Science.gov

Sample records for acrf ingest software

  1. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

  2. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  3. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  4. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  5. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  6. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  7. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  9. ACRF data collection and processing infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M. C.; Eagan, R. C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Pacific Northwest National Lab.

    2005-01-01

    Designated a national user facility, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) provides a unique asset for the study of global climate change to the broader national and international research community. It has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range of interdisciplinary science in the areas of meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, satellite validation, and to provide potential monitoring sites where remote sensing and modeling related to homeland security can be validated. The primary goals for the ACRF are to (1) provide infrastructure to the scientific community for scientific research pertaining to global climate change and the goals of the ARM Program (Ackerman and Stokes 2003), (2) provide data and information to the scientific community for meeting those goals, and (3) provide education and outreach on the activities and scientific findings that result from ongoing research at the ACRF. The foundation of the ACRF infrastructure is based on the scientific infrastructure created for the ARM Program (DOE 1990). In support of the ARM Program, the ACRF operates three instrumented sites and a mobile facility to provide relevant atmospheric measurements to the ARM Program and to the global scientific community. The goal of the ACRF infrastructure is to deliver these measurement data reliably, quickly, and in a useful format to the scientific community. The basic focus of the infrastructure is to get the data generated by instruments in the field to a central distribution point. The remoteness of the sites and the diversity of the instruments add to the complexity of the solution. Network access to the sites was often limited and significantly impacted options for data flow and the architecture deployed at each location. Because of several iterations and significant work to establish Internet connections at each site, the ACRF has developed an efficient and

  10. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  11. ACRF Archive User Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    SA Edgerton; RA McCord; DP Kaiser

    2007-10-30

    On October 30, 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sponsored an all-day workshop to assess the status of the ACRF Archive. Focus areas included usability of current functions, plans for revised functions, proposals for new functions, and an overarching discussion of new ideas. Although 13 scientists familiar with ACRF and the ARM Program were invited to the workshop, only 10 scientists were available to attend the workshop. ACRF consists of the infrastructure that was developed to support the ARM Program and includes the ACRF Archive (previously called the ARM Archive). The scientists who participated in the meeting ranged from those who used the Archive frequently to those who seldom or never had accessed the Archive. The group was spread across disciplines, i.e. modelers, conservationists, and others from universities and government laboratories. A few of the participants were funded by the ARM Program, but most were not funded currently by ARM. During the past year, several improvements were made to the ACRF Archive to link it with the ARM/ACRF web pages, add a shopping cart feature, and expand on search parameters. Additional modifications have been proposed and prototypes of these proposals were made available for the participants. The participants were given several exercises to do before the meeting, and their feedback was requested to help identify potential problems and shortcomings with the existing structure and to recommend improvements.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  14. ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M; Egan, D

    2004-12-01

    We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  18. Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented are reviews of two computer software packages for Apple II computers; "Organic Spectroscopy," and "Videodisc Display Program" for use with "The Periodic Table Videodisc." A sample spectrograph from "Organic Spectroscopy" is included. (CW)

  19. Ingestions considered nontoxic.

    PubMed

    Mofenson, H C; Greensher, J; Caraccio, T R

    1984-02-01

    We have compiled a list of common household products and drugs that are frequently ingested by children and may be considered nontoxic unless taken deliberately or in large amounts. An understanding of the nontoxic ingestion should prevent overtreatment, decrease emergency room visits, and allow physicians and poison control centers the opportunity to practice poison prevention. The reporting of all ingestions is encouraged to obtain information on the human experiment that occurs when a non-edible material is ingested. Only as we accumulate this knowledge will we be able to advise with a degree of certainty what treatment is needed.

  20. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-06-18

    Small plastic detritus, termed "microplastics", are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7-30.6 μm polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets laden with microplastics. We further observed microplastics adhered to the external carapace and appendages of exposed zooplankton. Exposure of the copepod Centropages typicus to natural assemblages of algae with and without microplastics showed that 7.3 μm microplastics (>4000 mL(-1)) significantly decreased algal feeding. Our findings imply that marine microplastic debris can negatively impact upon zooplankton function and health.

  1. Implantable, Ingestible Electronic Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Small quartz-crystal-controlled oscillator swallowed or surgically implanted provides continuous monitoring of patient's internal temperature. Receiver placed near patient measures oscillator frequency, and temperature inferred from previously determined variation of frequency with temperature. Frequency of crystal-controlled oscillator varies with temperature. Circuit made very small and implanted or ingested to measure internal body temperature.

  2. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  3. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  4. Improving Mixed-phase Cloud Parameterization in Climate Model with the ACRF Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhien

    2016-12-13

    Mixed-phase cloud microphysical and dynamical processes are still poorly understood, and their representation in GCMs is a major source of uncertainties in overall cloud feedback in GCMs. Thus improving mixed-phase cloud parameterizations in climate models is critical to reducing the climate forecast uncertainties. This study aims at providing improved knowledge of mixed-phase cloud properties from the long-term ACRF observations and improving mixed-phase clouds simulations in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The key accomplishments are: 1) An improved retrieval algorithm was developed to provide liquid droplet concentration for drizzling or mixed-phase stratiform clouds. 2) A new ice concentration retrieval algorithm for stratiform mixed-phase clouds was developed. 3) A strong seasonal aerosol impact on ice generation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds was identified, which is mainly attributed to the high dust occurrence during the spring season. 4) A suite of multi-senor algorithms was applied to long-term ARM observations at the Barrow site to provide a complete dataset (LWC and effective radius profile for liquid phase, and IWC, Dge profiles and ice concentration for ice phase) to characterize Arctic stratiform mixed-phase clouds. This multi-year stratiform mixed-phase cloud dataset provides necessary information to study related processes, evaluate model stratiform mixed-phase cloud simulations, and improve model stratiform mixed-phase cloud parameterization. 5). A new in situ data analysis method was developed to quantify liquid mass partition in convective mixed-phase clouds. For the first time, we reliably compared liquid mass partitions in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds. Due to the different dynamics in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds, the temperature dependencies of liquid mass partitions are significantly different due to much higher ice concentrations in convective mixed phase clouds. 6) Systematic evaluations

  5. The Status of the ACRF Millimeter Wave Cloud Radars (MMCRs), the Path Forward for Future MMCR Upgrades, the Concept of 3D Volume Imaging Radar and the UAV Radar

    SciTech Connect

    P Kollias; MA Miller; KB Widener; RT Marchand; TP Ackerman

    2005-12-30

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates millimeter wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several climatological regimes. The MMCRs, are the primary observing tool for quantifying the properties of nearly all radiatively important clouds over the ACRF sites. The first MMCR was installed at the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site nine years ago and its original design can be traced to the early 90s. Since then, several MMCRs have been deployed at the ACRF sites, while no significant hardware upgrades have been performed. Recently, a two-stage upgrade (first C-40 Digital Signal Processors [DSP]-based, and later the PC-Integrated Radar AcQuisition System [PIRAQ-III] digital receiver) of the MMCR signal-processing units was completed. Our future MMCR related goals are: 1) to have a cloud radar system that continues to have high reliability and uptime and 2) to suggest potential improvements that will address increased sensitivity needs, superior sampling and low cost maintenance of the MMCRs. The Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) technology, the frequency (35-GHz), the radio frequency (RF) layout, antenna, the calibration and radar control procedure and the environmental enclosure of the MMCR remain assets for our ability to detect the profile of hydrometeors at all heights in the troposphere at the ACRF sites.

  6. Identification of famprofazone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kraemer, T

    1998-01-01

    After a traffic accident a 32-year-old man was suspected of having previously taken an illegal drug. An immunochemical screening procedure revealed positive results for amphetamines in both urine and blood samples. The preliminary test was confirmed by GC/MS and both amphetamine and methamphetamine were found in both body fluids. However, the man denied any use of drugs but claimed to have taken four tablets of Gewodin. One of the ingredients, famprofazone, undergoes metabolic conversion to amphetamine and methamphetamine. Using GC/ MS the ingestion of famprofazone was verified by identification of the unchanged parent compound in the urine sample.

  7. Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

    PubMed

    Swithers, S E; Hall, W G

    1994-10-01

    Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.

  8. An ingestible temperature-transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    Pill-sized transmitter measures deep body temperature in studies of circadian rhythm and indicates general health. Ingestible device is a compromise between accuracy, circuit complexity, size and transmission range.

  9. Foreign body ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Dereci, Selim; Koca, Tuğba; Serdaroğlu, Filiz; Akçam, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Foreign bodies ingested by the oral route enter into the gastrointestinal tract and are considered a significant health problem in the childhood. In this study, we evaluated the pediatric patients who presented to our hospital with the complaint of ingestion of foreign body. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all children who presented to our clinic because of ingestion of foreign body between January 2008 and January 2015 were examined retrospectively. The complaints at admission, the types of foreign bodies ingested, the localization of the foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract and the approaches and treatment methods used were examined. Results: Thirty-six (56%) of 64 patients included in the study were male and 28 (44%) were female and the mean age was 5.7±4.6 years (10 months–17 years). Thirty eight (59%) of 64 children who were included in the assessment were below the age of five years. The most common complaint at presentation was parental recognition of the ingested object and dysphagia. The most commonly ingested foreign bodies included coins, sewing pins, safety pins and hairclips. Nail clipper detected in the stomach, sewing pin which penetrated through the duodenal wall and stuck to hepatic parenchyma were the first pediatric cases in the literature. Upper esophagus was the most common location for foreign bodies. Endoscopic examinations were performed in 55 of 64 children. Conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ingested foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal system is important in terms of preventing possible complications. In our study, the most frequent foreign bodies detected in the upper digestive tract were coins and they were most frequently detected in the upper esophagus. Most of our patients were below the age of five years. Flexible endoscopic method was used commonly for treatment. PMID:26884693

  10. Rhabdomyolysis associated with kava ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan; Schneider, Sandra; Rekkerth, Donna; Spillane, Linda; Kamali, Michael

    2012-05-01

    We report a case of rhabdomyolysis temporally related to the ingestion of a large amount of kava. Kava is a naturally occurring plant used in the United States and elsewhere in the world for its sedative properties. A previous case report also related rhabdomyolysis to the ingestion of kava. It is not clear whether this is an action of the kava itself, perhaps, due to its action on voltage ion channels or, perhaps, due to an adulterant in the product. Our patient developed peak creatine phosphokinase levels in excess of 30 000 U/L but had no significant renal damage.

  11. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  12. Physiological Responses to Cola Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handel, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from testing suggest that the ingestion of caffeine in the amount typically found in a single bottle of commercially available cola drink does not increase factors associated with coronary risk nor will it have an enhancing effect upon athletic performance. (MB)

  13. Foreign bodies ingestion: what responsibility?

    PubMed

    Ricci, Serafino; Massoni, Francesco; Schiffino, Luigi; Pelosi, Marcello; Salesi, Marialucia

    2014-03-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is one of the most important and difficult emergencies for a physician to diagnose. Accidental ingestion is more common in children, in patients with dental implants, in individuals with mental disability and in drug users. Voluntary ingestion is found in patients who are psychologically unstable, in prisoners or those who attempt suicide. Foreign bodies may be divided into food as fish bones, chicken bones, food bolus, meat, etc. or real foreign bodies such as orthodontic implants, needles, pins, glass, coins, etc. The authors present a case of management, from the medicolegal point of view, of a female patient age 80, who complained, for some weeks of modest pain in the left iliac fossa, and afterwards the endoscopy showed a toothpick into the wall of the sigmoid colon. Assessed of the clinical status of the patient presented severe cardiac comorbidities so that before processing the patient to a second resolutive endoscopy, it was necessary to obtain the hemodynamic stability. However the management of cases of accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is particularly difficult. Medical errors can arise from the very first contact with the patient resulting in delays in appropriate treatment. The doctor to avoid compromising its position on medical liability, must use all the knowledge and diligence known by the art and science of medicine.

