungus. Here we demonstrate that in A. chrysogenum iron starvation induces the production of the extracellular siderophores dimerumic acid, coprogen B, 2-N-methylcoprogen B and dimethylcoprogen as well as expression of the putative siderophore transporter gene, mir1. Moreover, we show that the promoter of mir1, mir1(P), is suitable for conditional expression of target genes in A. chrysogenum as shown by mir1(P)-driven and iron starvation-induced expression of genes encoding green fluorescence protein and phleomycin resistance. The obtained iron-starvation dependent phleomycin resistance indicates the potential use of this promoter for selection marker recycling. Together with easy scorable siderophore production, the co-regulation of mir1 expression and siderophore production facilitates the optimization of the inducing conditions of this expression system.

  16. High-coverage gene expression profiling analysis of the cellulase-producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus cultured using different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Yano, Shinichi; Tsukahara, Kenichiro; Murakami, Katsuji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2013-06-01

    The gene expression of a cellulase-producing fungus, Acremonium cellulolyticus, was investigated after culturing with three different carbon sources: glycerol, lactose, and Solka-Floc powdered cellulose (SF). High-coverage gene expression profiling (HiCEP) analysis, a method requiring no prior sequence knowledge, was used to screen genes upregulated at the early stage of cellulase production. SF was used as a strong inducer of cellulase production, lactose was used as an inducer of the expression of cellulase genes at the early stage of the culture, and glycerol was used as a negative control. Approximately 15,000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected in each sample prepared from the culture grown for 16 h. Based on the expression profiles of the cultured cells, 36 fragments upregulated in both the SF and lactose cultures were selected and sequenced. The deduced gene products of 31 TDFs were likely related to biomass degradation, sugar metabolism, transcriptional regulation, protein modification and metabolism, cell wall recycling, fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis, and other functions. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis verified that almost all of the transcripts obtained by HiCEP analysis were upregulated in the SF and lactose cultures grown for 18 h. Some of the TDFs in the SF culture were further upregulated over the course of 72 h. The gene products from these TDFs would provide insight into improving the cellulase productivity of A. cellulolyticus.

  17. A septation related gene AcsepH in Acremonium chrysogenum is involved in the cellular differentiation and cephalosporin production.

    PubMed

    Long, Liang-Kun; Wang, Yanling; Yang, Jing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA inserted mutants of Acremonium chrysogenum were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). One mutant 1223 which grew slowly was selected. TAIL-PCR and sequence analysis indicated that a putative septation protein encoding gene AcsepH was partially deleted in this mutant. AcsepH contains nine introns, and its deduced protein AcSEPH has a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S_TKc) domain at its N-terminal region. AcSEPH shows high similarity with septation H proteins from other filamentous fungi based on the phylogenetic analysis of S_TKc domains. In sporulation (LPE) medium, the conidia of AcsepH mutant was only about one-seventh of the wild-type, and more than 20% of conidia produced by the mutant contain multiple nuclei which were rare in the wild-type. During fermentation, the AcsepH disruption mutant grew slowly and its cephalosporin production was only about one quarter of the wild-type, and the transcription analysis showed that pcbC expression was delayed and the expressions of cefEF, cefD1 and cefD2 were significantly decreased. The vegetative hyphae of AcsepH mutant swelled abnormally and hardly formed the typical yeast-like cells. The amount of yeast-like cells was about one-tenth of the wild-type after fermentation for 5days. Comparison of hyphal viabilities revealed that the cells of AcsepH mutant died easily than the wild-type at the late stage of fermentation. Fluorescent stains revealed that the absence of AcsepH in A. chrysogenum led to reduction of septation and formation of multinucleate cells. These data indicates that AcsepH is required for the normal cellular septation and differentiation of A. chrysogenum, and its absence may change the cellular physiological status and causes the decline in cephalosporin production.

  18. Purification and characterization of AsES protein: a subtilisin secreted by Acremonium strictum is a novel plant defense elicitor.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Nadia R; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C

    2013-05-17

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2(˙)) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity.

  19. Characterization of the lys2 gene of Acremonium chrysogenum encoding a functional alpha-aminoadipate activating and reducing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hijarrubia, M J; Aparicio, J F; Casqueiro, J; Martín, J F

    2001-02-01

    A 5.2-kb NotI DNA fragment isolated from a genomic library of Acremonium chrysogenum by hybridization with a probe internal to the Penicillium chrysogenum lys2 gene, was able to complement an alpha-aminoadipate reductase-deficient mutant of P. chrysogenum (lysine auxotroph L-G-). Enzyme assays showed that the alpha-aminoadipate reductase activity was restored in all the transformants tested. The lys2-encoded enzyme catalyzed both the activation and reduction of alpha-aminoadipic acid to its semialdehyde, as shown by reaction of the product with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. The reaction required NADPH, and was not observed in the presence of NADH. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a protein with relatively high similarity to members of the superfamily of acyladenylate-forming enzymes. The Lys2 protein contained all nine motifs that are conserved in the adenylating domain of this enzyme family, a peptidyl carrier domain, and a reduction domain. In addition, a new NADP-binding motif located at the N-terminus of the reduction domain that may form a Rossmann-like betaalphabeta-fold has been identified and found to be shared by all known Lys2 proteins. The lys2 gene was mapped to chromosome I (2.2 Mb, the smallest chromosome) of A. chrysogenum C10 (the chromosome that contains the "late" cephalosporin cluster) and is transcribed as a monocistronic 4.5-kb mRNA although at relatively low levels compared with the beta-actin gene.

  20. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP) is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Results Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF) as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v) of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8–12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50–300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7–46.3 g/l and 0.15–0.18 (g ethanol/g SF), respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50–300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5–35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12–0.19 (g/g) respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. Conclusion A. cellulolyticus

  1. An overview of the taxonomy, phylogeny, and typification of nectriaceous fungi in Cosmospora, Acremonium, Fusarium, Stilbella, and Volutella

    PubMed Central

    Gräfenhan, T.; Schroers, H.-J.; Nirenberg, H.I.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive phylogenetic reassessment of the ascomycete genus Cosmospora (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is undertaken using fresh isolates and historical strains, sequences of two protein encoding genes, the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2), and a new phylogenetic marker, the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1). The result is an extensive revision of taxonomic concepts, typification, and nomenclatural details of many anamorph- and teleomorph-typified genera of the Nectriaceae, most notably Cosmospora and Fusarium. The combined phylogenetic analysis shows that the present concept of Fusarium is not monophyletic and that the genus divides into two large groups, one basal in the family, the other terminal, separated by a large group of species classified in genera such as Calonectria, Neonectria, and Volutella. All accepted genera received high statistical support in the phylogenetic analyses. Preliminary polythetic morphological descriptions are presented for each genus, providing details of perithecia, micro- and/or macro-conidial synanamorphs, cultural characters, and ecological traits. Eight species are included in our restricted concept of Cosmospora, two of which have previously documented teleomorphs and all of which have Acremonium-like microconidial anamorphs. A key is provided to the three anamorphic species recognised in Atractium, which is removed from synonymy with Fusarium and epitypified for two macroconidial synnematous species and one sporodochial species associated with waterlogged wood. Dialonectria is recognised as distinct from Cosmospora and two species with teleomorph, macroconidia and microconidia are accepted, including the new species D. ullevolea. Seven species, one with a known teleomorph, are classified in Fusicolla, formerly considered a synonym of Fusarium including members of the F. aquaeductuum and F. merismoides species complex, with several former varieties raised to species rank. Originally a section of

  2. Regulatory properties of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Cephalosporium acremonium: evidence of an isoenzyme and its importance in cephalosporin C biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Döbeli, H; Nüesch, J

    1980-07-01

    O-Acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine from H2S and O-acetyl-L-serine in the fungus Cephalosporsium acremonium, a cephalosporin C-producing organism. We separated this enzyme from the closely related but less specific O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase and showed that O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase also catalyzes the formation of cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and H2S. The expression of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase was regulated by exogenous methionine. In addition, this enzyme was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid. The inhibition of both S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid was noncompetitive. Results obtained with gel filtraton experiments in various buffer systems indicate an association-dissociation behavior of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase.

  3. Regulatory properties of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Cephalosporium acremonium: evidence of an isoenzyme and its importance in cephalosporin C biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Döbeli, H; Nüesch, J

    1980-01-01

    O-Acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine from H2S and O-acetyl-L-serine in the fungus Cephalosporsium acremonium, a cephalosporin C-producing organism. We separated this enzyme from the closely related but less specific O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase and showed that O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase also catalyzes the formation of cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and H2S. The expression of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase was regulated by exogenous methionine. In addition, this enzyme was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid. The inhibition of both S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid was noncompetitive. Results obtained with gel filtraton experiments in various buffer systems indicate an association-dissociation behavior of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase. PMID:7191238

  4. Expression of the Acremonium chrysogenum cefT gene in Penicillum chrysogenum indicates that it encodes an hydrophilic beta-lactam transporter.

    PubMed

    Ullán, Ricardo V; Teijeira, Fernando; Martín, Juan F

    2008-09-01

    The Acremonium chryrsogenum cefT gene encoding a membrane protein of the major facilitator superfamily implicated in the cephalosporin biosynthesis in A. chrysogenum was introduced into Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (a benzylpenicillin producer), P. chrysogenum npe6 pyrG(-) (a derivative of Wisconsin 54-1255 lacking a functional penDE gene) and P. chrysogenum TA98 (a deacetylcephalosporin producer containing the cefD1, cefD2, cefEF and cefG genes from A. chrysogenum). RT-PCR analysis revealed that the cefT gene was expressed in P. chrysogenum strains. HPLC analysis of the culture broths of the TA98 transformants showed an increase in the secretion of deacetylcephalosporin C and hydrophilic penicillins (isopenicillin N and penicillin N). P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 strain transformed with cefT showed increased secretion of the isopenicillin N intermediate and a drastic decrease in the benzylpenicillin production. Southern and northern blot analysis indicated that the untransformed P. chrysogenum strains contain an endogenous gene similar to cefT that may be involved in the well-known secretion of the isopenicillin N intermediate. In summary, the cefT transporter is a hydrophilic beta-lactam transporter that is involved in the secretion of hydrophilic beta-lactams containing alpha-aminoadipic acid side chain (isopenicillin N, penicillin N and deacetylcephalosporin C).

  5. Evaluation of the Efficacies of Amphotericin B, Posaconazole, Voriconazole, and Anidulafungin in a Murine Disseminated Infection by the Emerging Opportunistic Fungus Sarocladium (Acremonium) kiliense

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Sutton, Deanna A.; Hernández, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the efficacies of different antifungal drugs against Sarocladium kiliense (formerly Acremonium kiliense), a clinically relevant opportunistic fungus, in a murine model of systemic infection. Three clinical strains of this fungus were tested, and the therapy administered was as follows: posaconazole at 20 mg/kg of body weight (twice daily), voriconazole at 40 mg/kg, anidulafungin at 10 mg/kg, or amphotericin B at 0.8 mg/kg. The efficacy was evaluated by prolonged animal survival, tissue burden reduction, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan serum levels. In general, the four antifungal drugs showed high MICs and poor in vitro activity. The efficacy of the different treatments was only modest, since survival rates were never higher than 40% and no drug was able to reduce fungal load in all the organs for the three strains tested. Posaconazole, in spite of its high MICs (≥16 μg/ml), showed the highest efficacy. The (1→3)-β-d-glucan serum levels were equally reduced by all drugs evaluated. PMID:24100490

  6. Effects of environmental heat and intake of tall fescue seed infested with Acremonium coenophialum on the acid-base status of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L L; Vogt, D W; Lipsey, R J; Garner, G B; Cornell, C N

    1996-04-01

    Effects of high environmental temperature and dietary intake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) seed containing the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on bovine acid-base status were studied using 3 groups of bull calves (2 Simmental, 1 Angus). Experimental animals were housed in controlled-climate chambers and subjected to gradual increases in environmental temperature, first while being fed an endophyte-free diet and then while being fed a diet containing 17% endophyte-infested fescue seed. Marked acid-base disturbances were not observed in any animals. In general, Pco2, HCO3-, base excess, and arterial blood pH values were reduced in response to heat stress, both with endophyte-free and endophyte-containing diets. In most individuals anion gap increased. These results reflected metabolic compensation for mild chronic alveolar hyperventilation and retention of organic acids. These findings suggest that, under conditions similar to those found during the summer in central Missouri, normal cattle should not be at great risk of developing respiratory alkalosis or other severe acid-base disturbances as a result of heat stress and/or intake of tall fescue endophyte.

  7. Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Apollo).

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Camares, O; Veisseire, P

    2000-05-01

    The effects of zinc on growth, mineral content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and detoxifying enzyme activity (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), EC 1.11.1.11; superoxide dismutase (SOD), EC 1.15.1.1) of ryegrass infected or not by Acremonium lolii, and treated with nutrient solution containing 0-50 mM ZnSO(4) were studied. The introduction of zinc induces stress with a decrease in growth at 1, 5 and 10 mM ZnSO(4) and a cessation of growth at 50 mM ZnSO(4), in ryegrass plants infected by A. lolii or not. This decrease in growth may be due to an accumulation of zinc in leaves. Nevertheless, symbiotic plants showed higher values in tiller number, an advantage conferred by the fungus. After 24 d of Zn exposure, leaf fresh weights and leaf water content were lower in plants growing with Zn in the culture medium and no advantage was conferred by the fungus to its host. An increase in Zn supply resulted in a decrease of the Ca, K, Mg, and Cu content of the leaves, a reduction in the quantum yield of electron flow throughout photosystem II (DeltaF/F(1)(m))and a lowering of the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion (F(v)/F(m)), compared to control plants. To counter this zinc stress, detoxifying enzymes APX and SOD increased (100%) when Zn reached the value of 50 mM in the nutrient solution. At 10 mM ZnSO(4), the presence of the fungus in the plant led to an increase in the threshold toxicity of plants to zinc by a diminution of APX activity.

  8. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp. PMID:22214828

  9. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall.

  10. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.

  11. α-Glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using α-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11, and its physical properties.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Teruyo; Aizawa, Kenta; Saburi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    6-Gingerol [(S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale). It has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. To improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using α-glucosidases (EC. 3.2.1.20) from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans ABPU1, Acremonium strictum, Halomonas sp. H11, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTase, EC. 2.4.1.19) from Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sp. No. 38-2, Bacillus clarkii 7364, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Among these, only α-glucosidase from Halomonas sp. H11 (HaG) transferred a glucosyl moiety to 6-gingerol, and produced glucosylated compounds. The chemical structure of the reaction product, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, was (S)-5-(O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one (5-α-Glc-gingerol). Notably, the regioisomer formed by glucosylation of the phenolic OH was not observed at all, indicating that HaG specifically transferred the glucose moiety to the 5-OH of the β-hydroxy keto group in 6-gingerol. Almost 60% of the original 6-gingerol was converted into 5-α-Glc-gingerol by the reaction. In contrast to 6-gingerol, 5-α-Glc-gingerol, in the form of an orange powder prepared by freeze-drying, was water-soluble and stable at room temperature. It was also more stable than 6-gingerol under acidic conditions and to heat.

  12. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  13. SP-100 program developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnyer, A. D.; Sholtis, J. A., Jr.; Wahlquist, E. J.; Verga, R. L.; Wiley, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    An update is provided on the status of the Sp-100 Space Reactor Power Program. The historical background that led to the program is reviewed and the overall program objectives and development approach are discussed. The results of the mission studies identify applications for which space nuclear power is desirable and even essential. Results of a series of technology feasibility experiments are expected to significantly improve the earlier technology data base for engineering development. The conclusion is reached that a nuclear reactor space power system can be developed by the early 1990s to meet emerging mission performance requirements.

  14. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  15. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  16. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  17. Yersinia nurmii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Johansson, Per; Rahkila, Riitta; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    This study was set up to identify three Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains originating from broiler meat packaged under a modified atmosphere. A polyphasic taxonomic approach, including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five genes (16S rRNA, glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60), DNA-DNA reassociation between the closest phylogenetic neighbours and determination of relevant phenotypic properties, was applied. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped these strains together and within the genus Yersinia. MLSA of the 16S rRNA gene and four housekeeping genes showed that the strains formed a monophyletic group separate from other Yersinia species in all phylogenetic trees constructed. The strains had a phenotypic profile different from those of other representatives of the genus Yersinia, but most similar to that of Yersinia ruckeri. Typical virulence markers for pathogenic Yersinia were not detected. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA reassociation data, a novel species, Yersinia nurmii sp. nov., is proposed for the isolated strains. The type strain is APN3a-c(T) ( = DSM 22296(T)  = LMG 25213(T)).

  18. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)).

  19. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  20. SP-100 control system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. A.; Halfen, F. J.; Alley, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

  1. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2016-07-12

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  2. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed.

  3. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  4. The role of Sp1 and Sp3 in the constitutive DPYD gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Lin; Fourie, Jeanne; Davie, James R; Guarcello, Vincenzo; Diasio, Robert B

    2006-05-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolic pathway, has been implicated as one of the factors determining the efficacy and toxicity of the anticancer agent 5-FU. Studies have attributed variation in DPD activity partially to alterations at the transcriptional level of DPYD gene. We investigated the transcription factors implicated in the constitutive expression of DPYD by utilizing a 174-bp fragment of the DPYD promoter region in which three consensus Sp protein binding sites (SpA, SpB and SpC) were predicted. The binding of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors to this region was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. By ectopically expressing human Sp1 and Sp3 in Sp-deficient Drosophila S2 cells, we demonstrated that Sp1 is a strong activator, while Sp3 by its own is a weak activator of the DPYD promoter. Moreover, Sp3 may serve as a competitor of Sp1, thus decreasing the Sp1 induced promoter activity. SpA, SpB and SpC sites are all Sp1 inducible. In the full activation of the DPYD promoter in human cell lines, the SpB site is essential; the SpC site works cooperatively with SpB, while SpA has minor promoter activity. These studies provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of DPD activity, and may facilitate the efficacy and safety of 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  5. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  6. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  7. Sp1 and the 'hallmarks of cancer'.

    PubMed

    Beishline, Kate; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2015-01-01

    For many years, transcription factor Sp1 was viewed as a basal transcription factor and relegated to a role in the regulation of so-called housekeeping genes. Identification of Sp1's role in recruiting the general transcription machinery in the absence of a TATA box increased its importance in gene regulation, particularly in light of recent estimates that the majority of mammalian genes lack a TATA box. In this review, we briefly consider the history of Sp1, the founding member of the Sp family of transcription factors. We review the evidence suggesting that Sp1 is highly regulated by post-translational modifications that positively and negatively affect the activity of Sp1 on a wide array of genes. Sp1 is over-expressed in many cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Targeting Sp1 in cancer treatment has been suggested; however, our review of the literature on the role of Sp1 in the regulation of genes that contribute to the 'hallmarks of cancer' illustrates the extreme complexity of Sp1 functions. Sp1 both activates and suppresses the expression of a number of essential oncogenes and tumor suppressors, as well as genes involved in essential cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, the DNA damage response, apoptosis, senescence and angiogenesis. Sp1 is also implicated in inflammation and genomic instability, as well as epigenetic silencing. Given the apparently opposing effects of Sp1, a more complete understanding of the function of Sp1 in cancer is required to validate its potential as a therapeutic target.

  8. Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed.

  9. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced.

  10. An ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of four polychaetes is described: Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae). All the sperm show features typical of externally fertilizing sperm in having a rounded nucleus, a short unmodified midpiece, and a simple flagellum with a 9+2 axoneme. Owenia fusiformis and Lepidonotus sp. have a nuclear cone extending into the subacrosomal space that may act to present the inner acrosomal membrane to the egg during fertilization. The acrosome of Lumbrineris sp. is flattened and crenulated. The sperm of Eulalia sp. is unusual in having the four mitochondria of the midpiece ensheathed by a membrane. Comparisons are made with other polychaete sperm, and the use of sperm ultrastructure as a taxonomic tool within the Polychaeta is discussed.

  11. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  12. Precursor forms of substance P (SP) in nervous tissue: detection with antisera to SP, SP-Gly, and SP-Gly-Lys

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, R.M.; Schoenfeld, T.A.; Mancuso, R.; Clancy, A.N.; El-Bermani, W.; Macrides, F.

    1985-07-01

    Antisera generated to substance P-Gly (SP-G) and substance P-Gly-Lys (SP-G-K), the likely unamidated COOH-terminally extended forms of substance P, were used to quantify and localize substance P precursor forms in hamster brain stem and spinal cord. The precursor determinant SP-G-K was liberated from larger heterogeneous forms by mild trypsinization of tissue extracts and was converted into the second precursor determinant, SP-G, by subsequent treatment with carboxypeptidase B. The basal levels of SP-G-K in brain stem and spinal cord were approx. = 0.5 pg/mg of tissue and rose 43- to 64-fold after trypsinization. Basal levels of Sp-G were comparable to those of SP-G-K and rose 10- to 29-fold after combined enzyme treatments. Immunohistochemical labeling of axons and somata with anti-SP-G-K increased dramatically after trypsinization. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that substance P is synthesized from larger precursors and demonstrate that extended precursor forms are normally present in the axons and somata of neural systems that synthesize substance P.

  13. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  14. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic.

  15. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 17242(T)), Candida danieliae sp. nov. (CBS 8533(T)  = JCM 17247(T)), Candida robnettiae sp. nov. (CBS 8580(T)  = JCM 17243(T)) and Candida eppingiae sp. nov. (CBS 8586(T)  = JCM 17241(T)), isolated from plants in Thailand and Guyana, are proposed in this study.

  16. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  17. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio.

  18. IIem-spFRET: improved Iem-spFRET method for robust FRET measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Lin, Fangrui; Chai, Liuying; Wei, Lichun; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-10-01

    We recently developed a quantitative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement method based on emission-spectral unmixing (Iem-spFRET). We here developed an improved Iem-spFRET method (termed as IIem-spFRET) for more robust FRET measurement in living cells. First, two background (BG) spectral fingerprints measured from blank living cells are introduced to remove BG and autofluorescence. Second, we introduce a ρ factor denoting the ratio of two molar extinction coefficient ratios (γ) of acceptor to donor at two excitations into IIem-spFRET for direct measurement of the γ values using a tandem construct with unknown FRET efficiency (E). We performed IIem-spFRET on our microscope-spectrometer platform to measure the γ values of Venus (V) to Cerulean (C) and the E values of C32V, CVC, VCV, and VCVV constructs, respectively, in living Huh7 cells. For the C32V or CVC cells, the Iem-spFRET and IIem-spFRET methods measured consistent E values. However, for the cells especially with low expressing levels of VCV or VCVV, the E values measured by Iem-spFRET showed large deviations and fluctuations, whereas the IIem-spFRET method greatly improved the measured E values. Collectively, IIem-spFRET is a powerful and robust tool for quantitatively measuring FRET signal in living cells.

  19. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  20. Amphibian (Xenopus sp.) iodothyronine deiodinase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA-MED amphibian thyroid group is currently screening chemicals for inhibition of human iodothyronine deiodinase activity as components of the thyroid system important in human development. Amphibians are a bellwether taxonomic group to gauge toxicity of chemicals in the environment. Amphibian thyroid function is not only important in development but also metamorphosis. Xenopus sp. have been used extensively as model organisms and are well characterized genetically. We propose to screen a list of chemicals (selected from the human DIO screening results) to test for inhibition of Xenopus deiodinases. Large quantities of the enzymes will be produced using an adenovirus system. Our preliminary results show that there may be catalytic differences between human and Xenopus deiodinases. The Twin Ports Early Career Scientists is a new group formed within the Duluth-Superior scientific community. This presentation will provide a basic introduction to my research and our mission at EPA, and help to establish networking and collaboration relationships across disciplines and institutions.

  1. Genetic Polymorphisms of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D and Risk of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Yu; Li, Fang; Li, Feng-Sheng; Zheng, Cheng-Zhong; Lei, Yan-Zhe; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined selected polymorphisms in 3 pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins (SP) for their influence on serum SP levels and risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates. Material/Methods Premature infants from a Han population were enrolled, including 100 premature infants with RDS (case group) and 120 premature infants without RDS (control group). SNP genotyping for SP-A (+186A/G and +655C/T), SP-B (−18A/C and 1580C/T), and SP-D (Met11ThrT/C and Ala160ThrG/A) used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Haplotypes were calculated with Shesis software and serum SP-A/B/D levels were quantified by ELISA. Results Case and control groups exhibited significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of SP-B −18A/C, SP-D Met11ThrT/C, and SP-D Ala160ThrG/A. Importantly, serum SP-A and SP-B levels were reduced in RDS patients carrying SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms. AA genotype of +186A/G, SP-A level, and CC genotype of 1580C/T were independently correlated with increased RDS risk. Conclusions SP-A (+186A/G) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms are strongly associated with the risk of RDS in preterm infants. Notably, reduced serum SP-A levels were correlated with a high risk of RDS and may serve as novel biomarkers for RDS detection and monitoring. PMID:28011976

  2. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  3. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  4. Hemicellulolytic Enzymes from the Maize Endophyte Acremonium zeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite recent advances in cellulase development, there is still a need for efficient enzyme systems for the economical depolymerization of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars. In particular, the varying and heterogeneous structure of the hemicellulose fraction requires a complex suite...

  5. Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov., two tremellaceous yeast species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado Pagani, Danielle; Brandão, Luciana R; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Felix, Ciro R; Pais Ramos, Jesus; Broetto, Leonardo; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W; Augusto Rosa, Carlos; Valente, Patricia; Fontes Landell, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Two yeast species, Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov., in the family Rhynchogastremataceae of the Tremellales are proposed. The two species are related to six species of the genus Papiliotrema: Papiliotrema aureus, P. flavescens, P. terrestris, P. baii, P. ruineniae and P. wisconsinensis. The novel species are proposed on the basis of the sequence-based phylogenetic species concept with analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 16 strains of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. were obtained from freshwater and bromeliad leaves collected in Brazil. Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. differs by 11, 12, 16, 14, 11 and 13 substitutions in the D1/D2 domain from the related species P. aureus, P. flavescens, P. terrestris, P. baii, P. ruineniae and P. wisconsinensis, respectively. Differences of 11 substitutions and 21 or more substitutions in ITS regions were found when the sequences of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. were compared with P. wisconsinensis and its closest relatives. The type strain of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y374T (=CBS 13918T). Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. is represented by two strains isolated from a flower of Miconia sp. and a water sample in Brazil. Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. differs from the related species P. aureus and P. ruineniae by eight substitutions, from P. flavescens and P. terrestris by 11 substitutions, from P. baii by 10 substitutions and from P. wisconsinensis by 6 substitutions in the D1/D2 domain, and by 7 substitutions from P. wisconsinensis and more than 19 substitutions in the ITS region from its closest relatives. The type strain of Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. is CBS 8358T (ML 3666T=DBVPG-4492T). The MycoBank numbers for Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. are MB 813594 and MB 814882, respectively.

  6. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605, isolated from Arctic lichen (Ochrolechia sp.).

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Chul; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Jong Kyu; Kim, Su Jin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605 was isolated from Arctic lichens (Ochrolechia sp.) on the Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide further insights into the symbiotic mechanism of lichens in extreme environments.

  7. Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Nasrollahi, Siamak; Zamani, Ali Sina; Fayaz, Bahman Asali

    2014-07-28

    Two new species belonging to the family Stigmaeidae, Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov., are described from specimens collected from soil and litter under pear trees, Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. A key to all Iranian species of the genera Cheylostigmaeus (male) and Stigmaeus (female) are provided. 

  8. Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., Micromonospora noduli sp. nov. and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., isolated from Pisum sativum nodules.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Riesco, Raúl; Spröer, Cathrin; Trujillo, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    A diversity study on the presence of strains representing the genus Micromonospora in Pisum sativum nodules collected from Cañizal (Spain) has provided evidence of the high number of isolates that might represent novel species. In the present work, we have characterized three of these isolates: GUI23T, GUI43T and GUI63T. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses confirmed that all strains represent novel species of the genus Micromonospora with the following proposed names: Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., type strain GUI23T (=CECT 9022T=DSM 101692T), Micromonospora noduli sp. nov., type strain GUI43T (=CECT 9020T=DSM 101694T), and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., type strain GUI63T (=CECT 9019T=DSM 101695T).

  9. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  10. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  11. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase.

  12. SP-100 flight qualification testing assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanmougin, Nanette M.; Moore, Roger M.; Wait, David L.; Jacox, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    The SP-100 is a compact space power system driven by a nuclear reactor that provides 100 kWe to the user at 200 VDC. The thermal energy generated by the nuclear reactor is converted into electrical energy by passive thermoelectric devices. Various options for tailoring the MIL-STD-1540B guidelines to the SP-100 nuclear power system are discussed. This study aids in selecting the appropriate qualification test program based on the cost, schedule, and test effectiveness of the various options.

  13. Cyanobactericidal effect of Rhodococcus sp. isolated from eutrophic lake on Microcystis sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2010-11-01

    A bacterium, which was observed in all cultivations of Microcystis sp., was isolated and designated as Rhodococcus sp. KWR2. The growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including four strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis, was suppressed by up to 75-88% by 2% (v/v) culture broth of KWR2 after 5 days. But KWR2 did not inhibit eukaryotic algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. An extracellular algicidal substance produced by KWR2 showed a cyanobactericidal activity of 94% and was water-soluble with a molecular weight of lower than 8 kDa.

  14. Proposal of six species of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, endospore-forming bacteria: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiichi; Mochida, Kaoru; Kato, Yuko; Asahara, Mika; Fujita, Rieko; An, Sun-Young; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-06-01

    Moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacteria (146 strains) were isolated from various beverages and environments. Based on the results of sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, eight of the strains represent novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus. These strains were designated 3-A191(T), 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, 5-A239-2O-A(T), E-8, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) nucleotide sequences confirmed that the eight strains belonged to the Alicyclobacillus clade. Cells of the eight strains were Gram-positive or Gram-variable, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped. The strains grew well under acidic and moderately thermal conditions, produced acid from various sugars, contained menaquinone 7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and did not produce guaiacol. omega-Alicyclic fatty acids were the predominant lipid component of strains 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). No omega-alicyclic fatty acids were detected in strains 3-A191(T), 5-A239-2O-A(T) or E-8, but iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids and small amounts of straight-chain saturated fatty acids were detected instead. According to the DNA-DNA hybridization data and distinct morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomical and genetic traits, the eight strains represent six novel species within the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the following names are proposed: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov. (type strain 3-A191(T)=DSM 17975(T)=IAM 15224(T)), Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov. (type strain S-TAB(T)=DSM 17978(T)=IAM 15229(T)), Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov. (type strain 5-A83J(T)=DSM 17979(T)=IAM 15227(T)), Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov. (type strain 5-A239-2O-A(T)=DSM 17980(T)=IAM 15370(T)), Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. (type strain RB718(T)=DSM 17974(T)=IAM 15230(T)) and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov. (type strain 4-A336(T)=DSM 17981(T)=IAM 15226(T)).

  15. ACMEV-SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sedlacek, Arthur

    2015-06-01

    The SP2 provides information on the amounts of rBC (refractory black carbon) and of other, non-refractory substances associated with individual rBC containing particles by simultaneously measuring the scattering and incandescence signals of such particles that are directed through the cavity of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. (refractory Black Carbon) rBC mixing ratio (ng/Kg) and number size distribution time series collected during the DOE-ARM sponsored ACME-V field campaign held from June 1 to September 15, 2015 rBC mixing ratio is reported at STP conditions Time resolution: 10 sec Uncertainty: ~ 30% SP2 Unit: 25 Location: Deadhorse, AK Location: N 70-degree 11' 41'' - W 148-degress. 27' 55'' SP2_dateTime: UTC rBC concentration is in units of ng/Kg - dry air. Mass Equivalent Diameters [MED] used for size distribution (SP2_min; SP2_geo; and SP2_max) are in units of micrometers dN/dlogDp counts for a given size bin (SP2_geo) listed as 'SP2_cnts_0 - SP2_cnts_199' and are in units of #/cc. Column naming convention: 'SP2_cnts_X' are the number of particles in bin number _X. , where _X is the row number within the 'SP2_geo' size bin column that contains the mass equivalent diameter (e.g., SP2_cnts_0 = 0.01 microns; SP2_cnts_10 = 0.060 microns, etc.). The dN/dlogDp data is time-resolved where a given row is associated with the timestamp for that row. Note that the rBC column length is one field shorter than the SP2_datetime column. Last time field is not relevant to the rBC time series (see comment below on length of SP2_datetime column) Lengths for SP2_max; SP2_min; SP2_geo are one field longer then the number of SP2_cnts_XX columns . This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired). Length for SP2_datetime is one field longer than that length of the SP2_cnts_XX columns This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired) SP2 Calibration: Fullerene soot with corrrection applied for particle density as a function of particle size. No correction for OC content in

  16. Evoluation of SP-100 System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, Alan T.; Fujita, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    The current phase of the SP-100 program was initiated in 1986 with the objectives of developing the technology for Space Reactor Power Systems (SRPS) in the 10-1000k. We power range and perfoming ground system tests of both nuclear and non-nuclear major assemblies.

  17. Dolichodorus aestuarius n. sp. (Nematode: Dolichodoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Chow, F. H.; Taylor, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Dolichodorus aestuarius n. sp. from an estuarine habitat near Cedar Key, Florida is described. This nematode has a stylet range of 62-76 μm in females and 60-72 μm in males. The stylet is shorter than those of all described species except D. brevistilus. The probable host plant is Juncus roemerianus. PMID:19305840

  18. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  19. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  20. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  1. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  2. Developmental expression of Sp1 in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Saffer, J D; Jackson, S P; Annarella, M B

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the trans-acting transcription factor Sp1 in mice was defined by a combination of RNA analysis and immunohistochemical localization of the Sp1 protein. Although ubiquitously expressed, there was an unexpected difference of at least 100-fold in the amount of Sp1 message in different cell types. Sp1 protein levels showed corresponding marked differences. Substantial variations in Sp1 expression were also found in some cell types at different stages of development. Sp1 levels appeared to be highest in developing hematopoietic cells, fetal cells, and spermatids, suggesting that an elevated Sp1 level is associated with the differentiation process. These results indicate that Sp1 has a regulatory function in addition to its general role in the transcription of housekeeping genes. Images PMID:2005904

  3. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways.

  4. Nanocrystalline sp 2 and sp 3 carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, M. L.; Rossi, M.; Tamburri, E.

    2016-11-01

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp 2- and sp 3-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  5. Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae) a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae).