  14. The relevance of aerosol optical depth to cumulus fraction changes: a five-year climatology at the ACRF SGP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E. I.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; McFarlane, S.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate, by observational means, the magnitude and sign of the actively discussed relationship between cloud fraction N and aerosol optical depth τa. Collocated and coincident ground-based measurements and Terra/Aqua satellite observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site form the basis of this study. The N-τa relationship occurred in a specific 5-year dataset of fair-weather cumulus (FWC) clouds and mostly non-absorbing aerosols. To reduce possible contamination of the aerosols on the cloud properties estimation (and vice versa), we use independent datasets of τa and N obtained from the Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements and from the ARM Active Remotely Sensed Clouds Locations (ARSCL) value-added product, respectively. Optical depth of the FWC clouds τcld and effective radius of cloud droplets re are obtained from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We found that relationships between cloud properties (N,τcld, re) and aerosol optical depth are time-dependent (morning versus afternoon). Observed time-dependent changes of cloud properties, associated with aerosol loading, control the variability of surface radiative fluxes. In comparison with pristine clouds, the polluted clouds are more transparent in the afternoon due to smaller cloud fraction, smaller optical depth and larger droplets. As a result, the corresponding correlation between the surface radiative flux and τa is positive (warming effect of aerosol). Also we found that relationship between cloud fraction and aerosol optical depth is cloud size dependent. The cloud fraction of large clouds (larger than 1 km) is relatively insensitive to the aerosol amount. In contrast, cloud fraction of small clouds (smaller than 1 km) is strongly positively correlated with τa. This suggests that an ensemble of polluted clouds tends to be

  15. Tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to muriatic acid ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pense, S C; Wood, W J; Stempel, T K; Zwemer, F L; Wachtel, T L

    1988-02-01

    Acid ingestion may result in a variety of early and late complications. A patient is presented with severe sequelae from muriatic acid ingestion, including a tracheoesophageal fistula which is a previously unreported complication of acid ingestion injury. Recommendations are made for diagnosis and prevention of this potentially lethal complication.

  16. Infant botulism following honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, C O; Ayubi, A; Zulfiquer, F; Santhanam, G; Ahmed, M A S; Deeb, J

    2012-09-07

    An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to botulism toxicity. Further tests confirmed the botulism toxicity secondary to honey ingestion. The baby was treated with specific anticlostridium antibodies; she recovered remarkably, now growing and developing normally.

  17. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  18. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  19. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation.

  20. Management of ingested magnets in children.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sunny Z; Bousvaros, Athos; Gilger, Mark; Mamula, Petar; Gupta, Sandeep; Kramer, Robert; Noel, R Adam

    2012-09-01

    We describe a comprehensive algorithm for the management of ingested rare-earth magnets in children. These newer and smaller neodymium magnets sold as adult toys are much stronger than the traditional magnets, and can attract each other with formidable forces. If >1 magnet is swallowed at the same time, or a magnet is co-ingested with another metallic object, the loops of intestine can be squeezed between them resulting in bowel damage including perforations. An algorithm that uses the number of magnets ingested, location of magnets, and the timing of ingestion before intervention helps to delineate the roles of the pediatric gastroenterologists and surgeons in the management of these cases.

  1. Two Year Old With Water Bead Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jami; Randell, Kimberly A; Knapp, Jane F

    2015-08-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common pediatric complaint. Two case reports describe intestinal obstruction in children from an ingestion of a single superabsorbent water ball, requiring surgical removal. We describe nonsurgical management of an asymptomatic child who ingested approximately 100 superabsorbent water beads.Because of the risk for subsequent intestinal obstruction, the patient was admitted for whole bowel irrigation. This case report is the first describing use of whole bowel irrigation in the management of an asymptomatic patient with multiple water beads ingestion.

  2. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  3. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  4. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve.

  5. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  6. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  7. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  8. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  9. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the...

  10. Foreign body ingestions in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Alao, A O; Abraham, B

    2006-01-01

    The topic of foreign body ingestion has received extensive coverage in the areas of surgery, emergency medicine and pediatrics. A subset of this topic, the intentional ingestion of foreign bodies, however, is much less common, and involves subtleties in evaluation and management not usually seen in accidental ingestions. Here, we report a case of ingestion of a rolled, metal tuna can lid in a male prison inmate previously diagnosed with depression and paranoid schizophrenia. Following evaluation by the surgical team, the foreign body was removed by laparotomy and the patient was discharged back to the prison without complication. In many cases, ingestions ofthis type involve a command hallucination ordering the patient to swallow the foreign body. Interestingly, the patient in the present case reported auditory hallucinations commanding him not to swallow the can lid.

  11. Beware of canine Gorilla Glue ingestions.

    PubMed

    Lubich, Carol; Mrvos, Rita; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2004-06-01

    Household adhesive ingestions are considered relatively non-toxic. Gorilla Glue is a household glue containing a urethane polymer and a polymeric isocyanate liquid compound available in container sizes of 2 to 36 oz, and when applied will expand to 3-4 times its original volume. We report the ingestion of Gorilla Glue by 2 dogs that caused obstructive masses requiring surgical intervention. Dogs with a history of Gorilla Glue ingestion should be monitored closely by their owners and a veterinary referral made if signs of gastrointestinal distress develop.

  12. Poppy seed ingestion: the Oregon perspective.

    PubMed

    Meneely, K D

    1992-07-01

    Numerous articles have been published regarding the positive morphine and codeine urinalysis results from the ingestion of poppy seeds. Oregon's perspective towards ingestion of controlled substances focuses around driving under impaired conditions. To determine the influence of the residual opium on poppy seeds to impairment, seven volunteers each ingested 25 grams of poppy seeds baked into bundt cakes. Urine samples were screened by EMIT using 300 ng/ml cutoff levels. All of the urine specimens were found to be opiate positive shortly after consuming the cake; however, after administering a series of standardized drug recognition evaluation tests, no subjects were found to exhibit symptoms of opiate impairment.

  13. Concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Natasha; Jaeger, Matthew W

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated liquid detergent pods are an emerging public health hazard, especially in pediatric patients. Ingestion is a more common route of exposure for liquid detergent pods compared with non-pod detergents and it tends to be associated with more severe adverse effects. We present 3 cases that demonstrate the varied clinical symptoms resulting from detergent pod ingestion. These cases not only demonstrate findings such as gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms but also show more rare neurological symptoms. The cases highlight the dangers of concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion. To help prevent further life-threatening injuries, there is a need for more consumer information and provider knowledge about the potential adverse complications.

  14. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  15. Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, M.N.; Smith, A.H.; Hopenhayn-Rich, C. )

    1992-03-01

    Inorganic arsenic is known to cause skin cancer by ingestion and lung cancer by inhalation. However, whether arsenic ingestion causes internal cancers is still a matter of debate. This paper has reviewed the epidemiologic literature that bears on this question. Published studies of populations who have ingested arsenic in medicines, wine substitutes, or water supplies, as well as workers exposed to arsenic by inhalation, were considered in terms of whether the observed associations might be explained by the presence of biases, the consistency of the evidence, and the biologic plausibility of the associations. Many studies were found to be uninformative because of low statistical power or potential biases. The most informative studies, which were from Taiwan and Japan, involved exposure to arsenic in drinking water. These studies strongly suggest that ingested inorganic arsenic does cause cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, and liver, and possibly other sites. However, confirmatory studies are needed.82 references.

  16. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  17. Pebble ingestion: an unusual form of geophagia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W D; Crabtree, J B

    1977-07-01

    Reported is a case representing an unusual form of geophagia, in which ingestion of pebbles by a 27-year-old mentally retarded woman resulted in impaction and complete filling of the colon with pebbles. Conservative therapy was successful in clearing the stones by the sixth day of treatment; however, a follow-up visit approximately six weeks later revealed that the patient was again ingesting pebbles.

  18. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  19. Prolonged psychosis after Amanita muscaria ingestion.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2006-05-01

    Amanita muscaria has a bright red or orange cap covered with small white plaques. It contains the isoxazole derivatives ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscazone and other toxins such as muscarine. The duration of clinical manifestations after A. muscaria ingestion does not usually exceed 24 hours; we report on a 5-day paranoid psychosis after A. muscaria ingestion. A 48-year-old man, with no previous medical history, gathered and ate mushrooms he presumed to be A. caesarea. Half an hour later he started to vomit and fell asleep. He was found comatose having a seizure-like episode. On admission four hours after ingestion he was comatose, but the remaining physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Creatine kinase was 8.33 microkat/l. Other laboratory results and brain CT scan were normal. Toxicology analysis did not find any drugs in his blood or urine. The mycologist identified A. muscaria among the remaining mushrooms. The patient was given activated charcoal. Ten hours after ingestion, he awoke and was completely orientated; 18 hours after ingestion his condition deteriorated again and he became confused and uncooperative. Afterwards paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations appeared and persisted for five days. On the sixth day all symptoms of psychosis gradually disappeared. One year later he is not undergoing any therapy and has no symptoms of psychiatric disease. We conclude that paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations can appear 18 hours after ingestion of A. muscaria and can last for up to five days.

  20. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  1. 21 CFR 880.6305 - Ingestible event marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingestible event marker. 880.6305 Section 880.6305... Devices § 880.6305 Ingestible event marker. (a) Identification. An ingestible event marker is a prescription device used to record time-stamped, patient-logged events. The ingestible component...

  2. Cardiovascular effects of yellow oleander ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bose, T K; Basu, R K; Biswas, B; De, J N; Majumdar, B C; Datta, S

    1999-10-01

    Yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia) is a commonly grown tree found widely in Eastern India. The seeds of yellow oleander are highly poisonous and contain three glycosides--thevetin, thevetoxin and peruvoside. Yellow oleander seed ingestion is usually with suicidal intent in Eastern India. Manifestations range from mild to potentially fatal. It has significant cardiovascular effects with varying rhythm abnormalities. Effects of yellow oleander seed ingestion (YOI) were studied in 300 patients from 1986 to 1990 at BS Medical College, Bankura. Majority i.e., 246 (82%) were females and 226 (75.33%) were young in the age group 11-20 years. Most reported for treatment 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of seeds. The number of seeds swallowed varied from half to fifteen. Two hundred and ninety-two (97.33%) ingested seeds in the crushed form; 156 (52%) were asymptomatic, 92 (30.66%) had vomiting and 36 (12%) had palpitation. In electrocardiogram (ECG), 138 (46%) revealed varying types of arrhythmias including sinus bradycardia in 68 cases (49.27%). Ischaemic changes were present in 118 cases (39.33%). Number of seeds ingested did not bear any relationship with ECG changes in YOI. All 14 cases of death were autopsied. Subendocardial and perivascular haemorrhage with focal myocardial oedema was present in all. Median hospital stay was 5 days (range 2 to 24). During discharge, 256 (85.33%) had normal ECG, 14 (4.66%) had sinus bradycardia and 16 (5.33%) demonstrated ischaemic changes.

  3. SOIL INGESTION COLLOQUIUM (2005) | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On May 24-25, 2005, the U.S. EPA Colloquium on Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates and Mouthing Behavior for Children and Adults (Colloquium) was held at the Holiday Inn National Airport in Crystal City, Virginia. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults. Because mouthing behavior is closely related to childrens soil and dust ingestion, mouthing behavior research also was included as a major topic. The Colloquium was designed to assist EPA in answering the following questions:What is the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion and mouthing behavior?Where should the state of knowledge be in order for EPA to make better decisions for the protection of children and adults from these pathways?How can EPA and the scientific community advance the science (i.e., what research is needed)?This summary report captures the major content of the presentations, breakout groups, and discussions/recommendations that occurred at the Colloquium. Presentation slides, organized sequentially by the order of presentation, the Colloquium agenda, and contact information of all the participants are included in this report as Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults.

  4. Software Program: Software Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Software Management Guidebook is twofold. First, this document defines the core products and activities required of NASA software projects. It defines life-cycle models and activity-related methods but acknowledges that no single life-cycle model is appropriate for all NASA software projects. It also acknowledges that the appropriate method for accomplishing a required activity depends on characteristics of the software project. Second, this guidebook provides specific guidance to software project managers and team leaders in selecting appropriate life cycles and methods to develop a tailored plan for a software engineering project.

  5. Proprietary software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marnock, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The protection of intellectual property by a patent, a copyright, or trade secrets is reviewed. The present and future use of computers and software are discussed, along with the governmental uses of software. The popularity of contractual agreements for sale or lease of computer programs and software services is also summarized.

  6. Caustic ingestion-a forensic overview.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    The ingestion of corrosive substances may produce severe burns to the upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, particularly if the pH is greater than 12 or less than two. There is a biphasic age grouping with adult cases most often involving self-harm and pediatric cases accidental ingestion. Three cases are reported to demonstrate characteristic features following the ingestion of potassium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid and Lysol(®) , respectively. All deaths were due to the effects of caustic burns to the upper aerodigestive tract, esophagus and stomach with perforation and/or hemorrhage. The extent of injuries in these cases depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. A point to note at autopsy is that tissue damage may also occur from postmortem exposure. Typical injuries involve perioral, limb, and trunk burns, with extensive aerodigestive liquefactive/coagulative necrosis causing hemorrhage and perforation.

  7. An ingestible sensor for measuring medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Hooman; Robertson, Timothy L; Moon, Greg D; Au-Yeung, Kit-Yee; Zdeblick, Mark J; Savage, George M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of the first integrated-circuit microsensor developed for daily ingestion by patients. The ingestible sensor is a device that allows patients, families, and physicians to measure medication ingestion and adherence patterns in real time, relate pharmaceutical compliance to important physiologic metrics, and take appropriate action in response to a patient's adherence pattern and specific health metrics. The design and theory of operation of the device are presented, along with key in-vitro and in-vivo performance results. The chemical, toxicological, mechanical, and electrical safety tests performed to establish the device's safety profile are described in detail. Finally, aggregate results from multiple clinical trials involving 412 patients and 5656 days of system usage are presented to demonstrate the device's reliability and performance as part of an overall digital health feedback system.

  8. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Todd, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy. PMID:27500131

  9. (-)-Hydroxycitrate ingestion and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Suh, Heajung; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-02-01

    We have been interested in the ergogenic aid effects of food components and supplements for enhancing endurance exercise performance. For this purpose, acute or chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) ingestion might be effective because it promotes utilization of fatty acid as an energy source. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP: citrate lyase, thereby increasing inhibition of lipogenesis in the body. Many researchers have reported that less body fat accumulation and sustained satiety cause less food intake. After focusing on exercise performance with HCA ingestion, we came up with different results that show positive effects or not. However, our previously reported data showed increased use of fatty acids during moderate intensity exercise. For future research, HCA and co-ingestion of other supplements, such as carnitine or caffeine, might have greater effect on glycogen-sparing than HCA alone.

  10. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  11. Motor neurons controlling fluid ingestion in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Andrea; Silies, Marion; Gohl, Daryl M; Scott, Kristin

    2012-04-17

    Rhythmic motor behaviors such as feeding are driven by neural networks that can be modulated by external stimuli and internal states. In Drosophila, ingestion is accomplished by a pump that draws fluid into the esophagus. Here we examine how pumping is regulated and characterize motor neurons innervating the pump. Frequency of pumping is not affected by sucrose concentration or hunger but is altered by fluid viscosity. Inactivating motor neurons disrupts pumping and ingestion, whereas activating them elicits arrhythmic pumping. These motor neurons respond to taste stimuli and show prolonged activity to palatable substances. This work describes an important component of the neural circuit for feeding in Drosophila and is a step toward understanding the rhythmic activity producing ingestion.

  12. Towards automated ingestion detection: swallow sounds.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is a cause of many major chronic diseases. In most cases, obesity is a result of an imbalance between food intake and calories burned. Steps toward automated ingestion detection are being made. In order to automate the process of capturing ingestion, a method for detecting, analyzing, and recording sounds related to ingestion is being developed. In this paper, preliminary swallow sound analysis is presented and compared with various other noises captured from a throat mounted microphone. Initial frequency analysis indicates a stronger presence at high frequency intervals for swallow sounds in relation to other captured sounds such as voice. Comparisons show that a single high-pass filter can offer similar results as wavelet decomposition. Two simple methods for event detection are given.

  13. Systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eujin; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Propolis, also known as bee glue, is a substance collected by worker bees and it is used as a material for constructing and maintaining their beehives. It has been used topically and orally by humans for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance. Contact dermatitis with generalized cutaneous manifestations elicited by propolis ingestion has not been previously reported. Here we report on the first case of systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion in a 36-year-old woman.

  14. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  15. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  16. Water ingestion into jet engine axial compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1982-01-01

    An axial flow compressor has been tested with water droplet ingestion under a variety of conditions. The results illustrate the manner in which the compressor pressure ratio, efficiency and surging characteristics are affected. A model for estimating the performance of a compressor during water ingestion has been developed and the predictions obtained compare favorably with the test results. It is then shown that with respect to five droplet-associated nonlinearly-interacting processes (namely, droplet-blade interactions, blade performance changes, centrifugal action, heat and mass transfer processes and droplet break-up), the initial water content and centrifugal action play the most dominant roles.

  17. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    PubMed

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  18. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  19. Stridor after ingestion of dettol and domestos.

    PubMed

    Graham, Colin A

    2004-02-01

    Dettol (4.8% chloroxylenol, 9% pine oil and 12% isopropyl alcohol) has previously been reported to cause delayed upper airway obstruction when ingested, despite the product being labelled as non-poisonous. Domestos (1-5% sodium hypochlorite) is used as a household and toilet cleaner. This paper reports a rare case in which both agents were consumed together in significant quantities, and caused stridor and impending airway obstruction requiring endotracheal intubation in the emergency department. Patients who have ingested this combination of cleaning agents are at high risk of acute airway compromise, and should have expert upper airway evaluation and control as soon as possible after admission.

  20. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level.

  1. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  2. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health.

  3. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  4. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    PubMed Central

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  5. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  6. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six computer software programs for teaching science. Provides the publisher, grade level, cost, and descriptions of software, including: (1) "Recycling Logic"; (2) "Introduction to Biochemistry"; (3) "Food for Thought"; (4) "Watts in a Home"; (5) "Geology in Action"; and (6)…

  8. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six software packages for the Apple II family. Programs reviewed include "Science Courseware: Earth Science Series"; "Heat and Light"; "In Search of Space: Introduction to Model Rocketry"; "Drug Education Series: Drugs--Their Effects on You'"; "Uncertainties and Measurement"; and "Software Films: Learning about Science Series," which…

  9. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anne, Ed.; Radziemski, Cathy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages for the Macintosh series. "Course Builder 2.0," a courseware authoring system, allows the user to create programs which stand alone and may be used independently in the classroom. "World Builder," an artificial intelligence software package, allows creative thinking, problem-solving, and…

  10. Is there a need for protein ingestion during exercise?

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-05-01

    Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated. Protein ingestion during exercise has also been suggested to improve performance capacity acutely. However, recent studies investigating the impact of protein ingestion during exercise on time trial performance, as opposed to time to exhaustion, do not report ergogenic benefits of protein ingestion. Therefore, it is concluded that protein ingestion with carbohydrate during exercise does not further improve exercise performance when compared with the ingestion of ample amounts of carbohydrate only.

  11. Foreign body ingestion in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Sema; Arikan, Ciğdem; Cakir, Murat; Baran, Maşallah; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Saz, Ulaş Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip

    2009-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion (FBI) is a common problem in the pediatric population. Even though morbidity and mortality due to foreign body ingestion are rare in childhood, they may cause serious anxiety in parents. We aimed to analyze the clinical presentation, etiology and management strategy of FBI in children in our country. Records of children admitting with a history of FBI over a three-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding gender, age, type of the ingested body, management strategy and outcome of the patients were recorded. Of 176 children, 98 (55.6%) were male. Mean age +/- SD of the patients was 3.75 +/- 4.25 years, and most of the patients were below four years of age (71.5%). Most of the children (64.7%) were seen within 48 hours, and most were asymptomatic. Blue beads attached to a safety pin (a cultural good luck charm) (38.6%), coins (27.8%) and turban pins (18.1%) were the most commonly observed foreign bodies. The blue beads/safety pin were found to be ingested primarily by infants, while ingestion of turban pins was mostly seen in adolescent girls who covered their heads. Localization of the foreign bodies was in the distal small intestine, stomach and esophagus in 61.4%, 23.8% and 14.7% of the cases, respectively. Sixty-nine endoscopic interventions were performed in 61 patients (34.6%), and these accounted for 7.3% of all endoscopic interventions during the three-year period. No major complication was observed during the procedure, and none of the patients underwent surgery. The frequently used accessory devices were retrieval net basket (57.9%), snare for pins (17.3%), tripod forceps and rat-tooth forceps. The blue beads/safety pin and turban pin were the commonly ingested foreign bodies in our center due to cultural factors. Education of the parents and of adolescent girls should greatly reduce the incidence of FBI. Endoscopic removal is safe without any major complications.

  12. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  13. Health hazards of bivalve-mollusk ingestion.

    PubMed

    Earampamoorthy, S; Koff, R S

    1975-07-01

    Bivalve mollusks (oysters, clans, and mussels) filter large quantities of water unselectively and thereby may concentrate a variety of aquatic contaminants pathogenic for man within edible shellfish viscera. The recognized bacterial disease associated with ingestion of contaminated bivalves include typhoid fever (not presently a public health problem), Vibrio parahemolyticus gastroenteritis, and Vibrio chloerae infection. The major known shellfish-associated viral diseases are viral hepatitis and possibly viral gastroenteritis. The ingestion of bivalves that have fed on the toxic species of dinoflagellates that produce red tides may be responsible for an uncommon and very rarely fatal illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. Outbreaks of airborne respiratory irritation in populations exposed to red tides may be the most common public health problem associated with red tides. The health hazards resulting from industrial, agricultural, and oil pollution of bivalves in coastal waters and the hazard from improper handling of bacterially contaminated mollusks remain to be defined.

  14. Sediment ingestion of two sympatric shorebird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    Black-bellied Plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) have short bills and primarily peck while foraging whereas Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) have long bills and primarily probe with bills open in sediments. Intestinal digesta were collected from these species at sympatric overwintering sites in southern California near San Diego to relate sediment ingestion to bill length and feeding behavior. Plover digesta contained an estimated 29% sediment, and Willet digesta an estimated 3% sediment. Techniques based on acid insoluble ash and on the elemental markers of Al, Fe, and Ti in digesta provided similar results. High Ca concentrations in Willet digesta and our observations suggested that the willets in our sample fed primarily on molluscs and crustaceans. Sediment ingestion may be species specific, not necessarily linked to bill length or probing behaviors, and may greatly affect a bird?s exposure to environmental contaminants in sediment.

  15. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    PubMed Central

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Antibiotherapy did not relieve the patient’s symptoms and signs. A 3-cm linear foreign body was observed in X-ray and computed tomography scans. The symptoms of the patient were relieved after excision of the foreign body. Conclusion Although it is a rare situation, migration of a foreign body ingested through the aerodigestive tract to the neck should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with neck masses. PMID:27994927

  16. Bird Ingestion into Large Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    A320 CFM56 5 SEMB FOR 292 04/06/90 B767 CF6 80C2 SEMB FOR LID 268 05/ 23 /90 A320 CFM56 5 SEMB FOR TR 247 05/31/90 A300 JT9D 59A INVOLUNTARY POWER LOSS FOR...Documentation Pog 1, Report No." 2. Government Accession No. 3. Rec•p-ent’s Catolog No. DOT/FAA/CT-911/17 4. Taide and Subtitle 5 . Report Oat* May...i 2 ENGINES, AIRCRAFT, AND OPERATIONS 2 3 INGESTION EVENTS AND RATES 7 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF INGESTED BIRDS 22 5 EFFECTS ON ENGINES AND FLIGHTS 35 5.1

  17. Successful laparoscopic removal of an ingested toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-07-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion 4 years prior. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because the toothbrush was partially embedded in to the gastric mucosa. We describe the second case to date of laparoscopic removal of a toothbrush via a gastrotomy with subsequent intra-corporeal repair of the defect.