    PubMed

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2002-08-01

    Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae), a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae) from Py (Pyrenean mountains, France), is described and illustrated. The present species can be separated from the other two members of the same genus, A. flexilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Morand, 1990 and A. tauricus Korol and Spiridonov, 1991, by size measurements, number and disposition of the male's genital papillae, shape of the spicule and number of eggs in the female.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katy J; Moore, Karen; Sambles, Christine; Love, John; Studholme, David J; Aves, Stephen J

    2016-01-14

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe.

  7. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  8. 76 FR 22694 - SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 12, 2011, SP 49 Pipeline LLC (``SP 49'') submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form... Pipe Line Company's (``Chevron'') pipeline system and associated equipment, specifically the South...

  9. Metschnikowia sinensis sp. nov., Metschnikowia zizyphicola sp. nov. and Metschnikowia shanxiensis sp. nov., novel yeast species from jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng-Lin; Zhang, Li-Qun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Ji-Shu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2006-09-01

    Eight yeast strains were isolated from jujube fruit surfaces collected in Shanxi and Shandong Provinces, China. All eight strains produced needle-shaped ascospores under suitable conditions. Three separate groups, representing three novel species in the genus Metschnikowia, were recognized by sequence comparisons of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The names Metschnikowia sinensis sp. nov. (type strain XY103(T)=AS 2.3110(T)=CBS 10357(T)), Metschnikowia zizyphicola sp. nov. (type strain XY201(T)=AS 2.3111(T)=CBS 10358(T)) and Metschnikowia shanxiensis sp. nov. (type strain XY801(T)=AS 2.3112(T)=CBS 10359(T)) are proposed for the three novel species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence showed that these three novel species are clustered in a clade together with the previously described species Metschnikowia fructicola, Metschnikowia andauensis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Metschnikowia chrysoperlae.

  10. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  11. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  12. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  13. Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-08-01

    In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).

  14. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Carl. M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.; Smith, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  15. Vorticella sp: Prospective Mosquito Biocontrol Agent

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar Devidas; Narkhede, Chandrakant Prakash; Suryawanshi, Rahul Khushal; Patil, Satish Vitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the disadvantages of chemical insecticides, we aimed to evaluate Vorticella parasites for control of mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti at different larval stages. Methods: Vorticella sp infected mosquito larvae were crushed in the 0.85% saline and homogenized well to get Vorticella in suspension. The effects of Vorticella sp infections on larval development were investigated by inoculating protozoan on different larval instars of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti and observed under light microscope. Lethal time of the Vorticella infected larvae at different stages was calculated. Results: First and 2nd larval instars of both An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti did not show signs of infection by Vorticella sp., whereas 3rd instars of An. stephensi showed more Vorticella infection than those of Ae. aegypti. However, 4th larval instars of both mosquitoes were heavily infected with Vorticella parasite which was responsible for sluggish movements of larvae and eventually death. Moreover, parasites (Vorticella spp) were responsible for more than 90% reduction in adult emergence for both infected An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Conclusion: This study provides insights for mosquito larvicidal action of surface parasite Vorticella on different larval stages of An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti. It could be suggested as a potential candidate in mosquito biocontrol programs. PMID:28032113

  16. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ5, Δ7 and Δ5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  17. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  18. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.

  19. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  20. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase.

  1. Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Nagai, Fumiko; Morotomi, Masami; Sakon, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2010-08-01

    Three Gram-stain-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria (strains YIT 12056T, YIT 12057T and YIT 12058T) were isolated from human faeces. These strains were characterized by phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that strains YIT 12056T, YIT 12057T and YIT 12058T were most closely related to the type strains of Bacteroides gallinarum, Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides intestinalis with approximate similarity values of 96.6, 95.0 and 96.7%, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of the novel strains were 45.3 (YIT 12056T), 45.2 (YIT 12057T) and 43.6 mol% (YIT 12058T) and the major respiratory quinones of all three isolates were menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11. These properties were typical for members of the genus Bacteroides. The results of the other phenotypic analyses also supported the affiliation of these strains to the genus Bacteroides. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, analysis of the major cellular fatty acids and other biochemical tests enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the three new strains. Based on these data, three novel species, Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains of B. clarus, B. fluxus and B. oleiciplenus are YIT 12056T (=JCM 16067T=DSM 22519T), YIT 12057T (=JCM 16101T=DSM 22534T) and YIT 12058T (=JCM 16102T=DSM 22535T), respectively.

  2. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R.F.; Lupatini, M.; Trindade, L.; Antoniolli, Z.I.; Steffen, R.B.; Andreazza, R

    2013-01-01

    Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L−1 in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L−1 in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L−1 in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites. PMID:24294261

  3. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  4. Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov., Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov., and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siwon; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Ahn, Tae-Young

    2011-06-01

    Taxonomic studies were performed on three strains isolated from Cheonho reservoir in Cheonan, Korea. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-positive, and oxidase-positive. Colonies on solid media were cream-yellow, smooth, shiny, and circular. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Flavobacterium. The strains shared 98.6-99.4% sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 97% similarity with members of the genus Flavobacterium with validly published names. The DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separate genomic status of strains ARSA-42(T), ARSA-103(T), and ARSA-108(T). The isolates contained menaqui-none-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH, iso-Ci(15:1) G, and iso-C(16:0) 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolates were 31.4-33.2 mol%. According to the phenotypic and genotypic data, these organisms are classified as representative of three novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, and the name Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-42(T) =KCTC 23182(T) =JCM 17066(T) =KACC 14969(T)), Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-103(T) =KCTC 23183(T) =JCM 17068(T) =KACC 14971(T)), and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-108(T) =KCTC 23184(T) =JCM 17069(T) =KACC 14972) are proposed.

  5. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    PubMed

    Silva, R F; Lupatini, M; Trindade, L; Antoniolli, Z I; Steffen, R B; Andreazza, R

    2013-01-01

    Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L(-1) in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L(-1) in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L(-1) in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites.

  6. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed.

  7. Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Binda, Maria Grazia; Pilato, Giovanni

    2016-04-14

    Two new eutardigrade species are described: Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov. The first is similar to Eremobiotus alicatai (Binda, 1969) but differs in the claw shape and dimensions. It has been found in Sicily, Israel and Russia. The second species, belonging to the richtersi group, is currently found exclusively in Sicily. It has a smooth cuticle, three macroplacoids and a microplacoid, eggs with reticulated trunco-conical processes with small terminal thorns; the egg-shell is areolated and the areolae are clearly sculptured.

  8. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  9. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  10. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between monolayers and multilayers within the fluid phase domains of the monolayer. The morphology and thickness of the multilayer phase depends on the lipid composition of the monolayer and the concentration of SP-C or SP-C peptide. Lung surfactant protein SP-B and peptides based on SP-B induce a reversible folding transition at monolayer collapse that allows all components of surfactant to be retained at the interface during respreading. Supplementing Survanta, a clinically used replacement lung surfactant, with a peptide based on the first 25 amino acids of SP-B also induces a similar folding transition at monolayer collapse. Palmitic acid makes the monolayer rigid at low surface tension and fluid at high surface tension and modifies SP-C function. Identifying the function of lung surfactant proteins and lipids is essential to the rational design of replacement surfactants for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11325728

  11. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  12. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  13. Granulicella paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov., Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. and Granulicella rosea sp. nov., acidophilic, polymer-degrading acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2010-12-01

    Five strains of strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that form pink-red colonies and are capable of hydrolysing pectin, xylan, laminarin, lichenan and starch were isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs and were designated OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T) and TPO1014(T). Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that produced an amorphous extracellular polysaccharide-like substance. Old cultures contained spherical bodies of varying sizes, which represent starvation forms. Cells of all five strains were acidophilic and psychrotolerant, capable of growth at pH 3.0-7.5 (optimum pH 3.8-4.5) and at 2-33°C (optimum 15-22°C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). The major menaquinone detected was MK-8. The pigments were carotenoids. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 57.3-59.3 mol%. The five isolates were found to be members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and displayed 95.3-98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest described relatives to strains OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T), and TPO1014(T) were members of the genera Terriglobus (94.6-95.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Edaphobacter (94.2-95.4 %). Based on differences in cell morphology, phenotypic characteristics and hydrolytic capabilities, we propose a novel genus, Granulicella gen. nov., containing four novel species, Granulicella paludicola sp. nov. with type strain OB1010(T) (=DSM 22464(T) =LMG 25275(T)) and strain LCBR1, Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6011(T) (=VKM B-2509(T) =DSM 21001(T)), Granulicella rosea sp. nov. with type strain TPO1014(T) (=DSM 18704(T) =ATCC BAA-1396(T)) and Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6028(T) (=LMG 25274(T) =VKM B-2571(T)).

  14. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  15. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  16. Succinylated Apoptolidins from Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Fotso, Serge; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Shahab, Salmah; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Ishmael, Jane E; Proteau, Philip J; Zabriskie, T Mark; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-15

    Two new apoptolidins, 2'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (11) and 3'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (12), were isolated from the culture broth of an Indonesian Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242. These compounds inhibit the proliferation and viability of human H292 and HeLa cells. However, in contrast to apoptolidin A (1), they do not inhibit cellular respiration in H292 cells. It is proposed that apoptolidins are produced and secreted in their succinylated forms and 1 is the hydrolysis product of 11 and 12.

  17. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  18. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  19. Sp-branes: integrable multidimensional cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukh, V.; Zhuk, A.

    2006-10-01

    We investigate time-dependent solutions (Sp-brane solutions) for product manifolds consisting of factor spaces where only one of them is of a non-Ricci-flat type. Our model contains a minimally coupled free scalar field and form field (flux) as matter sources. We discuss the possibility of generating late-time acceleration of the Universe. For these models, we investigate the variation with time of the effective four-dimensional fundamental 'constants'. We show that experimental bounds for the fundamental constant variations apply strong restrictions to the considered models.

  20. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Barkett, Kevin; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal.

  1. Studies on bioflocculant production by a mixed culture of Methylobacterium sp. Obi and Actinobacterium sp. Mayor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioflocculants effect the aggregation of suspended solutes in solutions thus, a viable alternative to inorganic poly-ionic and synthetic organic flocculants which are associated with deleterious health problems. Consequently, a consortium of two bacteria species were evaluated for optimized bioflocculant yield following the inadequacies of axenic cultures. Results 16S rDNA nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis of nucleotide sequences were used to identify the bacterial species, carbon and nitrogen sources optimally supporting bioflocculant production were assessed and the purified bioflocculant characterized. Nucleotide sequences showed 97% and 96% similarity to Methylobacterium sp. AKB-2008-KU9 and Methylobacterium sp. strain 440. The second isolate, likewise, showed 98% similarity to Actinobacterium OR-221. The sequences were deposited in GenBank as Methylobacterium sp. Obi [accession number HQ537130] and Actinobacterium sp. Mayor [accession number JF799090]. Flocculating activity of 95% was obtained in the presence of Ca2+ and heat-stability was exhibited with retention of above 70% activity at 100°C in 30 min. In addition, bioflocculant yield was about 8.203 g/l. A dose of 1 mg/ml of purified bioflocculant was optimal for the clarification of Kaolin suspension (100 ml) following Jar test. FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups amongst others. Conclusions The mixed culture produced bioflocculant with high flocculating activity and an improved yield. The efficiency observed with jar test may imply industrial applicability. PMID:23915393

  2. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

  3. The family feud: turning off Sp1 by Sp1-like KLF proteins

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Sp1 is one of the best characterized transcriptional activators. The biological importance of Sp1 is underscored by the fact that several hundreds of genes are thought to be regulated by this protein. However, during the last 5 years, a more extended family of Sp1-like transcription factors has been identified and characterized by the presence of a conserved DNA-binding domain comprising three Krüppel-like zinc fingers. Each distinct family member differs in its ability to regulate transcription, and, as a consequence, to influence cellular processes. Specific activation and repression domains located within the N-terminal regions of these proteins are responsible for these differences by facilitating interactions with various co-activators and co-repressors. The present review primarily focuses on discussing the structural, biochemical and biological functions of the repressor members of this family of transcription factors. The existence of these transcriptional repressors provides a tightly regulated mechanism for silencing a large number of genes that are already known to be activated by Sp1. PMID:16266294

  4. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  5. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  6. Infection Rates of Wolbachia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Different Populations of Fleas.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Sara García; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a molecular detection of Bartonella sp. and Wolbachia sp. in Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) isolated from Canis lupus familiaris from different geographical areas of Spain, Iran and South Africa, and in Stenoponia tripectinata tripectinata isolated from Mus musculus from the Canary Islands has been carried out by amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA partial gene of Wolbachia sp. and intergenic spacer region (its region) of Bartonella sp. A total of 70 % of C. felis analysed were infected by W. pipientis. This percentage of prevalence was considerably higher in female fleas than in male fleas. Bartonella DNA was not detected in C. felis from dogs, while Bartonella elizabethae was detected and identified in S. t. tripectinata from M. musculus from the Canary Islands representing 43.75 % prevalence. This report is the first to identify B. elizabethae in S. t. tripectinata collected in M. musculus from the Canary Islands. Thus, our results demonstrate that this flea is a potential vector of B. elizabethae and might play roles in human infection. The zoonotic character of this bartonellosis emphasizes the need to alert public health authorities and the veterinary community of the risk of infection.

  7. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  8. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

    1999-03-01

    A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the São Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild.

  9. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katy J.; Moore, Karen; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  11. IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.P.

    1999-05-27

    Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

  12. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  13. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. isolated from seaweed.

    PubMed

    Du, Zong-Jun; Lv, Guo-Qiang; Rooney, Alejandro P; Miao, Ting-Ting; Xu, Qing-Qiang; Chen, Guan-Jun

    2011-03-01

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium, WH0801(T), was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801(T) shared 96.1  % similarity with Agarivorans albus MKT 106(T), the type species of the genus Agarivorans. A polyphasic taxonomic study was conducted and confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation of strain WH0801(T) to the genus Agarivorans. Isolate WH0801(T) produces light-yellow-pigmented colonies; cells are Gram-stain-negative, straight or curved rods, which are motile with a single polar flagellum. Strain WH0801(T) grew in 0.5-5  % NaCl, with optimum growth at 3  % NaCl, and its optimal pH and cultivation temperature were 8.4-8.6 and 28-32 °C, respectively. Data from biochemical tests, whole-cell fatty acid profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequence studies and DNA-DNA hybridization clearly indicated that isolate WH0801(T) represented a novel species within the genus Agarivorans, for which the name Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is WH0801(T) (=NRRL B-59247(T) =CGMCC 1.10131(T)).

  14. Development and Dynamics of Pseudomonas sp. Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brinch, Ulla C.; Ragas, Paula C.; Andersen, Jens Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Molin, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and Pseudomonas putida OUS82 were genetically tagged with the green fluorescent protein and the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein, and the development and dynamics occurring in flow chamber-grown two-colored monospecies or mixed-species biofilms were investigated by the use of confocal scanning laser microscopy. Separate red or green fluorescent microcolonies were formed initially, suggesting that the initial small microcolonies were formed simply by growth of substratum attached cells and not by cell aggregation. Red fluorescent microcolonies containing a few green fluorescent cells and green fluorescent microcolonies containing a few red fluorescent cells were frequently observed in both monospecies and two-species biofilms, suggesting that the bacteria moved between the microcolonies. Rapid movement of P. putida OUS82 bacteria inside microcolonies was observed before a transition from compact microcolonies to loose irregularly shaped protruding structures occurred. Experiments involving a nonflagellated P. putida OUS82 mutant suggested that the movements between and inside microcolonies were flagellum driven. The results are discussed in relation to the prevailing hypothesis that biofilm bacteria are in a physiological state different from planktonic bacteria. PMID:11053394

  15. SP-100 Space Reactor Power System readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, A. T.; Matteo, D. N.; Bailey, H. S.

    The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An effective infrastructure of Industry, National Laboratories and Government agencies has made substantial progress since the 1988 System Design Review. Hardware development and testing has progressed to the point of resolving all key technical feasibility issues. The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety, performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996 - 1997 time frame.

  16. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied.

  17. Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2012-06-05

    The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include

  18. Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense sp. nov., members of the Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Iskandar; Cayrou, Caroline; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2009-11-01

    An rpoB sequence-based evaluation of 100 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) clinical isolates led to the identification of five respiratory tract isolates that were potential representatives of three novel MAC species. Distinctive phenotypic features of isolates 62863 and 5356591(T) included a pseudomycelium morphology and both esterase and acid phosphatase activities. These two isolates exhibited sequence similarities of 99.8 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 86.3 and 86.1 % for 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence, 96.7 and 97.8 % for rpoB and 97.6 and 97.4 % for hsp65, respectively, with the type strain of Mycobacterium chimaera, the most closely related species. Isolates 3256799 and 5351974(T) lacked alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase activities. They exhibited sequence similarities of 99.6 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 90.1 and 90.4 % for ITS-1, 97.8 % for rpoB and 98.0 and 98.1 % for hsp65, respectively, with the type strain of M. chimaera, the most closely related species. Isolate 4355387(T) lacked urease and alpha-glucosidase activities, but it exhibited valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase and acid phosphatase activities. It had sequence similarities of 99.3 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 51.8 % for ITS-1, 97.1 % for rpoB and 97.8 % for hsp65 with the type strain of Mycobacterium colombiense, the most closely related species. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated 16S rRNA gene, ITS-1, rpoB and hsp65 sequences showed the uniqueness of these five isolates as representatives of three novel species, with bootstrap values >/=95 % in all nodes. On the basis of these phenotypic and genetic characteristics, these five isolates are proposed as representatives of three novel MAC species: Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., with strain 5356591(T) (=CCUG 56325(T) =CIP 109828(T) =CSUR P30(T)) as the type strain; Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov., with strain 5351974(T) (=CCUG 56329(T) =CIP 109830(T) =CSUR P32(T)) as the type strain; and Mycobacterium

  19. Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov., L. siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. are described with a key to Linocarpon species from the Pandanaceae.

    PubMed

    Thongkantha, S; Lumyong, S; Lumyong, P; Whitton, S R; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2003-01-01

    Linocarpon species are reported from Pandanaceae in Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Thailand and Vanuatu. Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov. were collected on decaying leaves of Pandanus tectorius in Hong Kong. Linocarpon siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. were collected from decaying leaves of P. penetrans in Thailand. These taxa are described, illustrated and compared with Linocarpon species with similar ascospore morphology and dimensions. Included are a synoptic table, which compares the new species to similar known species, and a dichotomous key to species of Linocarpon known from members of the Pandanaceae.

  20. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  1. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms.

  2. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark; Moesta, Philipp; Duez, Matthew; Foucart, Francois

    2012-03-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

  3. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Szilagyi, Bela; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Duez, Matthew; Ott, Christian

    2013-04-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain CP20

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carla; Martin Tay, Qi Xiang; Sun, Shuyang

    2015-01-01

    Shewanella sp. CP20 is a marine bacterium that survives ingestion by Tetrahymena pyriformis and is expelled from the protozoan within membrane-bound vacuoles, where the bacterial cells show long-term survival. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. CP20 and discuss the potential mechanisms facilitating intraprotozoan survival. PMID:25858840

  5. Sp4-dependent repression of Neurotrophin-3 limits dendritic branching

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Belén; Valín, Alvaro; Sun, Xinxin; Gill, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of neuronal gene expression is critical to establish functional connections in the mammalian nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning. Here, we investigate neurotrophin-3 (NT3) as a target gene important for Sp4-dependent dendritic morphogenesis. We found that Sp4 overexpression reduced NT3 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Sp4 increased NT3 promoter activity and mRNA. Moreover, Sp4 bound to the NT3 promoter in vivo, supporting a direct role for Sp4 as a repressor of NT3 expression. Addition of exogenous NT3 promoted dendritic branching in cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, sequestering NT3 blocked the continued addition of dendritic branches observed upon Sp4 knockdown, but had no effect on dendrite pruning. These findings demonstrate that, during cerebellar granule neuron development, Sp4-dependent repression of neurotrophin-3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern. PMID:19555762

  6. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Oliver; Richter, Elvira; Göbel, Ulf B.; Petrich, Annette; Buchholz, Petra; Moter, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections. PMID:18760016

  7. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  8. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  10. Occurrence and clinical relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, Birgitta; Goldenberg, Oliver; Richter, Elvira; Göbel, Ulf B; Petrich, Annette; Buchholz, Petra; Moter, Annette

    2008-09-01

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections.

  11. Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov., a methanol-assimilating yeast species isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhao-Hui; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-06-01

    Three methanol-utilizing yeast strains were isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp. collected from a tree trunk in Mangshan Mountain, Hunan Province, southern China. These strains formed hat-shaped ascospores in unconjugated and deliquescent asci. Sequence analysis of the large-subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, electrophoretic karyotype comparison and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Ogataea, which is described as Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov. (type strain SHS 2.1(T) =CGMCC AS 2.3435(T) =CBS 10646(T)). Phylogenetically, the novel species was closely related to Ogataea pini and Ogataea henricii. The latter two taxa with similar D1/D2 sequences were confirmed to represent separate species by ITS sequence and electrophoretic karyotype comparisons.

  12. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  13. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Jalal, Thasneem

    2015-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was investigated using different carbon sources. Induction and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and α-l-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a carbon source. Preferential utilization of a carbon source for enzyme production can give us better insights into regulatory mechanism in these marine bacteria. Elution profile as well as zymogram analysis indicated the possibility of bifunctional α-l-AFase-Axes in both marine bacteria.

  14. Rate-distortion analysis of SP and SI frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, Eric; Girod, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    SP and SI frames in the H.264 video coding standard can be used for error resilience, bitstream switching or random access. Despite a widespread interest in these new types of frames, no work so far has investigated, in a systematic way, their rate-distortion efficiency. In this paper, we propose a model for the rate-distortion performance of SI and SP frames. A comparison to experimental results, obtained with our implementation of an SP encoder, recently adopted by JVT, confirms its validity. The model predicts how the relative sizes of SP and SI frames can be traded off. We analyze, both theoretically and experimentally, how this can be used to minimize the transmitted bit-rate when SP frames are used for video streaming with packet losses.

  15. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  16. Spermatogenesis of riffle bugs, Rhagovelia whitei and Rhagovelia sp (Veliidae), and backswimmers Martarega sp (Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Castanhole, M M U; Pereira, L L V; de Souza, H V; Itoyama, M M

    2012-08-06

    We examined the course of spermatogenesis and the meiotic chromosome complements in aquatic species of true bugs, Heteroptera. The chromosome complement of the Veliidae species was 2n = 39 (38A + X0) and 23 (22A + X0) in Rhagovelia whitei and Rhagovelia sp, respectively, and in the species of the Notonectidae (Martarega sp) it was 26 (22A + 2m + XY); all collected from the region of São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. An impressive characteristic of the first analysis was the size of the cells belonging to Martarega sp, which were six times larger than the same cells in Pentatomidae and twice as large as the cells in aquatic Heteroptera (Gerridae). Regarding spermatogenesis, all the species analyzed showed the same pattern: holocentric chromosomes and elongated spermatids with the chromatin distributed evenly along the head. The family Veliidae showed several bodies impregnated with silver nitrate at prophase, while the family Notonectidae displayed only one. The cells of Notonectidae also showed an evident and round body until the end of prophase I and in the family Veliidae the silver-impregnated bodies were disorganized, where the only region visualized was possibly that of the NOR. In metaphase, silver-stained regions were found at the periphery of all chromosomes in Veliidae and at the periphery of some chromosomes in Notonectidae. The spermatids of Veliidae showed a less silver-impregnated vesicle, while Notonectidae showed silver staining only in part of the nuclear membrane. Therefore, families of Heteroptera have some differences and features that can help identify and classify these species.

  17. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-04

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis.

  18. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  19. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-23

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp(2)-sp(3) hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp(2) hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices.

  20. Cryptococcus mujuensis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., basidiomycetous yeasts isolated from wild rabbit faeces.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kee-Sun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Park, Yong-Ha; Lee, Kang Hyun; Poo, Haryoung; Kwon, Gi-Seok; Kwon, O-Yu

    2006-09-01

    Two previously undescribed anamorphic yeasts, strains T-11(T) and T-26(T), recovered from wild rabbit faecal pellets collected in Muju, Korea, were identified using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The isolates were characterized by the proliferation of budding cells, positive diazonium blue B and urease reactions, the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, the presence of xylose in whole-cell hydrolysates and the inability to ferment sugars. Phylogenetic analyses based on 26S rRNA gene partial sequences revealed that strain T-11(T) was located in the Bulleromyces clade and was related to Sirobasidium intermedium, Tremella exigua, Cryptococcus cellulolyticus and Bullera pseudoalba. Strain T-26(T) was located in the Mesenterica clade and was closely related to Cryptococcus sp. F6 and Cryptococcus heveanensis CBS 8976. Sequence divergence values of more than 4 % from other described Cryptococcus species, together with the phenotypic differences, showed that the isolated yeasts represent previously unrecognized members of this genus. Therefore, two novel yeast species are proposed: Cryptococcus mujuensis sp. nov., with strain T-11(T) (=KCTC 17231(T)=CBS 10308(T)) as the type strain, and Cryptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., with strain T-26(T) (=KCTC 17232(T)=CBS 10309(T)) as the type strain.

  1. Flavobacterium orientale sp. nov., isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SP3T and SP38, were isolated from a cold-water lake in the west of China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed for the strains. Alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains SP3T and SP38 were associated with the genus Flavobacterium and were most closely related to Flavobacterium lacus NP180T (96.4 % sequence similarity), Flavobacterium ponti GSW-R14T (95.6 %) and Flavobacterium yanchengense hgT (95.3 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SP3T and SP38 were 34.9 and 34.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. The unique respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and several unidentified polar lipids. Based on physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic data for these isolates, it was confirmed that strains SP3T and SP38 were affiliated to the genus Flavobacterium and represented a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium orientale sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP3T (=CGMCC 1.12506T=NBRC 109717T).

  2. Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov., Wickerhamiella pterostichi f.a., sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella qilinensis f.a., sp. nov., three yeast species isolated from insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yun; Ren, Yong-Cheng; Hui, Feng-Li

    2016-10-01

    Eight strains representing three novel yeast species were isolated from insects distributed in three localities in Nanyang, Henan Province, Central China during 2014 and 2015. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene revealed that these species are members of the Wickerhamiella clade. These three novel species have a greater than 2.5 % difference from each other or their closest known species in the D1/D2 sequences. The three yeast species can also be separated from their closest known species in terms of physiological characteristics. Moreover, a sexual state could not be found in these three novel yeast species on various sporulation media. Therefore, the three novel species are described as Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 15885T=CICC 33092T=CBS 14176T), Wickerhamiellapterostichi f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 15896T=CICC 33093T=CBS 14177T) and Wickerhamiellaqilinensis f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 146103T=CICC 33062T=CBS 13929T). The MycoBank numbers of Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov., Wickerhamiellapterostichi f.a., sp. nov. and Wickerhamiellaqilinensis f.a., sp. nov. are MB 816962, MB 816963 and MB 816964, respectively.

  3. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  4. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Khalequz; Palmer, Lisa A; Doctor, Allan; Hunt, John F; Gaston, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The activities of certain nuclear regulatory proteins are modified by high concentrations of S-nitrosothiols associated with nitrosative stress. In the present study, we have studied the effect of physiological (low microM) concentrations of the endogenous S-nitrosothiol, GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione), on the activities of nuclear regulatory proteins Sp3 and Sp1 (specificity proteins 3 and 1). Low concentrations of GSNO increased Sp3 binding, as well as Sp3-dependent transcription of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory gene, cftr. However, higher GSNO levels prevented Sp3 binding, augmented Sp1 binding and prevented both cftr transcription and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression. We conclude that low concentrations of GSNO favour Sp3 binding to 'housekeeping' genes such as cftr, whereas nitrosative stress-associated GSNO concentrations shut off Sp3-dependent transcription, possibly to redirect cellular resources. Since low micromolar concentrations of GSNO also increase the maturation and activity of a clinically common CFTR mutant, whereas higher concentrations have the opposite effect, these observations may have implications for dosing of S-nitrosylating agents used in cystic fibrosis clinical trials. PMID:14766015

  5. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  6. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki . E-mail: haburata-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2006-02-17

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21{sup WAF1}). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.

  7. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-lichen-associated bacterium isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions.

  8. Ligand-promoted alkylation of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; He, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-09-24

    9-Methylacridine was identified as a generally effective ligand to promote a Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H alkylation of simple amides with various alkyl iodides. This alkylation reaction was applied to the preparation of unnatural amino acids and geometrically controlled tri- and tetrasubstituted acrylic acids.

  9. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Reis, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization. PMID:28104653

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Reis, Margarida; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-19

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization.

  12. Wastewater treatment using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor and Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Akbarzadeh, Abbas; Woo, Kwang-Sung; Valipour, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential use of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. for treating domestic wastewater generated by small communities (751 mg COD/L, 500 SCOD mg/L, 348 mg BOD5/L). Two parallel laboratory-scale models showed that the process planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. are capable of removing COD by 87% & 86%, SCOD by 90% & 88%, BOD5 by 93% & 92%, TSS by 88% & 86%, TN by 79% & 77%, PO4-P by 21% & 14% at an overall HRT of 21 (843 g COD/m(3)/day & 392 g BOD5/m(3)/day) and 27 (622 g COD/m(3)/day & 302 g BOD5/m(3)/day) hours, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated a high reduction in the MPN of total coliform and TVC as high as 99% at the outlet end of the processes. The vegetated system using Phragmites sp. showed significantly greater (p <0.05) pollutant removal efficiencies due to its extensive root and mass growth rate (p <0.05) of the plant compared to Typha sp. The Phragmites sp. indicated a higher relative growth rate (3.92%) than Typha sp. (0.90%). Microorganisms immobilized on the surface of the Bio-rack media (mean TVC: 2.33 × 10(7) cfu/cm(2)) were isolated, identified and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study illustrated that the present integrated processes could be an ideal approach for promoting a sustainable decentralization, however, Phragmites sp. would be more efficient rather than Typha sp.

  13. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  14. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-08

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes.

  15. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  16. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  17. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  18. Natural Anti-Infective Pulmonary Proteins: In Vivo Cooperative Action of Surfactant Protein SP-A and the Lung Antimicrobial Peptide SP-BN.

    PubMed

    Coya, Juan Manuel; Akinbi, Henry T; Sáenz, Alejandra; Yang, Li; Weaver, Timothy E; Casals, Cristina

    2015-08-15

    The anionic antimicrobial peptide SP-B(N), derived from the N-terminal saposin-like domain of the surfactant protein (SP)-B proprotein, and SP-A are lung anti-infective proteins. SP-A-deficient mice are more susceptible than wild-type mice to lung infections, and bacterial killing is enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing SP-B(N). Despite their potential anti-infective action, in vitro studies indicate that several microorganisms are resistant to SP-A and SP-B(N). In this study, we test the hypothesis that these proteins act synergistically or cooperatively to strengthen each other's microbicidal activity. The results indicate that the proteins acted synergistically in vitro against SP-A- and SP-B(N)-resistant capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae (serotype K2) at neutral pH. SP-A and SP-B(N) were able to interact in solution (Kd = 0.4 μM), which enabled their binding to bacteria with which SP-A or SP-B(N) alone could not interact. In vivo, we found that treatment of K. pneumoniae-infected mice with SP-A and SP-B(N) conferred more protection against K. pneumoniae infection than each protein individually. SP-A/SP-B(N)-treated infected mice showed significant reduction of bacterial burden, enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and ameliorated lung histopathology with respect to untreated infected mice. In addition, the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in lung homogenates increased early in infection in contrast with the weak inflammatory response of untreated K. pneumoniae-infected mice. Finally, we found that therapeutic treatment with SP-A and SP-B(N) 6 or 24 h after bacterial challenge conferred significant protection against K. pneumoniae infection. These studies show novel anti-infective pathways that could drive development of new strategies against pulmonary infections.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading species isolated from Hawaiian soils: Mycobacterium crocinum sp. nov., Mycobacterium pallens sp. nov., Mycobacterium rutilum sp. nov., Mycobacterium rufum sp. nov. and Mycobacterium aromaticivorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hennessee, Christiane T; Seo, Jong-Su; Alvarez, Anne M; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants. In this study, both pristine and contaminated soils were sampled as a source of PAH-degrading organisms. Nine strains isolated from these soils were identified as rapidly growing members of the genus Mycobacterium through basic phenotypic characteristics and through sequence similarity of three genes. Because the sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene is relatively high among members of this genus, additional conserved genes encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and a heat-shock protein (hsp65) were sequenced. Several analyses were completed to differentiate the strains from one another and to determine their species-level taxonomy, including fatty acid methyl ester analysis, biochemical tests and substrate-utilization profiling. A phylogenetic tree incorporating sequences for all three genes was constructed with the isolates and their close described relatives. Results for biochemical tests, substrate-utilization tests and DNA sequencing were compared with those of the phylogenetically similar organisms to establish the isolated strains as representatives of novel species with characteristics unlike those of previously described species of Mycobacterium. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization was performed between strains and their close relatives to confirm their position within novel species. Our results demonstrated that the isolates represent five novel species, which were named Mycobacterium crocinum sp. nov. (type strain czh-42(T) =ATCC BAA-1373(T) =CIP 109262(T); reference strains czh-1A =ATCC BAA-1370 =CIP 109266 and czh-3 =ATCC BAA-1371=CIP 109267), Mycobacterium pallens sp. nov. (type strain czh-8(T) =ATCC BAA-1372(T) =CIP 109268(T)), Mycobacterium rutilum sp. nov. (type strain czh-117(T) =ATCC BAA-1375(T) =CIP 109271(T); reference strains czh-107 =ATCC BAA-1374 =CIP 109270 and czh-132 =ATCC BAA-1376 =CIP 109272), Mycobacterium rufum sp. nov. (type strain JS14(T

  20. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai'i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2(T) = DSM 28029(T) = LMG 27952(T)); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WA(T) = DSM 28027(T) = LMG 27949(T)); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1(T) = DSM 28028(T) = LMG 27950(T)); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1(T) = DSM 28030(T) = LMG 28140(T)). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38(T) = DSM

  1. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; King, Gary M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai‘i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2T = DSM 28029T = LMG 27952T); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WAT = DSM 28027T = LMG 27949T); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1T = DSM 28028T = LMG 27950T); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1T = DSM 28030T = LMG 28140T). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38T = DSM 28031T = LMG 28138T

  2. Friedmanniella flava sp. nov., a soil actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefang; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, Yabo; Xin, Yuhua; He, Hongju

    2013-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain W6(T), was isolated from a soil sample of Yunnan Province, China. The bacterium was aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and Gram-stain-positive. Genetic, phenotypic and chemical properties of the isolate were studied. 16S rRNA gene sequence data suggested that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Friedmanniella and shared 98.6% sequence similarity with Friedmanniella antarctica DSM 11053(T) and Friedmanniella okinawensis DSM 21744(T), the most closely related species. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, and mycolic acids were absent. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and the predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The phospholipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain W6(T) was 72 mol%. Strain W6(T) showed 30.0% and 28.5% DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, to F. antarctica DSM 11053(T) and F. okinawensis DSM 21744(T). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain W6(T) should be assigned to the genus Friedmanniella as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Friedmanniella flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W6(T) ( = CGMCC 4.6856(T) =JCM 17701(T)).