  18. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  19. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface. Images PMID:46842

  20. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  1. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. PMID:27625729

  2. Mammals as prey: estimating ingestible size.

    PubMed

    Close, Matthew; Cundall, David

    2012-09-01

    Most mammals have deformable bodies, making it difficult to measure the size of living or freshly killed ones accurately. Because small rodents are common prey of many snakes, and because nearly all snakes swallow their prey whole, we explored four methods for determining the ingestible size (the smallest cross-sectional area that the largest part of the rodent can be made into without breaking bones or dislocating joints) of 100 intact rodents, including 50 Musmusculus and 50 Rattus norvegicus. Cross-sectional areas derived from maximal height and width of specimens at rest or the same specimens wrapped snout to pelvic girdle are roughly 1.5× higher than areas calculated either by the height and width of the same specimens rolled into cylinders or by volumetric displacement. Rolling rodents into cylinders reduces cross-sectional area by straightening the vertebral column, lengthening the abdominal cavity, elevating the sternum, compressing the thoracic cavity, and protracting the shoulder joint, that is, changes similar to those seen in rodents eaten by snakes. Reduced major axis regression of the smallest attainable cross-sectional area, y, on mass, x, shows that y (in log mm(2) ) approximates 1.53x (in log grams)(0.69) for rats and 1.63x(0.64) for mice. Our results suggest that visual cues provided by live rodents might lead most predators, like snakes, to overestimate ingestible size and hence rarely attack prey too large to ingest.

  3. Kounis syndrome following canned tuna fish ingestion.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Locuratolo, Nicola; Ruggiero, Massimo; Resta, Manuela; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rana, Michele; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2016-12-20

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a complex of cardiovascular symptoms and signs following either allergy or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report the case of 57-year-old man, with hypertension and history of allergy, referred for facial rash and palpitations appeared after consumption of canned tuna fish. Suddenly, the patient collapsed: electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in inferior leads. The patient was transferred from the spoke emergency room for coronary angio, which did not show any sign of coronary atherosclerosis. A transient coronary spasm was therefore hypothesized and the final diagnosis was KS. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases of KS following the ingestion of tuna fish. KS secondary to food allergy has also been reported, and shellfish ingestion has been considered as one of the most active KS inducer foods. Canned tuna fish too is well known as an allergy inducer. Tuna fish allergy should be considered, however, within the context of scombroid food poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary risk factors, allergic reaction after food ingestion, and suspected scombroid poisoning should be therefore carefully monitored for a prompt diagnosis of possible coronary complications.

  4. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  5. Software Smarts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contract with Johnson Space Center, Knowledge Based Systems Inc. (KBSI) developed an intelligent software environment for modeling and analyzing mission planning activities, simulating behavior, and, using a unique constraint propagation mechanism, updating plans with each change in mission planning activities. KBSI developed this technology into a commercial product, PROJECTLINK, a two-way bridge between PROSIm, KBSI's process modeling and simulation software and leading project management software like Microsoft Project and Primavera's SureTrak Project Manager.

  6. Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Hazrati, Hakimeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications. Methods This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18. Results Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.07±2.02 years, America 3.17±1.83 years, Asia 3.34±1.58 years, Europe 3.58±2.09 years and Oceania 3.52±2.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years. Conclusion The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed. PMID:26770225

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two programs: (1) "The Weather Machine" on understanding weather and weather forecasting and (2) "The Mystery of the Hotel Victoria" on problem solving in mathematics. Presents the descriptions, advantages, and weaknesses of the software. (YP)

  8. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  9. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six software packages. Includes (1) "Plain Vanilla Statistics"; (2) "MathCAD 2.0"; (3) "GrFx"; (4) "Trigonometry"; (5) "Algebra II"; (6) "Algebra Drill and Practice I, II, and III." (PK)

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of four science software programs. Includes topics such as plate tectonics, laboratory experiment simulations, the human body, and light and temperature. Contains information on ordering and reviewers' comments. (ML)

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Lunar Greenhouse,""Dyno-Quest,""How Weather Works,""Animal Trackers,""Personal Science Laboratory," and "The Skeletal and Muscular Systems." Availability, functional, and hardware requirements are discussed. (CW)

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Eugene T., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews by classroom teachers of software for teaching science. Includes material on the work of geologists, genetics, earth science, classification of living things, astronomy, endangered species, skeleton, drugs, and heartbeat. Provides information on availability and equipment needed. (RT)

  14. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  15. Magnetic toy ingestion leading to jejunocecal fistula in a child.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ali M; Hassab, Mohamed H; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Al-Tokhais, Tariq I

    2010-04-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign body is a common problem in children, but ingestion of magnets is rare. When multiple magnets are ingested, they may attract each other and cause pressure necrosis through the bowel walls and eventually lead to serious complications like obstruction, perforation, and fistula formation. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with jejunocecal fistula following ingestion of 2 magnet toys; it highlights the diagnostic challenge and the need for early surgical intervention in children especially when multiple magnets are ingested.

  16. Workflows for ingest of research data into digital archives - tests with Archivematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, I.; Bertelmann, R.; Gebauer, P.; Hasler, T.; Hirt, M.; Klump, J. F.; Peters-Kotting, W.; Rusch, B.; Ulbricht, D.

    2013-12-01

    Publication of research data and future re-use of measured data require the long-term preservation of digital objects. The ISO OAIS reference model defines responsibilities for long-term preservation of digital objects and although there is software available to support preservation of digital data, there are still problems remaining to be solved. A key task in preservation is to make the datasets ready for ingest into the archive, which is called the creation of Submission Information Packages (SIPs) in the OAIS model. This includes the creation of appropriate preservation metadata. Scientists need to be trained to deal with different types of data and to heighten their awareness for quality metadata. Other problems arise during the assembly of SIPs and during ingest into the archive because file format validators may produce conflicting output for identical data files and these conflicts are difficult to resolve automatically. Also, validation and identification tools are notorious for their poor performance. In the project EWIG Zuse-Institute Berlin acts as an infrastructure facility, while the Institute for Meteorology at FU Berlin and the German research Centre for Geosciences GFZ act as two different data producers. The aim of the project is to develop workflows for the transfer of research data into digital archives and the future re-use of data from long-term archives with emphasis on data from the geosciences. The technical work is supplemented by interviews with data practitioners at several institutions to identify problems in digital preservation workflows and by the development of university teaching materials to train students in the curation of research data and metadata. The free and open-source software Archivematica [1] is used as digital preservation system. The creation and ingest of SIPs has to meet several archival standards and be compatible to the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS). The two data producers use different

  17. Software reengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. JSC created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the Space Shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to re-engineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. A beta vision of the environment was released in Mar. 1991. The commercial potential for such re-engineering tools is very great. CASE TRENDS magazine reported it to be the primary concern of over four hundred of the top MIS executives.

  18. Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Hiott, Jim; Golej, Jim; Plumb, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the space shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to reengineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. The latest release of the environment was in Feb. 1992.

  19. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management.

  20. Rotifers ingest oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayer, R.; Trout, J.M.; Walsh, E.; Cole, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Six genera of rotifers including Philodina, Monostyla, Epiphanes, Euchlanis, Brachionus, and Asplanchna were exposed to oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum cleaned of fecal debris. Unstained oocysts and those stained with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody were added to suspensions of viable rotifers and were examined by phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Rotifers of all six genera were observed ingesting oocysts. A maximum of 25 oocysts was observed in the stomachs of Euchlanis and Brachionus. Euchlanis and Epiphanes were observed excreting boluses containing up to eight oocysts. It was not determined whether rotifers digested or otherwise rendered oocysts nonviable.

  1. Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (RTI) collaborated with Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Stanford University to leverage NASA research to produce ControlShell software. RTI is the first "graduate" of Ames Research Center's Technology Commercialization Center. The ControlShell system was used extensively on a cooperative project to enhance the capabilities of a Russian-built Marsokhod rover being evaluated for eventual flight to Mars. RTI's ControlShell is complex, real-time command and control software, capable of processing information and controlling mechanical devices. One ControlShell tool is StethoScope. As a real-time data collection and display tool, StethoScope allows a user to see how a program is running without changing its execution. RTI has successfully applied its software savvy in other arenas, such as telecommunications, networking, video editing, semiconductor manufacturing, automobile systems, and medical imaging.

  2. Antiterrorist Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    In light of the escalation of terrorism, the Department of Defense spearheaded the development of new antiterrorist software for all Government agencies by issuing a Broad Agency Announcement to solicit proposals. This Government-wide competition resulted in a team that includes NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division, who will develop the graphical user interface (GUI) and test it in their usability lab. The team launched a program entitled Joint Sphere of Security (JSOS), crafted a design architecture (see the following figure), and is testing the interface. This software system has a state-ofthe- art, object-oriented architecture, with a main kernel composed of the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) developed by Argonne National Laboratory. DIAS will be used as the software "breadboard" for assembling the components of explosions, such as blast and collapse simulations.

  3. Occupational ingestion of P-32: the value of monitoring techniques to determine dose. A case report.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J; Masse, F; Galanek, M

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to described the analytical methods used to assess the internal dose from a P-32-labeled compound that was inadvertently ingested. Bioassay data, using the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP)-30 model, enabled the calculation of internal dose. Whole body counting (WBC) and urinary measurement with liquid scintillation counting were utilized to estimate the amount of radioactive material deposited in body organs. This metabolic model assumes that 80% of the material ingested is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract because P-32 is soluble. The time of the intake, a critical variable in this method, was estimated on the basis of urine contamination of clothing. Twenty-four-hour urine sampling over a 6-week period, coupled with daily WBC over the same period, was performed. Because P-32 does not emit photons, WBC relied on measuring the bremsstrahlung radiation produced as a result of interaction of beta radiation with the body's tissues. A P-32-spiked phantom was used as a control. Over the 6-week monitoring period, urinary results indicated an ingestion of 560 microCi of P-32, whereas WBC estimated on intake of 580 microCi. An assessment of the laboratory where the accident occurred indicated that approximately 600 microCi of radioactive phosphorous was missing. The total effective dose equivalent was estimated at 4.8 rem (48 mSv). On the basis of this study, the ICRP model appears to fit the data obtained from urine measurements and WBC. No symptoms were noted from the ingestion of 580 microCi. The committed organ doses were well within the occupational nonstochastic limits of 50 (0.5 Sv) permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These results were confirmed by NUREG/CR-4884 and commercial software (CINDY). This report confirms the value of using the ICRP-30 model with urinary measurements and WBC to estimate the dose received as a result of ingestion of radioactive P-32.

  4. [Software version and medical device software supervision].

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of software version in the medical device software supervision does not cause enough attention at present. First of all, the effect of software version in the medical device software supervision is discussed, and then the necessity of software version in the medical device software supervision is analyzed based on the discussion of the misunderstanding of software version. Finally the concrete suggestions on software version naming rules, software version supervision for the software in medical devices, and software version supervision scheme are proposed.

  5. Automatic Ingestion Monitor: A Novel Wearable Device for Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Farooq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. PMID:24845288

  6. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  7. Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a novel non-intrusive optical technique for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The technique was developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden aircraft and of the droplet velocities were made at the simulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The liquid water content was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed YAG laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water greatly improved the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous liquid water content of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31 percent of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10 percent of the known water ingestion rate.

  8. Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1986-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique is described for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The techniques were developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden airstream and of the droplet velocities were made at the stimulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The LWC was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water enchanced the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous LWC of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31% of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10% of the known water ingestion rate.

  9. Data ingestion into NeQuick 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2011-12-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications that has been conceived to reproduce the median behavior of the ionosphere. To provide 3-D specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, different ionosphere electron density retrieval techniques based on the NeQuick adaptation to GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) data and ionosonde measured peak parameters values have been developed. In the present paper the technique based on the ingestion of global vertical TEC map into NeQuick 2 will be validated and an assessment of the capability of the model to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day variability will also be performed. For this purpose hourly GPS-derived global vertical TEC maps and hourly foF2 values from about 20 ionosondes corresponding to one month in high solar activity and one month in low solar activity period will be used. Furthermore, the first results concerning the ingestion of space-based GPS-derived TEC data will be presented.

  10. Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Joseph C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Gives a review of four software packages including "Science Toolkit: Module 3--Body Lab" for measuring heart rate, lung capacity, and response time; "Project Zoo: Adventures with Charts and Graphs" for developing process skills; "The Body Electric" for explaining electrical activity in the body; and "M-ss-ng…

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are computer software packages: "Where in Time Is Carmen Sandiego,""The Bio Sci Videodisc," and "Bio Sci Stacks." Included are hardware requirements, costs, emphasis, grade level, and availability. Functions of the packages are discussed including strengths and weaknesses and teaching suggestions. (CW)

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History Microcomputer Review, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews seven educational computer software packages covering such topics as presidential elections, the American Revolution, the Vietnam War, the construction of historical time lines, and general U.S. history. Also reviews a program designed to help tailor data entry files. Provides ordering information, price, and computer compatibility…

  14. Reviews: Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four computer software packages including: "The Physical Science Series: Sound" which demonstrates making waves, speed of sound, doppler effect, and human hearing; "Andromeda" depicting celestial motions in any direction; "Biology Quiz: Humans" covering chemistry, cells, viruses, and human biology; and…

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two computer software programs: (1) "Conquering Ratios and Proportions" using a medieval theme for guided practice in identifying and forming ratios for grades 5-8, and (2) "Percent Word Problems" providing problems for finding a percentage of a number and a number from a percentage. (YP)

  16. Software Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2000

    2000-01-01

    A chart of 40 alumni-development database systems provides information on vendor/Web site, address, contact/phone, software name, price range, minimum suggested workstation/suggested server, standard reports/reporting tools, minimum/maximum record capacity, and number of installed sites/client type. (DB)

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Super Solvers Midnight Rescue!" a problem-solving program for IBM PCs; and "Interactive Physics," a simulation program for the Macintosh computer. The functions of the package are discussed including strengths and weaknesses and teaching suggestions. (CW)

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Describes three software packages: (1) "MacMendeleev"--database/graphic display for chemistry, grades 10-12, Macintosh; (2) "Geometry One: Foundations"--geometry tutorial, grades 7-12, IBM; (3) "Mathematics Exploration Toolkit"--algebra and calculus tutorial, grades 8-12, IBM. (MVL)

  19. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed three computer software packages for Apple II series computers. Includes "The Right Job," a career counseling program; "Zoyon Patrol," a problem-solving program; and "Adventures with Charts and Graphs: Project Zoo," a graphing, mathematics, and science skills program. Each review includes strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions for use.…

  20. Reviews, Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software programs for Apple series computers. Includes "Orbital Mech," a basic planetary orbital simulation for the Macintosh, and "START: Stimulus and Response Tools for Experiments in Memory, Learning, Cognition, and Perception," a program that demonstrates basic psychological principles and experiments. (CW)

  1. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnaman, Daniel E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four educational software packages for Apple, IBM, and Tandy computers. Includes "How the West was One + Three x Four,""Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing,""Math and Me," and "Write On." Reviews list hardware requirements, emphasis, levels, publisher, purchase agreements, and price. Discusses the strengths…

  2. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software programs for Apple II computers on weather for upper elementary and middle school grades. "Weather" introduces the major factors (temperature, humidity, wind, and air pressure) affecting weather. "How Weather Works" uses simulation and auto-tutorial formats on sun, wind, fronts, clouds, and…

  3. Star Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloza, Brad

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer software programs designed to spark learning enthusiasm at every grade level and across the curriculum. They include Reader Rabbit's Learn to Read, Spelling Power, Mind Twister Math, Community Construction Kit, Breaking the Code, Encarta Africana 2000, Virtual Serengeti, Operation: Frog (Deluxe), and My First…

  4. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software programs: (1) "Discovery! Experiences with Scientific Reasoning"--problem solving for grades 4-12 (Apple II); (2) "Organic Stereochemistry"--a tutorial for organic chemistry for advanced secondary/college level (Apple II); and (3) "SHOW PARTNER (2.01)"--a graphics utility tool for…

  5. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software for use with various age groups. Topics include activities involving temperature, simulations, earth science, the circulatory system, human body, reading in science, and ecology. Provides information on equipment needed, availability, package contents, and price. Comments of reviews are presented by classroom teachers.…

  6. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Contains evaluations of two computer software packages, "Simulation Experiments 45-48 in Epstein's Laboratory Manual for Chemistry" and "Maps and Legends--the Cartographer (Ver 3.0)." Includes a brief description, applications, and the perceived strengths and weaknesses for each package. (CW)

  8. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  9. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages including "Frog Dissection Lab Report,""Backyard Birds,""LEGO TC Logo,""Alcohol--Four Interactive Programs,""Windows on Science--Life Science,""Climate and Weather/Our Town Database," and "Weeds to Trees." Discussed are availability, features, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teles, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages for Macintosh microcomputers including "Phase Portraits," an exploratory graphics tool for studying first-order planar systems; and "MacMath," a set of programs for exploring differential equations, linear algebra, and other mathematical topics. Features, ease of use, cost, availability, and hardware…

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews of seven software packages are presented including "The Environment I: Habitats and EcoSystems; II Cycles and Interactions"; "Super Sign Maker"; "The Great Knowledge Race: Substance Abuse"; "Exploring Science: Temperature"; "Fast Food Calculator and RD Aide"; "The Human Body:…

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor";…

  13. Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game…

  14. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six software packages for Apple and/or IBM computers. Included are "Autograph,""The New Game Show,""Science Probe-Earth Science,""Pollution Patrol,""Investigating Plant Growth," and "AIDS: The Investigation." Discussed are the grade level, function, availability, cost, and hardware requirements of each. (CW)

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews five software packages for use with school age children. Includes "Science Toolkit Module 2: Earthquake Lab"; "Adaptations and Identification"; "Geoworld"; "Body Systems II Series: The Blood System: A Liquid of Life," all for Apple II, and "Science Courseware: Life Science/Biology" for…

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presented are reviews of several microcomputer software programs. Included are reviews of: (1) Microstat (Zenith); (2) MathCAD (MathSoft); (3) Discrete Mathematics (True Basic); (4) CALCULUS (True Basic); (5) Linear-Kit (John Wiley); and (6) Geometry Sensei (Broderbund). (RH)

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three computer software: (1) "Elastic Lines: The Electronic Geoboard" on elementary geometry; (2) "Wildlife Adventures: Whales" on environmental science; and (3) "What Do You Do with a Broken Calculator?" on computation and problem solving. Summarizes the descriptions, strengths and weaknesses, and…

  18. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar A.; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world’s oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia’s coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia’s avifauna. PMID:27574986

  19. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  20. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  1. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans.

  2. Jejunoileal perforation and volvulus caused by multiple magnet ingestion.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Serkan; Basuguy, Erol; Zeytun, Hikmet; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin; Arslan, Mehmet Serif

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in children, but magnet ingestion is relatively rare. However, when it occurs, it tends to have a high rate of complications. This is a case report of a 3-year-old child who swallowed multiple magnetic toys, subsequently developing jejunoileal perforation and volvulus. This case report indicates that it is best to surgically remove multiple ingested magnets without delay to avoid intestinal perforation, fistula, and other complications such as volvulus.

  3. Vapor ingestion in Centaur liquid-hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    Vapor ingestion phenomena were investigated using scale models of the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank to determine the height of the free surface of the liquid when vapor is intially ingested into the tank outlet. Data are compared with an analysin and, is general the agreement is very good. Predictions are presented for minimum liquid levels required in the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank in order to prevent vapor ingestion when restarting the engines in space and the quantities of liquid remaining in the tank at vapor ingestion during main engine firing.

  4. Software Epistemology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    corpuses at scale using deep neural networks, i.e., Deep Machine Learning, on high quality features computed from canonical representations of...the application of Deep Learning on software features to support automated vulnerability identification and repair. 1.2 Overview Draper’s...referenced in Table 2. Several web -based tools were maintained to show cluster processing status. Figure 10 shows a snapshot of the build inventory

  5. Know Your Software Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Doug

    1986-01-01

    Advice on how to find the best software for institutional needs is presented. Purchasing prewritten software, acquiring custom-written software, and improving ready-made software are discussed. Questions to ask before buying software are provided. (MLW)

  6. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  7. Acute appendicitis caused by foreign body ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Heung; Lee, Dae Sup

    2015-01-01

    Foreign bodies usually do not cause complications and pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. Usually endoscopic intervention is recommended within 24 hours. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by foreign bodies are very rare. In our case, we experienced successful endoscopic and surgical treatment of a patient with ingestion of razor blade and some unrecognizable foreign bodies. A 22-year-old soldier was admitted with a small quantity of hematemesis and epigastric pain. We performed emergent endoscopy and successfully removed several foreign bodies. After 17 days, we performed appendectomy to remove the remaining foreign body and to relieve the symptoms. There is no doubt that endoscopic intervention is definitely useful method to remove foreign bodies. If there is no spontaneous drainage of the foreign body from the appendix, an appendectomy must be considered to remove the foreign body and prevent surgical complications such as appendicitis, periappendiceal abscess, and perforation. PMID:26366386

  8. Transient engine performance with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haykin, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1986-01-01

    The immediate effects on the transient performance of a generic, high bypass ratio jet engine on account of water ingestion are discussed. The air compression subsystem has been analyzed with respect to four aerothermodynamic and mechanical processes associated with two-phase fluid flow and the engine simulation has been carried out under three limiting cases of interest in practice, one pertaining to draining of water at the end of compression and the other two, to partial evaporation at two different locations in the burner. General observations are made on engine operability as a function of engine and control design under various engine and (control input) sensor operating conditions, with various mass fractions of water in the air-water mixture entering the engine, during various pilot-initiated power demand changes.

  9. Bird Ingestion into Large Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    292 04/06/90 B767 CF6 80C2 SEMB FOR LD 268 05/ 23 /90 A320 CFM56 5 SEMB FOR TR 247 05/31/90 A300 JT9D 59A INVOLUNTARY POWER LOSS FOR TR 273 06/14/90 A320...OR MORE 1 0 0 1 6 TO 17 0 2 .0 2 4 TO 5 1 0 0 1 UNKNOWN 7 44 4 55 TOTALS 38 347 12 397 23 TABLE 4.2. BIRD SPECIES SPECIES MODAL WEIGHT MULTIPLE SPECIES...Gov.ernm.nt Accistton No, 3, Rec.p.ent’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/CT-91/1 7 4. Title and Subtitle 5 . Report fote May 1992 BIRD INGESTION INTO LARGE TURBOFAN

  10. Localizing ingested coins with a metal detector.

    PubMed

    Bassett, K E; Schunk, J E; Logan, L

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of metal detection in coin localization by inexperienced operators, and determine the rate of spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins. All children who presented to the emergency department of an urban children's hospital with a suspected coin ingestion were eligible. Coin location was predicted from metal detector results, while radiographs confirmed location. Asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins were observed for spontaneous passage. Ninety-one children (ages 9 months to 17 years) were prospectively enrolled. The metal detector had a sensitivity of 98% (53/54) in coin detection and 98% (81/83) in determining coin location as esophageal. Symptoms were poor predictors of coin location. Six of eight asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins spontaneously passed their coins. These results show that metal detection is a good screening test for coin presence and to determine coin location as esophageal. Spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins warrants further study.

  11. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  12. STOVL hot gas ingestion control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Amuedo, K.C.; Williams, B.R.; Flood, J.D. ); Johns, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a comprehensive wind tunnel test program conducted to evaluate control of Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) on a 9.2 percent scale model of the McDonnell Aircraft Company model 279-3C advanced Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) configuration. The test was conducted in the NASA-Lewis Research Center 9 ft by 15 ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel during the summer of 1987. Initial tests defined baseline HGI levels as determined by engine face temperature rise and temperature distortion. Subsequent testing was conducted to evaluate HGI control parametrically using Lift Improvement Devices (LIDs), forward nozzle splay angle, a combination of LIDs and forward nozzle splay angle, and main inlet blocking. The results from this test program demonstrate that HGI can be effectively controlled and that HGI is not a barrier to STOVL aircraft development.