  3. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-07

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  4. Taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from plants: proposal of Sphingomonas rosa sp. nov., Sphingomonas pruni sp. nov., Sphingomonas asaccharolytica sp. nov., and Sphingomonas mali sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Sakane, T; Yanagi, M; Yamasato, K; Hamana, K; Yokota, A

    1995-04-01

    The taxonomic positions of 10 strains of 3-ketolactose-forming bacteria which were isolated from the roots of plants (Rosa sp., Psychotria nairobiensis, Ardisia crispa, Prunus persica, and apple trees) were investigated. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 64.0 to 65.7 mol%, the isoprenoid quinone of each strain was ubiquinone 10, 3-hydroxy fatty acids were lacking in the cellular fatty acids of these organisms, and all of the strains contained a sphingolipid with the long-chain base dihydrosphingosin. These are characteristics of the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison data, we propose the following four new species of the genus Sphingomonas: Sphingomonas rosa (type strain, IFO 15208) for the strains isolated from rose plants and formerly named [Agrobacterium rhizogenes]; Sphingomonas pruni (type strain, IFO 15498) for the strains isolated from Prunus persica; and Sphingomonas asaccharolytica (type strain, IFO 15499) and Sphingomonas mali (type strain, IFO 15500) for the strains isolated from apple trees. Two strains which were isolated from Psychotria nairobiensis and formerly named [Chromobacterium lividum] were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strains.

  5. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications.

  6. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  7. Mineralization of phenanthrene by a Mycobacterium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, W.F.; Jones, G.E.

    1988-04-01

    A Mycobacterium sp., designated strain BG1, able to utilize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from estuarine sediment following enrichment with the hydrocarbon. Unlike other phenanthrene degraders, this bacterium degraded phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid without accumulating this or other aromatic intermediates, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degradation proceeded via meta cleavage of protocatechuic acid. Different nonionic surfactants (Tween compounds) solubilized the phenanthrene to different degrees and enhanced phenanthrene utilization. The order of enhancement, however, did not correlate perfectly with increased solubility, suggesting physiological as well as physicochemical effects of the surfactants. Plasmids of approximately 21, 58, and 77 megadaltons were detected in cells grown with phenanthrene but not in those which, after growth on nutrient media, lost the phenanthrene-degrading phenotype. Given that plasmid-mediated degradations of aromatic hydrocarbons generally occur via meta cleavages, it is of interest that the addition of pyruvate, a product of meta cleavage, supported rapid mineralization of phenanthrene in broth culture; succinate, a product of ortho cleavage, supported growth but completely repressed the utilization of phenanthrene. The involvement of plasmids may have given rise to the unusual degradation pattern that was observed.

  8. Enterococcus saccharominimus sp. nov., from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Vancanneyt, M; Zamfir, M; Devriese, L A; Lefebvre, K; Engelbeen, K; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Amar, M; De Vuyst, L; Haesebrouck, F; Swings, J

    2004-11-01

    Four isolates, which were obtained from Belgian, Moroccan and Romanian dairy products, constituted a homogeneous but unidentified taxon after screening with whole-cell protein fingerprinting. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis classified representative strains in the genus Enterococcus. Highest sequence similarities of 98.6 and 98.0 % were obtained with the species Enterococcus sulfureus and Enterococcus saccharolyticus, respectively. Growth characteristics, biochemical features, tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA G+C contents of selected strains demonstrated that they represent a single, novel Enterococcus species. It differs phenotypically from other enterococci in characteristics commonly considered as typical of this genus: no growth in 6.5 % NaCl or 0.4 % sodium azide, and no acid production from a wide range of carbohydrates. The name Enterococcus saccharominimus sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species; the type strain (LMG 21727(T)=CCM 7220(T)) was isolated from contaminated pasteurized cow's milk.

  9. Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2012-03-30

    Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 μN in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates.

  10. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Joo; Park, Myoung Kyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81(T) (97.1-97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7(T) (=KCTC 42139(T) = JCM 30009(T)).

  11. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  12. Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Bryndová, Hana; Holochová, Pavla; Kosina, Marcel; Maslanová, Ivana; Sedlácek, Ivo

    2012-07-01

    Eight Gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterial strains were isolated during screening of enterococcal populations on plants. rep-PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer showed that the isolates constituted a single cluster that was separate from all known enterococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis of three representative strains showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus and that they clustered with the Enterococcus faecalis species group. Sequencing of the genes for the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) also revealed the isolates' separate taxonomic position. Application of whole-cell protein fingerprinting, automated ribotyping and extensive phenotyping demonstrated the genetic and phenotypic homogeneity of the isolates and confirmed their separate position within the E. faecalis species group. The isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CCM 7889(T) (=LMG 26214(T)=C27(T)).

  13. Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodfellow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain positive actinobacterial strain, designated KT1403(T), was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karpaz, Magusa, Northern Cyprus, and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Phytomonospora. The cell wall of the novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose and mannose as the major sugars in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids in the cell membrane were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The major fatty acids were found to be iso C15:0 , anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KT1403(T) belongs to the genus Phytomonospora with a sequence similarity of 99.73 % with Phytomonospora endophytica, the type species of the genus. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain KT1403(T) from its near phylogenetic neighbour, P. endophytica DSM 45386(T) (29.0 ± 2.2 % DNA relatedness). Therefore, it is proposed that strain KT1403(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phytomonospora, for which the name Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KT1403(T) (=KCTC 29479(T) = DSM 46767(T)).

  14. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  15. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2009-12-01

    Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)).

  16. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)).

  17. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)).

  18. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T).

  19. Flavobacterium fontis sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jeesun; Kang, Ji Young; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

    2013-05-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated MIC3010(T), which was isolated from a freshwater pond in Jeonju, Republic of Korea. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae, with Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) as its closest relative, with a similarity of 94.2 %. The predominant fatty acids of strain MIC3010(T) were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile of strain MIC3010(T) revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and one unidentified lipid (L1) as major components. In addition, two aminolipids (AL1, AL2) and one glycolipid were present in small amounts. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 41.0 mol%. The strain contained MK-6 as the major quinone and sym-homospermidine as the predominant polyamine. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain MIC3010(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium fontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MIC3010(T) ( = KACC 16593(T) = JCM 18212(T)).

  20. Flavobacterium yanchengense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Guiqin; Li, Yang-Yang; Guan, Yi-Ting; Wang, Jun; Li, Shun-Peng; Hong, Qing

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, hg(T), resembling members of the genus Flavobacterium, was isolated from soil, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain hg(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 30 °C in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 34 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain hg(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain hg(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Flavobacterium were below 94.7 %. Strain hg(T) differed from phylogenetically related species of the genus Flavobacterium in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain hg(T) (= CCTCC AB 2012099(T) = KACC 16855(T)) was classified in the genus Flavobacterium as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium yanchengense sp. nov. is proposed.

  1. The growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. cells in the presence of thorium.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 10(6) to 4.27 × 10(5) and 8.57 × 10(5) cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 10(4) cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 10(5) and 5.12 × 10(5) cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies.

  2. Removal of Pb (II) by immobilized and free filaments of marine Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Rajeshwari, Kamaraj; Johnson, Shani; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2011-09-01

    Pb(2+) removal ability of the immobilized and free filaments of marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 was studied using batch experiments. Biosorption of lead by immobilized filaments was studied as a function of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, 10), contact time (5-180 min) and initial lead concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) and the removal efficiency of free filaments was studied by culturing in the marine medium with the initial concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) at pH 7 and incubated for 10 days. The maximum percentage removal was observed at 25 min for immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and 30 min for immobilized Phormidium sp. NTMS02. At 4th and 6th day of incubation, 89% and 77% removal was observed at 1 mg/L of initial lead concentration by free filaments of Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively and further the removal was decreased with increasing concentration. Chlorophyll-a content was decreased in a dose dependent manner. About 40 and 50% reduction of chlorophyll-a was observed at higher concentration in Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively. The adsorption capacity of immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 was found to be (Q(max)) 217.39 which is comparatively higher than other sorbents. The Pb(2+) removal efficiency was performed as described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. These organisms is found to fit better by the Langmuir isotherms.

  3. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils.

  4. Combinations of fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in phospholipid films.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, K; Taneva, S G; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant (PS) proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) modulate the surface properties of PS lipids. Epifluorescence microscopy was performed on solvent-spread monolayers of fluorescently labeled porcine SP-B (R-SP-B, labeled with Texas Red) and SP-C (F-SP-C, labeled with fluorescein) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (at protein concentrations of 10 and 20 wt%, and 10 wt% of both) under conditions of cyclic compression and expansion. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy of R-SP-B and F-SP-C indicated that the proteins were intact and labeled with the appropriate fluorescent probe. The monolayers were compressed and expanded for four cycles at an initial rate of 0.64 A2 x mol(-1) x s(-1) (333 mm2 x s x [-1]) up to a surface pressure pi approximately 65 mN/m, and pi-area per residue (pi-A) isotherms at 22 +/- 1 degrees C were obtained. The monolayers were microscopically observed for the fluorescence emission of the individual proteins present in the film lipid matrix, and their visual features were video recorded for image analysis. The pi-A isotherms of the DPPC/protein monolayers showed characteristic "squeeze out" effects at pi approximately 43 mN/m for R-SP-B and 55 mN/m for F-SP-C, as had previously been observed for monolayers of the native proteins in DPPC. Both proteins associated with the expanded (fluid) phase of DPPC monolayers remained in or associated with the monolayers at high pi (approximately 65 mN/m) and redispersed in the monolayer upon its reexpansion. At comparable pi and area/molecule of the lipid, the proteins reduced the amounts of condensed (gel-like) phase of DPPC monolayers, with F-SP-C having a greater effect on a weight basis than did R-SP-B. In any one of the lipid/protein monolayers the amounts of the DPPC in condensed phase were the same at equivalent pi during compression and expansion and from cycle to cycle. This indicated that only minor loss of components from these systems

  5. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-03-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  6. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  7. Insights into the Oxidation Mechanism of sp(2)-sp(3) Hybrid Carbon Materials: Preparation of a Water-Soluble 2D Porous Conductive Network and Detectable Molecule Separation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwei; Yang, Yucheng; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-01-31

    A thorough investigation of the oxidation mechanism of sp(2)-sp(3) hybrid carbon materials is helpful for the morphological trimming of graphene. Here, porous graphene (PGN) was obtained via a free radical oxidation process. We further demonstrated the difference between traditional and free radical oxidation processes in sp(2)-sp(3) hybrid carbon materials. The sp(3) part of graphene oxide was oxidized first, and well-crystallized sp(2) domains were reserved, which is different from the oxidation mechanism in a traditional approach. The obtained PGN shows excellent performance in the design of PGN-based detectable molecule separation or other biomedical applications.

  8. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  9. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  10. [Causative agent of human diphyllobothriasis--Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n].

    PubMed

    Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

    1988-01-01

    A new cestode species, Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n., is described on the basis of experimental examination and morphological study of 51 specimens expelled from men in lower part of the Amur river and 18 specimens expelled from golden hamsters. The larval stage of this cestode is plerocercoid of type F, which is localized in muscles of Oncorhynchus keta and O. gorbuscha. D. klebanovskii sp. n. is a marine species, it differs from D. latum and other species of the genus Diphyllobothrium.

  11. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera.

  12. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    PubMed

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of < 98.41 % with all species of the genus Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  13. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)).

  14. Gordonia humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Frischmann, A; Busse, H-J; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium (CC-12301(T)) was isolated from soil attached to a spawn used in the laboratory to grow the edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain CC-12301(T) was shown to belong to the genus Gordonia and was most closely related to the type strains of Gordonia hydrophobica (97.6 % similarity), Gordonia terrae (97.5 %), Gordonia amarae (97.5 %) and Gordonia malaquae (97.4 %). The quinone system was determined to consist predominantly of menaquinone MK-9(H(2)), minor amounts of MK-8(H(2)) and MK-7(H(2)). The polar lipid profile consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, moderate amounts of two phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylinositol and minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified glycolipids, two phosphoglycolipids and a phospholipid. Mycolic acids were present. These chemotaxonomic traits and the major fatty acids, which were C(16 : 1) cis9, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) and tuberculostearic acid (10-methyl C(18 : 0)), supported the affiliation of strain CC-12301(T) to the genus Gordonia. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-12301(T) from the most closely related Gordonia species. Strain CC-12301(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Gordonia humi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CC-12301(T) (=DSM 45298(T) =CCM 7727(T)).

  15. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  16. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3 % identity in this gene and 96 %, 92 % and 86 % identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω7c in summed feature 8 (40.82 %), C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω6c in summed feature 3 (23.72 %) and C16 : 0 (15.20 %). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or β-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52 % relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) ( = LMG 26839(T) = CECT 8089(T)).

  17. (Spirosoma luteolum) sp. nov. isolated from water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Park, Sangkyu; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Ten, Leonid N; Jung, Hee-Young

    2017-03-01

    A novel Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated as 16F6ET, was isolated from a water sample. Cells were yellowish in color and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain grew at 10-37°C (optimum at 25°C) but not at 4 and 42°C, and pH 5-7 (optimum at pH 7). It showed moderate resistance to gamma-ray irradiation. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that strain 16F6E(T) belonged to the family Cytophagaceae of the class Cytophagia. Furthermore, this isolate showed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (90.7-93.1%) to the members of the genus Spirosoma. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0 N alcohol, and C16:0. The polar lipid profile indicated presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, an unknown amino lipid, unknown phospholipids, and unknown polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F6E(T) was 56.5 mol%. Phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties indicated that isolate 16F6ET represents a novel species within the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma luteolum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 16F6ET (=KCTC 52199(T) =JCM 31411(T)).

  18. Actinomadura scrupuli sp. nov., isolated from rock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wan; Lee, Soon Dong

    2010-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain R-Ac121(T), was isolated from a small stone collected from an agricultural field in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organism formed abundant vegetative mycelium that was branched and twisted. The reverse colour of colonies was brownish-yellow. Non-motile, wrinkled arthrospores were produced directly on the substrate mycelium. Aerial mycelium and sporangia were not observed. A neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate formed a distinct clade within the radiation of the family Thermomonosporaceae. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity was found with the type strain of Spirillospora rubra (97.3 % sequence similarity) followed by those of Actinoallomurus purpureus (97.0 %), Actinomadura alba (96.5 %), Actinomadura fibrosa (96.5 %) and Actinomadura echinospora (96.4 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were rhamnose, glucose, ribose, xylose and arabinose. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(17 : 1)ω8c and 10-methyl C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 71.8 mol%. The combination of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data clearly supports the separation of the organism from recognized species of the genus Actinomadura and related genera. On the basis of the data presented here, strain R-Ac121(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura scrupuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain R-Ac121(T) (=KCTC 19488(T) =DSM 45225(T)).

  19. Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Sung; Oh, Yong-Sik; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Park, A-Rum; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Roh, Dong-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated CS100(T), was isolated from soil in Chungbuk, Korea. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative studies based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain CS100(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CS100(T) showed the highest sequence similarities to Flavobacterium glaciei JCM 13953(T) (97.6 %) and Flavobacterium johnsoniae KACC 11410(T) (97.1 %). Sequence similarity to other members of the genus Flavobacterium was 91.5-97.0 %. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Flexirubin-type pigments were produced. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (17.3 %), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, 15.5 %) and C(16 : 0) (11.8 %). The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. Strain CS100(T) hydrolysed skimmed milk and gelatin, but not chitin or pectin, and showed oxidase and catalase activities. DNA-DNA relatedness was 3.0 % with F. glaciei JCM 13953(T) and 11.5 % with F. johnsoniae KACC 11410(T). On the basis of the evidence from this study, strain CS100(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CS100(T) ( = KACC 15048(T) = JCM 17386(T)).

  20. Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Gao, Yuan; Nogi, Yuichi; Tan, Xu; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yali; Lv, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two novel strains, T9(T) and T10, were isolated from water samples collected from Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. The isolates were yellow-pigmented, Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, and showed highest similarities to Flavobacterium hibernum DSM 12611(T) (97.0 %), followed by Flavobacterium granuli Kw05(T) (96.7 %) and Flavobacterium pectinovorum DSM 6368(T) (96.7 %). The novel strains were able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c, anteiso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1ω10c, and menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the main respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown glycolipid, two unknown aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains T9(T) and T10 were 37.7 and 36.4 mol%, respectively. According to the phenotypic and genetic data, strains T9(T) and T10 represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T9(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12712(T) = JCM 19927(T)).

  1. Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Soo-Jin; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated GSW-R14(T), was isolated from seawater of Geoje Island in the South Sea, Korea. Strain GSW-R14(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GSW-R14(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, joining Flavobacterium gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) by a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) exhibited 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) and similarities of 91.2-95.2 % to other members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain GSW-R14(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The fatty acid profile of strain GSW-R14(T) was similar to that of F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T). The DNA G+C content of strain GSW-R14(T) was 31.4 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness with F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) was 31 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) could be distinguished from F. gelidilacus and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, strain GSW-R14(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GSW-R14(T) (=KCTC 22802(T) =CCUG 58402(T)).

  2. Flavobacterium vireti sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Akter, Shahina; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as THG-SM1(T), was isolated from field soil collected from Suwon, South Korea. The strain was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain THG-SM1(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium and is most closely related to Flavobacterium terrae KACC 11731(T), followed by Flavobacterium columnare KACC 11683(T) and Flavobacterium enshiense KCTC 23775(T). The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was determined to be 38.5 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, the DNA relatedness between strain THG-SM1(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbour F. terrae was below 50 %. Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. The major polar lipid and isoprenoid quinone were phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone 6 (MK-6), respectively. The main cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:1G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and differentiating chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics showed that strain THG-SM1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium vireti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SM1(T) (=KACC 18371(T) = CCTCC AB2014312(T)).

  3. Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Min; Tan, Xu; Jia, Li; Long, Ping-Ping; Han, Lu; Lv, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A gram-negative, non-gliding motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain T7(T), was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Flavobacterium and that shared less than 97 % sequence similarities with recognized Flavobacterium species. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Flavobacterium dankookense (96.9 %), followed by Flavobacterium cheonhonense (96.8 %) and Flavobacterium macrobrachii (96.7 %). The strain formed smooth yellow colonies on R2A plates, and cells were observed to be short rods. Strain T7(T) was found to be able to grow at 15-30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at NaCl concentration of 0-0.5 % (optimum 0 %) and at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). Catalase and oxidase tests were positive. Polar lipids of strain T7(T) included phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed menaquinone-6 as the dominant respiratory quinone and C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:1) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain T7(T) was determined to be 38.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genetic data obtained in this study, strain T7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T7(T) (=JCM 30750=CGMCC 1.15216).

  4. Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Liu, Hongcan; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin; Zhou, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SW105(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The strain produced flexirubin-type pigments and grew at 15-45 °C (optimum, 35 °C), at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-1.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SW105(T) was 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate was related to members of the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest similarity to Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12(T) and Flavobacterium ceti CCUG 52969(T) (94.3 and 93.0 % sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SW105(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW105(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10825(T) = JCM 18132(T)).

  5. Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Yoon, Sun Young; Jung, Yong-Taek; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, HDSW-34T, was isolated from seawater of Hwang-do on the Yellow Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain HDSW-34T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HDSW-34Tclustered with the type strains of four species of the genus Octadecabacter, showing 96.7-97.6 % sequence similarity. Strain HDSW-34T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids detected in strain HDSW-34T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain HDSW-34T was 62.0 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with Octadecabacterantarcticus CIP 106731T and Octadecabacterarcticus DSM 13978T were 11-18 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain HDSW-34T is separated from other recognized species of the genus Octadecabacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain HDSW-34T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Octadecabacter, for which the name Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HDSW-34T (= KCTC 52250T=NBRC 112296T).

  6. Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2006-04-01

    A Gram-negative, motile and oval- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-43T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 30 degrees C in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain DS-43T had Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids, which are consistent with the corresponding data for the type strain (KCTC 12459T) of Variovorax paradoxus. The DNA G+C content was 66.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-43T was most closely related to Variovorax paradoxus, the only recognized species of the genus. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain DS-43T and V. paradoxus IAM 12373T was 97.3 %. DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain DS-43T is distinguishable from V. paradoxus. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, it is proposed that strain DS-43T (=KCTC 12544T = CIP 108838T) be classified in the genus Variovorax as a member of a novel species, Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov.

  7. Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2012-08-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)ω7c and/or ω9t and/or ω12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) ( = KCTC 12768(T) = JCM 17804(T)).

  8. Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC 13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)).

  9. Devosia albogilva sp. nov. and Devosia crocina sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Kumar, Mukesh; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Kaur, Jaspreet; Lal, Rup

    2009-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, IPL15(T) and IPL20(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site in India, were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains belonged to the genus Devosia; highest sequence similarities of strain IPL15(T) were observed with Devosia neptuniae J1(T) and Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2 % in each case) and the highest sequence similarity of strain IPL20(T) was observed with Devosia soli GH2-10(T) (98.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed the distinct lineages of strains IPL15(T) and IPL20(T) among members of the genus Devosia. The presence of C(18 : 0) 3-OH and C(10 : 0) 3-OH fatty acids supported their respective positions within the genus Devosia. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization results, it is concluded that strains IPL15(T) and IPL20(T) represent two distinct species of the genus Devosia for which the names Devosia albogilva sp. nov. and Devosia crocina sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains are Devosia albogilva IPL15(T) (=CCM 7427(T)=MTCC 8594(T)) and Devosia crocina IPL20(T) (=CCM 7425(T)=MTCC 8590(T)).

  10. Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov., isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-06-01

    Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, strains Hh8(T), Hh15(T) and Hh40-2, were isolated from the No. 1 glacier in Xinjiang, north-west China. Colonies of strain Hh8(T) were orange-yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Strain Hh8(T) grew at 0-19 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. Colonies of strain Hh15(T), which was able to grow at 0-20 °C and pH 5.5-12, were lemon yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these three strains were related to members of the genus Cryobacterium. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(15:1) A. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, two novel species, Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. (type strain Hh8(T) = CGMCC 1.11215(T) = NBRC 107879(T)) and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov. (type strain Hh15(T) = CGMCC 1.11210(T) = NBRC 107880(T)), are proposed.

  11. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    PubMed

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-16

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  12. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    PubMed Central

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  13. Degradation of methomyl by the combination of Aminobacter sp. MDW-2 and Afipia sp. MDW-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Yang, Z; Jin, W; Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhu, S; Yu, X; Hu, G; Hong, Q

    2017-04-01

    Methomyl (S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate) is a kind of oxime carbamate insecticide. It is considered to be extremely toxic to nontarget organism. To date, no pure culture or consortium has been reported to have the ability to degrade methomyl completely. In this study, a methomyl-degrading enrichment E1 was obtained by using the sludge from the wastewater-treating system of a pesticide manufacturer as the original inoculant. Two bacterial strains named MDW-2 and MDW-3 were isolated from this enrichment, and they were preliminarily identified as Aminobacter sp. and Afipia sp. respectively. Strains MDW-2 and MDW-3 could coexist and degrade 50 mg l(-1) methomyl completely within 3 days by the cooperative metabolism. Methomyl was first converted to methomyl oxime and methylcarbamic acid by strain MDW-2, and the latter could be used as the carbon source for the growth of strain MDW-2. But methomyl oxime could not be sequentially degraded by strain MDW-2. However, it could be degraded and used as the carbon source by strain MDW-3.

  14. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Anionic sp(2) -sp(3) Diboron Compounds: Readily Accessible Boryl Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Sabrina; Neeve, Emily C; Apperley, David C; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Mo, Fanyang; Qiu, Di; Cheung, Man Sing; Dang, Li; Wang, Jianbo; Radius, Udo; Lin, Zhenyang; Kleeberg, Christian; Marder, Todd B

    2015-05-04

    Lewis base adducts of tetra-alkoxy diboron compounds, in particular bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2 pin2 ), have been proposed as the active source of nucleophilic boryl species in metal-free borylation reactions. We report the isolation and detailed structural characterization (by solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography) of a series of anionic adducts of B2 pin2 with hard Lewis bases, such as alkoxides and fluoride. The study was extended to alternative Lewis bases, such as acetate, and other diboron reagents. The B(sp(2) )-B(sp(3) ) adducts exhibit two distinct boron environments in the solid-state and solution NMR spectra, except for [(4-tBuC6 H4 O)B2 pin2 ](-) , which shows rapid site exchange in solution. DFT calculations were performed to analyze the stability of the adducts with respect to dissociation. Stoichiometric reaction of the isolated adducts with two representative series of organic electrophiles-namely, aryl halides and diazonium salts-demonstrate the relative reactivities of the anionic diboron compounds as nucleophilic boryl anion sources.

  16. Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov., isolated from various terrestrial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, I.R.; Kampfer, P.; Topp, E.; Warner, K.L.; Cox, M.J.; Connell, Hancock T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Larkin, M.J.; Ducrocq, V.; Coulter, C.; Harper, D.B.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial strains IMB-1T and CC495T, which are capable of growth on methyl chloride (CH3Cl, chloromethane) and methyl bromide (CH3Br, bromomethane), were isolated from agricultural soil in California fumigated with CH3Br, and woodland soil in Northern Ireland, respectively. Two pesticide- /herbicide-degrading bacteria, strains ER2 and C147, were isolated from agricultural soil in Canada. Strain ER2 degrades N-methyl carbamate insecticides, and strain C147 degrades triazine herbicides widely used in agriculture. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, these four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Aminobacter, for which the names Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. (type strain IMB-1T=ATCC 202197T=CIP 108660T=CCUG 50580T; strains ER2 and C147) and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov. (type strain CC495T=NCIMB 13798T=CIP 108661T=CCUG 50579T) are proposed. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  17. Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Campocasso, Angélique; Boughalmi, Mondher; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Two isolates of intra-amoeba-growing bacteria, LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)) and LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)), were characterized on the basis of microscopic appearance, staining characteristics, axenic growth at different temperatures and the sequences of the mip, rpoB, 16S rRNA and rnpb genes, as well as the 23S-5S region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates lay within the radius of the family Legionellaceae. Furthermore, the analysis of these genes yielded congruent data that indicated that, although strain LegM(T) clusters specifically with Legionella feeleii ATCC 35072(T) and LegA(T) clusters with Legionella nautarum ATCC 49596(T), the divergence observed between these species was greater than that observed between other members of the family. Taken together, these results support the proposal that these two isolates represent novel members of the genus Legionella, and we propose to name them Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. for LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)) and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov. for LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)).

  18. Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov., vibrios associated with coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Naser, S; Hoste, B; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Munn, C; Bourne, D; Swings, J

    2005-03-01

    Six new Vibrio-like isolates originating from different species of bleached and healthy corals around Magnetic Island (Australia) were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, recA and rpoA gene sequences split the isolates in two new groups. Strains LMG 22223(T), LMG 22224, LMG 22225, LMG 22226 and LMG 22227 were phylogenetic neighbours of Photobacterium leiognathi LMG 4228(T) (95.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), whereas strain LMG 22228(T) was related to Enterovibrio norvegicus LMG 19839(T) (95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The two new groups can be distinguished from closely related species on the basis of several phenotypic features, including fermentation of d-mannitol, melibiose and sucrose, and utilization of different compounds as carbon sources, arginine dihydrolase activity, nitrate reduction, resistance to the vibriostatic agent O/129 and the presence of fatty acids 15 : 0 iso and 17 : 0 iso. The names Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 22223(T)=CBMAI 622(T)=CC1(T)) and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 22228(T)=CBMAI 623(T)=CC17(T)) are proposed to accommodate these new isolates. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two type strains are respectively 47.6 and 48.2 mol%.

  19. Enterobacter turicensis sp. nov. and Enterobacter helveticus sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2007-04-01

    Four Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming isolates of coccoid rods were obtained from fruit powder and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Their phylogenetic position within the family Enterobacteriaceae was confirmed by rpoB sequence analysis and as the highest rpoB sequence similarities were obtained with Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter cowanii and Enterobacter sakazakii, the isolates clearly belong to the genus Enterobacter. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates can be separated into two distinct groups that represent two novel species, as confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. The two novel species can be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by the following characteristics: the utilization of sucrose, D-sorbitol, putrescine and mucate, the hydrolysis of aesculin and a negative result in the Voges-Proskauer reaction. It is therefore proposed that these novel isolates are classified as Enterobacter turicensis sp. nov. (type strain 508/05(T)=LMG 23730(T)=DSM 18397(T)) and Enterobacter helveticus sp. nov. (type strain 513/05(T)=LMG 23732(T)=DSM 18396(T)).

  20. Identification and Production of Bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their Characterization Studies.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-02-16

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 g and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7% and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3% and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. TGA results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400 °C) for microbial-derived compounds EB, B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic E.coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant embedded composite films show the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  1. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic.

  2. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  3. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  4. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains.

  5. Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Osman, Shariff; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-07-01

    Two novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic, heterotrophic bacteria representing two novel species were isolated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF) at Pasadena, CA, USA. The incidence of similar strains was examined by screening the growing collection of isolates ( approximately 400 strains) obtained from the JPL-SAF using species-specific PCR primer sets designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-007(T). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these novel isolates within the genus Paenibacillus. Two strains, SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125, shared 98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus timonensis and 97 % similarity with Paenibacillus macerans. Strain SAFN-007(T) showed 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus kobensis, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological tests and biochemical analysis allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from currently recognized Paenibacillus species. Strain SAFN-007(T) and strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125 are representatives of two separate novel species, for which the names Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-007(T)=ATCC BAA-1211(T)=NBRC 101214(T)) and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-016(T)=ATCC BAA-1209(T)=NBRC 101215(T)) are proposed.

  6. Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacier foreland.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xia; Qu, Zhihao; Jiang, Fan; Ren, Lvzhi; Chang, Xulu; Kan, Wenjing; Fang, Chengxiang; Peng, Fang

    2014-07-01

    Two psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designed M1-27(T) and 8-24(T), were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Strain M1-27(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, whereas strain 8-24(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Austre Lovénbreen glacier. Both were Arctic glacier forelands, near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 91.0-96.0% and 92.3-96.7%, respectively, to type strains of recognized species of the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were grouped with members of the genus Pedobacter, but represented distinct taxa. Both strains contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) were 43.8% and 39.4%, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and polygenetic analysis, clearly indicated that strains M1-27(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012936(T) = LMG 28205(T)) and 8-24(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012941(T) = NRRL B-59993(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  7. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  8. Complete Genomic Sequence of the Virulent Salmonella Bacteriophage SP6

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Aleisha T.; George, Matthew; Basham, Daryl A.; Ford, Michael E.; Houtz, Jennifer M.; Pedulla, Marisa L.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of enterobacteriophage SP6, which infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The genome contains 43,769 bp, including a 174-bp direct terminal repeat. The gene content and organization clearly place SP6 in the coliphage T7 group of phages, but there is ∼5 kb at the right end of the genome that is not present in other members of the group, and the homologues of T7 genes 1.3 through 3 appear to have undergone an unusual reorganization. Sequence analysis identified 10 putative promoters for the SP6-encoded RNA polymerase and seven putative rho-independent terminators. The terminator following the gene encoding the major capsid subunit has a termination efficiency of about 50% with the SP6-encoded RNA polymerase. Phylogenetic analysis of phages related to SP6 provided clear evidence for horizontal exchange of sequences in the ancestry of these phages and clearly demarcated exchange boundaries; one of the recombination joints lies within the coding region for a phage exonuclease. Bioinformatic analysis of the SP6 sequence strongly suggested that DNA replication occurs in large part through a bidirectional mechanism, possibly with circular intermediates. PMID:15028677

  9. Sp1- and Krüppel-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Joanna; Cook, Tiffany; Urrutia, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Sp1-like proteins and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are highly related zinc-finger proteins that are important components of the eukaryotic cellular transcriptional machinery. By regulating the expression of a large number of genes that have GC-rich promoters, Sp1-like/KLF transcription regulators may take part in virtually all facets of cellular function, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Individual members of the Sp1-like/KLF family can function as activators or repressors depending on which promoter they bind and the coregulators with which they interact. A long-standing research aim has been to define the mechanisms by which Sp1-like factors and KLFs regulate gene expression and cellular function in a cell- and promoter-specific manner. Most members of this family have been identified in mammals, with at least 21 Sp1-like/KLF proteins encoded in the human genome, and members are also found in frogs, worms and flies. Sp1-like/KLF proteins have highly conserved carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domains that function in DNA binding. The amino terminus, containing the transcription activation domain, can vary significantly between family members. PMID:12620113

  10. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T).

  11. INHIBITION OF RHABDOMYOSARCOMA CELL AND TUMOR GROWTH BY TARGETING SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Pathi, Satya; Kim, Kyounghyun; Chen, Candy; Crose, Lisa; Linardic, Corinne; Safe, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. In tissue arrays of RMS tumor cores from 71 patients, 80% of RMS patients expressed high levels of Sp1 protein, whereas low expression of Sp1 was detected in normal muscle tissue. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibited growth and migration of RD and RH30 RMS cell lines and also inhibited tumor growth in vivo using a mouse xenograft (RH30 cells) model. The effects of TA were accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes in RMS cells and tumors, and the role of Sp protein downregulation in mediating inhibition of RD and RH30 cell growth and migration was confirmed by individual and combined knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins by RNA interference. TA treatment and Sp knockdown in RD and RH30 cells also showed that four genes that are emerging as individual drug targets for treating RMS, namely c-MET, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), PDGFRα and CXCR4, are also Sp-regulated genes. These results suggest that NSAIDs such as TA may have potential clinical efficacy in drug combinations for treating RMS patients. PMID:22815231

  12. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-09-15

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx. 

  13. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.