  13. Methamphetamine Ingestion Misdiagnosed as Centruroides sculpturatus Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Strommen, Joshua; Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a 17-month-old female child who ingested a large amount of methamphetamine that looked very similar clinically to a scorpion envenomation specific to the southwestern United States by the species Centruroides sculpturatus. The child was initially treated with 3 vials of antivenom specific for that scorpion species and showed a transient, though clinically relevant neurologic improvement. Her clinical course of sympathomimetic toxicity resumed and she was treated with intravenous fluids and benzodiazepines after blood analysis showed significant levels of d-methamphetamine. This case report is to specifically underline the clinical confusion in discerning between these two conditions and the realization of limited and/or expensive resources that may be used in the process. PMID:25649670

  14. Metal and sediment ingestion by dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.; Day, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis of intestinal digesta from hunter-killed carcasses or of wildlife scat is a promising means of estimating the exposure of wildlife to those environmental contaminants that, like lead, are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. When evaluating contaminants at a site, biologists may find the results of this non-destructive approach more straightforward to interpret in terms of exposure to wildlife than would be analyses of soils, sediments, water, or wildlife tissues. To illustrate the approach, we collected digesta from 47 waterfowl shot by hunters at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, in Delaware, USA. The waterfowl digesta contained an average of approximately 2.4% sediment, estimated from the Al concentrations in the digesta, a marker for sediment. Al concentrations were significantly correlated with concentrations of Cr (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r=0.57), V (r=0.70), Ni (r=0.31), and Pb (r=0.55), and we concluded that these metals were ingested mainly with sediment. American widgeon (Anas americana) ingested sediment at a rate of about four times that of three other species of dabbling ducks (Anas crecca, A. acuta, A. rubripes) and had several times the exposure to the sediment-associated metals. The digesta of one American black duck contained a high concentration of lead (70 mg/kg, dry wt.), presumably from lead shot, but none of the other samples had notably elevated metal concentrations. We suggest that scat and digesta be analyzed more widely by biologists and resource managers seeking a simple, inexpensive assessment of contaminants in local wildlife habitat.

  15. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  16. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  17. Software Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  18. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  19. Effects of lead shot ingestion in willow grouse

    SciTech Connect

    Fimreite, N.

    1984-07-01

    Willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) is the most popular game bird in Norway and hunted extensively. Ingestion of lead shot pellets as grit with consequently adverse effects is therefore a distinct possibility as this has been observed in other upland game birds. The present experiment was carried out to study the possible effects of ingested lead shot pellets on willow grouse.

  20. Argyria secondary to ingestion of homemade silver solution.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Douglas; Park, Betty; Hoang, Mai; Jacobe, Heidi T

    2005-08-01

    Argyria is a rare skin disease caused by cutaneous deposition of silver granules in the skin as a result of exposure to silver substrate or ingestion of silver salt. This report describes a patient with generalized argyria caused by ingestion of homemade colloidal silver solution. The patient learned about the uses of the silver solution and its preparation at a convention for "natural medicine."

  1. Eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers, 2005 2006.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2007-10-01

    Eszopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic for the treatment of insomnia and classified as schedule IV controlled substance. Limited information exists on eszopiclone ingestions reported to poison control centers. The distribution of eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers during 2005-2006 was determined for various factors. In addition, triage guidelines for the management of such ingestions were drafted. Of 525 total eszopiclone ingestions, 259 involved coingestants. Of coingestant cases, 78.8% involved suspected attempted suicide and 90.7% were managed at a healthcare facility. Of 266 ingestions of eszopiclone alone, 40.2% were suspected attempted suicide and 62.0% were managed at a healthcare facility. A final medical outcome and dose ingested were known for 60 ingestions of eszopiclone alone. The mean dose was 28.3 mg (range 0.3-210 mg). Ingestions of eszopiclone alone of < or =6 and >6 mg differed with respect to the proportion involving suspected attempted suicide (0.0% versus 64.7%), final medical outcome of minor or moderate effect (38.5% versus 67.6%) and management at a healthcare facility (34.6% versus 91.2%). Using 6 mg as a threshold dose for referral to a healthcare facility, 78% of cases not already at/en route to a healthcare facility were managed according drafted triage guidelines.

  2. Gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid.

    PubMed

    Phelps, G; Srinivasa, A; Sengupta, S K

    1991-03-01

    The acute consequences of the ingestion of corrosive substances include acute necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract, haemorrhage and perforation. Late complications include the development of stenotic lesions. A case of fibrous gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid is presented. Endoscopically, the appearances were consistent with gastric carcinoma.

  3. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures.

  4. Update on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Caustic Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Lupa, Michael; Magne, Jacqueline; Guarisco, J. Lindhe; Amedee, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Caustic ingestion is a serious medical problem with a variety of clinical presentations and a complicated clinical course. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of caustic ingestion as well as the most current approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Finally, a recent case will be presented that highlights the difficulty this problem poses to a medical team. PMID:21603414

  5. Software Surrogate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, Blackboard Technology received a NASA Phase I SBIR award entitled "A Blackboard-Based Framework for Mixed-Initiative, Crewed- Space-System Applications." This research continued in Phase II at JSC, where a generic architecture was developed in which a software surrogate serves as the operator's representative in the fast-paced realm of nearly autonomous, intelligent systems. This SBIR research effort addressed the need to support human-operator monitoring and intervention with intelligent systems such as those being developed for NASA's crewed space program.

  6. Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    General Purpose Boundary Element Solution Technology (GPBEST) software employs the boundary element method of mechanical engineering analysis, as opposed to finite element. It is, according to one of its developers, 10 times faster in data preparation and more accurate than other methods. Its use results in less expensive products because the time between design and manufacturing is shortened. A commercial derivative of a NASA-developed computer code, it is marketed by Best Corporation to solve problems in stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid analysis and yielding and cracking of solids. Other applications include designing tractor and auto parts, household appliances and acoustic analysis.

  7. Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Various NASA Small Business Innovation Research grants from Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center were used to develop the 'kernel' of COMCO's modeling and simulation software, the PHLEX finite element code. NASA needed it to model designs of flight vehicles; one of many customized commercial applications is UNISIM, a PHLEX-based code for analyzing underground flows in oil reservoirs for Texaco, Inc. COMCO's products simulate a computational mechanics problem, estimate the solution's error and produce the optimal hp-adapted mesh for the accuracy the user chooses. The system is also used as a research or training tool in universities and in mechanical design in industrial corporations.

  8. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury.

  9. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  10. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  11. Exercise patterns, ingestive behaviors, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; O'Connor, Lauren E; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-07-01

    Ingestive and exercise behaviors are important determinants of whole body energy balance and weight control. An acute bout of exercise generates a transient energy deficit, which is only partially compensated for by food intake at the next eating occasion or within the next day (loose dietary coupling). Such an energy deficit, when repeated chronically, leads to moderate weight loss and improved body composition. For this narrative review, we assessed the effects of exercise patterns on energy intake, energy balance, and weight control in adults primarily using results from randomized acute exercise and chronic training studies. The patterns assessed were exercise mode (e.g. resistance, aerobic exercise), intensity, duration, time of day, and frequency. The body of evidence indicates that exercise training frequency and quantity are influential for weight loss. Aerobic training is superior to resistance training for weight loss, although resistance training helps preserve lean body mass better. Weight loss does not differ among different intensities when energy expenditure is matched by adjusting duration. Differing patterns of physical activity exhibited by normal weight, overweight, and obese people during weekdays and weekend days are consistent with their weight status; leaner people are more physically active. Collectively, these findings support acute and chronic exercise patterns as important modifiable behaviors to improve energy balance and weight control in adults while having minor effects on absolute energy intake.

  12. Automated ingestion detection for a health monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh K

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that imposes a financial burden and increased risk for a myriad of chronic diseases. Presented here is an overview of a prototype automated ingestion detection (AID) process implemented in a health monitoring system (HMS). The automated detection of ingestion supports personal record keeping which is essential during obesity management. Personal record keeping allows the care provider to monitor the therapeutic progress of a patient. The AID-HMS determines the levels of ingestion activity from sounds captured by an external throat microphone. Features are extracted from the sound recording and presented to machine learning classifiers, where a simple voting procedure is employed to determine instances of ingestion. Using a dataset acquired from seven individuals consisting of consumption of liquid and solid, speech, and miscellaneous sounds, > 94% of ingestion sounds are correctly identified with false positive rates around 9% based on 10-fold cross validation. The detected levels of ingestion activity are transmitted and stored on a remote web server, where information is displayed through a web application operating in a web browser. This information allows remote users (health provider) determine meal lengths and levels of ingestion activity during the meal. The AID-HMS also provides a basis for automated reinforcement for the patient.

  13. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  14. Ingestion of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D R; Pearson, R D

    1987-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes may be important effector cells against Giardia lamblia. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in 13% heat-inactivated autologous serum. At a G. lamblia/macrophage ratio of 1:1, the number of trophozoites ingested per 100 macrophages ranged from 1 to 12 at 0.5 h and increased for all donors (n = 6) to 10 to 92 at 8 h. Ingestion was confirmed by electron microscopy. Increasing the parasite/phagocyte ratio to 5:1 increased the percentage of macrophages with adherent but not ingested trophozoites. Incubating Giardia cells and macrophages with 20% immune serum increased ingestion of parasites eightfold, indicating that anti-G. lamblia antibody can enhance ingestion. Both phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy documented trophozoite destruction within macrophages. Ingestion of parasites elicited an oxidative burst as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. In vitro, Giardia trophozoites were killed by greater than or equal to 5 X 10(-5) M H2O2. Fusion of lysosomes with parasite-containing phagosomes was suggested by acridine orange-stained preparations. Human macrophages have the capacity to ingest Giardia trophozoites and to kill intracellular parasites, possibly by oxidative microbicidal mechanisms. Images PMID:3679547

  15. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    PubMed

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (<1 mm) on marine biota. Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  16. 78 FR 15110 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements... and assess the adequacy of certain portions of the existing engine bird ingestion requirements. This... bird ingestion type certification standards for aircraft turbine engines to better address the...

  17. Poppy seed ingestion and opiates urinalysis: a closer look.

    PubMed

    elSohly, H N; elSohly, M A; Stanford, D F

    1990-01-01

    Review of scientific literature shows that ingestion of poppy seed containing products can result in a positive urinalysis test for opiates. In many cases the amount of seeds ingested is unrealistically high or is not specified. This study is designed to correlate the amount of seeds ingested with the urinary concentration of total morphine as a function of time. Two males and two females were involved in all four protocols, which were separated by at least one week. Subjects ingested one, two, or three poppy seed rolls, each containing 2 g of Australian seeds (108 micrograms morphine/g seed) in three protocols. In the fourth protocol subjects ingested two rolls per day for four consecutive days. Urine specimens were collected for 48 h after ingestion, analyzed by RIA, EMIT, and TDx, and selected samples were confirmed by GC/MS. The data show that the highest concentrations of total morphine in urine were found 3-8 h after ingestion or in the first-void samples. Of the 264 samples collected, there were only 16 specimens that exceeded 300 ng/mL by any of the methods used for analysis with only three samples exceeding 400 ng/mL by GC/MS (406, 611, and 954 ng/mL). In all cases, the total opiates level was less than 150 ng/mL 24 h after ingestion. Following these studies, one of the subjects ingested a poppy seed cake containing 15 g seed obtained from a bakery which analyzed for 169 micrograms morphine/g seed. Urine specimens were collected over 48 h, and all specimens were analyzed by GC/MS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Ingestion, suckling, and the problem of identity: using criteria in the classification of ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott M

    2002-06-01

    The data reported by Nizhnikov et al. [Newborn rats first suckling experience: taste differentiation and suckling plasticity (2002)] do not support the authors' claim that they shed light on suckling mechanisms. A number of accepted criteria for identifying suckling are discussed in this review. The ingestion of various fluids through a plastic tube by neonatal or other rats does not meet any of these criteria. Thus, while the data reported by Nizhnikov et al. [Newborn rats first suckling experience: taste differentiation and suckling plasticity (2002)] are of interest from the perspective of infant capabilities, they do not shed light on the determinants of actual nipple attachment or suckling as they may naturally occur.

  19. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Study of Bird Ingestions into Small Inlet Area, Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Statistical Analysis; ALF72 through the National Technical Bird Ingestion TFE731 Information Service, Springfield, Turbine Engine TPE331 Virginia 22161...Base C -- Statistical Methods Used J iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 2.1 Engine Operations by Month and Engine Type 5 3.1 Engine Ingestions by...Ingestion Events 3.3 Summary Statistics for Ingested Bird Weights 10 4.1 Engine Ingestion Rate Estimates 18 4.2 Engine Ingestion Events and Rates by

  1. Office Computer Software: A Comprehensive Review of Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secretary, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes types of software including system software, application software, spreadsheets, accounting software, graphics packages, desktop publishing software, database, desktop and personal information management software, project and records management software, groupware, and shareware. (JOW)

  2. Mass ingestion of Jimson Weed by eleven teenagers.

    PubMed

    Tiongson, J; Salen, P

    1998-11-01

    Jimson Weed is a naturally occurring plant which is commonly ingested for its hallucinogenic properties. This paper is a case report summarizing 11 cases of patients, ages 13-21 years, who presented to our emergency department following oral ingestion of large quantities of Jimson Weed pods and seeds. Toxicity following ingestion is due to an atropine-containing alkaloid contained throughout the plant and concentrated in the seeds. Signs and symptoms ranged from asymptomatic mydriasis and tachycardia to severe agitation, disorientation, and hallucinations. Nine of the eleven patients were admitted for observation. There were no deaths associated with these ingestions and none of the patients required physostigmine for reversal of severe anticholinergic symptoms. This paper also includes an historical overview of Jimson Weed, its physiologic effects, the epidemiological data, and a treatment summary.