  14. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  15. sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes: astounding structural variability and mild sources of nucleophilic boron for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Rian D; Neeve, Emily C; Braunschweig, Holger; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-14

    Despite the widespread use of organoborane reagents in organic synthesis and catalysis, a major challenge still remains: very few boron-centered nucleophiles exist for the direct construction of B-C bonds. Perhaps the most promising emerging solution to this problem is the use of sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes, in which one boron atom of a conventional diborane(4) is quaternised by either a neutral or anionic nucleophile. These compounds, either isolated or generated in situ, serve as relatively mild and convenient sources of the boryl anion [BR2](-) for use in organic synthesis and have already proven their efficacy in metal-free as well as metal-catalysed borylation reactions. This Feature article documents the history of sp(2)-sp(3) diborane synthesis, their properties and surprising structural variability, and their burgeoning utility in organic synthesis.

  16. An antibody against the surfactant protein A (SP-A)-binding domain of the SP-A receptor inhibits T cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Samten, Buka; Townsend, James C; Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Pasquinelli, Virginia; Barnes, Peter F; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2008-07-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion, in part, by binding to its receptor, SP-R210. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here, we studied the effect of antibodies against the SP-A-binding (neck) domain (alpha-SP-R210n) or nonbinding C-terminal domain (alpha-SP-R210ct) of SP-R210 on human peripheral blood T cell immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrated that both antibodies bind to more than 90% of monocytes and 5-10% of CD3+ T cells in freshly isolated PBMC. Stimulation of PBMC from healthy tuberculin reactors [purified protein derivative-positive (PPD+)] with heat-killed M. tuberculosis induced increased antibody binding to CD3+ cells. Increased antibody binding suggested enhanced expression of SP-R210, and this was confirmed by Western blotting. The antibodies (alpha-SP-R210n) cross-linking the SP-R210 through the SP-A-binding domain markedly inhibited cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion by PBMC from PPD+ donors in response to heat-killed M. tuberculosis, whereas preimmune IgG and antibodies (alpha-SP-R210ct) cross-linking SP-R210 through the non-SP-A-binding, C-terminal domain had no effect. Anti-SP-R210n also decreased M. tuberculosis-induced production of TNF-alpha but increased production of IL-10. Inhibition of IFN-gamma production by alpha-SP-R210n was abrogated by the combination of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 and TGF-beta1. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that SP-A, via SP-R210, suppresses cell-mediated immunity against M. tuberculosis via a mechanism that up-regulates secretion of IL-10 and TGF-beta1.

  17. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis.

  18. Binding and functional effects of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 on the proximal human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase promoter.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, K L; Francone, O L

    1998-05-01

    Human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) circulates in plasma bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL) and modulates the rate by which cholesteryl ester is transported to the liver. So far, little is known about the regulation of the expression of the LCAT gene. In this study we have defined the cis-elements, identified the trans-acting factors and demonstrated their functional effects and significance in determining transcriptional activity of the proximal LCAT promoter. Using deletion mutants having 5' variable ends (from nucleotides -72 to -27), we have identified the presence of two non-consensus GC-rich regions that stimulate transcription in HepG2 and HeLa cells. These regions designated sites A (-29 to -47) and B (-49 to -65) contain the CCTCC core sequence which in electromobility shift analysis is critical for the formation of two DNA-protein complexes designated I and II. Site-directed mutagenesis suggests that both sites are equally important in promoter activity, and that cooperative interactions between both sites are not required for activity. Electromobility shift and supershift experiments using oligonucleotides spanning sites A and B identified Sp1 and Sp3 as the transcription factors interacting at these sites. To determine the significance and functional effects that Sp1 and Sp3 have in regulating LCAT promoter activity, we performed transfection experiments in Drosophila SL-2 cells as they lack endogenous Sp1 and Sp3. Sp1 but not Sp3 activates the human LCAT promoter and when Sp1 is co-transfected along with Sp3, Sp3 functions as a dose-dependent repressor of Sp1-mediated activation. These findings indicate that Sp1 is capable of transactivating a reporter gene linked to the LCAT promoter containing Sp binding sites and suggests that the levels of Sp3 or the nuclear Sp1/Sp3 ratio may play an important role in determining the transcriptional activity of the LCAT promoter in vivo.

  19. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472).

  20. Coupling of C(sp(3))-H bonds with C(sp(2))-O electrophiles: mild, general and selective.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yong-Yuan; Liao, Li-Li; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhen; Ye, Jian-Heng; Shen, Guo; Lu, Zhi-Peng; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Yu, Da-Gang

    2017-01-17

    Herein is reported the mild and general coupling of amine/ether C(sp(3))-H bonds with various kinds of C(sp(2))-O electrophiles with high selectivity and efficiency. Valuable allylic/benzylic amines are generated in moderate to excellent yields. The utility of this transformation is demonstrated by a broad substrate scope (>50 examples), good functional group tolerance and facile product modification.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Nolan H.; McCarthy, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. PMID:28153886

  2. Description and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. and Zschokkella lophii sp. n. from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon (Jordan).

    PubMed

    Freeman, M A; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2008-12-01

    Two new species of myxozoans from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon, are described using myxospore morphology and small subunit rDNA sequences. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. is a parasite of the gall bladder and had a prevalence of 57%. Mature spores of C. anko sp. n. are arcuate to crescent shaped with valves tapering to rounded tips. A prominent sutural line runs centrally between the round adjacent polar capsules containing the polar filament coiled two to three times. Spore measurements: length 10.8 (9.7-11.9) microm, width 41.9 (36.9-47.2) microm, polar capsule diameter 4.6 (4.1-5.3) microm. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. can be distinguished from other Ceratomyxa spp. due to its spore dimensions and shape. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. is a parasite of the urinary bladder and had a prevalence of 70%. Mature spores are ellipsoidal to semicircular with bluntly pointed ends. The sutural line is curved or sinuous and the valves have no discernable surface ornamentation. Two almost spherical polar capsules are located separately in the ends of the spore, opening in almost opposite directions and contain the polar filament with five coils. Spore measurements: length 20.1 (16.8-24.0) microm, width 14.9 (12.7-16.8) microm, polar capsule diameter 5.1 (3.6-5.8) microm. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. can be distinguished from other Zschokkella spp. due to the terminal opening of the polar capsules within the spores and the site of infection within the host fish. In the phylogenetic analyses, C. anko sp. n. grouped with other members of the same genus forming a monophyly. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. forms a discrete clade with another Zschokkella sp. that infects the urinary bladder of marine fish. This grouping forms a sister clade to one containing members of the genus Parvicapsula, all of which are parasites of the urinary system in marine fish.

  3. Studies on toxicity of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles to microalgae species: Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2011-08-01

    In view of increasing commercial applications of metal oxide nanoparticles their toxicity assessment becomes important. Alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles have wide range of applications in industrial as well as personal care products. In the absence of prior report on toxicological impact of alumina nanoparticles to microalgae, the principal objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of the nanoparticles on microalgae isolated from aquatic environment ( Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp.). The growth inhibitory effect of alumina nanoparticles was observed for both the species (72 h EC50 value, 45.4 mg/L for Chlorella sp.; 39.35 mg/L for Scenedesmus sp.). Bulk alumina also showed toxicity though to a lesser extent (72 h EC50 value, 110.2 mg/L for Chlorella sp.; 100.4 mg/L for Scenedesmus sp.). A clear decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in the treated cells compared to the untreated ones, more effect being notable in the case of nanoparticles. Preliminary results based on FT-IR studies, optical and scanning electron microscopic images suggest interaction of the nanoparticles with the cell surface.

  4. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  5. Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Chung, Eu Jin; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-10-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729(T), was isolated from vermicompost collected at Masan, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6729(T) belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was related most closely to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis Gsoil 040(T) (96.1 %), Chitinophaga arvensicola IAM 12650(T) (96.1 %) and Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588(T) (93.3 %). Strain YC6729(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The fatty acids of strain YC6729(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(18 : 0) and/or C(18 : 2)ω6,9c, iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, C(14 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G, C(18 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(15 : 1) I and/or C(13 : 0) 3-OH, C(13 : 0) 2-OH, C(16 : 0) 3-OH and unknown fatty acid ECL 13.565. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain YC6729(T) was 48.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain YC6729(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6729(T) ( = KACC 13774(T)  = DSM 22224(T)).

  6. On the Fourth Diadema Species (Diadema-sp) from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema -sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the “D. savignyi-like” samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  7. Pneumocystis sp. in bats evaluated by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Cavallini Sanches, E M; Ferreiro, L; Andrade, C P; Pacheco, S M; Almeida, L L; Spanamberg, A; Wissmann, G

    2013-03-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed a high prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization in wild mammals. Accurate quantification of Pneumocystis sp. is essential for the correct interpretation of many research experiments investigating this organism. The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Pneumocystis sp. in bats by qPCR, and to distinguish colonization from infection. Probes and primers for real time PCR (qPCR) were designed based on the gene of major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis sp., in order to analyze 195 lung tissue samples from bats captured (2007-2009). All samples were also analyzed by nested PCR, using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (mtSSU rRNA) to confirm the results. The qPCR assay was standardized using a standard curve made with the DNA extracted from bronchoalveolar lavage positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii. The average Ct was found to be between 13 and 14 (calibration curve) for the detection of infection with Pneumocystis sp. and above these values for colonization. It was considered as negative samples the ones that had Ct values equal to 50. Out of the total 195 samples, 47 (24.1%) bat lung DNA samples were positive for Pneumocystis sp. by qPCR. The most common bat species found were: Tadarida brasiliensis (23.4%), Histiotus velatus (17.0%), Desmodus rotundus (14.9%) and Molossus molossus (8.5%). The average cycle threshold of the positive samples (bats) was 25.8 and standard deviation was 1.7. The DNA samples with Ct values greater than 14 suggest that these animals might be colonized by Pneumocystis sp. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the usefulness of the qPCR procedure for identification of Pneumocystis sp. and for distinction between its colonizing or infectious status in bats.

  8. Sumoylation differentially regulates Sp1 to control cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lili; Ji, Wei-Ke; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Wen-Feng; Tang, Xiang-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Li, Ling; Liu, Mugen; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Wu, Erxi; Woodward, Zachary; Liu, Yi-Zhi; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are actively involved in regulating differentiation of different cell types. However, the functional differences between SUMO isoforms and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Using the ocular lens as a model system, we demonstrate that different SUMOs display distinct functions in regulating differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells. During lens differentiation, SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 displayed different expression, localization, and targets, suggesting differential functions. Indeed, overexpression of SUMO2/3, but not SUMO1, inhibited basic (b) FGF-induced cell differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3, also inhibited bFGF action. Mechanistically, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a major transcription factor that controls expression of lens-specific genes such as β-crystallins, was positively regulated by SUMO1 but negatively regulated by SUMO2. SUMO2 was found to inhibit Sp1 functions through several mechanisms: sumoylating it at K683 to attenuate DNA binding, and at K16 to increase its turnover. SUMO2 also interfered with the interaction between Sp1 and the coactivator, p300, and recruited a repressor, Sp3 to β-crystallin gene promoters, to negatively regulate their expression. Thus, stable SUMO1, but diminishing SUMO2/3, during lens development is necessary for normal lens differentiation. In support of this conclusion, SUMO1 and Sp1 formed complexes during early and later stages of lens development. In contrast, an interaction between SUMO2/3 and Sp1 was detected only during the initial lens vesicle stage. Together, our results establish distinct roles of different SUMO isoforms and demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Sp1 acts as a major transcription factor target for SUMO control of cell differentiation. PMID:24706897

  9. Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. from coolant lubricants.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gräber, Marco; Rabenstein, Andreas; Kuever, Jan; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, isolated from metal working fluids were investigated to determine their taxonomic positions. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, both strains (MPA 1113(T) and MPA 1105(T)) formed a distinct cluster with 97.7 % sequence similarity between them, which was in the vicinity of members of the genera Methylobacterium, Camelimonas, Chelatococcus, Bosea, Salinarimonas and Microvirga to which they showed low sequence similarities (below 94 %). The predominant compounds in the polyamine pattern and in the quinone system of the two strains were spermidine and ubiquinone Q-10, respectively. The polar lipid profiles were composed of the major compounds: phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, major or moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified aminolipids. Several minor lipids were also detected. The major fatty acids were either C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c or C18 : 1ω7c. The results of fatty acid analysis and physiological and biochemical tests allowed both, the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from each other, while the chemotaxonomic traits allowed them to be differentiated from the most closely related genera. In summary, low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and marked differences in polar lipid profiles, as well as in polyamine patterns, is suggestive of a novel genus for which the name Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov. is proposed. MPA 1113(T) ( = CCM 8528(T) = LMG 28286(T) = CIP 110802(T)) and MPA 1105(T) ( = CCM 8527(T) = LMG 28285(T)) are proposed to be the type strains representing two novel species within the novel genus, Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov., for which the names Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. are suggested, respectively.

  10. Providencia sneebia sp. nov. and Providencia burhodogranariea sp. nov., isolated from wild Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Punita; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2009-05-01

    Multiple isolates of the genus Providencia were obtained from the haemolymph of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Sixteen isolates were distinguished from the six previously described species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. These isolates belonged to two distinct groups, which we propose each comprise previously undescribed species. Two isolates, designated A(T) and B(T), were characterized by DNA sequences of the fusA, lepA, leuS, gyrB and ileS housekeeping genes, whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridizations with their nearest relatives and utilization of substrates for metabolism. The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain A(T) are strain B(T) (86.9 % identity for the housekeeping genes) and Providencia stuartii DSM 4539(T) (86.0 % identity). The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain B(T) are strain A(T) (86.9 % identity) and P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) (86.6 % identity). The type strains of described species in this genus shared between 84.1 and 90.1 % identity for these sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization between the strain pairs A(T)-B(T), A(T)-P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) and B(T)-P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) all resulted in less than 25 % relatedness. In addition, patterns of utilization of amygdalin, arbutin, aesculin, salicin, d-sorbitol, trehalose, inositol, d-adonitol and d-galactose distinguish strains A(T) and B(T) from other members of this genus. Strains A(T) and B(T) therefore represent novel species, for which the names Providencia sneebia sp. nov. (type strain A(T) =DSM 19967(T) =ATCC BAA-1589(T)) and Providencia burhodogranariea sp. nov. (type strain B(T) =DSM 19968(T) =ATCC BAA-1590(T)) are proposed.

  11. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  12. Hymenobacter koreensis sp. nov. and Hymenobacter saemangeumensis sp. nov., isolated from estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Young; Chun, Jeesun; Choi, Ahyoung; Moon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and red-pink-pigmented bacterial strains, designated GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T), were isolated from a water sample of the Mangyung estuary enclosed by the Saemangeum Embankment in JEOLlabuk-do, South Korea, and were characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA genes of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) exhibited sequence similarities of 95.9 % to Hymenobacter deserti ZLB-3(T) and 96.6 % to Hymenobacter soli PB17(T), respectively, and indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The major cellular fatty acids present in the two isolates were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The major respiratory quinone and polyamine patterns were menaquinone-7 and sym-homospermidine, characteristic of the genus Hymenobacter. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent in both strains. The DNA G+C contents of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) were 60.2 mol% and 61.9 mol%, respectively. The major polar lipid of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) were considered to represent two novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the names Hymenobacter koreensis sp. nov. (type strain GYR3077(T) = KACC 16451(T) = JCM 17924(T)) and Hymenobacter saemangeumensis sp. nov. (type strain GSR0100(T) = KACC 16452(T) = JCM 17923(T)) are proposed.

  13. Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., from the north-west Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Zhukova, Natalia V; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bowman, John P

    2005-09-01

    One whitish and four pinkish strains of Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from sea-water and sediment samples collected in Chazhma Bay (Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the 'Alphaproteobacteria', having highest sequence similarity of about 94-97% with species of the genus Loktanella. None of the strains degraded gelatin, casein, chitin, agar, DNA or starch and they had limited ability to utilize carbon sources. The four pinkish strains, Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117, degraded Tween 80. Sea-water strain R10SW5(T) grew at 3-6% NaCl and a temperature range of 8-35 degrees C, whilst strains Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117 grew at NaCl concentrations of 1-12% and a temperature range of 4-35 degrees C. Phosphatidylglycerol (58/79%), diphosphatidylglycerol (11/6%) and phosphatidylcholine (28/22%) were the major phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (12.2/8.6%) and 18:1omega7 (76.6/68.4%). The DNA G+C content of strain R10SW5(T) was 59.1 mol% and those of the four pinkish strains ranged from 60.5 to 61.8 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic investigation, two novel species, Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are R10SW5(T) (=KMM 3788(T)=CIP 107883(T)) and Fg36(T) (=KMM 6003(T)=CIP 107851(T)=LMG 22534(T)), respectively.

  14. Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov., isolated from herbaceous plant roots.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae-Su; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Mi Na; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Taeok; Kim, Seung Bum

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped actinobacterial strains were isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of mugwort (Artemisia princeps) and horse-weed (Conyza canadensis), and subjected to taxonomic characterization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolates, designated MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), should be placed in the genus Nocardioides of the family Nocardioidaceae. The strains were closely related to Nocardioides hankookensis DS-30(T), which exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.99 and 99.09 % with strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), respectively. The genome relatedness of N. hankookensis DS-30(T) with strain MWE 3-5(T) was 35.8 %, and that with strain HWE 2-02(T) was 36.4 %, whereas that between the two isolates was 43.2 %. Strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T) possessed MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone, and ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The main fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c for strain MWE 3-5(T) and iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C18 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c for strain HWE 2-02(T). Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic studies, the following two novel species are proposed: Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. (type strain, MWE 3-5(T) = KCTC 29122(T) = JCM 18532(T)) and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov. (type strain, HWE 2-02(T) = KCTC 29121(T) = JCM 18531(T)).

  15. Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov. and Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov., two novel species isolated from leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Lohse, K; Lodders, N; Martin, K

    2013-03-01

    Two Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming rods, strains C5(T) and T8(T), were isolated from the phyllospheres of Cerastium holosteoides and Trifolium repens, respectively, and were studied in detail for their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated both isolates clearly to the genus Rhodococcus. Isolate C5(T) was most closely related to Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus yunnanensis, showing 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to both species. Strain T8(T) revealed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides (98.8 %) and Rhodococcus kroppenstedtii (98.6 %). The quinone system of both strains was composed of dihydrogenated menaquinones with eight (major amount) as well as nine, seven and six isoprenoid units (MK-8H2, MK-9H2 MK-7H2 MK-6H2).The polar lipid profiles of strains C5(T) and T8(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unknown phospholipid. Additionally, strain C5(T) contained one unknown glycolipid, and strain T8(T) three unknown aminolipids. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and 10-methyl C18 : 0, which supported the grouping of the two isolates in the genus Rhodococcus. Physiological/biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of both strains. For this reason, we propose strain C5(T) ( = LMG 26203(T)  = CCM 7906(T)) as the type strain of a novel species with the name Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov., and strain T8(T) ( = LMG 26204(T)  = CCM 7905(T)) as the type strain of a second novel species with the name Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov.

  16. Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov., isolated from saline alkali soil samples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiufeng; Ye, Renyuan; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuqin; Zeng, Zhigang; Tian, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Two moderately halophilic strains, PT-11(T) and PT-20(T), were isolated from saline alkali soil samples collected in Shache County, Xinjiang Province, China. Both strains are aerobic, Gram-positive, motile rods. Strain PT-11(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-10.0, while PT-20(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-11.0. The major cellular fatty acids in both strains include anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. For both strains, the polar lipids consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. In addition, strain PT-20(T) also contains phosphatidylcholine. The major isoprenoid quinone for both strains is MK-7. The genomic G+C content is 36.7 % for PT-11(T) and 39.2 % for PT-20(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these two isolates are members of the genus Oceanobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strains PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) should be considered two distinct species. On the basis of both phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data analyses, therefore, we conclude that PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) represent two novel species within the genus Oceanobacillus, for which we propose the names Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are PT-11(T) (=KCTC 33144(T) = DSM 26900(T)) and PT-20(T) (=KCTC 33146(T) = DSM 26901(T)).

  17. Flavobacterium yonginense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium myungsuense sp. nov., isolated from a mesotrophic artificial lake.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yochan; Kim, Haneul; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Joh, Kiseong

    2012-04-01

    Two non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterial strains designated HMD1001T and HMD1033T were isolated from the water of a mesotrophic artificial lake in Korea. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains could be assigned to the genus Flavobacterium; strain HMD1001T appeared most closely related to Flavobacterium fluvii H7T (96.8 % sequence similarity), F. succinicans DSM 4002T (96.6 %) and F. hydatis DSM 2063T (96.6 %) whereas strain HMD1033T appeared most closely related to Flavobacterium psychrolimnae LMG 2201T (96.2 %), F. segetis AT1048T (96.2 %) and F. weaverense AT1042T (96.2 %). The major fatty acids of strain HMD1001T were iso-C15:0 (21.5 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c; 18.0 %) and iso-C15:1 G (7.6 %), whereas those of HMD1033T were summed feature 3 (23.8 %), iso-C15:0 3-OH (16.9 %), iso-C15:0 (15.3 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (12.1 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains HMD1001T and HMD1033T were 35.9 and 32.2 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence indicates that strains HMD1001T and HMD1033T represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium yonginense sp. nov. (type strain HMD1001T=KCTC 22796T=CECT 7594T) and Flavobacterium myungsuense sp. nov. (type strain HMD1033T=KCTC 22825T=CECT 7649T) are proposed.

  18. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Pachyrhizus erosus.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Camacho, María; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce N; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    Several strains isolated from the legume Pachyrhizus erosus were characterized on the basis of diverse genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. These novel strains formed two groups closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strains PAC48T and PAC68T, designated as the type strains of these two groups, presented 99.8 and 99.1% similarity, respectively, in their 16S rRNA gene sequences with respect to B. elkanii USDA 76T. In spite of these high similarity values, the analysis of additional phylogenetic markers such as atpD and glnII genes and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) showed that strains PAC48T and PAC68T represented two separate novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with B. elkanii as their closest relative. Phenotypic differences among the novel strains isolated from Pachyrhizus and B. elkanii were found regarding the assimilation of carbon sources and antibiotic resistance. All these differences were congruent with DNA-DNA hybridization analysis which revealed 21% genetic relatedness between strains PAC48T and PAC68T and 46% and 25%, respectively, between these strains and B. elkanii LMG 6134T. The nodD and nifH genes of strains PAC48T and PAC68T were phylogenetically divergent from those of bradyrhizobia species that nodulate soybean. Soybean was not nodulated by the novel Pachyrhizus isolates. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, the new strains represent two novel species for which the names Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. (type strain PAC48T=LMG 24246T=CECT 7396T) and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov. (type strain PAC68T=LMG 24556T=CECT 7395T) are proposed.

  19. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-09-01

    Pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T), were isolated from the bryophytes Haplocladium microphyllum and Brachythecium plumosum, respectively. The cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, motile, non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.3 and 99.0%, respectively). The phylogenetic similarities to all other species of the genus Methylobacterium with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C(18:1)ω7c and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted, laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) from their phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) represent novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. (type strain 87e(T) =DSM 24195(T) =NBRC 107714(T)) and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov. (type strain 99b(T) =DSM 24105(T) =NBRC 107710(T)) are proposed.

  20. Paenibacillus oenotherae sp. nov. and Paenibacillus hemerocallicola sp. nov., isolated from the roots of herbaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Su; Han, Ji-Hye; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Seung Bum

    2015-08-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, motile bacteria, strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T, were isolated from roots of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and day lily (Hemerocallis fulva), respectively, and subjected to taxonomic characterization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains fell into two distinct phylogenetic clusters belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. Strain DT7-4T was most closely related to Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae PALXIL04T and Paenibacillus taihuensis THMBG22T, with 96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each, and strain DLE-12T was most closely related to Paenibacillus ginsengarvi Gsoil 139T and Paenibacillus hodogayensis SGT, with 96.6 and 93.3% sequence similarity, respectively. Both isolates contained anteiso-C15 : 0 as the dominant fatty acid, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and MK-7 as the respiratory menaquinone. The cellular polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T were 50.1 ± 0.7 and 55.2 ± 0.5 mol%, respectively. The chemotaxonomic properties of both isolates were typical of members of the genus Paenibacillus. However, our biochemical and phylogenetic analyses distinguished each isolate from related species. Based on our polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T should be recognized as representatives of novel species of Paenibacillus, for which the names Paenibacillus oenotherae sp. nov. (type strain DT7-4T = KCTC 33186T = JCM 19573T) and Paenibacillus hemerocallicola sp. nov. (type strain DLE-12T = KCTC 33185T = JCM 19572T) are proposed.

  1. Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from the oleaginous microalga Picochlorum sp.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Wang, Guanghua; Chen, Yao; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Liao, Pingping; Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, orange-pigmented, non-motile, aerobic bacterial strain, designated GYP20T, was isolated from a culture of the alga Picochlorum sp., a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, which was isolated from the India Ocean. Growth was observed at temperatures from 20 to 37 °C, salinities from 0 to 3% and pH from 5 to 9.Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions were required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Phaeodactylibacter, which belongs to the family Saprospiraceae. Strain GYP20T was most closely related to Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis KD52T (95.5% sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipids of strain GYP20T were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Phaeodactylibacter, but can readily be distinguished from Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis GYP20T. The name Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain GYP20T ( = MCCC 1F01222T = KCTC 42180T).

  2. Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., mesophilic methanogens isolated from salty environments.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koji; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2011-01-01

    Two methane-producing archaea, designated Mic5c12(T) and Mic6c05(T), were isolated from sludge deposited in a crude oil storage tank and a tubercle on the interior of a pipe transporting natural gas-containing brine, respectively. The isolates were Gram-staining-variable, non-motile rods and grew only on H(2)/CO(2). Strain Mic6c05(T) produced methane from some alcohols without showing any growth; strain Mic5c12(T) did not utilize alcohols. The optimum growth conditions for strain Mic5c12(T) were 35 °C, pH 6.5 and 0-0.68 M NaCl and for strain Mic6c05(T) were 40 °C, pH 6.0-7.5 and 0.34 M NaCl. Strain Mic5c12(T) was halotolerant and strain Mic6c05(T) was halophilic. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strains Mic5c12(T) and Mic6c05(T) belonged to the genus Methanobacterium and their closest relative was Methanobacterium subterraneum A8p(T) (97.3 and 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The findings from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were supported by analysis of McrA, the alpha subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, two novel species are proposed, Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., with type strains Mic5c12(T) (=NBRC 105198(T) =DSM 22353(T)) and Mic6c05(T) (=NBRC 105197(T) =DSM 21974(T)), respectively.

  3. Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Piutti, S; Semon, E; Landry, D; Hartmann, A; Dousset, S; Lichtfouse, E; Topp, E; Soulas, G; Martin-Laurent, F

    2003-04-11

    We report the characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from atrazine-treated bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil. Based on 16S rDNA alignment, strain SP12 showed close phylogenic relationships with Nocardioides sp. C157 and Nocardioides simplex. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of strain SP12 were longer than those of other Nocardioides sp. and present Ala- and Ile-tRNA unlike Actinomycetales. Nocardioides sp. SP12 presents a novel atrazine catabolic pathway combining trzN with atzB and atzC. Atrazine biodegradation ends in a metabolite that co-eluted in HPLC with cyanuric acid. This metabolite shows an absorption spectrum identical to that of cyanuric acid with a maximal absorption at 214.6 nm. The mass of the atrazine metabolite is in concordance with that of cyanuric acid according to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative PCR revealed that the ITS sequence of Nocardioides sp. SP12 was at a lower number than the one of trzN in atrazine-treated soil samples. It suggests that trzN could also be present in other atrazine degrading bacteria. The numbers of trzN and ITS sequences of Nocardioides sp. SP12 were higher in the maize rhizosphere than in bulk soil.

  4. Room temperature organic magnets derived from sp3 functionalized graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tuček, Jiří; Holá, Kateřina; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Błoński, Piotr; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Ugolotti, Juri; Dubecký, Matúš; Karlický, František; Ranc, Václav; Čépe, Klára; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Materials based on metallic elements that have d orbitals and exhibit room temperature magnetism have been known for centuries and applied in a huge range of technologies. Development of room temperature carbon magnets containing exclusively sp orbitals is viewed as great challenge in chemistry, physics, spintronics and materials science. Here we describe a series of room temperature organic magnets prepared by a simple and controllable route based on the substitution of fluorine atoms in fluorographene with hydroxyl groups. Depending on the chemical composition (an F/OH ratio) and sp3 coverage, these new graphene derivatives show room temperature antiferromagnetic ordering, which has never been observed for any sp-based materials. Such 2D magnets undergo a transition to a ferromagnetic state at low temperatures, showing an extraordinarily high magnetic moment. The developed theoretical model addresses the origin of the room temperature magnetism in terms of sp2-conjugated diradical motifs embedded in an sp3 matrix and superexchange interactions via –OH functionalization. PMID:28216636

  5. Room temperature organic magnets derived from sp(3) functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Tuček, Jiří; Holá, Kateřina; Bourlinos, Athanasios B; Błoński, Piotr; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Ugolotti, Juri; Dubecký, Matúš; Karlický, František; Ranc, Václav; Čépe, Klára; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-02-20

    Materials based on metallic elements that have d orbitals and exhibit room temperature magnetism have been known for centuries and applied in a huge range of technologies. Development of room temperature carbon magnets containing exclusively sp orbitals is viewed as great challenge in chemistry, physics, spintronics and materials science. Here we describe a series of room temperature organic magnets prepared by a simple and controllable route based on the substitution of fluorine atoms in fluorographene with hydroxyl groups. Depending on the chemical composition (an F/OH ratio) and sp(3) coverage, these new graphene derivatives show room temperature antiferromagnetic ordering, which has never been observed for any sp-based materials. Such 2D magnets undergo a transition to a ferromagnetic state at low temperatures, showing an extraordinarily high magnetic moment. The developed theoretical model addresses the origin of the room temperature magnetism in terms of sp(2)-conjugated diradical motifs embedded in an sp(3) matrix and superexchange interactions via -OH functionalization.

  6. Room temperature organic magnets derived from sp3 functionalized graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuček, Jiří; Holá, Kateřina; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Błoński, Piotr; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Ugolotti, Juri; Dubecký, Matúš; Karlický, František; Ranc, Václav; Čépe, Klára; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-02-01

    Materials based on metallic elements that have d orbitals and exhibit room temperature magnetism have been known for centuries and applied in a huge range of technologies. Development of room temperature carbon magnets containing exclusively sp orbitals is viewed as great challenge in chemistry, physics, spintronics and materials science. Here we describe a series of room temperature organic magnets prepared by a simple and controllable route based on the substitution of fluorine atoms in fluorographene with hydroxyl groups. Depending on the chemical composition (an F/OH ratio) and sp3 coverage, these new graphene derivatives show room temperature antiferromagnetic ordering, which has never been observed for any sp-based materials. Such 2D magnets undergo a transition to a ferromagnetic state at low temperatures, showing an extraordinarily high magnetic moment. The developed theoretical model addresses the origin of the room temperature magnetism in terms of sp2-conjugated diradical motifs embedded in an sp3 matrix and superexchange interactions via -OH functionalization.

  7. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)).

  8. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    PubMed

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  9. HBx and SP1 upregulate DKK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Li, Yongguo; Liu, Yunzhi; Zhang, Jingnan; Chen, Ke; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Numerous evidences suggested that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was recognized as an important factor in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) recently was reported to be involved in the progress of HCC. HBV may regulate DKK1 expression in hematoma carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that HBV could regulate DKK1 promoter activity which resulted in upregulation of its mRNA and protein expression in several HBV existing cell lines, and HBx played a prominent role in this process. Transcription factor binding site search result showed that there is a SP1 site in DKK1 promoter region. Luciferase assay showed that overexpression of SP1 could increase DKK1 promoter activity in a dose dependent manner. Accordingly, siRNA inhibition of SP1 expression reduced DKK1 promoter activity and decreased the expression of DKK1 protein.

  10. Microbial Succession during Thermophilic Digestion: The Potential of Methanosarcina sp

    PubMed Central

    Illmer, Paul; Reitschuler, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Lins, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    A distinct succession from a hydrolytic to a hydrogeno- and acetotrophic community was well documented by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and dHPLC (denaturing high performance liquid chromatography), and confirmed by qPCR (quantitative PCR) measurements and DNA sequence analyses. We could prove that Methanosarcina thermophila has been the most important key player during the investigated anaerobic digestion process. This organism was able to terminate a stagnation phase, most probable caused by a decreased pH and accumulated acetic acid following an initial hydrolytic stage. The lack in Methanosarcina sp. could not be compensated by high numbers of Methanothermobacter sp. or Methanoculleus sp., which were predominant during the initial or during the stagnation phase of the fermentation, respectively. PMID:24586260

  11. SP-100 program users handbook basic configurational tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1986-03-15

    This document addresses basic configurational tradeoffs associated with the SP-100 class of nuclear space power systems. In the SP-100 project, the three reference designs, fallback, baseline, and advanced, employ thermoelectric power conversion with different thermoelectric materials. This issue of the document presents results generated for the thermoelectric design as of the end of 1985. Emphasis is placed on showing general trends and the range of possibilities that could result from selection of a particular design. This document, which reflects efforts on 100-kWe reference designs as of the end of 1985, will be extended and updated to reflect progress in the design studies of the follow-on ground engineering phase for which a 300-kWe size has been selected. THere is a considerable flexibility to the SP-100 power system so that it will generally be most advantageous to tailor it to meet user requirements.

  12. SP1 protein-based nanostructures and arrays.

    PubMed

    Medalsy, Izhar; Dgany, Or; Sowwan, Mukhles; Cohen, Hezy; Yukashevska, Alevtyna; Wolf, Sharon G; Wolf, Amnon; Koster, Abraham; Almog, Orna; Marton, Ira; Pouny, Yehonathan; Altman, Arie; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

    2008-02-01

    Controlled formation of complex nanostructures is one of the main goals of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stable Protein 1 (SP1) is a boiling-stable ring protein complex, 11 nm in diameter, which self-assembles from 12 identical monomers. SP1 can be utilized to form large ordered arrays; it can be easily modified by genetic engineering to produce various mutants; it is also capable of binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and thus forming protein-GNP chains made of alternating SP1s and GNPs. We report the formation and the protocols leading to the formation of those nanostructures and their characterization by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrostatic force microscopy. Further control over the GNP interdistances within the protein-GNP chains may lead to the formation of nanowires and structures that may be useful for nanoelectronics.

  13. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2012-05-02

    It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon.

  14. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  15. Kinetic model for microbial growth and desulphurisation with Enterobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guo, Zhiguo; Lu, Jianjiang; Xu, Xiaolin

    2015-02-01

    Biodesulphurisation was investigated by using Enterobacter sp. D4, which can selectively desulphurise and convert dibenzothiophene into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). The experimental values of growth, substrate consumption and product generation were obtained at 95 % confidence level of the fitted values using three models: Hinshelwood equation, Luedeking-Piret and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. The average error values between experimental values and fitted values were less than 10 %. These kinetic models describe all the experimental data with good statistical parameters. The production of 2-HBP in Enterobacter sp. was by "coupled growth".

  16. Metabolism of benzonitrile by Cryptococcus sp. UFMG-Y28.

    PubMed

    Rezende, R P; Dias, J C; Ferraz, V; Linardi, V R

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Cryptococcus sp. UFMG-Y28 can utilize benzonitrile as a nitrogen and possible additional carbon source. The kinetics of growth on Yeast Carbon Base (YCB) added of benzonitrile as sole nitrogen source showed that benzonitrile was metabolized to benzoic acid and ammonia. Liquid chromatography analysis indicated that Cryptococcus sp. UFMG-Y28 metabolized 12 mM benzonitrile to 10 mM benzoic acid. Resting cells cultivated on YCB-propionitrile medium showed nitrilase activity against benzonitrile. This strain appears to be promising for bioconversion of nitriles to high value acids and for bioremediation of sites contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic nitriles.

  17. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  18. SpF: Enabling Petascale Performance for Pseudospectral Dynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Clune, T.; Vriesema, J.; Gutmann, G.

    2013-12-01

    Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. High-level abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical 'kernels' that can be performed entirely in-processor. The granularity of domain-decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the data-locality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe the basic architecture of SpF as well as preliminary performance data and experience with adapting legacy dynamo codes

  19. Biodegradation and dissolution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by Stenotrophomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bhagyashree; Manickam, N; Kumari, Smita; Tiwari, Akhilesh

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodegradation capabilities of a locally isolated bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and also check the preferential biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). From preferential substrate degradation studies, it was found that Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 first utilized phenanthrene (three membered ring), followed by pyrene (four membered ring), then benzo[α]pyrene (five membered ring). Dissolution study of PAHs with surfactants, rhamnolipid and tritonX-100 showed that the dissolution of PAHs increased in the presence of surfactants.

  20. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied.

  1. Description of Bakernema dauniense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    Bakernema dauniense n. sp., a bisexual species from the rhizosphere of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Italy, is described and illustrated. Primary differentiating characteristics of the female are body annules bearing short, membranous projections 1.4-2.2 μm long, an anterior vulval lip slightly overlapping the posterior, and a linearly arcuate vagina. The juvenile differs markedly from adults by having annules with a beaded margin, which lack membranous projections. Generic and specific relationships of B. dauniense n. sp. are discussed. This occurrence is the first for a species of Bakernema in Europe. PMID:19283202

  2. Repression of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Long Terminal Repeat sense transcription by Sp1 recruitment to novel Sp1 binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Robette, Gwenaëlle; Kula, Anna; Vanhulle, Caroline; Bouchat, Sophie; Delacourt, Nadège; Rodari, Anthony; Marban, Céline; Schwartz, Christian; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Driessche, Benoit; Van Lint, Carine

    2017-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by viral latency in the majority of infected cells and by the absence of viremia. These features are thought to be due to the repression of viral sense transcription in vivo. Here, our in silico analysis of the HTLV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter nucleotide sequence revealed, in addition to the four Sp1 binding sites previously identified, the presence of two additional potential Sp1 sites within the R region. We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six different HTLV-1 Sp1 sites. By chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed Sp1 recruitment in vivo to the newly identified Sp1 sites. We demonstrated in the nucleosomal context of an episomal reporter vector that the Sp1 sites interfered with both the sense and antisense LTR promoter activities. Interestingly, the Sp1 sites exhibited together a repressor effect on the LTR sense transcriptional activity but had no effect on the LTR antisense activity. Thus, our results demonstrate the presence of two new functional Sp1 binding sites in the HTLV-1 LTR, which act as negative cis-regulatory elements of sense viral transcription. PMID:28256531

  3. Repression of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Long Terminal Repeat sense transcription by Sp1 recruitment to novel Sp1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Robette, Gwenaëlle; Kula, Anna; Vanhulle, Caroline; Bouchat, Sophie; Delacourt, Nadège; Rodari, Anthony; Marban, Céline; Schwartz, Christian; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Driessche, Benoit; Van Lint, Carine

    2017-03-03

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by viral latency in the majority of infected cells and by the absence of viremia. These features are thought to be due to the repression of viral sense transcription in vivo. Here, our in silico analysis of the HTLV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter nucleotide sequence revealed, in addition to the four Sp1 binding sites previously identified, the presence of two additional potential Sp1 sites within the R region. We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six different HTLV-1 Sp1 sites. By chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed Sp1 recruitment in vivo to the newly identified Sp1 sites. We demonstrated in the nucleosomal context of an episomal reporter vector that the Sp1 sites interfered with both the sense and antisense LTR promoter activities. Interestingly, the Sp1 sites exhibited together a repressor effect on the LTR sense transcriptional activity but had no effect on the LTR antisense activity. Thus, our results demonstrate the presence of two new functional Sp1 binding sites in the HTLV-1 LTR, which act as negative cis-regulatory elements of sense viral transcription.

  4. The transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 are required for constitutive matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression in astroglioma cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, H; Sun, Y; Benveniste, E N

    1999-10-08

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that contribute to pathological conditions associated with angiogenesis and tumor invasion. MMP-2 is highly expressed in human astroglioma cells, and contributes to the invasiveness of these cells. The human MMP-2 promoter contains potential cis-acting regulatory elements including cAMP response element-binding protein, AP-1, AP-2, PEA3, C/EBP, and Sp1. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the MMP-2 promoter demonstrates that the Sp1 site at -91 to -84 base pairs and the AP-2 site at -61 to -53 base pairs are critical for constitutive activity of this gene in invasive astroglioma cell lines. Electrophoretic gel shift analysis demonstrates binding of specific DNA-protein complexes to the Sp1 and AP-2 sites: Sp1 and Sp3 bind to the Sp1 site, while the AP-2 transcription factor binds the AP-2 element. Co-transfection expression experiments in Drosophilia SL2 cells lacking endogenous Sp factors demonstrate that Sp1 and Sp3 function as activators of the MMP-2 promoter and synergize for enhanced MMP-2 activation. Overexpression of AP-2 in AP-2-deficient HepG2 cells enhances MMP-2 promoter activation. These findings document the functional importance of Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 in regulating constitutive expression of MMP-2. Delineation of MMP-2 regulation may have implications for development of new therapeutic strategies to arrest glioma invasion.

  5. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 in the induced systemic resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii and symbiosis on peanut plants.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Maria Soledad; Tonelli, Maria Laura; Taurian, Tania; Angelini, Jorge; Ibanez, Fernando; Valetti, Lucio; Munoz, Vanina; Anzuay, Maria Soledad; Luduena, Liliana; Fabra, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are often used to enhance crop yield and for biological control of phytopathogens. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 is a biocontrol agent that induces systemic resistance (ISR) in Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of root and stem wilt. In this work, the effect of the co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and the peanut nodulating strain Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 was studied on induction of both systemic resistance and nodulation processes. Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 did not affect the ability of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to protect peanut plants from S. rolfsii by ISR and the priming in challenged-plants, as evidenced by an increment in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity. Additionally, the capacity of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 to induce nodule formation in pathogen-challenged plants was improved by the presence of Bacillus sp. CHEP5.

  6. Kordia ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of green marine algae Ulva sp.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Huang, Zhaobin; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Dengfeng; Shao, Zongze

    2016-04-20

    A novel bacterial strain SC2T was isolated from Ulva sp. a green marine algae. Strain SC2T was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and had no flagellum. Oxidase and catalase were positive. Strain SC2T can degrade skim milk, agar, soluble starch, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The optimal salinity and temperature of strain SC2T were 2% and 30 °C, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SC2T was affiliated to the genus Kordia, with highest sequence similarity to Kordia algicida OT-1T (97.23%), Kordia antarctica IMCC3317T (97.23%) and Kordia jejudonensis SSK3-3T (97.02%); other species of the genus Kordia shared 93.98%-95.78% sequence similarity. The ANI value and the DNA-DNA hybridization estimated value between strain SC2T and three type strains (K. algicida OT-1T, K. antarctica IMCC3317T and K. jejudonensis SSK3-3T) were found to be 79.4%-82.4% and 24.2%-27.0%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids (>5.0%) were C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprised C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), summed feature 8 (comprised C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and summed feature 9 (comprised iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl). The respiratory quinone was Menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of four unknown lipids, three unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and one phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.5 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain SC2T represents a novel species within the genus Kordia, for which the name Kordia ulvae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SC2T (= KCTC 42872T = MCCC 1A01772T = LMG 29123T).

  7. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed.

  8. Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Kosowski, Kornelia; Schmidt, Marie; Pukall, Rüdiger; Hause, Gerd; Kämpfer, Peter; Lechner, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5 % sequence similarity). Strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0), and also contained considerable amounts of C16 : 0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 (65 %), with smaller amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T) = DSM 23947(T) = LMG 27601(T)) and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T) = DSM 23948(T) = LMG 27602(T)) are proposed.

  9. Flavobacterium chilense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium araucananum sp. nov., isolated from farmed salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Lodders, N; Martin, K; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2012-06-01

    Flavobacterium chilense sp. nov. is proposed, and strains LM-19-Fp(T) ( = LMG 26359(T) = CCM 7939(T)) and LM-20-Fp ( = LMG 26331) represent a second novel species within the same genus, for which the name Flavobacterium araucananum sp. nov. is proposed.

  10. Flavobacterium tructae sp. nov. and Flavobacterium piscis sp. nov., isolated from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zamora, L; Vela, A I; Sánchez-Porro, C; Palacios, M A; Moore, E R B; Domínguez, L; Ventosa, A; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2014-02-01

    Four Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, pale-orange pigmented bacterial strains (435-08(T), 47B-3-09, 412R-09(T) and 60B-3-09) were isolated from diseased rainbow trout. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested their adscription to the genus Flavobacterium. Strains formed two phylogenetic groups represented by strains 435-08(T) and 47B-3-09 (group A), and strains 412R-09(T) and 60B-3-09 (group B) displaying 16S rRNA sequence similarities greater than 99.8-99.9% within their respective groups. Strain 435-08(T) exhibited the highest levels of similarity with Flavobacterium aquidurense WB-1.1.56(T) (98.6% sequence similarity) and strain 412R-09(T) with Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1(T) and Flavobacterium aquidurense WB-1.1.56(T) (98.9% and 98.6% sequence similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed low levels of relatedness between strain 435-08(T) and strain 412R-09(T) and between both strains and the most closely related species of the genus Flavobacterium. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 435-08(T) and 412R-09(T) were 36.2 and 34.3 mol%, respectively. The predominant respiratory quinone of both strains was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c and C(15 : 0). The two groups of strains could be distinguished from each other and from related species of the genus Flavobacterium by a number of phenotypic properties. Phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic evidence indicated that strains of groups A and B represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium tructae sp. nov. (type strain 435-08(T) = CECT 7791(T) = CCUG 60100(T)) and Flavobacterium piscis sp. nov. (type strain 412R-09(T) = CECT 7911(T) = CCUG 60099(T)) are proposed.

  11. Description of Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov., Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov., Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov., six marine members of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', and emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Adachi, Kyoko; Nozawa, Midori; Matsuda, Satoru; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Ten pale-pink- and pale-yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacteria designated strains YM20-087T, YM21-151, MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184, YM20-122, A4T-83T, A5J-41-2T and A5J-40 were isolated from various marine environments and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia' (subdivision 1) and represented three independent lineages that were distinct from species of genera of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae with validly published names. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of these strains contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strains MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184 and YM20-122 produced pinkish carotenoid pigments. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that these strains should be classified within three new genera, Persicirhabdus gen. nov. (with one species, the type species Persicirhabdus sediminis sp. nov.), Roseibacillus gen. nov. (with three species; type species Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis sp. nov.) and Luteolibacter gen. nov. (with two species; type species Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis sp. nov.), of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The names Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YM20-087T =MBIC08313T =KCTC 22039T), Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain MN1-741T =MBIC08315T =KCTC 12986T), Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov. (type strain YM27-120T =MBIC08316T =KCTC 12987T), Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov. (type strain YM26-010T =MBIC08317T =KCTC 12988T), Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain A4T-83T =MBIC08322T =KCTC 22041T) and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov. (type strain A5J-41-2T =MBIC08320T =KCTC 22040T) are therefore proposed. Emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family

  12. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp2 Hybrid Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties. PMID:27087405

  13. Three-dimensional carbon allotropes comprising phenyl rings and acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 hybrid networks

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jian -Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han -Dong; ...

    2016-04-18

    Here, we here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells R-3m symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, whilemore » phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.« less

  14. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  15. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  16. Natural infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in dairy goats, associated with possible risk factors of the studied properties.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, T C B; Huber, F; Gomes, R S; Alves, L L

    2005-11-25

    Visits were made to six farms raising dairy goats located in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, seeking to identify parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. During the visits, fecal samples were collected from approximately 10% of the stock of each property. A questionnaire was given to the keepers on each property to obtain data for epidemiological analysis. A total of 105 fecal samples was collected, 56 from adult animals (over 12 months of age) and 49 from juvenile animals (less than 12 months). The fecal material was processed and subjected to the centrifuge-flotation technique and to staining with safranine-methylene blue. Protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium were found at two properties, where the hygiene conditions of the installations were considered average and the stalls were made of wood slats raised from the ground. A total of five (4.8%) of the samples was found to be positive for the presence of this protozoan, all from juvenile animals. Cysts of the genus Giardia were found at two properties. Of the 105 samples analyzed, the protozoan was detected in 15 (14.3%), all in juvenile animals, and animals in the age range of 1-3 months had significantly more infections. Age, sanitary condition of the stalls and stalls made of wood slats and raised from the ground, can be pointed out as possible risk factors for infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. The study reports for the first time the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Friction and conductance imaging of sp2- and sp3-hybridized subdomains on single-layer graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Son, Narae; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Tae Gun; Bang, Gyeong Sook; Kim, Jong Yun; Shim, Gi Woong; Goddeti, Kalyan C.; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Wondong; Kim, Sehun; Choi, Sung-Yool; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify the composition of heterogeneous single-layer GO at nanometer scale, which is essential for understanding charge transport in nanoelectronic devices.We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify

  18. Libkindia masarykiana gen. nov. et sp. nov., Yurkovia mendeliana gen. nov. et sp. nov., and Leucosporidium krtinense f.a. sp. nov., isolated from temperate forest soils.

    PubMed

    Mašínová, Tereza; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Sampaio, José Paulo; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-11-30

    One hundred and ninety-eight isolates of soil yeasts were isolated from mixed temperate forests in the Czech Republic, and their abundance and distribution in the litter and soil were evaluated using amplicon sequencing of soil fungal communities. Abundant taxa with no close identified hits were selected for further characterization as potential novel species of yeasts. Phylogenetic analyses using sequences of the D1/D2 domains, the ITS region and RPB1 and TEF1 genes support the recognition of the following three new species belonging to the subphylum Pucciniomycotina, class Microbotryomycetes: Leucosporidium krtinense f.a. sp. nov. (type strain CBS 14304T = PYCC 6879T = DSM 101892T), Yurkovia mendeliana sp. nov. (type strain CBS 14273T = PYCC 6884T = DSM 101889T), and Libkindia masarykiana sp. nov. (type strain CBS 14275T = PYCC 6886T = DSM 101891T). Since the later two novel taxa cannot be assigned to existing genera, two new genera, Libkindia gen. nov. and Yurkovia gen. nov. are also described.

  19. Derxomyces amylogenes sp. nov., Derxomyces bambusicola sp. nov. and Derxomyces corylopsis sp. nov., three ballistoconidium-forming yeast species isolated from subtropical plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Zhan; Wang, Qi-Ming; Boekhout, Teun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2012-04-01

    Among ballistoconidium-forming yeast strains isolated from various plant leaves collected from subtropical forests in eastern and central China, four strains forming cream to yellowish coloured colonies were revealed to represent three novel Derxomyces species by conventional and molecular characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain showed that strains GT-753 and ZJJ-890T were conspecific and closely related to Derxomyces boninensis, Derxomyces mrakii and Derxomyces qinlingensis. Strain ZJJ-394T was basal to the branch formed by Derxomyces komagatae, Derxomyces pseudoschimicola and Derxomyces schimicola with strong bootstrap support. Strain GT-475T was closely related to Derxomyces linzhiensis. The strains differed significantly from their close relatives in D1/D2 and ITS sequences and in physiological criteria. Three novel species are proposed: Derxomyces amylogenes sp. nov. (type strain ZJJ-890T=CGMCC 2.4407T=CBS 12233T), Derxomyces bambusicola sp. nov. (type strain GT-475T=CGMCC 2.4411T=CBS 12234T) and Derxomyces corylopsis sp. nov. (type strain ZJJ-394T=CGMCC 2.4409T=CBS 12259T).

  20. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov., Candida picachoensis sp. nov. and Candida pimensis sp. nov., isolated from the green lacewings Chrysoperla comanche and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Gibson, Cara M; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-09-01

    Fourteen yeast isolates comprising three taxa were cultured from digestive tracts of adult Chrysoperla species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and their eggs. The yeast taxa were distinguished based on an estimated molecular phylogeny, DNA sequences and traditional taxonomic criteria. The new yeasts are closely related to Metschnikowia pulcherrima but are sufficiently distinguished by sequence comparison of rRNA gene sequences to consider them as novel species. Here, three novel species are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27615T = CBS 9803T) produced needle-shaped ascospores and was the only teleomorph found. Large numbers of chlamydospores similar to those observed in M. pulcherrima were also produced. The other two novel species are asexual yeasts, Candida picachoensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27607T = CBS 9804T) and Candida pimensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27619T = CBS 9805T), sister taxa of M. chrysoperlae and M. pulcherrima. A specialized relationship between yeasts and lacewing hosts may exist, because the yeasts were isolated consistently from lacewings only. Although M. chrysoperlae was isolated from eggs and adult lacewings, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission, no yeast was isolated from larvae.

  1. Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M; Rogel, Marco A; Martinez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-09-01

    Calliandra grandiflora has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years in Mexico. Rhizobial strains were obtained from root nodules of C. grandiflora collected from different geographical regions in Chiapas and characterized by BOX-PCR, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most isolates corresponded to members of the genus Rhizobium and those not related to species with validly published names were further characterized by recA, atpD, rpoB and nifH gene phylogenies, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Three novel related species of the genus Rhizobium within the 'Rhizobium tropici group' share the same symbiovar that may be named sv. calliandrae. The names proposed for the three novel species are Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE524(T) =ATCC BAA-2435(T) =CIP 110456(T) =LBP2-1(T)), Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE526(T) =ATCC BAA-2446(T) = CIP 110454(T) =NSJP1-1(T)) and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE525(T) =ATCC BAA-2445(T) =CIP 110453(T) =SJP1-2(T)).

  2. Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov., Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, and emended description of the genus Phytohabitans.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko

    2012-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627(T), was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047(T) and K11-0057(T) were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans, for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627(T)=JCM 17387(T)=NBRC 107702(T)=DSM 45551(T)), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047(T)=JCM 17829(T)=NBRC 108638(T)=BCC 48146(T)) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057(T)=JCM 17830(T)=NBRC 108639(T)=BCC 48147(T)) are proposed.

  3. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  4. Candida ruelliae sp. nov., a novel yeast species isolated from flowers of Ruellia sp. (Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Saluja, Puja; Prasad, Gandham S

    2008-06-01

    Two novel yeast strains designated as 16Q1 and 16Q3 were isolated from flowers of the Ruellia species of the Acanthaceae family. The D1/D2 domain and ITS sequences of these two strains were identical. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of large-subunit rRNA gene indicated their relationship to species of the Candida haemulonii cluster. However, they differ from C. haemulonii by 14% nucleotide sequence divergence, from Candida pseudohaemulonii by 16.1% and from C. haemulonii type II by 16.5%. These strains also differ in 18 physiological tests from the type strain of C. haemulonii, and 12 and 16 tests, respectively, from C. pseudohaemulonii and C. haemulonii type II. They also differ from C. haemulonii and other related species by more than 13% sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer region. In the SSU rRNA gene sequences, strain 16Q1 differs by 1.7% nucleotide divergence from C. haemulonii. Sporulation was not observed in pure or mixed cultures on several media examined. All these data support the assignment of these strains to a novel species; we have named them as Candida ruelliae sp. nov., and designate strain 16Q1(T)=MTCC 7739(T)=CBS10815(T) as type strain of the novel species.

  5. Localization of fertility factor SP22 to specific cell types within the anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Allison M; McCoy, George L; Blake, Charles A

    2005-11-01

    Sperm protein 22 (SP22) was recently identified in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of male Golden Syrian hamsters using ion trap mass spectrometry. SP22 has been implicated in apoptosis, androgen receptor function, fertility, and ontogeny of early-onset Parkinson's disease. However, the role of SP22 in the pituitary has not been investigated. We cloned the cDNA for full-length SP22 from AP and posterior lobe (posterior pituitary and intermediate lobe) of the pituitary gland in adult male rats and Golden Syrian hamsters, confirming the presence of SP22 mRNA in the AP and posterior lobe. Because gonadal steroids are important regulators of AP function, and SP22 is associated with androgen receptor function, we used Western blots to compare SP22 in the AP of intact and orchidectomized male rats given placebo or a low or high dose of testosterone. SP22 did not differ with treatment, indicating that AP SP22 concentration was not regulated by testosterone. To localize SP22 to specific cells of the AP, mirror-image paraffin sections were labeled against SP22 and either luteinizing hormone (LH)beta, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)beta, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or growth hormone (GH) using peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. Additional sections were colabeled with SP22 and one of the AP hormones using fluorescent secondary antibodies. SP22 colocalized in somatotropes and thyrotropes in rat and hamster. We identified SP22 in a small percentage of corticotropes, gonadotropes, and lactotropes. This is the first report that SP22 mRNA is present specifically in the AP, and SP22 is localized primarily in somatotropes and thyrotropes. SP22 may help regulate AP function and be particularly important for the control of GH and TSH secretion.

  6. (Bio)degradation of RDX and HMX in Marine/Estuarine Water and Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    four fungal strains Rhodotorula sp. HAW-OCF1, Bullera sp. HAW-OCF2, Acremonium sp. HAW-OCF3 and Penicillium sp. HAW-OCF5, were isolated as RDX...characterization led to the isolation of several bacterial and fungal species capable of biodegrading the two nitramines. Kinetics determination and product...and (ii) identifying (bio)degradation products, kinetics and stoichiometries of degradation pathways using consortia and specific isolates from

  7. Biodegradation of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Subba; Reddy, B R; Tlou, M G

    2014-08-15

    An aerobic Gram +ve bacterial strain capable of utilizing 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) as sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum Indian agricultural soil and named as HQ2. On the basis of morphology, physico-biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strain HQ2 was identified as Bacillus sp. The generation time of Bacillus sp. in log phase during growth on 2-HQ is 0.79 h or 47.4 min. The optimal conditions for 2-HQ degradation by Bacillus sp. were inoculum density of 1.0 OD, pH of 6-8, temperature of 37-45 °C and 2-HQ concentration of 500 ppm. Among the additional carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon sources did not influence the degradation rate of 2-HQ, but nitrogen sources-yeast extract marginally enhanced the rate of degradation of 2-HQ. GC-MS analysis of the culture Bacillus sp. grown on 2-HQ indicated the formation of dimers from 2 molecules of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline. The formation of dimer for degradation of 2-HQ by the culture appears to be the first report to our scientific knowledge.

  8. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  9. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    PubMed

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  10. A thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from the thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K was purified and characterized. The enzyme was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a-CD-bound, epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. Molecular weight of the purifie...

  11. THE SAGA OF A MALE FERTILITY PROTEIN (SP22)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic studies designed to identify chemical-induced alterations in the structure and function of the epididymis, particularly the acquisition of fertility by proximal cauda epididymal sperm, have lead to the discovery of a novel sperm protein (SP22) that is well correlated ...

  12. Even extreme heat cannot affect the SP-ablator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoclfleth, Holger; Knabe, Helmut; Wahl, Juergen; Haug, Tilman

    A heat-protection system that was successfully tested in a plasma wind tunnel is described. The system is capable of withstanding extreme short-term heat loads when reentering the atmosphere. The surface-protected (SP) ablator exhibits significant increase in the efficiency of the cooling effect and dynamic pressure resistance due to a ceramic matrix composite layer that protects its surface.

  13. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-04-14

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages.

  14. Somatochlora shennong sp. nov. from Hubei, China (Odonata: Corduliidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Vogt, Timothy E; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2014-10-29

    A new species, Somatochlora shennong sp. nov. (holotype ♂, Dajiuhu National Wetland Park in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China, 9 August 2012) is described, illustrated, and compared with the related species S. dido Needham and S. taiwana Inoue & Yokota. 

  15. Fatal Emmonsia sp. Infection and Fungemia after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jason Y.; Luo, Robert; Banaei, Niaz; Concepcion, Waldo; Ho, Dora Y.

    2017-01-01

    We report a fatal case of disseminated Emmonsia sp. infection in a 55-year-old man who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. As human habitats and the number of immunocompromised patients increase, physicians must be aware of this emerging fungal infection. PMID:28098544

  16. Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390

    PubMed Central

    Haryono, Mindia; Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390 was initially described as a duplicate of S. atrichopogonis GNAT3597T (=ATCC BAA-520T) but later found to be different in the 16S rDNA sequences. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to establish its identity and to facilitate future investigation. PMID:28280009

  18. Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov., Spathaspora suhii sp. nov., Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov., four novel (D)-xylose-fermenting yeast species from Brazilian Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Mouro, Adriane; Prompt, Alice H; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-02-01

    Four new D-xylose fermenting yeast species of the clade Spathaspora were recovered from rotting-wood samples in a region of Amazonian forest, Northern Brazil. Three species produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends. These species are described as Spathaspora brasiliensis, Spathaspora suhii and Spathaspora roraimanensis. Two isolates of an asexually reproducing species belonging to the Spathaspora clade were also obtained and they are described as Spathaspora xylofermentans. All these species are able to ferment D-xylose during aerobic batch growth in rich YP (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone and 2 % D-xylose) medium, albeit with differing efficiencies. The type strains are Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov UFMG-HMD19.3 (=CBMAI 1425=CBS 12679), Spathaspora suhii sp. nov. UFMG-XMD16.2 (=CBMAI 1426=CBS 12680), Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. UFMG-XMD23.2 (CBMAI 1427=CBS 12681) and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov. UFMG-HMD23.3 (=CBMAI 1428=CBS 12682).

  19. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    PubMed

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J R; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J

    1988-12-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bacterium degraded high levels of glyphosate, primarily by converting it to aminomethylphosphonate, followed by release into the growth medium. Only a small amount of aminomethylphosphonate (about 0.5 to 0.7 mM), which is needed to supply phosphorus for growth, could be metabolized by the microorganism. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of strain LBr grown on 1 mM [2-13C,15N]glyphosate showed that about 5% of the glyphosate was degraded by a separate pathway involving breakdown of glyphosate to glycine, a pathway first observed in Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982. Thus, Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr appears to possess two distinct routes for glyphosate detoxification.

  20. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  1. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-29

    This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

  3. Australasian Sequestrate Fungi 19: Hysterangium colossum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Todd F; Trappe, James M; Weise, Armin

    2015-06-01

    Hysterangium colossum sp. nov., with extraordinarily large basidiomata for the genus, is described from dry Eucalyptus woodlands in the Australian Capital Territory and southeastern New South Wales. It typically grows in confluent clusters and has a thick peridium often invaginated into the gleba.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. TU-14

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Haryono, Mindia; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. TU-14 was isolated from a contaminated sample of Entomoplasma lucivorax PIPN-2T obtained from the International Organization for Mycoplasmology collection. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:28082500

  5. Production of extracellular water-insoluble polysaccharide from Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Ji Qing

    2012-05-16

    Curdlan is a microbial polysaccharide composed exclusively of β-(1,3)-linked glucose residues. Until now only bacteria belonging to the Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium species have been reported to produce Curdlan. In this study, a bacterium capable of producing extracellular Curdlan, identified as Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from soil samples. From the HPLC, permethylation linkage analysis, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR analytical data, the polysaccharide consisted exclusively of glucose; the most prominent sugar was 1,3-linked glucose, and most glycosidic bonds joining these sugar residues were of the β-type. This also supported that the exopolysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas sp. was actually Curdlan. In addition, the Pseudomonas sp. was studied for the production of Curdlan by conventional "one-factor-at-a-time technique" and response surface methodology (RSM). It was observed that glucose and yeast extract were the most suitable carbon source and nitrogen source for Curdlan production, respectively. By using RSM, Curdlan production was increased significantly by 188%, from 1.25 to 2.35 g/L, when the strain was cultivated in the optimal condition developed by RSM, and the highest Curdlan production rate of 0.81 g/(L h) was obtained. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on Curdlan production by Pseudomonas sp.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Subantarctic Rhodococcus sp. Strain 1139

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony L.; Charleston, Michael A.; Britz, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of subantarctic Rhodococcus sp. strain 1139 is reported here. The genome size is 7.04 Mb with high G+C content (62.3%) and it contains a large number of genes involved in lipid synthesis. This lipid synthesis system is characteristic of oleaginous Actinobacteria, which are of interest for biofuel production. PMID:28385836

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus sp. Strain NPS 308

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Sato, Keiko; Imamura, Keigo; Hoshino, Tomonori; Nishiguchi, Miyuki; Hasuwa, Tomoyuki; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus sp. strain NPS 308, isolated from an 8-year-old girl diagnosed with infective endocarditis, likely presents a novel species of Streptococcus. Here, we present a complete genome sequence of this species, which will contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. PMID:28007849

  8. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Archangium sp. Strain Cb G35

    PubMed Central

    Adaikpoh, Barbara I.; Dowd, Scot E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an effort to explore myxobacterial natural product biosynthetic pathways, the draft genome sequence of Archangium sp. strain Cb G35 has been obtained. Analysis of the genome using antiSMASH predicts 49 natural product biosynthetic pathways. This genome will contribute to the investigation of myxobacterial secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. PMID:28232451

  10. Oil from the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp.

    PubMed

    Nurachman, Zeily; Brataningtyas, Dewi Susan; Hartati; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty

    2012-11-01

    The potential of the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp. for biodiesel feedstock was investigated. Growth profiles were analyzed by changing nutrient compositions in three different media (Walne, plain seawater, and modified seawater) and irradiance intensities. Navicula sp. cells showed significant growth in Walne and modified seawater medium but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in a pH range of 7.8-8.4, and the cells were very sensitive to the intensity of direct sunlight exposure. The average cell concentration obtained from the cultures in plain seawater, Walne, and modified seawater media at the beginning of the stationary phase was 0.70, 2.17, and 2.54 g/L, respectively. Electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry showed that the triacylglycerols of the algae oil were identified as POP (palmitic-oleic-palmitic), POO (palmitic-oleic-oleic), and OOLn (oleic-oleic-linoleic). The oil productivity of Navicula sp. cultivated in Walne and modified seawater media was 90 and 124 μL L(-1) culture d(-1). The Navicula sp. biodiesel exhibited a kinematic viscosity of 1.299 mm(2)/s, density of 0.8347 g/mL, and internal energy of 0.90 kJ/mL.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. F-3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomeng; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Huaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. F-3 is a kind of thermophilic Streptomyces strain that can produce cellulolytic enzymes and diverse secondary metabolites. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism, whose genome length is 5,303,958 bp, containing 6,041 protein-coding genes, 69 tRNA operons, and three rRNA operons. PMID:27492002

  12. Aberrant processing forms of lung surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C revealed by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Galetskiy, Dmitry; Woischnik, Markus; Ripper, Jan; Griese, Matthias; Przybylski, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The mutation (g.1286T>C) of the pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C gene (SFTPC) leads to the I73T substitution in the precursor protein (pro-SP-C) and results in interstitial lung disease with the histological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Central for the disease is the abnormal processing of the SP-C pro-protein to mature SP-C; however little is known about the nature of intermediates and processing products. We report here the application of high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry to the characterization of processing intermediates of hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in intra- alveolar surfactant material of a patient with I73T mutation. SP-C and SP-B processing forms were separated from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid using chloroform/methanol extraction and sodium dodecyl sulfate poly acrylamide gel electrophoreis, detected by Western blot and identified by electrospray- and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric and immuno-analytical results show the intra-alveolar accumulation of an aberrant C-terminal SP-C processing products in which the mature SP-C protein part is missing and aberrant processing intermediates of SP-B.

  13. Multitasking Immune Sp185/333 Protein, rSpTransformer-E1, and Its Recombinant Fragments Undergo Secondary Structural Transformation upon Binding Targets.

    PubMed

    Lun, Cheng Man; Bishop, Barney M; Smith, L Courtney

    2017-04-01

    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, expresses a diverse immune response protein family called Sp185/333. A recombinant Sp185/333 protein, previously called rSp0032, shows multitasking antipathogen binding ability, suggesting that the protein family mediates a flexible and effective immune response to multiple foreign cells. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that rSp0032 is intrinsically disordered, and its multiple binding characteristic suggests structural flexibility to adopt different conformations depending on the characteristics of the target. To address the flexibility and structural shifting hypothesis, circular dichroism analysis of rSp0032 suggests that it transforms from disordered (random coil) to α helical structure. This structural transformation may be the basis for the strong affinity between rSp0032 and several pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The N-terminal Gly-rich fragment of rSp0032 and the C-terminal His-rich fragment show unique transformations by either intensifying the α helical structure or changing from α helical to β strand depending on the solvents and molecules added to the buffer. Based on these results, we propose a name change from rSp0032 to rSpTransformer-E1 to represent its flexible structural conformations and its E1 element pattern. Given that rSpTransformer-E1 shifts its conformation in the presence of solvents and binding targets and that all Sp185/333 proteins are predicted to be disordered, many or all of these proteins may undergo structural transformation to enable multitasking binding activity toward a wide range of targets. Consequently, we also propose an overarching name change for the entire family from Sp185/333 proteins to SpTransformer proteins.