  3. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.

    1991-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on effects of rain-water ingestion into bypass fan engines, it is shown that the performance of axial-flow compressors and fans is fundamentally time-dependent during ingestion of water. A code named WINCOF-I has been developed for establishing the performance of axial-flow turbomachinery operating with air-water vapor-water droplet-water film mixture, Illustrative examples of predictions and effects are provided for the case of the air-compression system of a generic bypass fan engine. Utilizing performance maps so-generated, the effects of water ingestion into the generic engine have been determined under test cell conditions simulating ingestion, flight operation (altitude and flight Mach number), and power-demand setting.

  4. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  5. Microplastic ingestion reduces energy intake in the clam Atactodea striata.

    PubMed

    Xu, X-Y; Lee, W T; Chan, A K Y; Lo, H S; Shin, P K S; Cheung, S G

    2016-12-27

    The effects of microplastic concentrations (10itemsl(-1) and 1000itemsl(-1)) on the physiological responses of Atactodea striata (clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate) were investigated. The fates of ingested microplastics and the efficiency of depuration in removing ingested microplastics were also studied. A. striata ingested microplastics and the clearance rate was reduced at high concentration of microplastics. Since the respiration rate and absorption efficiency remained unchanged in exposed A. striata, reduction in the clearance rate would reduce the energy intake. Ingestion and retention of microplastics in the body were further limited by the production of pseudofaeces and faeces, and depuration in clean water, resulting in a very small amount of microplastics stored in the body of the clam.

  6. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  7. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report is an assessment of all available literature that pertains to the potential risk of cancer associated with ingestion of asbestos. It was compiled by a working group to assist policy makers in the Department of Health and Human Services determine if adequate information was available for a definitive risk assessment on this potential problem and evaluate if the weight of evidence was sufficient to prioritize this issue for new policy recommendations. The work group considered the basis for concern over this problem, the body of toxicology experiments, the individual epidemiologic studies which have attempted to investigate this issue, and the articles that discuss components of risk assessment pertaining to the ingestion of asbestos. In the report, the work group concluded: (1) that no direct, definitive risk assessment can be conducted at this time; (2) that further epidemiologic investigations will be very costly and only possess sufficient statistical power to detect relatively large excesses in cancers related to asbestos ingestion; and (3) that probably the most pertinent toxicologic experiments relate to resolving the differences in how inhaled asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos is processed. The work group believes that the cancer risk associated with asbestos ingestion should not be perceived as one of the most pressing potential public health hazards facing the nation. However, the work group does not believe that information was sufficient to assess the level of cancer risks associated with the ingestion and therefore, this potential hazard should not be discounted, and ingestion exposure to asbestos should be eliminated whenever possible.

  8. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link.

  9. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.

  10. Ingested Metallic Spool: A Rare Cause of Acquired Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Talat, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in children. Prolonged impaction of FB in esophagus may result in tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). A 6-year-old girl presented with progressive dysphagia and recurrent chest infections. No history of FB ingestion was given by parents. Further investigations revealed FB (spool) in cervical esophagus. Patient was successfully managed by surgery through trans-cervical approach. PMID:28164003

  11. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  12. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  13. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-10-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels.

  14. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels. PMID:23559738

  15. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  16. Respiratory and gastrointestinal complications of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A; Robinson, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine circumstances surrounding the ingestion of caustic substances, the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms at presentation, and the degree of investigation and active treatment during hospitalisation. Long term respiratory and gastrointestinal sequelae were also studied. Design: Retrospective case note study covering a 10 year period. Setting: Tertiary children's hospital. Patients: Children and adolescents presenting following caustic ingestions to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Main outcome measures: Requirement for interventional oesophagoscopy/bronchoscopy, respiratory support or admission to intensive care, and long term gastrointestinal or respiratory sequelae noted. Results: Thirty two cases of caustic ingestion were identified in 31 patients (median age 2.6 years; 78% boys). The average time in hospital was 2 days. Two patients (6%) required intensive care nursing, and both required intubation with mechanical ventilation (average 33 hours). Thirty patients (97%) underwent diagnostic oesophagoscopy, and two underwent laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy for visualisation of the upper airway. No patient had long term respiratory consequences. Two patients (6%) sustained significant oesophageal injuries requiring interventional oesophagoscopy. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion is overrepresented in boys. Most ingestions involve household cleaning products. Symptoms on admission do not usually require intensive care admission. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominate at presentation, however, these are usually mild. Respiratory symptoms are uncommon and respiratory involvement requiring intervention is rare, although the presence of respiratory symptoms should be viewed as potentially serious. Long term sequelae of caustic ingestion are rare and in this series only affected the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for diagnostic endoscopy need further evaluation. PMID:15843706

  17. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates.

  18. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on developing and applying codes for prediction of performance of a turbine jet engine and its components with water ingestion during flight operation, including power settings, and flight altitudes and speed changes, an attempt was made to establish the effects of water ingestion through simulation of a generic high bypass ratio engine with a generic control. In view of the large effects arising in the air compression system and the prediffuser-combustor unit during water ingestion, attention was focused on those effects and the resulting changes in engine performance. Under all conditions of operation, whether ingestion is steady or not, it became evident that water ingestion causes a fan-compressor unit to operate in a time-dependent fashion with periodic features, particularly with respect to the state of water in the span and the film in the casing clearance space, at the exit of the machine. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance of the unit may be considered as quasi-steady once the distribution of water has attained an equilibrium state with respect to its distribution and motion. For purposes of engine simulation, the performance maps for the generic fan-compressor unit were generated based on the attainment of a quasi-steady state (meaning steady except for long-period variations in performance) during ingestion and operation over a wide enough range of rotational speeds.

  19. Book and Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissick, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    This introductory column on books and software concerned with special education technology presents an article by JuHye Yook on the software design process. It discusses the rationale for developing new software for students with reading disabilities, the design and development process, and analysis of the software design. Software use by two…

  20. Other People's Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, E.; Murray, S. S.

    Why do we continually re-invent the astronomical software wheel? Why is it so difficult to use ``other people's software''? Leaving aside issues such as money, power, and control, we need to investigate practically how we can remove barriers to software sharing. This paper will offer a starting point for software cooperation, centered on the concept of ``minimal software buy-in''.

  1. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  2. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  3. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  4. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  5. Controlling Software Piracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains what software manufacturers are doing to combat software piracy, recommends how managers should deal with this problem, and provides a role-playing exercise to help students understand the issues in software piracy. (SR)

  6. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  7. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  8. Hand-held metal detector identification of ingested foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A; Carraccio, C; Lichenstein, R

    1994-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine the ability of hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs) to identify the presence of ingested metallic foreign bodies (MFBs). Twenty-three children presenting to the emergency department with a complaint of MFBs ingested were enrolled. Sixteen of 23 patients had radiographically proven foreign bodies. The MFBs comprised coins (n = 11), a button battery (n = 1), a medallion (n = 1), a token (n = 1), a needle (n = 1), and a marble (leaded glass) (n = 1). The HHMD correctly detected 15 of 16 radiographically positive MFBs (93%) and correctly excluded a potential MFB in six of six radiographically negative cases. The only foreign body not detected was an ingested needle. One radiograph was equivocal. Radiographic localization of the ingested objects was as follows: esophagus, n = 4; stomach, n = 9; and intestines, n = 3. The HHMD correctly localized all detected MFBs. The HHMD had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 86%. HHMDs are effective screening devices for possible ingested MFBs. Positive studies localized to the stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract do not require confirmatory radiographic studies.

  9. Intentional ingestions of foreign objects among prisoners: A review

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C; Wojda, Thomas R; Jones, Christian D; Otey, Andrew J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The intentional ingestion of foreign objects (IIFO) is described more commonly in prison populations than in the general population, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 1900 inmates in our state correctional facilities. Incidents often involve ingestion of small metal objects (e.g., paperclips, razor blades) or other commonly available items like pens or eating utensils. Despite ingestion of relatively sharp objects, most episodes can be clinically managed with either observation or endoscopy. Surgery should be reserved for those with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or obstruction. For those with a history of IIFO, efforts should focus on prevention of recurrence as subsequent episodes are associated with higher morbidity, significant healthcare and security costs. The pattern of IIFO is often repetitive, with escalation both in frequency of ingestions and in number of items ingested. Little is known about successful prevention strategies, but efforts to monitor patients and provide psychiatric care are potential best-practice strategies. This article aims to provide state-of-the art review on the topic, followed by a set of basic recommendations. PMID:25789086

  10. Radar to detect foreign object ingestion by a jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1999-07-01

    Each year commercial, private and military aircraft jet engines are damaged by the ingestion of foreign objects. Annual engine repair costs for ingestion damage is in the tens of millions of dollars. Bird strikes represent the major foreign object threat to aircraft engines, although large hail and objects found on the ramp can also damage an engine. A radar based foreign object ingestion detection system concept, the subject of this paper, is capable of determining when an object as small as 4 millimeters has entered a fan jet engine. Additionally, such a system is capable of determining the relative size of the object and the approximate point within the engine where the object impacts the engine. These data can be displayed in real time to the pilot. In addition, the information recorded in the data base can be used by the mechanics between major engine inspections to determine if a detailed inspection of the turbine blade roots or other hard to access engine parts is required. Long term statistical data developed by the system can also be used as a measure of the foreign object and bird ingestion problem at various airports and improve the reporting of ingestion and bird strike events above the currently estimated 20 percent reporting rate.

  11. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring.

  12. Arterial compliance may be reduced by ingestion of red wine.

    PubMed

    Fantin, F; Bulpitt, C J; Zamboni, M; Cheek, E; Rajkumar, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohol on blood pressure and arterial compliance over 24 h in a group of volunteers, comparing the same group of subjects on two consecutive but separate days, one with alcohol intake (alcohol day) and one free of alcohol (control day). We studied 18 healthy subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 25-53). The subjects received the two days in random order. On the alcohol day, the subjects were asked to drink two glasses of red wine (12% ethanol) between 1830 hours and 0430 hours. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and QKD interval (Q wave to Korotkoff (K) sound, diastolic phase (D) using Diasys Integra (Novacor, France)) were recorded (usually 1500 hours to 1500 hours). Three 'ingestion' periods were defined, from 1500 hours to 1830 hours ('before'), 1900 hours to 0430 hours ('during') and from 0430 hours to the following afternoon ('after') on both the alcohol day and on the control day. Red wine increased heart rate during alcohol ingestion and reduced arterial compliance after ingestion. The significant effect of interaction between day and ingestion period on heart rate, diastolic blood pressure and QKD were found, suggesting that the differences in response among the ingestion periods depended on whether alcohol has been consumed that day. For the first time our study indicates the effect of alcohol on 24 h arterial stiffness in a healthy group of volunteers.

  13. Small bowel perforations due to deliberate ingestion of injurious foreign bodies--a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Malik, Arshad M

    2008-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon problem in our society. The patients usually ingest different types of foreign bodies either accidentally or deliberately. Rare in children but adults are not uncommonly affected and are either psychiatric patients or ingest foreign bodies accidentally. Life threatening complications may occur at times due to ingestion of sharp and pointed objects. An interesting case of ingestion of multiple injurious foreign bodies presenting with multiple small intestinal perforations is presented with review of literature.

  14. Software Configuration Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.

  15. A case of argyria following colloidal silver ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-08-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. The ingestion of colloidal silver appears to be increasing among patients using alternative health practices. We report this case to bring people's attention to the problems associated with the ingestion of colloidal silver.