  14. Molecular cloning, genomic organization and cell‐binding characteristics of mouse Spα

    PubMed Central

    Gebe, J A; Llewellyn, M‐B C; Hoggatt, H; Aruffo, A

    2000-01-01

    Several group B scavenger receptor cysteine‐rich (SRCR) proteins have been shown to function as modulators in the immune response. Recently, we reported the cloning of a new member of this family, human Spα (hSpα). Herein we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse homologue of hSpα. Like its human counterpart, mouse Spα (mSpα), is a secreted protein containing three SRCR domains. Most lymphoid tissues express RNA transcripts encoding mSpα. Characterization of a genomic clone encoding the mature mSpα protein showed that each of the SRCR domains of mSpα is encoded by a single exon. Comparison of the sequence of mSPα with those of other published proteins indicates that it is the same as the recently reported protein named AIM (apoptosis inhibitor expressed by macrophages). Cell‐binding studies with a mSpα immunoglobulin (mSpα‐Rγ) fusion protein indicated that mSpα is capable of binding to spleen‐derived CD19+ B cells and minimally to peritoneal cavity‐derived CD19+ B cells but not to peripheral blood‐derived B cells. Spleen‐derived CD3+ T cells also bound mSpα‐Rγ; however, no binding was observed to either peripheral blood mononuclear cells or peritoneal cavity‐derived CD3+ T cells. The mSpα‐Rγ fusion protein was also shown to bind to the mouse cell lines WEHI3 (monocytic) and EL‐4 (thymoma, T cell). The cloning of cDNA and genomic clones encoding mSpα and the identification of cells expressing a putative mSpα receptor(s) should facilitate in vivo studies designed to investigate the function of Spα in the immune compartment. PMID:10651944

  15. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., Isolated from Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K.; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4°C and 40°C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1T ( =  LMG 27497T  =  JCM 19399T  =  CIP 110588T  =  KMM 7502T) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10T ( =  JCM 19398T  =  CIP

  16. Flavobacterium xueshanense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium urumqiense sp. nov., two psychrophilic bacteria isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Liu, Hongcan; Zhang, Jianli; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-05-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T), were isolated from water of melted ice from the China No.1 glacier, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Cells formed yellow, circular, convex colonies. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T) belong to the genus Flavobacterium, sharing ≤99.1  and ≤99.6 % similarity, respectively, with the type strains of recognized species of the genus. Strain Sr22(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Flavobacterium tiangeerense CGMCC 1.6847(T) (98.6 %), Flavobacterium fryxellicola LMG 22022(T) (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium omnivorum CGMCC 1.2747(T) (99.1 %). Strain Sr25(T) shared highest similarity with Flavobacterium sinopsychrotolerans CGMCC 1.8704(T) (98.5 %), Flavobacterium degerlachei NBRC 102677(T) (98.4 %) and Flavobacterium xinjiangense CGMCC 1.2749(T) (99.5 %). The predominant fatty acids of strain Sr22(T) were iso-C(15 : 1) G (6.01 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (8.93 %), iso-C(16 : 1) H (12.68 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (10.4 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (8.97 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (5.96 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (11.14 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c, 12.33 %). The major fatty acids of strain Sr25(T) were iso-C(15 : 0) (10.8 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (5.23 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (11.79 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (5.43 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (7.04 %) and summed feature 3 (20.42 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T) were 37.2 and 35.1 mol%. On the basis of differential phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, these strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium xueshanense sp. nov. (type strain Sr22(T)  = CGMCC 1.9227(T)  = NBRC 106479(T)) and Flavobacterium urumqiense sp. nov. (type strain Sr25(T)  = CGMCC 1.9230(T)  = NBRC 106480

  17. Novel chemolithotrophic, thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. and Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, T; Hanel, J; Onyenwoke, R U; Reysenbach, A-L; Banta, A; Geyer, R; González, J M; Whitman, W B; Wiegel, J

    2007-01-01

    (III)-reducing Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. is designated as the type species with strain JW/KA-2(T) (ATCC 700985(T), DSM 13639(T)) as its type strain. Strain R1(T) is the type strain for the hydrogenogenic, CO-oxidizing Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov. (DSM 7242(T), VKM 2359(T)).

  18. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4 °C and 40 °C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10(T) represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1(T) ( =  LMG 27497(T)  =  JCM 19399(T)  =  CIP 110588(T)  =  KMM 7502(T)) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10(T) ( =  JCM

  19. Whole-genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. strain SST3, an endophyte isolated from Jamaican sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) stalk tissue.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J; Savka, Michael A; Hudson, André O

    2012-11-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter.

  20. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  1. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Sabella, Giorgio; Pilato, Giovanni

    2014-05-28

    Two new species, Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. are described from Sicily. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. has three macroplacoids and a microplacoid and differs from M. tibetanus, the only other known species of the genus with those characteristics, in having a wrinkled cuticle without true small tubercles, a shorter microplacoid, smaller claw pt index values, and in lacking a cuticular bar on the first three pairs of the legs.Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. lacks eye spots, has a pharyngeal bulb with two macroplacoids and a septulum, and possesses lunules and cuticular bars on the legs. It is similar to D. (D.) ramazzottii and D. (D.) procerum but differs from them in characters of the cuticular ornamentation and, in addition, from D. (D.) ramazzottii in having lunules and slightly longer claws in proportion to the body size and to the buccal tube. The new species differs from D. (D.) procerum in having stouter claws with a wider common portion and with the main branches shorter in proportion to the total length of the respective claws.

  2. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-8 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-8 Management and Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Principles of Industrial Engineering . AUTHOR: Standards International. Inc. DATE: October 1987 COST: (Not...available) ABSTRACT: This report on the basic principles of industrial engineering is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the benefits...REMARKS SP-8 NSRP 0276 0277 0278 0279 0284 0304 0321 KEY Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering 1987 Improved Planning and Shop Loading

  3. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla Casadiego, D. A.; Albis Arrieta, A. R.; Angulo Mercado, E. R.; Cervera Cahuana, S. J.; Baquero Noriega, K. S.; Suárez Escobar, A. F.; Morales Avendaño, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  4. Hydrolysis of surimi wastewater for production of transglutaminase by Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112.

    PubMed

    H-Kittikun, Aran; Bourneow, Chaiwut; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-12-01

    Surimi wastewater (SWW) is an industrial wastewater, released during the washing step of surimi preparation from minced fish, that causes environmental problem. In this study, SWW produced from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) was hydrolysed and used to cultivate Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112 for the production of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, EC 2.3.2.13). The SWW was repeatedly used to wash the fish mince that gained a final protein content of 3.20% (w/v). The commercial protease, Delvolase was the most appropriate protease used to produce fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from SWW. The FPH at 40% degree of hydrolysis was used instead of a peptone portion in the SPY medium (3.0% starch, 2.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract, 0.2% MgSO(4), 0.2% K(2)HPO(4) and 0.2% KH(2)HPO(4), pH 7.0) to cultivate the tested strains at 37°C, shaking speed at 150rpm. Providencia sp. C1112 produced higher MTGase activity (1.78±0.05U/ml) than Streptoverticillium mobaraense (1.61±0.02U/ml) at 18h of cultivation in FPH medium. On the other hand, the Enterobacter sp. C2361 produced lower MTGase activity (1.18±0.03U/ml).

  5. Biofiltration of trimethylamine, dimethylamine, and methylamine by immobilized Paracoccus sp. CP2 and Arthrobacter sp. CP1.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kuo-Ling; Chung, Ying-Chien; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2008-05-01

    A biofilter using granular activated carbon with immobilized Paracoccus sp. CP2 was applied to the elimination of 10-250 ppm of trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), and methylamine (MA). The results indicated that the system effectively treated MA (>93%), DMA (>90%), and TMA (>85%) under high loading conditions, and the maximum degradation rates were 1.4, 1.2, and 0.9g-Nkg(-1) GAC d(-1). Among the three different amines treated, TMA was the most difficult to degrade and resulted in ammonia accumulation. Further study on TMA removal showed that the optimal pH was near neutral (6.0-8.0). The supply of high glucose (>0.1%) inhibited TMA removal, maybe due to substrate competition. However, complete TMA degradation was achieved under the co-immobilization of Paracoccus sp. CP2 and Arthrobacter sp. CP1 ( approximately 96%). Metabolite analysis results demonstrated that the metabolite NH(4)(+) concentrations decreased by a relatively small 27% while the metabolite NO(2)(-) apparently increased by heterotrophic nitrification of Arthrobacter sp. CP1 in the co-immobilization biofilter.

  6. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Castilla Casadiego, D A; Albis Arrieta, A R; Angulo Mercado, E R; Cervera Cahuana, S J; Baquero Noriega, K S; Suárez Escobar, A F; Morales Avendaño, E D

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained "Nutrifoliar," a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using "Nutrifoliar" as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  7. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CLONING OF XENOPUS LAEVIS SP22, A PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILIZATION IN MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    SP22 is a protein that has been characterized in rats where it has been related with fertility. SP22 homologues have been studied in mouse and man and a definitive role for the protein has not been assigned yet. By means of a polyclonal IgG to recombinant rat SP22...

  9. Sphyrna gilberti sp. nov., a new hammerhead shark (Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrnidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Quattro, Joseph M; Driggers, William B; Grady, James M; Ulrich, Glenn F; Roberts, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Sphyrna gilberti sp. nov. is described based on 54 specimens collected in the coastal waters of South Carolina, U.S.A. Morphologically, S. gilberti sp. nov. is separable from S. lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) only in the number of precaudal vertebrae. Due to rarity of specimens and the highly migratory behavior of most sphyrnids, the range of S. gilberti sp. nov. is unknown.

  10. Mixed phase, sp2-sp3 bonded, and disordered few layer graphene-like nanocarbon: Synthesis and characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Patil, Sumati; Joshi, Anupama; Bhoraskar, Vasant; Datar, Suwarna; Alegaonkar, Prashant

    2013-04-01

    We report on a method for the synthesis of Graphene-like nanocarbon (GNC) sheets. The obtained GNC contain mixed phase, sp2-sp3 bonded, and few atom layer of disordered carbon network. Initially, the mixture of soft wood charcoal (C), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and sulfur (S) was subjected to the combustion process. The obtained (as-synthesized) samples were intercalated (in H2SO4 (98%): HNO3 (60%), 48 h at 300 K) and subsequently annealed at 1000 °C for ˜60 s. The as-synthesized, intercalated, and annealed samples were studied using number of characterization techniques. The Raman spectra (at λ = 514 nm) recorded for the as-synthesized samples showed five prominent peaks, namely, for amorphous-Carbon (a-C), D doublet, small G, and 2D band. The position and intensity of the recorded peaks were varied for the intercalated and annealed samples. Our SEM analysis revealed that, the area of the GNC sheets varied typically in the range of 10 to 20 μm2. The analysis of HRTEM/SAED together showed that the intercalated samples contained a-C phase, whereas, short range ordering was observed for the annealed samples. The tunneling spectra recorded for the annealed GNC sheets showed V-shaped local density of states with the peak present near the minima. Our analysis revealed that, the sp2 chains and the polycyclic carbon rings (PCR) could be formed in the host ta-C matrix generating mixed sp2-sp3 bonded carbon network along with the local disorder. Details are presented.

  11. Heterologous expression of metK1-sp and afsR-sp in Streptomyces venezuelae for the production of pikromycin.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Oh, Tae-Jin; Lee, Hei Chan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-09-01

    Two regulator genes, metK1-sp and afsR-sp, from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 were heterologously expressed in S. venezuelae ATCC 15439, to produce 14-membered pikromycin antibiotics. The production of pikromycin was increased by 1.6-fold and 2.6-fold by the expression of metK1-sp and afsR-sp, respectively. The overexpression of metK1-sp and afsR-sp in S. venezuelae stimulated the expression of the pathway-specific regulatory genes, pikD and ketosynthase, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. The elevated transcripts of the pikD and ketosynthase genes were consistent with the enhanced production of pikromycin.

  12. Endomorphins interact with the substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP(1-7) binding in the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Botros, Milad; Johansson, Tobias; Zhou, Qin; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Tömböly, Csaba; Tóth, Géza; Le Grevès, Pierre; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2008-10-01

    We have recently identified a specific binding site for the tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) fragment SP(1-7) in the rat spinal cord. This site appeared very specific for SP(1-7) as the binding affinity of this compound highly exceeded those of other SP fragments. We also observed that endomorphin-2 (EM-2) exhibited high potency in displacing SP(1-7) from this site. In the present work using a [(3)H]-labeled derivative of the heptapeptide we have identified and characterized [(3)H]-SP(1-7) binding in the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA). Similarly to the [(3)H]-SP(1-7) binding in the spinal cord the affinity of unlabeled SP(1-7) to the specific site in VTA was significantly higher than those of other SP fragments. Further, the tachykinin receptor NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 ligands showed no or negligible binding to the identified site. However, the mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonists DAMGO, EM-1 and EM-2 did, and significant difference was observed in the binding affinity between the two endomorphins. As recorded from displacement curves the affinity of EM-2 for the SP(1-7) site was 4-5 times weaker than that for SP(1-7) but about 5 times higher than that of EM-1. The opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and naloxonazine showed weak or negligible binding. It was concluded that the specific site identified for SP(1-7) binding in the rat VTA is distinct from the MOP receptor although it exhibits high affinity for EM-2.

  13. Genetic Complexity of the Human Innate Host Defense Molecules, Surfactant Protein A1 (SP-A1) and SP-A2—Impact on Function

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Joanna; Wang, Guirong; Mikerov, Anatoly N.

    2010-01-01

    Innate immunity mechanisms play a critical role in the primary response to invading pathogenic microorganisms and other insulting agents. The innate lung immune system includes lung surfactant, a lipoprotein complex that carries out a function essential for life, that is, reduction of the surface tension at the air–liquid interphase of the alveolar space. By means of this function, pulmonary surfactant prevents lung collapse, therefore ensuring normal lung function and lung health. Pulmonary surfactant contains a number of host-defense molecules that are involved in the elimination of pathogens, viruses, particles, allergens, and other insults, as well as in the control of inflammation. This review is concerned with one of the surfactant proteins, the human (h) surfactant protein A (hSP-A), which, in addition to its role in surfactant-related functions, plays an important role in the modulation of lung host defense. The hSP-A locus has been identified with extensive complexity that may have an impact on its function, structure, and regulation. In humans, two genes—SP-A1 (SFTPA1) and SP-A2 (SFTPA2)—encode SP-A, with SP-A2 gene products being more biologically active than SP-A1 in most of the in vitro assays investigated. Although the two hSP-A genes share a high level of sequence similarity, differences in the structure and function between SP-A1 and SP-A2 have been observed in recent studies. In this review, we discuss the human SP-A complexity and how this may affect SP-A function. PMID:19392648

  14. Mesorhizobium shonense sp. nov., Mesorhizobium hawassense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium abyssinicae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of different agroforestry legume trees.

    PubMed

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Liu, Binbin; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Willems, Anne; Frostegård, Åsa

    2013-05-01

    A total of 18 strains, representing members of the genus Mesorhizobium, obtained from root nodules of woody legumes growing in Ethiopia, have been previously shown, by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes, to form three novel genospecies. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship between representative strains of these three genospecies and the type strains of their closest phylogenetic neighbours Mesorhizobium plurifarium, Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium huakuii was further evaluated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. In line with our earlier MLSA of other housekeeping genes, the phylogenetic trees derived from the atpD and glnII genes grouped the test strains into three well-supported, distinct lineages that exclude all defined species of the genus Mesorhizobium. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative strains of genospecies I-III and the type strains of their closest phylogenetic neighbours was low (≤59 %). They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by the presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The strains belonging to genospecies I, II and III therefore represent novel species for which we propose the names Mesorhizobium shonense sp. nov., Mesorhizobium hawassense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium abyssinicae sp. nov. The isolates AC39a(T) ( = LMG 26966(T) = HAMBI 3295(T)), AC99b(T) ( = LMG 26968(T) = HAMBI 3301(T)) and AC98c(T) ( = LMG 26967(T) = HAMBI 3306(T)) are proposed as type strains for the respective novel species.

  15. Average nucleotide identity of genome sequences supports the description of Rhizobium lentis sp. nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. from lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M Harun-or; Young, J Peter W; Everall, Isobel; Clercx, Pia; Willems, Anne; Santhosh Braun, Markus; Wink, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Rhizobial strains isolated from effective root nodules of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris) from different parts of Bangladesh were previously analysed using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII) and three nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD), DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences and DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains belonged to three novel clades in the genus Rhizobium. In present study, a representative strain from each clade was further characterized by determination of cellular fatty acid compositions, carbon substrate utilization patterns and DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses from whole-genome sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization showed 50-62% relatedness to their closest relatives (the type strains of Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli) and 50-60% relatedness to each other. These results were further supported by ANI values, based on genome sequencing, which were 87-92% with their close relatives and 88-89% with each other. On the basis of these results, three novel species, Rhizobium lentis sp. nov. (type strain BLR27(T) = LMG 28441(T) = DSM 29286(T)), Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. (type strain BLR175(T) = LMG 28442(T) = DSM 29287(T)) and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. (type strain BLR195(T) = LMG 28443(T) = DSM 29288(T)), are proposed. These species share common nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) that are similar to those of the symbiovar viciae.

  16. Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov., Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. and Shewanella sairae sp. nov., novel eicosapentaenoic-acid-producing marine bacteria isolated from sea-animal intestines.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2003-03-01

    Three novel Shewanella species are described on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies. A total of six novel halophilic, aerobic organisms with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were isolated from various sea animals in Japan. Cells of all six isolates were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of polar flagella. They were able to produce large amounts of EPA (about 20% of the total fatty acids) and had isoprenoid quinones Q-7 and Q-8 as major components. Analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed that they are very close phylogenetically (sequence similarity > 99%) and the closest species was Shewanella pealeana, with 97% sequence similarity. However, analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that the novel isolates were divided into three groups at sufficient phylogenetic distance to indicate that they are different species (< 90% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments supported this conclusion. The first group (three strains) had positive reactions for lipase, DNase, ONPG and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) reduction and had G + C contents of 43 mol% (determined by HPLC). The second group (two strains) was positive for urease, DNase, ONPG and TMAO reduction but not lipase. Their G + C content was 45 mol%. The third group (one strain) was negative for ONPG, DNase and TMAO reduction and had a G + C content of 43 mol%. Strains of the second group, but not those of the first or third groups, grew at 32 degrees C. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the novel strains isolated from intestines of sea animals are placed in three novel species of the genus Shewanella: Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11558T =LMG 21403T), Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11561T =LMG 21406T) and Shewanella sairae sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11563T =LMG 21408T).

  17. Novel lactic acid bacteria isolated from the bumble bee gut: Convivina intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., Lactobacillus bombicola sp. nov., and Weissella bombi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Praet, Jessy; Meeus, Ivan; Cnockaert, Margo; Houf, Kurt; Smagghe, Guy; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained in the course of a bumble bee gut microbiota study and grouped into four matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry clusters. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that cluster 1 isolates, represented by strain LMG 28288(T), are most closely related to Lactobacillus apis (97.0% sequence similarity to that of L. apis LMG 26964(T)). Cluster 2 isolates represented by strain LMG 28290(T) are most closely related to Weissella hellenica (99.6% sequence similarity to that of W. hellenica LMG 15125(T)). The single cluster 3 and 4 isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences which were 94.8% similar to that of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LMG 6893(T), their nearest phylogenetic neighbour. A polyphasic taxonomic study additionally including comparative pheS sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, DNA G+C content analysis, (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting and a biochemical characterization, demonstrated that cluster 1 isolates represent a novel Lactobacillus species for which we propose the name Lactobacillus bombicola sp. nov. with LMG 28288(T) (= DSM 28793(T)) as the type strain; and that cluster 2 isolates represent a novel Weissella species for which we propose the name Weissella bombi sp. nov. with LMG 28290(T) (= DSM 28794(T)) as the type strain. Cluster 3 and 4 isolates, in contrast, represented a very distinct, novel taxon that could be distinguished from members of the genera Leuconostoc and Fructobacillus, its nearest phylogenetic neighbours, by its cellular morphology, non-fructophilic metabolism and DNA G+C content. We therefore classify both isolates into a novel species representing a novel LAB genus for which the name Convivina intestini gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed with LMG 28291(T) (= DSM 28795(T)) as the type strain.

  18. Megasphaera paucivorans sp. nov., Megasphaera sueciensis sp. nov. and Pectinatus haikarae sp. nov., isolated from brewery samples, and emended description of the genus Pectinatus.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Riikka; Suihko, Maija-Liisa

    2006-04-01

    Seven unidentified strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria from spoiled beer or the brewery environment were characterized. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, all strains were affiliated to the Sporomusa sub-branch of the class 'Clostridia'. Three of the strains were non-motile cocci, on average 1.5 x 1.2 microm or 1.2 x 1.0 microm, occurring mainly singly or in pairs. They shared nearly identical (>99 %) 16S rRNA gene sequences, being most closely related to the species of the Megasphaera-Anaeroglobus group (< or =93.9 % similarity). According to DNA-DNA hybridization results, the coccoid strains represented two genospecies, neither of which was related to any of the recognized Megasphaera species. Several phenotypic characteristics and/or DNA G+C content also differentiated the strains from each other and from their closest relatives. The other four novel strains were motile, slightly curved to helical rods, 0.6-0.8 x 3-50 microm or more in size. They shared identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and ribofragment patterns. The highest 16S rRNA gene similarity was found between these isolates and Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus ATCC 29359T (95.6 %) and Pectinatus frisingensis ATCC 33332T (93.6 %). The novel strains also differed from recognized Pectinatus species in their sugar utilization, proteolytic activity, catalase activity, antibiotic resistance and temperature tolerance. The results suggest that the bacteria belong to three novel species, for which the names Megasphaera paucivorans sp. nov. (type strain VTT E-032341T = DSM 16981T), Megasphaera sueciensis sp. nov. (type strain VTT E-97791T = DSM 17042T) and Pectinatus haikarae sp. nov. (type strain VTT E-88329T = DSM 16980T) are proposed.

  19. Differential regulation of baboon SP-A1 and SP-A2 genes: structural and functional analysis of 5'-flanking DNA.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gao, E; Seidner, S R; Mendelson, C R

    1998-12-01

    Surfactant protein (SP) A gene transcription is developmentally regulated and stimulated by hormones and factors that increase intracellular cAMP. The baboon (b) genome contains two highly similar SP-A genes, bSP-A1 and bSP-A2. With the use of a ribonuclease protection assay with gene-specific probes, the two bSP-A genes were found to be differentially regulated during baboon fetal lung development in that expression of the bSP-A2 gene appeared to be induced to a high level at a later time in gestation than that of the bSP-A1 gene. Both the bSP-A1 and bSP-A2 genes were found to be highly responsive to the inductive effects of cAMP in baboon fetal lung explants in culture. By DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with bacterially expressed thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and type II cell nuclear extracts, three TTF-1 binding elements were identified within the 255-bp region flanking the 5'-end of each bSP-A gene; however, these differed in position and spacing for the two bSP-A genes. To functionally define the genomic regions that are required for cAMP regulation of bSP-A gene expression in type II cells, fusion genes composed of various amounts of 5'-flanking DNA from the bSP-A1 and bSP-A2 genes linked to the human growth hormone structural gene as a reporter were transfected into type II cells in primary culture. We found that 255 bp of 5'-flanking DNA, which contain three TTF-1 binding elements, from bSP-A1 and bSP-A2 genes were sufficient to mediate high basal and cAMP-inducible expression in type II cells. We also observed that there were no obvious differences in the magnitude of the responses of these fusion genes to cAMP treatment.

  20. Cobryketone derived from vitamin B12 via palladium-catalyzed cleavage of the sp3-sp3 carbon-carbon bond.

    PubMed

    Kurcoń, Sylwester; Proinsias, Keith ó; Gryko, Dorota

    2013-04-19

    Heptamethyl cobyrinate was transformed into hexamethyl 8-nor-cobyrinate. The crucial step involved the synthesis of new, vitamin B12 derived cobryketone via palladium-catalyzed cleavage of the sp(3)-sp(3) carbon-carbon bond with the liberation of the ketone. The replacement of sp(3) carbon atom with sp(2) (C═O) at the 8-position produces a bathochromic shift of all absorption bands and makes α and β bands equal as a consequence of the expansion of the existing conjugated system of double bonds.

  1. Brevibacterium linens pBL33 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous pRC1 cryptic plasmids replicate in Rhodococcus sp. R312 (formerly Brevibacterium sp. R312).

    PubMed

    Bigey, F; Grossiord, B; Chan Kuo Chion, C K; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

    1995-02-27

    The replication of two cryptic plasmids from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 (pBL33) and Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 4276 (pRC1) was investigated in Rhodococcus sp. R312 (formerly Brevibacterium sp. R312). The recombinant plasmids pSP33 (pBL33 derivative) and pSPC1 (pRC1 derivative) were found to be suitable for establishing new host-vector systems for Rhodococcus sp. R312. They all carry the Tn903 neomycin-resistance-encoding gene (aphI).

  2. Influence of heavy metals on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the metal resistant strains of Ochrobactrum and Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjeev; Barai, Prabir Kumar; Maiti, Tushar K

    2013-11-01

    Three bacterial strains, a cadmium resistant Ochrobactrum sp. designated as CdSP9 and two strains of Bacillus sp. named PbSP6 and AsSP9 resistant to lead and arsenate, respectively were characterized here with respect to their oxidative enzyme activities. The bacterial strains were grown in basal medium supplemented with 50 microg ml(-1) of respective elements to determine the changes in the level of oxidative enzymes. The superoxide dismutase activity increased in all three isolates, but the catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration were relatively more in CdSP9 than PbSP6 and AsSP9. The glutathione peroxidase, however, remained almost uninduced in CdSP9 but was enhanced in PbSP6 and AsSP9. A possible role of these enzymes in metal tolerance is evident from these results.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; St. John, Franz J.; Rice, John D.; Dickstein, Ellen; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Brettin, Thomas; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Martin, Joel; Copeland, Alex; Land, Miriam L.; Goodwin, Lynne; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.; Preston, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of β-1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources. PMID:22675593

  4. Novel linear megaplasmid from Brevibacterium sp. isolated from extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Wagenknecht, Martin; Hill, Russell T; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2010-06-01

    Brevibacterium sp. Ap13, isolated from flamingo's feces in Laguna Aparejos, a high-altitude lake located at approximately 4,200 m in the northwest of Argentina was previously found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics, and was therefore screened for plasmids that may be implicated in antibiotic resistance. Brevibacterium sp. Ap13 was found to contain two plasmids of approximately 87 and 436 kb, designated pAP13 and pAP13c, respectively. Only pAP13 was stably maintained and was extensively characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to reveal that this plasmid is linear and likely has covalently linked terminal proteins associated with its 5' ends. This is the first report of a linear plasmid in the genus Brevibacterium and may provide a new tool for genetic manipulation of this commercially important genus.

  5. Laboratory studies on biomachining of copper using Staphylococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Shinji; Sreekumari, Kurissery R; Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Ozawa, Mazayoshi; Kikuchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of using bacteria to drill metallic surfaces has been demonstrated using Staphylococcus sp., a facultative anaerobic bacterium, isolated from corroded copper piping. The experiment involved exposure of copper coupons (25 mm x 15 mm x 3 mm) to a culture of Staphylococcus sp. for a maximum period of 7 days. Coupons exposed to sterile bacterial growth medium were used as controls. Exposed coupons were removed intermittently and observed microscopically for the extent of drilling. The total pit area and volume on these coupons were determined using image analysis. The results showed that both the biomachined area and volume increased with the duration of coupon exposure. In the drilling experiment, a copper thin film 2 microm thick was perforated by this bacterium within a period of 7 days. In conclusion, the results suggested that bacteria can be used as a tool for machining metallic surfaces.

  6. Ultrastructure of Frenkelia sp. from a Norwegian lemming in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H

    2000-04-01

    An apparently healthy Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) caught in northern Finland was observed to have a whitish body 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter in the external layer of the cerebral cortex. By light microscopy a highly lobulated cyst of Frenkelia sp. was observed. By transmission electron microscopy lemmus) collected in the cyst wall was seen consisting of a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, an underlying electron-dense layer and a granular layer. The membrane was only slightly convoluted. The protrusions of the cyst wall appeared round but were often not distinctive. A very thin septum divided the interior of the cyst into compartments packed with bradyzoites and maturing zoites. The bradyzoites were elongate measuring 5-8 x 1.5-2 microm. This is the first electron microscopical study of Frenkelia sp. from L. lemmus.

  7. NSS5/SP-STM2 Joint International Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Saw-Wai Hla

    2009-05-03

    The NSS5/SP-STM2 conference was held in Athens, Ohio July 15-19, 2008. The conference brought together a prestigious group of scientists from all over the globe to focus for 3 ½ days on a variety of nanoscience topics, particularly on nanoscale spectroscopy and spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. The conference was attended by many young scientists as well as senior scientists. Attendees to the conference were drawn from more than 10 countries and included 28 invited speakers, who are the leading scientists in their respective research areas. Included among the invited speakers were 4 plenary speakers - eminent scientists in their fields. The conference was divided into two parallel sessions – the NSS5 session and the SP-STM2 session.

  8. Genome sequence and description of Anaerosalibacter massiliensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Dione, N.; Sankar, S.A.; Lagier, J.-C.; Khelaifia, S.; Michele, C.; Armstrong, N.; Richez, M.; Abrahão, J.; Raoult, D.; Fournier, P.-E.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerosalibacter massiliensis sp. nov. strain ND1T (= CSUR P762 = DSM 27308) is the type strain of A. massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Anaerosalibacter. This strain, the genome of which is described here, was isolated from the faecal flora of a 49-year-old healthy Brazilian man. Anaerosalibacter massiliensis is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic rod and member of the family Clostridiaceae. With the complete genome sequence and annotation, we describe here the features of this organism. The 3 197 911 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid) contains 3271 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes, including six rRNA genes. PMID:26937282

  9. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; St. John, Franz J.; Dickstein, Ellen; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Martin, Joel; Copeland, A; Land, Miriam L; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.; Preston, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of -1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2.

    PubMed

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; St John, Franz J; Rice, John D; Dickstein, Ellen; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Brettin, Thomas; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Martin, Joel; Copeland, Alex; Land, Miriam L; Goodwin, Lynne; Jones, Jeffrey B; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T; Preston, James F

    2012-03-19

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of β-1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources.

  11. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  12. A new freshwater amoeba: Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Amorphea).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Roger, Anderson O; Lecky, Ariel F; Kelly, Samantha D

    2013-01-01

    Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (ATCC(©) 30935(TM) ) is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (length ~ 25 μm) is characterized by surface microscales (0.3 μm tall) containing a circular porous base (~ 0.6 μm diam.) with a thin peripheral rim. Five radially arranged feet, emanating from the base, support a short central column terminating apically as a funnel-shaped collar (~ 0.5 μm diam.) composed of five radial, trifurcate rays extending from the center toward a thin peripheral rim. The central spine is 0.5-0.6 μm long. The comparative morphologies and combined molecular genetic evidence, SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that the new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species.

  13. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels. PMID:24921415

  14. Effect of temperature on ammonium removal in Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Martínez, A; Serralta, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-09-01

    The effect of temperature on microalgal ammonium uptake was investigated by carrying out four batch experiments in which a mixed culture of microalgae, composed mainly of Scenedesmus sp., was cultivated under different temperatures within the usual temperature working range in Mediterranean climate (15-34 °C). Ammonium removal rates increased with temperature up to 26 °C and stabilized thereafter. Ratkowsky and Cardinal temperatures models successfully reproduced the experimental data. Optimum (31.3 °C), minimum (8.8 °C) and maximum (46.1 °C) temperatures for ammonium removal by Scenedesmus sp. under the studied conditions were obtained as model parameters. These temperature-related parameters constitute very useful information for designing and operating wastewater treatment systems using these microalgae.

  15. An engineered monomeric Zoanthus sp. yellow fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Hoi, Hiofan; Howe, Elizabeth S; Ding, Yidan; Zhang, Wei; Baird, Michelle A; Sell, Brittney R; Allen, John R; Davidson, Michael W; Campbell, Robert E

    2013-10-24

    Protein engineering has created a palette of monomeric fluorescent proteins (FPs), but there remains an ~30 nm spectral gap between the most red-shifted useful Aequorea victoria green FP (GFP) variants and the most blue-shifted useful Discosoma sp. red FP (RFP) variants. To fill this gap, we have engineered a monomeric version of the yellow FP (YFP) from Zoanthus sp. coral. Our preferred variant, designated as mPapaya1, displays excellent fluorescent brightness, good photostability, and retains its monomeric character both in vitro and in living cells in the context of protein chimeras. We demonstrate that mPapaya1 can serve as a good Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor when paired with an mTFP1 donor. mPapaya1 is a valuable addition to the palette of FP variants that are useful for multicolor imaging and FRET-based biosensing.

  16. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  17. Hypoglossum fujianensis sp. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from Fujian Coast, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi

    1998-12-01

    Hypoglossum fujianensis sp. nov. is an epiphytic alga in the intertidal zone. Plants are light red, 0.9 2 cm high. Margin of branches gives rise to uniseriate hair-like rhizoids, formed outward from the fusion of the second-and third-order cells. Blades are single layered (except the midrib) and uncorticated. Tetrasporangial sori are formed on the middle part of blades. The globular tetrasporangia are developed from lateral pericentral cells.

  18. New sesquicillins, insecticidal antibiotics produced by Albophoma sp. FKI-1778.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2005-06-01

    Four new antibiotics, sesquicillins B to E were isolated from the culture broth of Albophoma sp. FKI-1778 together with known sesquicillin (sesquicillin A in this paper). The structures of sesquicillins were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including various NMR experiments. All sesquicillins have a common pyrano-diterpene skeleton. Sesquicillins showed moderate inhibitory activity against the growth of Artemia salina (brine shrimps) and Jurkat cells.

  19. Ulcerative pododermatitis in a cat associated with Anatrichosoma sp.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Ibañez, F; Winston, J; O'Donnell, E; Mansell, J

    2002-01-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male Chartreaux cat was presented for an ulcerative pododermatitis of all 4 paws. A clinical exam was inconclusive and supportive therapy did not improve the condition. Histologic examination revealed an ulcerative and eosinophilic dermatitis associated with epidermal and dermal nematodes and ova consistent with the aphasmid Anatrichosoma sp. Treatment with ivermectin completely resolved the skin lesions. Anatrichosomiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative pododermatitis in cats, at least in the southwestern United States.

  20. Larinus berti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) from North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Levent; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Larinus berti sp. n. is described from Morocco and assigned to subgenus Cryphopus Petri, 1907 (Curculionidae: Lixinae; Lixini). Diagnostic characters of the new species are large size, elongate-ovate body, bisulcate sub-quadrangular rostrum, triangularly raised dorsum of rostrum, flat subgena and submentum, Y-shaped apodeme of sternite VIII of female and thin nodulus of spermatheca. PMID:24194653

  1. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula.

  2. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-05-29

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia.

  3. Silver-Catalyzed C(sp(3))-H Chlorination.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Jun; Kanai, Motomu

    2017-03-17

    A silver-catalyzed chlorination of benzylic, tertiary, and secondary C(sp(3))-H bonds was developed. The reaction proceeded with as low as 0.2 mol % catalyst loading at room temperature under air atmosphere with synthetically useful functional group compatibility. The regioselectivity and reactivity tendencies suggest that the chlorination proceeded through a radical pathway, but an intermediate alkylsilver species cannot be ruled out.

  4. Bacillus aerius sp. nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from cryogenic tubes used for collecting air samples from high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Chaturvedi, P; Suresh, K; Reddy, G S N; Dutt, C B S; Wainwright, M; Narlikar, J V; Bhargava, P M

    2006-07-01

    Four novel bacterial strains were isolated from cryogenic tubes used to collect air samples at altitudes of 24, 28 and 41 km. The four strains, 24K(T), 28K(T), 41KF2a(T) and 41KF2b(T), were identified as members of the genus Bacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that three of the strains, 24K(T), 28K(T) and 41KF2a(T), are very similar to one another (>98 % sequence similarity) and show a similarity of 98-99 % with Bacillus licheniformis and 98 % with Bacillus sonorensis. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that strains 24K(T), 28K(T) and 41KF2a(T) exhibit <70 % similarity with each other and with B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis. Differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics between the novel strains and B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis further confirmed that these three isolates are representatives of three separate novel species. Strain 41KF2b(T) showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus pumilus, but differed from its nearest phylogenetic neighbour in a number of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and showed only 55 % DNA-DNA relatedness. Therefore, the four isolates represent four novel species for which the names Bacillus aerius sp. nov. (type strain, 24K(T)=MTCC 7303(T)=JCM 13348(T)), Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain, 28K(T)=MTCC 7304(T)=JCM 13347(T)), Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. (type strain, 41KF2a(T)=MTCC 7305(T)=JCM 13349(T)) and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov. (type strain, 41KF2b(T)=MTCC 7306(T)=JCM 13350(T)) are proposed.

  5. Comparison of 128-SP-QAM with PM-16-QAM.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Martin; Johannisson, Pontus; Li, Jianqiang; Agrell, Erik; Andrekson, Peter A; Karlsson, Magnus

    2012-04-09

    In this paper we investigate an interesting modulation format for fiber optic communications, set-partitioning 128 polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM (128-SP-QAM), which consists of the symbols with even parity from the symbol alphabet of polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM (PM-16-QAM). We compare 128-SP-QAM and PM-16-QAM using numerical simulations in long-haul transmission scenarios at bit rates of 112 Gbit/s and 224 Gbit/s, and at the same symbol rates (14 and 28 Gbaud). The transmission link is made up of standard single-mode fiber with 60, 80 or 100 km amplifier spacing and both single channel and WDM transmission (25- and 50 GHz-spaced) is investigated. The results show that 128-SP-QAM achieves more than 40% increase in transmission reach compared to PM-16-QAM at the same data rate for all cases studied for a bit error rate of 10⁻³. In addition, we find that in single channel transmission there is, as expected, an advantage in terms of transmission distance when using a data rate of 112 Gbit/s as compared to 224 Gbit/s. However, when comparing the two different WDM systems with the same aggregate data rates, the reach is similar due to the smaller impact of nonlinear crosstalk between the WDM channels in the systems with 50 GHz spacing. We also discuss decoding and phase estimation of 128-SP-QAM and implement differential coding, which avoids error bursts due to cycle slips in the phase estimation. Simulations including laser phase noise show that the phase noise tolerance is similar for the two formats, with 0.5 dB OSNR penalty compared to the case with zero phase noise for a laser linewidth to symbol rate ratio of 10⁻⁴.

  6. Natural transformation of Thermotoga sp. strain RQ7

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thermotoga species are organisms of enormous interest from a biotechnological as well as evolutionary point of view. Genetic modifications of Thermotoga spp. are often desired in order to fully release their multifarious potentials. Effective transformation of recombinant DNA into these bacteria constitutes a critical step of such efforts. This study aims to establish natural competency in Thermotoga spp. and to provide a convenient method to transform these organisms. Results Foreign DNA was found to be relatively stable in the supernatant of a Thermotoga culture for up to 6 hours. Adding donor DNA to T. sp. strain RQ7 at its early exponential growth phase (OD600 0.18 ~ 0.20) resulted in direct acquisition of the DNA by the cells. Both T. neapolitana chromosomal DNA and Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors effectively transformed T. sp. strain RQ7, rendering the cells resistance to kanamycin. The kan gene carried by the shuttle vector pDH10 was detected by PCR from the plasmid extract of the transformants, and the amplicons were verified by restriction digestions. A procedure for natural transformation of Thermotoga spp. was established and optimized. With the optimized method, T. sp. strain RQ7 sustained a transformation frequency in the order of 10-7 with both genomic and plasmid DNA. Conclusions T. sp. strain RQ7 cells are naturally transformable during their early exponential phase. They acquire DNA from both closely and distantly related species. Both chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA serve as suitable substrates for transformation. Our findings lend a convenient technical tool for the genetic engineering of Thermotoga spp. PMID:24884561

  7. Taxonomic variation in the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex: description of Mycobacterium boenickei sp. nov., Mycobacterium houstonense sp. nov., Mycobacterium neworleansense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium brisbanense sp. nov. and recognition of Mycobacterium porcinum from human clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Schinsky, Mark F; Morey, Roger E; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Douglas, Michael P; Wilson, Rebecca W; Floyd, Margaret M; Butler, W Ray; Daneshvar, Maryam I; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; McNeil, Michael M; Brenner, Don J; Brown, June M

    2004-09-01

    The Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex (sorbitol-negative and sorbitol-positive) contains unnamed taxa first characterized in 1991. These organisms can cause respiratory infections, a spectrum of soft tissue and skeletal infections, bacteraemia and disseminated disease. To evaluate this group of organisms, clinical reference isolates and the type strains of M. fortuitum third biovariant complex sorbitol-negative (n = 21), M. fortuitum third biovariant complex sorbitol-positive (n = 3), M. fortuitum (n = 3), Mycobacterium peregrinum (pipemidic acid-susceptible) (n = 1), Mycobacterium porcinum (n = 1), Mycobacterium senegalense (n = 2) and Mycobacterium septicum (n = 1) were characterized by using conventional phenotypic (morphological, physiological and antimicrobial susceptibilities), chemotaxonomic (HPLC and cellular fatty acids) and genotypic [RFLP of the rRNA gene (ribotyping), PCR-RFLP of a 439 bp segment of the 65 kDa hsp gene (PCR restriction analysis) and 16S rRNA gene sequence] analysis, DNA G + C content and DNA-DNA relatedness analyses. The results of these studies indicated that the strains comprised M. porcinum (n = 13), M. septicum (n = 1) and four novel closely related genetic groups within the M. fortuitum third biovariant complex: Mycobacterium boenickei sp. nov. (n = 6), Mycobacterium houstonense sp. nov. (n = 2), Mycobacterium neworleansense sp. nov. (n = 1) and Mycobacterium brisbanense sp. nov. (n = 1), with type strains ATCC 49935T (= W5998T = DSM 44677T), ATCC 49403T (= W5198T = DSM 44676T) ATCC 49404T (= W6705T = DSM 44679T) and ATCC 49938T (= W6743T = DSM 44680T), respectively.

  8. Morphology and Phylogeny of Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi-Ke; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Dai, Dong-Qin; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wen, Ting-Chi; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    A coelomycete with characters resembling the asexual morphs in the family Botryosphaeriaceae was isolated from a fallen leaf of an orchid collected in Thailand. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses placed the strain in Neoscytalidium. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoscytalidium species were inferred by analyzing internal transcribed spacers and large subunit of rRNA sequence data and indicate that our strain is a new species, which is introduced and illustrated herein as Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. PMID:27433117

  9. On a conjecture of S.P. Robinson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscheweyh, Stephan; Salinas, Luis

    2005-12-01

    In his thesis, S.P. Robinson made a conjecture concerning the polynomials namely that is prestarlike of order (3-[beta])/2. These polynomials are closely related to the de la Vallée Poussin means (the case [beta]=1). We prove this conjecture in a more general form and show that these functions constitute a sort of two-dimensional subordination chain. These results are then compared with similar ones for Cesáro means of various orders.

  10. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  11. Phyllosticta ophiopogonis sp. nov. from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wikee, S.; Wulandari, N.F.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    A leaf spotting disease of an ornamental variety of Ophiopogon japonicus was discovered at several locations in northern Thailand. In all cases a species of Phyllosticta was associated with the lesions. Phyllosticta ophiopogonis sp. nov. is distinguished from Phyllosticta species from Liliaceae in conidia size, mucilaginous sheath and appendage thus the species is introduced as new in this paper. The new species which causes unsightly lesions on this ornamental plant is described, illustrated and compared with other similar Phyllosticta species. PMID:23961156

  12. Criconema proclivus n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematinae) from Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Criconema proclivis n. sp. from soil around roots of woodland trees in the northeastern USA is described and illustrated. It is characterized by a total of 67-74 annules, two naked offset head annules, a stylet length of 68.7 -80.7 μ, a sculpted vulval flap, and forward-projecting body annules. The annules at midbody are covered with a continuous fringe of 60-70 spines. PMID:19319323

  13. Sp1 transcriptional activity is up-regulated by phosphatase 2A in dividing T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Lipcey, Carol; Imbert, Jean; Kahn-Perlès, Brigitte

    2002-03-15

    We have followed Sp1 expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced, via CD2 plus CD28 costimulation, to sustained proliferation and subsequent return to quiescence. Binding of Sp1 to wheat germ agglutinin lectin was not modified following activation, indicating that the overall glycosylation of the protein was unchanged. Sp1 underwent, instead, a major dephosphorylation that correlated with cyclin A expression and, thus, with cell cycle progression. A similar change was observed in T cells that re-entered cell cycle following secondary interleukin-2 stimulation, as well as in serum-induced proliferating NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) appears involved because 1) treatment of dividing cells with okadaic acid or cantharidin inhibited Sp1 dephosphorylation and 2) PP2A dephosphorylated Sp1 in vitro and strongly interacted with Sp1 in vivo. Sp1 dephosphorylation is likely to increase its transcriptional activity because PP2A overexpression potentiated Sp1 site-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in dividing Kit225 T cells and okadaic acid reversed this effect. This increase might be mediated by a stronger affinity of dephosphorylated Sp1 for DNA, as illustrated by the reduced DNA occupancy by hyperphosphorylated Sp factors from cantharidin- or nocodazole-treated cells. Finally, Sp1 dephosphorylation appears to occur throughout cell cycle except for mitosis, a likely common feature to all cycling cells.

  14. Super-parameterization in GRAPES: The construction of SP-GRAPES and associated preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-04-01

    Super-parameterization (SP) aims to explicitly represent deep convection within a coarse resolution global model by embedding a cloud resolving model (CRM) in each column of the mother model. For the first time, we implemented the SP in a mesoscale regional weather model, the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES). The constructed SP-GRAPES uses a two-dimensional (2D) CRM in each grid column. A control and two SP simulations are conducted for the Beijing "7.21" heavy rainfall event to evaluate improvements in GRAPES using SP. The SP-run-I is a basic SP run delivering microphysics feedback only, whereas the SP-run-II delivers both microphysical and cloud fraction feedbacks. A comparison of the runs indicates that the SP-run-I has a slightly positive impact on the precipitation forecast than the control run. However, the inclusion of cloud fraction feedback leads to an evident overall improvement, particularly in terms of cloud fraction and 24-h cumulative precipitation. Although this is only a preliminary study using SP-GRAPES, we believe that it will provide considerable guidance for follow-up studies using SP in China.

  15. Comparison of telogen hair analyses: genRES MPX-2SP kit versus genRES MPX-SP1 and genRES MPX-SP2 kits.

    PubMed

    Schmid, D; Bayer, B; Anslinger, K

    2008-12-01

    STR investigations of telogen hair are invariably difficult due to the small amounts of nuclear DNA and its degradation products. However, in recent years there has been a considerable improvement. This study examined the suitability of a new STR kit with shortened amplicons for the investigation of hair in routine casework. This kit allows the simultaneous amplification of the eight STR-loci D3S1358, VWA, FGA, TH01, SE33, D8S1179, D18S51, and D21S11, and the sex-determining amelogenin system. It was tested against the genRES MPX-SP1 and genRES MPX-SP2 kits. The sensitivity of the new genRES MPX-2SP kit was demonstrated to be inferior to that of the genRES MPX-SP1, but almost equal to that of the genRES MPX-SP2 kit.

  16. Rhodotorula benthica sp. nov. and Rhodotorula calyptogenae sp. nov., novel yeast species from animals collected from the deep-sea floor, and Rhodotorula lysiniphila sp. nov., which is related phylogenetically.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Takahiko; Hamamoto, Makiko; Nakase, Takashi; Horikoshi, Koki

    2003-05-01

    Three novel species of the genus Rhodotorula are described. Rhodotorula benthica sp. nov. (type strain JCM 10901(T) = SY-91(T)) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae sp. nov. (type strain JCM 10899(T) = SY-86(T)) were respectively isolated from the tubeworm Lamellibrachia sp. and the giant white clam Calyptogena sp., collected from the deep-sea floor of the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Rhodotorula lysiniphila sp. nov. (type strain JCM 5951(T)) is proposed for strains isolated previously in Japan and Pakistan. The three species were placed phylogenetically into a species complex comprising Rhodotorula laryngis, Rhodotorula minuta, Rhodotorula pallida and Rhodotorula slooffiae. R. minuta and R. slooffiae are closely related in both the D1/D2 region of the 26S rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S rDNA regions. R. benthica and R. laryngis were closer to R. pallida based on the D1/D2 region. Other relationships were not clear.

  17. Rathayibacter caricis sp. nov. and Rathayibacter festucae sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere of Carex sp. and the leaf gall induced by the nematode Anguina graminis on Festuca rubra L., respectively.

    PubMed

    Dorofeeva, Lubov V; Evtushenko, Lyudmila I; Krausova, Valentina I; Karpov, Alexander V; Subbotin, Sergey A; Tiedje, James M

    2002-11-01

    Two novel species, Rathayibacter caricis sp. nov. (type strain VKM Ac-1799T = UCM Ac-618T) and Rathayibacter festucae sp. nov. (type strain VKM Ac-1390T UCM Ac-619T), are proposed for two coryneform actinomycetes found in the phyllosphere of Carex sp. and in the leaf gall induced by the plant-parasitic nematode Anguina graminis on Festuca rubra L., respectively. The strains of the novel species are typical of the genus Rathayibacter in their chemotaxonomic characteristics and fall into the Rathayibacter 16S rDNA phylogenetic cluster. They belong to two separate genomic species and differ markedly from current validly described species of Rathayibacter at the phenotypic level. The most striking feature differentiating Rathayibacter caricis sp. nov. from other species of the genus is the presence of fucose in its cell wall and Rathayibacter festucae sp. nov. can be easily recognized among other yellow-pigmented rathayibacters because of its rose-orange-coloured colonies.

  18. Genomic Survey of a Hyperparasitic Microsporidian Amphiamblys sp. (Metchnikovellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Simdyanov, Timur G.; Aleoshin, Vladimir V.

    2017-01-01

    Metchnikovellidae are a group of unusual microsporidians that lack some of the defining ultrastructural features characteristic of derived Microsporidia and are thought to be one of their earliest-branching lineages. The basal position of metchnikovellids was never confirmed by molecular phylogeny in published research, and thus far no genomic data for this group were available. In this work, we obtain a partial genome of metchnikovellid Amphiamblys sp. using multiple displacement amplification, next-generation sequencing, and metagenomic binning approaches. The partial genome, which we estimate to be close to 90% complete, displays genome compaction on par with gene-dense microsporidian genomes, but contains an unusual repertoire of unique repeat elements. Phylogenetic analyses of multigene datasets place Amphiamblys sp. as the first branch of the microsporidian lineage following the divergence of a mitochondriate microsporidian Mitosporidium. We find evidence for a mitochondrial remnant presumably functionally equivalent to a mitosome in Amphiamblys sp. and the common enzymatic complement for microsporidian anaerobic metabolism. Comparative genomic analyses identify the conservation of components for clathrin vesicle formation as one of the key features distinguishing the metchnikovellid from its highly derived relatives. The presented data confirm the notion of Metchnikovellidae as a less derived microsporidian group, and provide an additional stepping stone for reconstruction of an evolutionary transition from the early diverging parasitic fungi to derived Microsporidia. PMID:27694476

  19. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  20. Copper bioaccumulation by the actinobacterium Amycolatopsis sp. AB0.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Winik, Beatriz; Kothe, Erika; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. AB0, a copper resistant actinobacterium isolated from polluted sediments, has shown high copper specific biopsortion ability (25 mg g(-1)). Two approaches were used to confirm metal accumulation in growing cells of Amycolatopsis sp. AB0; we performed subcellular fractioning assays which showed that the retained copper was associated with the extra-cellular fraction (exopolymer, 40%), but mainly within the cells. Intracellular distribution of copper was: 86% in the cytosolic fraction, 11% at the cell wall and 3% associated with the ribosome/membrane fraction. Its copper bioaccumulation ability was corroborated by using silver enhanced staining of copper with the Timm's reagent technique, which has not been used to detect metal deposits in bacteria before. In addition, we constructed specific oligonucleotides for targeting genes coding for copper P-Type ATPases that could be involved in the copper uptake ability of this strain. A 607 bp DNA fragment was amplified and sequenced from Amycolatopsis sp AB0. BLAST search analysis showed 71% protein homology of the deduced sequence with a putative cation-transporting ATPase of Nocardia farcinica and 65% with a copper translocating ATPase of Mycobacterium flavescens. To our knowledge this is the first report of the presence of copper P-type ATPase genes in the Amycolotopsis genus.

  1. Coupling Algorithm for Sp(3 , R) Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Germaine-Fuller, James F.; McCoy, Anna E.; Caprio, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp(3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU(3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp(3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus which can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will break Sp(3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for enumerating the irreps that arise from the coupling of two symplectice irreps and evaluating their multiplicities in the product. This should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. Supported by the US NSF under Grant NSF-PHY05-52843, the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  2. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. from Puerto Madryn, Argentina (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; González, Norma Emilia; Salazar-Silva, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among polychaetes, polynoids have the highest number of symbiotic species found living with a wide variety of marine invertebrates, including other polychaetes. Lepidasthenia Malmgren, 1867 and Lepidametria Webster, 1879 were regarded as synonyms but belong to different subfamilies, although both have species associated with thelepodid or terebellid polychaetes. In this contribution Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. is described from several specimens associated with the thelepodid Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg, 1867, collected on a rocky shore near Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. can be confused with Lepidasthenia esbelta Amaral & Nonato, 1982 because both live with Thelepus, are of similar sizes with similar pigmentation patterns, and have giant neurochaetae. However, in Lepidasthenia loboi sp. n. all eyes are of the same size, cephalic and parapodial cirri are tapered and mucronate, the second pair of elytra is larger than the third, the ventral cirri arise at the base of parapodia such that they do not reach chaetal lobe tips, and neuraciculae are tapered. On the contrary, in Lepidasthenia esbelta the posterior eyes are larger than anterior ones, cephalic and parapodial appendages are swollen subdistally, the second and third pairs of elytra are of the same size, the ventral cirri arise medially such that their tips reach the neurochaetal lobe tips, and the neuraciculae have falcate tips. Some comments about other genera in the Lepidastheniinae, a simplified key to its genera, and a key to Lepidasthenia species with giant neurochaetae are also included. PMID:26798303

  3. Users guide to the Argonne SP scheduling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lifka, D.A. |; Henderson, M.W.; Rayl, K.

    1995-05-01

    During the past five years scientists discovered that modern UNIX workstations connected with ethernet and fiber networks could provide enough computational performance to compete with the supercomputers of the day. As this concept became increasingly popular, the need for distributed queuing and scheduling systems became apparent. Today, supercomputers, such as Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM SP system, can provide more CPU and networking speed than can be obtained from these networks of workstations. These modern supercomputers look like clusters of workstations, however, so developers felt that the scheduling systems that were previously used on clusters of workstations should still apply. After trying to apply some of these scheduling systems to Argonne`s SP environment, it became obvious that these two computer environments have very different scheduling needs. Recognizing this need and realizing that no one has addressed it, we developed a new scheduling system. The approach taken in creating this system was unique in that user input and interaction were encouraged throughout the development process. Thus, a scheduler was built that actually worked the way the users wanted it to work. This document serves a dual purpose. It is both a user`s guide and an administrator`s guide for the ANL SP scheduling system. Look for revisions to this guide that will be appearing.

  4. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  5. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%.

  6. Putative porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) bacteroids induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; García de Lacoba, Mario; de Felipe, M Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-08-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed.

  7. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, L.S.; Rodriguez, C.D.; Mckissock, B.I.; Hanlon, J.C.; Mansfield, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

  8. The formation of sp3 bonding in compressed BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yue; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Eng, Peter J.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Newville, Matthew; Hu, Michael Y.; Kao, Chichang; Shu, Jinfu; Hausermann, Daniel; Hemley, Russell J.

    2004-02-01

    Attributed to their specific atomic bonding, the soft, graphite-like, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and its superhard, diamond-like, cubic polymorph (c-BN) are important technological materials with a wide range of applications. At high pressure and temperature, h-BN can directly transform to a hexagonal close-packed polymorph (w-BN) that can be partially quenched after releasing pressure. Previous theoretical calculations and experimental measurements (primarily on quenched samples) provided substantial information on the transition, but left unsettled questions due to the lack of in situ characterization at high pressures. Using inelastic X-ray scattering to probe the boron and nitrogen near K-edge spectroscopy, here we report the first observation of the conversion process of boron and nitrogen sp2- and p-bonding to sp3 and the directional nature of the sp3 bonding. In combination with in situ X-ray diffraction probe, we have further clarified the structure transformation mechanism. The present archetypal example opens two enormous, element-specific, research areas on high-pressure bonding evolutions of boron and nitrogen; each of the two elements and their respective compounds have displayed a wealth of intriguing pressure-induced phenomena that result from bonding changes, including metallization, superconductivity, semiconductivity, polymerization and superhardness.

  9. Production of volatile organic compounds by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton are known to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. For example, picophytoplankton, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, are distributed in freshwater and oceans worldwide, accounting for a large proportion of biomass and primary production in the open ocean. However, to date, little is known about the production of VOCs by picophytoplankton. In this study, VOCs production by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (NIES-981) was investigated. Synechococcus sp. was obtained from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, and cultured at 24°C in autoclaved f/2-Si medium under 54 ± 3 µE m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) with a 12-h light and 12-h dark cycle. VOCs concentrations were determined using a purge-and-trap gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973). The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were also determined using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Bromomethane (CH3Br) and isoprene were produced by Synechococcus sp. Isoprene production was similar to those of other phytoplankton species reported earlier. Isoprene was produced when Chl a was increasing in the early stage of the incubation period (5-15 days of incubation time, exponential phase), but CH3Br was produced when Chl a was reduced in the late stage of the incubation period (30-40 days of incubation time, death phase).

  10. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-02-27

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  11. Transcriptional regulation by post-transcriptional modification--role of phosphorylation in Sp1 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shijian

    2012-10-15

    Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including housekeeping genes as well as actively regulated genes. Although Sp1 was discovered nearly three decades ago, its functional diversity is still not completely understood. One of the ways that make Sp1 versatile in transcriptional regulation is its post-transcriptional modification, which alters Sp1 structure in different cells and at different times. Compared to other types of modifications of the Sp1 protein, phosphorylation has been studied far more extensively. This review focuses on the inducers, pathways, enzymes, and biological effects of Sp1 phosphorylation. Recent data are beginning to reveal the biological significance and universal presence of Sp1 phosphorylation-related cell/molecular responses. Studies in this field provide a quick glance at how a simple chemical modification of a transcription factor could produce significant functional diversity of the protein.

  12. Genomic structure and cloning of two transcript isoforms of human Sp8

    PubMed Central

    Milona, Maria-athina; Gough, Julie E; Edgar, Alasdair J

    2004-01-01

    Background The Specificity proteins (Sp) are a family of transcription factors that have three highly conserved zinc-fingers located towards the carboxy-terminal that bind GC-boxes and assist in the initiation of gene transcription. Human Sp1-7 genes have been characterized. Recently, the phenotype of Sp8 null mice has been described, being tailless and having severe truncation of both fore and hind limbs. They also have malformed brains with defective closure of the anterior and posterior neuropore during brain development. Results The human Sp8 gene is a three-exon gene that maps to 7p21.3, close to the related Sp4 gene. From an osteosarcoma cell line we cloned two transcript variants that use two different first exons and have a common second exon. One clone encodes a 508-residue protein, Sp8L (isoform 1) and the other a shorter 490-residue protein, Sp8S (isoform 2). These two isoforms are conserved being found also in mice and zebrafish. Analysis of the Sp8L protein sequence reveals an amino-terminal hydrophobic Sp-motif that is disrupted in Sp8S, a buttonhead box and three C2H2 zinc-fingers. Sp8 mRNA expression was detected in a wide range of tissues at a low level, with the highest levels being found in brain. Treatment of the murine pluripotent cell line C3H10T1/2 with 100 ng/mL BMP-2 induced Sp8 mRNA after 24 hours. Conclusions There is conservation of the two Sp8 protein isoforms between primates, rodents and fish, suggesting that the isoforms have differing roles in gene regulation. Sp8 may play a role in chondrogenic/osteoblastic differentiation in addition to its role in brain and limb development. PMID:15533246

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of Frizzled-1 in Human Osteoblasts by Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shibing; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Chu, Yanxia; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Zhang, Yingze

    2016-01-01

    The wingless pathway has a powerful influence on bone metabolism and is a therapeutic target in skeletal disorders. Wingless signaling is mediated in part through the Frizzled (FZD) receptor family. FZD transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that Sp1 plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of FZD1 expression in osteoblasts and osteoblast mineralization. To test this hypothesis, we conducted FZD1 promoter assays in Saos2 cells with and without Sp1 overexpression. We found that Sp1 significantly up-regulates FZD1 promoter activity in Saos2 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) assays identified a novel and functional Sp1 binding site at -44 to -40 from the translation start site in the FZD1 promoter. The Sp1-dependent activation of the FZD1 promoter was abolished by mithramycin A (MMA), an antibiotic affecting both Sp1 binding and Sp1 protein levels in Saos2 cells. Similarly, down-regulation of Sp1 in hFOB cells resulted in less FZD1 expression and lower alkaline phosphatase activity. Moreover, over-expression of Sp1 increased FZD1 expression and Saos2 cell mineralization while MMA decreased Sp1 and FZD1 expression and Saos2 cell mineralization. Knockdown of FZD1 prior to Sp1 overexpression partially abolished Sp1 stimulation of osteoblast differentiation markers. Taken together, our results suggest that Sp1 plays a role in human osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, which is at least partially mediated by Sp1-dependent transactivation of FZD1. PMID:27695039

  14. Bensingtonia rectispora sp. nov. and Bensingtonia bomiensis sp. nov., ballistoconidium-forming yeast species from Tibetan plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Ming; Boekhout, Teun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2012-08-01

    Five yeast strains isolated from plant leaves collected in south-east Tibet formed cream to brownish colonies and produced asymmetrical ballistoconidia and CoQ-9 as the major ubiquinone. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer region indicated that these strains represented two novel species of the genus Bensingtonia. The names Bensingtonia rectispora sp. nov. (type strain XZ 4C5(T) = CGMCC 2.02635(T) = CBS 10710(T)) and Bensingtonia bomiensis sp. nov. (type strain XZ 33D1(T) = CGMCC 2.02670(T) = CBS 10713(T)) are proposed for the two novel species, which are phylogenetically closely related to Bensingtonia naganoensis, Bensingtonia pseudonaganoensis and the type species of the genus, Bensingtonia ciliata.

  15. Ballistosporomyces changbaiensis sp. nov. and Ballistosporomyces bomiensis sp. nov., two novel species isolated from shrub plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei-Jie; Li, Ai-Hua; Wang, Qi-Ming; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Four strains, CB 266(T), CB 272, XZ 44D1(T) and XZ 49D2, isolated from shrub plant leaves in China were identified as two novel species of the genus Ballistosporomyces by the sequence analysis of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of rRNA (LSU rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) + 5.8S rRNA region, and physiological comparisons. Ballistosporomyces changbaiensis sp. nov. (type strain CB 266(T) = CGMCC 2.02298(T) = CBS 10124(T), Mycobank number MB 815700) and Ballistosporomyces bomiensis sp. nov. (type strain XZ 44D1(T) = CGMCC 2.02661(T) = CBS 12512(T), Mycobank number MB 815701) are proposed to accommodate these two new species.

  16. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Han; Xu, Ya-ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Manping X.; Luo, Jiang-Guang; U’Ren, Jana M.; Elizabeth Arnold, A.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenated guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, xylaguaianols A–D (1–4), an iso-cadinane-type sesquiterpene isocadinanol A (5), and an α-pyrone 9-hydroxyxylarone (6), together with five known sesquiterpenes (7–11), and four known cytochalasins (12–15) were isolated from a culture broth of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data and relative configurations of 1–5 were determined with the help of NMR NOESY experiments. Cytochalasins C (12), D (13), and Q (14) were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against five tumor cell lines. Cytochalasin D showed significant cytotoxicity against all five cell lines, with IC50s ranging from 0.22 to 1.44 μM, whereas cytochalasins C and Q exhibited moderate, but selective cytotoxicity. PMID:26324074

  17. Moniliella carnis sp. nov. and Moniliella dehoogii sp. nov., two novel species of black yeasts isolated from meat processing environments.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Hai, Dao Anh; Hien, Dinh Duc; Takashima, Masako; Lachance, Marc-André

    2012-12-01

    Thirteen strains of yeasts typical of the genus Moniliella were isolated from fermenting meat and meat processing tools in Vietnam. PCR fingerprints generated by primer (GAC)(5) subdivided the strains into two distinctive genetic groups. In a phylogenetic tree based on D1/D2 large subunit rRNA gene sequences, the strains formed a well-supported clade with Moniliella spathulata and Moniliella suaveolens but represented two new lineages. The names Moniliella carnis sp. nov. and Moniliella dehoogii sp. nov. are proposed. The two novel species can be distinguished from each other and from known species of Moniliella based on phenotypic characteristics. It is assumed that the yeasts were associated with fatty substances that contaminated the meat processing tools. The type strain of Moniliella carnis is KFP 246(T) ( = CBS 126447(T) = NRRL Y-48681(T)) and the type strain of Moniliella dehoogii is KFP 211(T) ( = CBS 126564(T) = NRRL Y-48682(T)).

  18. Description of Ganymedes yurii sp. n. (Ganymedidae), a New Gregarine Species from the Antarctic Amphipod Gondogeneia sp. (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Diakin, Andrei; Wakeman, Kevin C; Valigurová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    A novel species of aseptate eugregarine, Ganymedes yurii sp. n., is described using microscopic and molecular approaches. It inhabits the intestine of Gondogeneia sp., a benthic amphipod found along the shore of James Ross Island, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The prevalence of the infection was very low and only a few caudo-frontal syzygies were found. Morphologically, the new species is close to a previously described amphipod gregarine, Ganymedes themistos, albeit with several dissimilarities in the structure of the contact zone between syzygy partners, as well as other characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA from G. yurii supported a close relationship between these species. These two species were grouped with other gregarines isolated from crustaceans hosts (Cephaloidophoroidea); however, statistical support throughout the clade of Cephaloidophoroidea gregarines was minimal using the available dataset.

  19. Wickerhamiella dulcicola sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella cachassae sp. nov., yeasts isolated from cachaça fermentation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badotti, Fernanda; Silva, Pollyana A B; Mendonça, Michelle C; Gomes, Fatima C O; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-03-01

    Six strains of two novel yeast species were isolated from sugar-cane juice and fermentation vats of cachaça production in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that these species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade, and their closest described relative in terms of sequence similarity is Candida (iter. nom. Wickerhamiella) drosophilae. The type strain of Wickerhamiella cachassae sp. nov. is UFMG-D5L7(T) ( = CBS 12587(T)  = CBMAI 1469(T)) and the type strain of Wickerhamiella dulcicola sp. nov. is UFMG-TOL15(T) ( = CBS 12588(T)  = CBMAI 1468(T)).

  20. Wickerhamomyces queroliae sp. nov. and Candida jalapaonensis sp. nov., two yeast species isolated from Cerrado ecosystem in North Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Santos, Renata O; Melo, Weilan G P; Viana, Rodney H O; Bragança, Marcos A L; Pimenta, Raphael S

    2009-05-01

    Two novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces queroliae sp. nov. and Candida jalapaonensis sp. nov., were isolated, respectively, from larvae of Anastrepha mucronata (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected from ripe fruit of Peritassa campestris ('Bacupari', Hippocrateaceae) and from flowers of Centropogon cornutus (Campanulaceae) in the Cerrado ecosystem of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of the D1/D2 large-subunit rRNA gene sequences placed W. queroliae in the Wickerhamomyces clade near Wickerhamomyces ciferri and Candida silvicultrix. Candida jalapaonensis belongs to the Wickerhamiella clade and is related to Candida drosophilae. The type strain of Wickerhamomyces queroliae is UFMG-05-T200.1(T) (=CBS 10936(T)=NRRL Y-48478(T)) and the type strain of Candida jalapaonensis is UFMG-03-T210(T) (=CBS 10935(T)=NRRL Y-48477(T)).

  1. Enzymes responsible for chlorate reduction by Pseudomonas sp. are different from those used for perchlorate reduction by Azospira sp.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Lisa M; Trimble, John J; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-06-15

    Pseudomonas sp. PDA is an unusual bacterium due to its ability to respire using chlorate under aerobic conditions. The chlorate reductase produced by PDA was shown to be intrinsically different from the enzyme responsible for chlorate and perchlorate [(per)chlorate] reduction produced by Azospira sp. KJ based on subunit composition and other enzyme properties. The perchlorate reductase from strain KJ appeared to have two subunits (100 and 40 kDa) while the chlorate reductase from PDA had three subunits (60, 48, and 27 kDa). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the 100 kDa protein from strain KJ showed a 77% similarity with the perchlorate reductase alpha subunit from another perchlorate-respiring bacterium, Dechloromonas agitata, while the N-terminus amino acid sequence of the 60 kDa protein from strain PDA did not show a similarity to previously isolated chlorate or perchlorate reductases.

  2. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)).

  3. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  4. Acremonium camptosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper draws on morphological and molecular analyses to determinate the systematic position of an interesting endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba, a tree of semideciduous dry tropical forest at El Eden Ecological Reserve. The cultured strain develops the characteristic...

  5. Integrated Bacillus sp. immobilized cell reactor and Synechocystis sp. algal reactor for the treatment of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Nagalakshmi, C; Mandal, A B

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater discharged from leather industries lack biodegradability due to the presence of xenobiotic compounds. The primary clarification and aerobic treatment in Bacillus sp. immobilized Chemo Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation (CAACO) reactor removed considerable amount of pollution parameters. The residual untreated organics in the wastewater was further treated in algal batch reactor inoculated with Synechocystis sp. Sodium nitrate, K(2)HPO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O, NH(4)Cl, CaCl(2)·2H(2)O, FeCl(3) (anhydrous), and thiamine hydrochloride, rice husk based activated carbon (RHAC), immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon, sand filter of dimensions diameter, 6 cm and height, 30 cm; and the CAACO reactor of dimensions diameter, 5.5 cm and height, 30 cm with total volume 720 ml, and working volume of 356 ml. In the present investigation, the CAACO treated tannery wastewater was applied to Synechocystis sp. inoculated algal batch reactor of hydraulic residence time 24 h. The BOD(5), COD, and TOC of treated wastewater from algal batch reactor were 20 ± 7, 167 ± 29, and 78 ± 16 mg/l respectively. The integrated CAACO system and Algal batch reactor was operated for 30 days and they accomplished a cumulative removal of BOD(5),COD, TOC, VFA and sulphide as 98 %, 95 %, 93 %, 86 %, and 100 %, respectively. The biokinetic constants for the growth of algae in the batch reactor were specific growth rate, 0.095(day(-1)) and yield coefficient, 3.15 mg of algal biomass/mg of COD destructed. The degradation of xenobiotic compounds in the algal batch reactor was confirmed through HPLC and FT-IR techniques. The integrated CAACO-Algal reactor system established a credible reduction in pollution parameters in the tannery wastewater. The removal mechanism is mainly due to co-metabolism between algae and bacterial species and the organics were completely metabolized rather than by adsorption.

  6. Thermococcus paralvinellae sp. nov. and Thermococcus cleftensis sp. nov. of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Sarah A; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Park, Cheon-Seok; Holden, James F

    2014-11-01

    Two heterotrophic hyperthermophilic strains, ES1(T) and CL1(T), were isolated from Paralvinella sp. polychaete worms collected from active hydrothermal vent chimneys in the north-eastern Pacific Ocean. Both were obligately anaerobic and produced H2S in the presence of elemental sulfur and H2. Complete genome sequences are available for both strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are more than 97% similar to most other species of the genus Thermococcus. Therefore, overall genome relatedness index analyses were performed to establish that these strains are novel species. For each analysis, strain ES1(T) was determined to be most similar to Thermococcus barophilus MP(T), while strain CL1(T) was determined to be most similar to Thermococcus sp. 4557. The average nucleotide identity scores for these strains were 84% for strain ES1(T) and 81% for strain CL1(T), genome-to-genome direct comparison scores were 23% for strain ES1(T) and 47% for strain CL1(T), and the species identification scores were 89% for strain ES1(T) and 88% for strain CL1(T). For each analysis, strains ES1(T) and CL1(T) were below the species delineation cut-off. Therefore, based on their whole genome sequences, strains ES1(T) and CL1(T) are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Thermococcus for which the names Thermococcus paralvinellae sp. nov. and Thermococcus cleftensis sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. The type strains are ES1(T) ( =DSM 27261(T) =KACC 17923(T)) and CL1(T) ( =DSM 27260(T) =KACC 17922(T)).

  7. Novel urease-negative Helicobacter sp. 'H. enhydrae sp. nov.' isolated from inflamed gastric tissue of southern sea otters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zeli; Batac, Francesca; Mannion, Anthony; Miller, Melissa A; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ho, Calvin; Manning, Sean; Paster, Bruce J; Fox, James G

    2017-02-08

    A total of 31 sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis found dead or moribund (and then euthanized) were necropsied in California, USA. Stomach biopsies were collected and transected with equal portions frozen or placed in formalin and analyzed histologically and screened for Helicobacter spp. in gastric tissue. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from 9 sea otters (29%); 58% (18 of 31) animals were positive for helicobacter by PCR. The Helicobacter sp. was catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. By electron microscopy, the Helicobacter sp. had lateral and polar sheathed flagella and had a slightly curved rod morphology. 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses of all 'H. enhydrae' isolates had similar sequences, which clustered as a novel Helicobacter sp. closely related to H. mustelae (96-97%). The genome sequence of isolate MIT 01-6242 was assembled into a single ~1.6 Mb long contig with a 40.8% G+C content. The annotated genome contained 1699 protein-coding sequences and 43 RNAs, including 65 genes homologous to known Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter spp. virulence factors. Histological changes in the gastric tissues extended from mild cystic degeneration of gastric glands to severe mucosal erosions and ulcers. Silver stains of infected tissues demonstrated slightly curved bacterial rods at the periphery of the gastric ulcers and on the epithelial surface of glands. The underlying mucosa and submucosa were infiltrated by low numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, with occasional lymphoid aggregates and well-defined lymphoid follicles. This is the second novel Helicobacter sp., which we have named 'H. enhydrae', isolated from inflamed stomachs of mustelids, the first being H. mustelae from a ferret.

  8. Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus.

  9. Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus. PMID:23301200

  10. Influence of sp(3)-sp(2) Carbon Nanodomains on Metal/Support Interaction, Catalyst Durability, and Catalytic Activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Campos-Roldán, Carlos A; Ramos-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Huerta, Rosa G; Vargas García, Jorge R; Balbuena, Perla B; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2016-09-07

    In this work, platinum nanoparticles were impregnated by two different techniques, namely the carbonyl chemical route and photodeposition, onto systematically surface-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The different interactions between platinum nanoparticles with sp(2)-sp(3) carbon nanodomains were investigated. The oxidation of an adsorbed monolayer of carbon monoxide, used to probe electronic catalytic modification, suggests a selective nucleation of platinum nanoparticles onto sp(2) carbon nanodomains when photodeposition synthesis is carried out. XPS attests the catalytic center electronic modification obtained by photodeposition. DFT calculations were used to determine the interaction energy of a Pt cluster with sp(2) and sp(3) carbon surfaces as well as with oxidized ones. The interaction energy and electronic structure of the platinum cluster presents dramatic changes as a function of the support surface chemistry, which also modifies its catalytic properties evaluated by the interaction with CO. The interaction energy was calculated to be 8-fold higher on sp(3) and oxidized surfaces in comparison to sp(2) domains. Accelerated Stability Test (AST) was applied only on the electronic-modified materials to evaluate the active phase degradation and their activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The stability of photodeposited materials is correlated with the surface chemical nature of supports indicating that platinum nanoparticles supported onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes with the highest sp(2) character show the higher stability and activity toward ORR.

  11. First Draft Genome Sequences of Neisseria sp. Strain 83E34 and Neisseria sp. Strain 74A18, Previously Identified as CDC Eugonic Fermenter 4b Species

    PubMed Central

    Greninger, Alexander L.; Streithorst, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We report the first draft genome sequences of two isolates previously classified as CDC EF-4b species, Neisseria sp. 83E34 and Neisseria sp. 74A18. Both strains were isolated from patients with animal bites and likely constitute novel genomospecies with average nucleotide identities of <95% to other sequenced strains. PMID:27834718

  12. Characterization and Optimization of Bioflocculant Exopolysaccharide Production by Cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990 in Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Onkar Nath; Khangembam, Romi; Shamjetshabam, Minerva; Sharma, Aribam Subhalaxmi; Oinam, Gunapati; Brand, Jerry J

    2015-08-01

    Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by 40 cyanobacterial strains during their photoautotrophic growth was investigated. Highest levels of EPS were produced by Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990. EPS production was maximum during stationary growth phase, when nitrogenase activity was very low. Maximum EPS production occurred at pH 8.0 in the absence of any combined nitrogen source. The cyanobacterial EPS consisted of soluble protein and polysaccharide that included substantial amounts of neutral sugars and uronic acid. The EPS isolated from Anabaena sp. BTA990 and Nostoc sp. BTA97 demonstrated high flocculation capacity. There was a positive correlation between uronic acid content and flocculation activity. The flocculant bound a cationic dye, Alcian Blue, indicating it to be polyanionic. The 16S rRNA gene sequences for Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990 were deposited at NCBI GenBank, and accession numbers were obtained as KJ830951 and KJ830948, respectively. The results of these experiments indicate that strains Anabaena sp. BTA990 and Nostoc sp. BTA97 are good candidates for the commercial production of EPS and might be utilized in industrial applications as an alternative to synthetic and abiotic flocculants.

  13. Production of induced secondary metabolites by a co-culture of sponge-associated actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-05-22

    Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by ¹H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1-10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

  14. SP10 infectivity is aborted after bacteriophage SP10 infection induces nonA transcription on the prophage SPβ region of the Bacillus subtilis genome.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Obana, Nozomu; Yee, Lii Mien; Asai, Kei; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Kouji

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria have developed various strategies for phage resistance. Infection with phage induces the transcription of part of the phage resistance gene, but the regulatory mechanisms of such transcription remain largely unknown. The phage resistance gene nonA is located on the SPβ prophage region of the Bacillus subtilis Marburg strain genome. The nonA transcript was detected at the late stage of SP10 infection but is undetectable in noninfected cells. The nonA transcript was detected after the induction of the sigma factor Orf199-Orf200 (σ(Orf199-200)), when sigma factors encoded in the SP10 genome were expressed from a xylose-inducible plasmid. Thus, the SP10 sigma factor is an activator of a set of SP10 genes and nonA. The nonA gene encodes a 72-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane motif and has no significant homology with any protein in any database. NonA overexpression halted cell growth and reduced the efficiency of B. subtilis colony formation and respiration activity. In addition, SP10 virion protein synthesis was inhibited in the nonA(+) strain, and SP10 virion particles were scarce in it. These results indicate that NonA is a novel protein that can abort SP10 infection, and its transcription was regulated by SP10 sigma factor.

  15. SP10 Infectivity Is Aborted after Bacteriophage SP10 Infection Induces nonA Transcription on the Prophage SPβ Region of the Bacillus subtilis Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Obana, Nozomu; Yee, Lii Mien; Asai, Kei; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have developed various strategies for phage resistance. Infection with phage induces the transcription of part of the phage resistance gene, but the regulatory mechanisms of such transcription remain largely unknown. The phage resistance gene nonA is located on the SPβ prophage region of the Bacillus subtilis Marburg strain genome. The nonA transcript was detected at the late stage of SP10 infection but is undetectable in noninfected cells. The nonA transcript was detected after the induction of the sigma factor Orf199-Orf200 (σOrf199-200), when sigma factors encoded in the SP10 genome were expressed from a xylose-inducible plasmid. Thus, the SP10 sigma factor is an activator of a set of SP10 genes and nonA. The nonA gene encodes a 72-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane motif and has no significant homology with any protein in any database. NonA overexpression halted cell growth and reduced the efficiency of B. subtilis colony formation and respiration activity. In addition, SP10 virion protein synthesis was inhibited in the nonA+ strain, and SP10 virion particles were scarce in it. These results indicate that NonA is a novel protein that can abort SP10 infection, and its transcription was regulated by SP10 sigma factor. PMID:24272782

  16. New host record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid of Microdon sp. larvae associated with the ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host of Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is newly reported as Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a genus of obligatory myrmecophilous fly that predates ant brood, in this case Camponotus sp. aff. textor, in southern Mexico. The biology of Microdon spp. is reported as is that o...

  17. The family Carabodidae (Acari, Oribatida) VIII. The genus Machadocepheus (first part) Machadocepheus leoneae sp. n. and Machadocepheus rachii sp. n. from Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine; Leiva, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Machadocepheus, being one of the more complex genera of the Carabodidae family, is briefly outlined to demonstrate this complexity. Descriptions of two new species from Gabon, Machadocepheus leoneae sp. n. and Machadocepheus rachii sp. n. are given. PMID:25561826

  18. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stains, Joseph P.; Lecanda, Fernando; Screen, Joanne; Towler, Dwight A.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of gap junction proteins, connexins, represent a mechanism of disease in a variety of tissues. We have shown that recessive (gene deletion) or dominant (connexin45 overexpression) disruption of connexin43 function results in osteoblast dysfunction and abnormal expression of osteoblast genes, including down-regulation of osteocalcin transcription. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gap junction-sensitive transcriptional regulation, we systematically analyzed the rat osteocalcin promoter for sensitivity to gap junctional intercellular communication. We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in a gap junction-dependent manner. This CT-rich connexin-response element is necessary and sufficient to confer gap junction sensitivity to the osteocalcin proximal promoter. Repression of osteocalcin transcription occurs as a result of displacement of the stimulatory Sp1 by the inhibitory Sp3 on the promoter when gap junctional communication is perturbed. Modulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment also occurs on the collagen Ialpha1 promoter and translates into gap junction-sensitive transcriptional control of collagen Ialpha1 gene expression. Thus, regulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment to the promoter may represent a potential general mechanism for transcriptional control of target genes by signals passing through gap junctions.

  19. Association of p107 with Sp1: genetically separable regions of p107 are involved in regulation of E2F- and Sp1-dependent transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, P K; Raychaudhuri, P; Bagchi, S

    1995-01-01

    The retinoblastoma-related protein p107 has been shown to be a regulator of the transcription factor E2F. p107 associates with E2F via its pocket region and represses E2F-dependent transcription. In this study, we provide evidence for a novel interaction between p107 and the transcription factor Sp1. We show that p107 can be found endogenously associated with Sp1 in the extracts of several different cell lines. Moreover, in transient transfection assays, expression of p107 represses Sp1-dependent transcription. This repression of Sp1-dependent transcription does not require the DNA-binding domain of Sp1. Transcription driven by a chimeric protein containing the Ga14 DNA-binding domain and the Sp1 activation domains is inhibited by p107. Interestingly, unlike the repression of E2F-dependent transcription, the repression of Sp1-dependent transcription does not depend on an intact pocket region. We show that distinct regions of p107 are involved in the control of Sp1 and E2F. PMID:7565695

  20. Differential effects of Sp cellular transcription factors on viral promoter activation by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE62 protein.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Ruyechan, William T; Hay, John; Arvin, Ann

    2015-11-01

    The immediate early (IE) 62 protein is the major varicella-zoster virus (VZV) regulatory factor. Analysis of the VZV genome revealed 40 predicted GC-rich boxes within 36 promoters. We examined effects of ectopic expression of Sp1-Sp4 on IE62- mediated transactivation of three viral promoters. Ectopic expression of Sp3 and Sp4 enhanced IE62 activation of ORF3 and gI promoters while Sp3 reduced IE62 activation of ORF28/29 promoter and VZV DNA replication. Sp2 reduced IE62 transactivation of gI while Sp1 had no significant influence on IE62 activation with any of these viral promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) confirmed binding of Sp1 and Sp3 but not Sp2 and Sp4 to the gI promoter. Sp1-4 bound to IE62 and amino acids 238-258 of IE62 were important for the interaction with Sp3 and Sp4 as well as Sp1. This work shows that Sp family members have differential effects on IE62-mediated transactivation in a promoter-dependent manner.

  1. Microbacterium agarici sp. nov., Microbacterium humi sp. nov. and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov., isolated from the base of the mushroom Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Young, C-C; Busse, H-J; Langer, S; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Schumann, P; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D; Kämpfer, P

    2010-04-01

    proposed for these organisms are Microbacterium agarici sp. nov. [type strain CC-SBCK-209( T) (=DSM 21798(T)=CCM 7686(T))], Microbacterium humi sp. nov. [type strain CC-12309(T) (=DSM 21799(T)=CCM 7687(T))] and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov. [type strain CC-5209(T) (=DSM 22185(T)=CCM 7688(T))].

  2. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov., Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gardan, Louis; Gouy, Cécile; Christen, Richard; Samson, Régine

    2003-03-01

    A collection of 42 strains belonging to the five subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum (subspecies atrosepticum, betavasculorum, carotovorum, odoriferum and wasabiae) and 11 reference and type strains of biovars of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, Pectobacterium cacticidum and Brenneria paradisiaca were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization, numerical taxonomy of 120 phenotypic characteristics, serology and new phylogenetic analysis of previously reported sequences from a database of aligned 16S rDNA sequences. The P. carotovorum subspecies formed a clade according to neighbour-joining methods, but they formed two paraphyletic clusters according to maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony. However, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences alone is not sufficient to justify generic differentiation and therefore, it is proposed to retain the P. carotovorum subspecies in the genus Pectobacterium. The strains of P. carotovorum were distributed in four genomospecies: genomospecies 1, harbouring all strains of subsp. atrosepticum, genomospecies 2, including the strains of subsp. betavasculorum isolated from sugar beet, sunflower, potato, hyacinth and artichoke, genomospecies 3, clustering all strains of subsp. wasabiae isolated from wasabi in Japan, and genomospecies 4, gathering together strains of subsp. carotovorum and strains of subsp. odoriferum. Four strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum remained unclustered. Biochemical criteria, deduced from a numerical taxonomy study of phenotypic characteristics and serological reactions, allowed discrimination of strains belonging to the four genomospecies. Thus, it is proposed that three genomospecies be elevated to species level as Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 1526T =LMG 2386T =NCPPB 549T =ICMP 1526T), Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 2122T =LMG 2464T =NCPPB 2795T =ICMP 4226T) and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 3304T =LMG 8404T =NCPPB 3701T =ICMP 9121T

  3. Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov., Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov.: Three novel taxa from the faeces of cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Filippini, Gianfranco; Spiezio, Caterina; Sandri, Camillo; Biavati, Bruno; Pisi, Annamaria; Mattarelli, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T)). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the results from the cluster analysis and revealed relatively low level similarities to each other (mean value 95%) and to members of the genus Bifidobacterium. All eight isolates showed the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (mean value 96.6%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ and dnaG) supported their independent phylogenetic position to each other and to related species of Bifidobacterium. The G+C contents were 63.2%, 65.9% and 63.0% for Cluster I, Cluster II and Cluster III, respectively. Peptidoglycan types were A3α l-Lys-l-Thr-l-Ala, A4β l-Orn (Lys)-d-Ser-d-Glu and A3β l-Orn-l-Ser-l-Ala in Clusters I, II and III, respectively. Based on the data provided, each cluster represented a novel taxon for which the names Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov. (TRE 17(T)=DSM 100689=JCM 30941; TRE 26=DSM 100690=JCM 30942), Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. (TRE C(T)=DSM 100685=JCM 30943) and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov. (TRE M=DSM 100688=JCM 30944) are proposed.

  4. Description of Pelomonas aquatica sp. nov. and Pelomonas puraquae sp. nov., isolated from industrial and haemodialysis water.

    PubMed

    Gomila, Margarita; Bowien, Botho; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Lalucat, Jorge

    2007-11-01

    Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria (strains CCUG 52769T, CCUG 52770 and CCUG 52771) isolated from haemodialysis water were characterized taxonomically, together with five strains isolated from industrial waters (CCUG 52428, CCUG 52507, CCUG 52575T, CCUG 52590 and CCUG 52631). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these isolates belonged to the class Betaproteobacteria and were related to the genus Pelomonas, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities higher than 99% with the only species of the genus, Pelomonas saccharophila and to Pseudomonas sp. DSM 2583. The type strains of Mitsuaria chitosanitabida and Roseateles depolymerans were their closest neighbours (97.9 and 97.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for the internally transcribed spacer region and for three genes [hoxG (hydrogenase), cbbL/cbbM (Rubisco) and nifH (nitrogenase)] relevant for the metabolism of the genus Pelomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization, major fatty acid composition and phenotypical analyses were carried out, which included the type strain of Pelomonas saccharophila obtained from different culture collections (ATCC 15946T, CCUG 32988T, DSM 654T, IAM 14368T and LMG 2256T), as well as M. chitosanitabida IAM 14711T and R. depolymerans CCUG 52219T. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests supported the conclusion that strains CCUG 52769, CCUG 52770 and CCUG 52771 represent a homogeneous phylogenetic and genomic group, including strain DSM 2583, clearly differentiated from the industrial water isolates and from the Pelomonas saccharophila type strain. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, these strains belong to two novel species within the genus Pelomonas, for which the names Pelomonas puraquae sp. nov. and Pelomonas aquatica sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains of Pelomonas puraquae sp. nov. and Pelomonas aquatica sp. nov. are CCUG

  5. Treatment of dairy wastewater using a selected bacterial isolate, Alcaligenes sp. MMRR7.

    PubMed

    Rajeshkumar, K; Jayachandran, K

    2004-01-01

    Physicochemical and biologic analysis of dairy wastewater showed that the effluent had a high organic load (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 5095 mg/L), an acidic pH (6.4), and a high probability of coliforms (most probable number [MPN] >1100). The various bacterial strains isolated and purified were identified as Sporolactobacillus sp., Citrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Proteus sp., as per the Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Among the five selected bacterial strains, the strain designated as MMRR7 and identified as Alcaligenes sp. was found to give a maximum reduction in COD (62%) in 5 d of incubation. Chemical coagulation using alum at a concentration of 0.5 g/100 mL was found to be effective in the primary treatment of the effluent. Studies on free-cell treatment of the coagulated effluent with the selected bacterial strain Alcaligenes sp. MMRR7 gave a maximum COD reduction of 91% in 120 h. This study clearly indicates the possibility of using Alcaligenes sp. MMRR7 for the effective treatment of dairy wastewater.

  6. LIGAND STRUCTURE-DEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α/Sp BY ESTROGENS AND XENOESTROGENS

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fei; Khan, Shaheen; Wu, Qian; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Safe, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of E2, diethylstilbestrol (DES), antiestrogens, the phytoestrogen resveratrol, and the xenoestrogens octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), endosulfan, kepone, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (HO-PCB-Cl4), bisphenol-A(BPA), and 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) on induction of luciferase activity in breast cancer cells transfected with a construct (pSp13) containing three tandem GC-rich Sp binding sites linked to luciferase and wild-type or variant ERα. The results showed that induction of luciferase activity was highly structure-dependent in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, RNA interference assays using small inhibitory RNAs for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 also demonstrated structure-dependent differences in activation of ERα/Sp1, ERα/Sp3 and ERα/Sp4. These results demonstrate for the first time that various structural classes of ER ligands differentially activate wild-type and variant ERα/Sp-dependent transactivation, selectively use different Sp proteins, and exhibit selective ER modulator (SERM)-like activity. PMID:18400491

  7. An inhibitor domain in Sp3 regulates its glutamine-rich activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Dennig, J; Beato, M; Suske, G

    1996-01-01

    Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed human transcription factor closely related to Sp1 and Sp4. All three proteins contain a highly conserved DNA binding domain and two glutamine-rich regions, suggesting that they possess similar activation functions. In our previous experiments, however, Sp3 failed to activate transcription. Instead, it repressed Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation, suggesting that it is an inhibitory member of this family of regulatory factors. Here we show that Sp3 can also act as a positive regulator of transcription. The glutamine-rich domains on their own have a strong activation function and interact with the TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor dTAFII110. However, in full-length Sp3 as well as in Gal4-Sp3 fusion proteins, both activation domains are silenced by an inhibitory domain located between the second glutamine-rich region and the DNA binding domain. The inhibitory domain completely suppressed transcriptional activation when fused to a heterologous glutamine-rich domain but only moderately suppressed transcription when linked to an acidic activation domain. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a stretch of highly charged amino acid residues essential for inhibitor function. Substitution of the amino acid triplet KEE by alanine residues within this region changed the almost transcriptionally inactive Sp3 into a strong activator. Our results suggest that the transcriptional activity of Sp3 might be regulated in vivo by relief of inhibition. Images PMID:8896459

  8. Five additions to the list of Sepsidae Diptera for Vietnam: Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n., Perochaeta lobo sp. n., Sepsis spura sp. n., Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003 and Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yuchen; Meier, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent collecting trip to Vietnam yielded three new species and two new records of Sepsidae (Diptera) for the country. Here we describe two new species in the species-poor genus Perochaeta (Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n. andPerochaeta lobo sp. n.) and one to the largest sepsid genus Sepsis (Sepsis spura sp. n.) which is also found in Sumatra and Sulawesi. Two additional Sepsis species are new records for Vietnam (Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003; Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869). We conclude with a discussion of the distribution of Perochaeta and the three Sepsis species. PMID:21594042

  9. Coculture degradation of selected PCB congeners by two Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been introduced in the environment for nearly six decades and are considered to be refractile to microbial attack, since PCBs have to be degraded via cometabolic processes, which occur in the obligate presence of an alternative growth substrate. However, cometabolism of PCBs has been demonstrated to accumulate chlorobenzoates as the main intermediates. Therefore, the complete mineralization of PCBs can only be obtained by coculturing at least a PCB cometabolizing and a chlorobenzoate utilizing microorganism, or by constructing a recombinant strain harboring the complementary pathways of both strains. Therefore, coculture mineralization of PCBs in suspended culture was obtained by providing biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl as the growth substrate for Acinetobacter sp. strain P6, a PCB cometabolizer, while the chlorobenzoates were used as growth substrates by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1, which was isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate. 4-Chlorobenzoate (4-CB) was metabolized after hydrolytic dehalogenation to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB) via the protocatechuate pathway. Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 has the metabolic ability to carry out the degradation of 3,4-DCB. Although this strain does not grow on this compound, it cometabolizes 3,4-DCB to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which is used as a growth substrate and further metabolized via 4-carboxy-1,2-benzoquinone. This degradation process was termed cryptic cometabolism. 3,4-DCB has shown to be a substrate inhibitor (Ki = 1,840 {mu}M) and an uncompetitive inhibitor for 4-CB metabolism. Additionally, 3-C-4-OHB was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 12 {mu}M) for the 4-HB monooxygenase, while the quinone uncompetitively inhibited 4-CB metabolism (Ki = 50 {mu}M).

  10. Solvent-Augmented Mineralization of Pyrene by a Mycobacterium sp

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, I. Y.; Bartha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants is constrained, in part, by their solid physical state and very low water solubility. Searching for ways to overcome these limitations, we isolated from soil a bacterium capable of growing on pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. Acid-fast stain, morphology, and fatty acid profile identified it as a Mycobacterium sp. In a mineral salts solution, the isolate mineralized 50% of a 250-(mu)g/ml concentration of [(sup14)C]pyrene in 2 to 3 days. Detergent below the critical micelle concentration increased the pyrene mineralization rate to 154%, but above the critical micelle concentration, the detergent severely inhibited pyrene mineralization. The water-miscible solvent polyethylene glycol was inhibitory. The hydrophobic solvents heptamethylnonane, decalin, phenyldecane, and diphenylmethane were also inhibitory at several concentrations tested, but the addition of paraffin oil, squalene, squalane, tridecylcyclohexane, and cis-9-tricosene at 0.8% (vol/vol) doubled pyrene mineralization rates by the Mycobacterium sp. without being utilized themselves. The Mycobacterium sp. was found to have high cell surface hydrophobicity and adhered to the emulsified solvent droplets that also contained the dissolved pyrene, facilitating its mass transfer to the degrading bacteria. Cells physically adhering to solvent droplets metabolized pyrene 8.5 times as fast as cells suspended in the aqueous medium. An enhanced mass transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds to microorganisms by suitable hydrophobic solvents might allow the development of solvent-augmented biodegradation techniques for use in aqueous or slurry-type bioreactors. PMID:16535350

  11. A proton pumping pyrophosphatase in acidocalcisomes of Herpetomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Soares Medeiros, Lia Carolina A; Moreira, Bernardo Luis Moraes; Miranda, Kildare; de Souza, Wanderley; Plattner, Helmut; Hentschel, Joachim; Barrabin, Hector

    2005-04-01

    Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium storage organelles found in several microorganisms. They are characterized by their acidic nature, high electron density, high content of polyphosphates and several cations. Electron microscopy contrast tuned images of Herpetomonas sp. showed the presence of several electron dense organelles ranging from 100 to 300 nm in size. In addition, X-ray element mapping associated with energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy showed that most of the cations, namely Na, Mg, P, K, Fe and Zn, are located in their matrix. Using acridine orange as an indicator dye, a pyrophosphate-driven H+ uptake was measured in cells permeabilized by digitonin. This uptake has an optimal pH of 6.5-6.7 and was inhibited by sodium fluoride (NaF) and imidodiphosphate (IDP), two H+-pyrophosphatase inhibitors. H+ uptake was not promoted by ATP. Addition of 50 microM Ca2+ induced the release of H+, suggesting the presence of a Ca2+/H+ countertransport system in the membranes of the acidic compartments. Na+ was unable to release protons from the organelles. The pyrophosphate-dependent H+ uptake was dependent of ion K+ and inhibited by Na+ Herpetomonas sp. immunolabeled with monoclonal antibodies raised against a Trypanosoma cruzi V-H+-pyrophosphatase shows intense fluorescence in cytoplasmatic organelles of size and distribution similar to the electron-dense vacuoles. Together, these results suggest that the electron dense organelles found in Herpetomonas sp. are homologous to the acidocalcisomes described in other trypanosomatids. They possess a vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase and a Ca2+/H+ antiport. However, in contrast to the other trypanosomatids so far studied, we were not able to measure any ATP promoted H+ transport in the acidocalcisomes of this parasite.

  12. Putative Porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) Bacteroids Induced by Glyphosate▿

    PubMed Central

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Ángeles; Serra, M. Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; de Lacoba, Mario García; de Felipe, M. Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed. PMID:17557843

  13. Overexpression of Transcription Factor Sp1 Leads to Gene Expression Perturbations and Cell Cycle Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Baguet, Joël; Chalard, Roxane; Blanquier, Bariza; Brinza, Lilia; Meunier, Julien; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Laugraud, Aurélie; Ah-Soon, Claudette; Wierinckx, Anne; Castellazzi, Marc; Lachuer, Joël; Gautier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 regulates the expression of a vast number of genes involved in many cellular functions ranging from differentiation to proliferation and apoptosis. Sp1 expression levels show a dramatic increase during transformation and this could play a critical role for tumour development or maintenance. Although Sp1 deregulation might be beneficial for tumour cells, its overexpression induces apoptosis of untransformed cells. Here we further characterised the functional and transcriptional responses of untransformed cells following Sp1 overexpression. Methodology and Principal Findings We made use of wild-type and DNA-binding-deficient Sp1 to demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by Sp1 is dependent on its capacity to bind DNA. Genome-wide expression profiling identified genes involved in cancer, cell death and cell cycle as being enriched among differentially expressed genes following Sp1 overexpression. In silico search to determine the presence of Sp1 binding sites in the promoter region of modulated genes was conducted. Genes that contained Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were enriched among down-regulated genes. The endogenous sp1 gene is one of the most down-regulated suggesting a negative feedback loop induced by overexpressed Sp1. In contrast, genes containing Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were not enriched among up-regulated genes. These results suggest that the transcriptional response involves both direct Sp1-driven transcription and indirect mechanisms. Finally, we show that Sp1 overexpression led to a modified expression of G1/S transition regulatory genes such as the down-regulation of cyclin D2 and the up-regulation of cyclin G2 and cdkn2c/p18 expression. The biological significance of these modifications was confirmed by showing that the cells accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle before the onset of apoptosis. Conclusion This study shows that the binding to DNA of overexpressed Sp1

  14. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group.

  15. [Biological activity of Penicillium sp. 10-51 exometabolites].

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ia I; Zaĭchenko, A M; Tsyganenko, E S

    2012-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography (silica gel "L" II kind of activity 100/160 mkm) of the chloroform extract from the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. 10-51 gave two fractions (chloroform and chloroform-acetone, 5:1) having biological activity. Recrystallization yielded two compounds. On the basis of physico-chemical and spectral data these compounds were identified as curvularin and hydroxycurvularin, which have a large spectrum of biological action as to bacteria, yeast, blue-green algae and phytopathogenic micromycetes.

  16. Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Meijer, Martin; Majoor, Eline; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Samson, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5-5.5 μm) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the β-tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes.

  17. A new ascochlorin derivative from Cylindrocarpon sp. FKI-4602.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Mio; Fukuda, Takashi; Uchida, Ryuji; Nonaka, Kenichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Cylindrol A₅, a new ascochlorin congener, was isolated along with 14 known compounds from the culture broth of Cylindrocarpon sp. FKI-4602 by solvent extraction, octadecylsilane column chromatography and HPLC. The structure of cylindrol A₅ was elucidated by spectral analyses, including NMR. The compound has an ascochlorin skeleton consisting of a resorcin aldehyde and a cyclohexanone moieties. Cylindrol A₅ showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Kocuria rhizophila, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Acholeplasma laidlawii. The biosynthetic pathway to cylindrol A₅ was deduced from the 14 isolated metabolites of the fungal strain.

  18. New streptophenazines from marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Chen, Lu; Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2017-02-01

    Six phenazines including three new ones were isolated from the culture of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY. Based on the analyses of NMR, HRESIMS, optical rotation value, and CD data, the structures of these isolated compounds were determined as new phenazines of (-)-streptophenazines M-O and known phenazines of 1-carbomethoxyphenazine and (-)-streptophenazines A and B. (-)-Streptophenazine B showed activity in suppressing the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 4.2 μg/mL.

  19. Halogenated Cyclic Peptides Isolated From the Sponge Corticium sp

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Damian W.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.; Feng, Xidong; Bugni, Tim S.; Harper, Mary Kay; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of two Fijian specimens of the sponge Corticium sp., led to the isolation of the known active alkaloid steroid plakinamine A and two new halogenated cyclic peptides, corticiamide A (1) and cyclocinamide B (2). Structural elucidation of 1 and 2 was achieved by an extensive combination of high field NMR and HRFT MS/MS experiments, and the absolute stereochemistry of 2 was determined by acid hydrolysis and Marfey’s analysis. Corticiamide A (1) and cyclocinamide B (2) represent the first peptides to be described from the genus Corticium. PMID:17391049

  20. Antibacterial metabolites from the Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. P294.

    PubMed

    Su, Huining; Shao, Hongwei; Zhang, Keqin; Li, Guohong

    2016-02-01

    The Actinomycete strain P294 was isolated from soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. based upon the results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Three compounds obtained from the solid fermentation products of this strain have been determined by 1D, 2D NMR and HRMS experiments. These compounds include two new compounds angumycinones C (1) and D (2), and the known compound X-14881 E (3). All compounds were assayed for antibacterial and nematicidal activity. The results showed the three compounds had different degrees of inhibitory activity against several target bacteria but no significant toxicity against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.