  16. Influence of ingested lead on body mass of wintering canvasbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, W.L.; Pritchert, R.D.; Pace, R.M. III; Woolington, D.W. ); Helm, R. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of lead shotgun pellets in gizzards of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at Catahoula Lake and the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana, during winter 1987-88 to assess the influence of ingested lead shot on canvasback body mass. The prevalence of ingested lead shot was significantly higher at Catahoula Lake (27%) than at the Mississippi River Delta (4%). Canvasbacks collected at Catahoula Lake showed significant differences in prevalence of ingested lead shot by age and month. The authors attributed age-related and seasonal variations to differences in foraging effort and exposure time. Body mass of canvasbacks at Catahoula Lake, after accounting for age, monthly variation, and body size, was significantly reduced (120 g or 10%) in birds that had lead shot in their gizzards.

  17. Ingested Foreign Bodies in Children: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurjit; Sharma, Surendra; Khurade, Shrikant; Gooptu, Somnath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Accidental foreign body ingestion and impaction of food bolus present as an emergency. Pediatric population is the most vulnerable. Since the act may go unnoticed, the child may present late. However, most foreign bodies pass spontaneously in the stools. Case Capsule: Two children were brought with history of battery ingestion. In one case, an emergency gastro intestinal endoscopy had to be done for the foreign body removal which was made up of corroded battery. In the other case, no interventation was undertaken & an uncorroded battery passed per anum along with stools after 15 days of ingestion. Conclusion: Decision regarding immediate intervention or conservative approach will require consideration of the level of lodgement & type of foreign body. Prevention is possible if parents/guardians exercise control on their wards & are aware of implications of such an event. PMID:25657965

  18. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    PubMed

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment.

  19. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  20. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus.

  1. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  2. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  3. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  4. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    PubMed

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (<5 mm), fibres being the most frequent type (46.6%). We observed that fish consumed more microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics.

  5. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  6. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Mitselou, Antigony; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2004-04-01

    A 19-y old male who intentionally ingested an unknown quantity of Datura stramonium seeds to experience its hallucinogenic effects was found dead. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine were detected in postmortem blood and urine. Blood concentrations of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 1.1 and 0.2 microg/mL, respectively; in urine only hyoscyamine at 14.2 microg/mL was found. This fatality presents the highest blood concentrations ever reported and confirms that death was due to Datura Stramonium seed ingestion.

  7. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-07-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  8. Spondylodiscitis associated with button battery ingestion: prompt evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Young, Allen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2015-10-01

    Spondylodiscitis is a rare complication of unwitnessed button battery ingestion in children. We report a case of a 20-month-old girl who presented to the emergency room 2 weeks after endoscopic removal of unwitnessed, impacted esophageal battery. Delayed presentation of spondylodiscitis after foreign body removal is related to local injury, pressure necrosis, and perforation. The bilaminar shape of an unknown ingested foreign body should alert the treating physician that it might be a battery rather than a coin. Prompt evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging is essential to prevent neurological deficit and/or spinal deformities.

  9. Rotor noise due to atmospheric turbulence ingestion. I - Fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    In the present analytical procedure for the prediction of helicopter rotor noise generation due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence, different models for turbulence fluid mechanics and the ingestion process are combined. The mean flow and turbulence statistics associated with the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled with attention to the effects of atmospheric stability length, windspeed, and altitude. The turbulence field can be modeled as isotropic, locally stationary, and homogeneous. For large mean flow contraction ratios, accurate predictions of turbulence vorticity components at the rotor face requires the incorporation of the differential drift of fluid particles on adjacent streamlines.

  10. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  11. Image Processing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosio, M. A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

  12. Decentralized Software Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Institute for Software Research University of California, Irvine www.isr.uci.edu/tech-reports.html Peyman Oreizy University of California, Irvine... Peyman Oreizy and Richard N. Taylor Institute for Software Research University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92697-3425 USA {peymano, taylor...mechanisms that enforce cooperation among Decentralized Software Evolution Peyman Oreizy and Richard N. Taylor Institute for Software Research

  13. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  14. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Complexity, Systems, and Software Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8...for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States

  15. Finding Helpful Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Ted, Comp.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a list of evaluation services currently producing critical reviews of educational software. Includes information about The Apple K-12 Curriculum Software Reference, The Educational Software Preview, The Educational Software Selector, MicroSIFT, and Only The Best: The Discriminating Guide for Preschool-Grade 12. (TW)

  16. Software distribution using xnetlib

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Rowan, T.H.; Wade, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  17. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  18. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  19. Software component quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  20. Responsbility for unreliable software

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Unreliable software exposes software developers and distributors to legal risks. Under certain circumstances, the developer and distributor of unreliable software can be sued. To avoid lawsuits, software developers should do the following: determine what the risks am, understand the extent of the risks, and identify ways of avoiding the risks and lessening the consequences of the risks. Liability issues associated with unreliable software are explored in this article.

  1. Intrathoracic gastric perforation secondary to corrosive ingestion: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Arora, Richa; Varma Gunturi, Surya Ramachandra; Arora, Abhishek; Parmar, Abhijot

    2016-04-01

    This case report describes a rare and serious case of acid ingestion in a 50-year-old man who developed necrosis and perforation of gastric fundus and diaphragm with extension of air and fluid collection in the thorax. To the best of our knowledge, this complication has not been described so far in the literature.

  2. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  3. Accidental ingestion of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine).

    PubMed Central

    Bedford Russell, A R; Schwartz, R H; Dawling, S

    1992-01-01

    There is no report of the effects of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) poisoning in childhood. The case of a 13 month old boy who ingested one capsule of Ecstasy is reported. Neurological and cardiovascular side effects predominated, which responded well to treatment with a chlormethiazole infusion. PMID:1358033

  4. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacy L.; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  5. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  6. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  7. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    occurred in ambient temperatures of 38–46-C and was designed to elicit elevations in Tint, which were recorded approximately every min on a portable data...is sufficient to eliminate the effects of fluid ingestion for the majority of volunteers (31), although 10 h of in- gestion timing before activity

  8. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  9. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  10. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  11. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  12. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  13. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  14. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  15. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  16. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  17. Estimating Children's Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/du

  18. Relationships between ingestion and gustatory perception of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J; Mattes, R D; Tanimura, S; García-Medina, M R

    1992-10-01

    We observed that taste detection thresholds for caffeine (CAF) are elevated in habitual CAF users relative to nonusers. A series of experiments were carried out to explore that relationship and assess the influences of salivary CAF and acute vs. chronic CAF ingestion. A significant correlation between CAF ingestion and taste threshold was noted in two studies of U.S. adults, although this was not observed in a parallel study involving an Argentinean population. Acute CAF ingestion (5.5 mg/kg) had no appreciable effect on taste thresholds. Threshold values greatly exceeded even peak salivary CAF levels, indicating that classical taste adaptation was an unlikely influence. Chronic CAF ingestion (450 mg/day for 3 weeks) also had no consistent effect on taste thresholds for CAF or other taste stimuli. Although a number of explanations are considered, we suggest that the sensory phenomenon may reflect preexisting differences between CAF users and nonusers or perhaps an effect of exposure to other bitter and/or CAF-containing foods and beverages.

  19. Modeled Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion Rates for Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily soil/dust ingestion rates typically used in exposure and risk assessments are based on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of modeling soil and dust inge...

  20. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacy L; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-02-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic.

  1. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    PubMed

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  2. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-r...

  3. [Intestinal perforation due to multiple magnet ingestion: a case report].

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Mehmet Nuri; Karadağ, Cetin Ali; Demir, Mesut; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2012-03-01

    Multiple magnet ingestion during childhood may result in emergency situations. A single magnet may be discharged with intestinal peristalsis, but multiple magnets may stick together and cause significant intestinal complications. Here we present a case with intestinal perforation due to ingestion of multiple magnets and metal pieces. An eight-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. She had abdominal tenderness and defense on the physical examination. Abdominal X-ray showed air and fluid levels. Metallic images were not considered at first as important in the diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was reported as acute appendicitis. During the abdominal exploration, the appendix was normal, but there were dense adherences around the ileum and cecum. After adhesiolysis, intestinal perforations were seen in the cecum and 15 and 45 cm proximal to the cecum. Magnet and metal pieces were present in the perforated segments. Wedge resection and primary repair was performed. There were no postoperative complications, and she was discharged on the postoperative fifth day. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of the complications of multiple magnet ingestion. If the patient has a history of multiple magnet ingestion, follow-up with daily abdominal X-rays should be done, and in cases where magnets seem to cluster together or if acute abdominal signs develop, surgical exploration should be considered.

  4. Boric acid ingestion clinically mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    PubMed

    Webb, David V; Stowman, Anne M; Patterson, James W

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of large amounts of boric acid, a component of household insecticides, is a rare occurrence, characterized by a diffuse desquamative skin eruption, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, delirium, acute renal failure and prolonged ileus. A 56-year-old male with a history of multiple previous suicide attempts was witnessed ingesting household roach killer and 4 days later presented to the hospital with lethargy, stiffness and a diffuse erythematous and desquamative eruption with bullous formation. He subsequently developed erythema of both palms as well as alopecia totalis. Histopathology from a right arm shave biopsy revealed a mostly intact epidermis with subtle vacuolar alteration of the basal layer, scattered intraepidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, parakeratosis with alternating layers of orthokeratosis and considerable superficial exfoliation; accompanying dermal changes included vasodilatation and mild perivascular inflammation. This report describes the cutaneous and systemic complications in a rare case of boric acid ingestion. There is little published material on the symptoms and histopathology following boric acid ingestion, but knowledge of this entity is important, both to differentiate it from other causes of desquamative skin rashes and to allow the initiation of appropriate clinical care.

  5. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea.

    PubMed

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-10-17

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

  6. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    SciTech Connect

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-08-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

  7. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  8. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  9. Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    considerable proportion maybe  A brief background to the (perceived) “problem” . . . • Birds display grit-ingesting behavior. Avian digestion in a...snapshot proventricul ar gizzard b·--- ,.--- u -- ! [J Prove ntri cuI us Duodenum -- Pancreas A brief background to the (perceived) “problem

  10. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  11. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  12. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multi-core, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to .50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  13. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multicore, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to approx.50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  14. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  15. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  16. Effect of timing of carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    McConell, G; Kloot, K; Hargreaves, M

    1996-10-01

    This study compared the effects of carbohydrate ingestion throughout exercise with ingestion of an equal amount of carbohydrate late in exercise. Eight well-trained men cycled 2 h at 70 +/- 1% VO2 peak, followed immediately by a 15-min performance ride, while ingesting either a 7% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO-7), an artificially sweetened placebo (CON), or the placebo for the first 90 min then a 21% glucose solution (CHO-0/21). At the start of the performance ride, plasma glucose averaged 4.2 +/- 0.2, 5.2 +/- 0.1, and 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol.l-1 in CON, CHO-7, and CHO-0/21, respectively (all different, P < 0.05). Plasma insulin levels were similar just prior to the performance ride in CHO-7 and CHO-0/21, with both higher than CON. A similar pattern was observed with respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Work performed during the performance ride was significantly greater in CHO-7 (268 +/- 8 kJ) compared with CON (242 +/- 9 kJ). Performance in CHO-0/21 (253 +/- 10 kJ), however, was not improved compared with CON, despite higher plasma glucose levels and plasma insulin levels similar to CHO-7. Seven of the eight subjects performed best in CHO-7. In conclusion, performance was improved, relative to the control trial, only when carbohydrate was ingested throughout exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion late in exercise did not improve performance despite increases in plasma glucose and insulin.

  17. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  18. Suicide case due to phosphoric acid ingestion: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Serra, Arianna; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-11-01

    Ingesting caustic substances represents a common event which may result in serious injuries of the gastrointestinal system. Severity of injury depends on the type of ingested substance: Caustic burns are more frequently associated with acid ingestion and their severity depends on type, concentration, time of exposure, and amount of the ingested substance. We report a case of phosphoric acid ingestion leading to death in a patient with depressive disorder. While reports ingestion of other acids and organophosphates can be found in the literature, there are no reports detailing a death due to phosphoric acid ingestion. We hope that presenting the findings in this case can aid death investigators in future cases that may involve ingestion of such a substance. After autopsy pH, phosphate and calcium ions concentration in the blood were analyzed. The cause of death was due to systemic effects: metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia.

  19. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  20. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  1. Software assurance standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the software assurance program for the provider of software. It also delineates the assurance activities for the provider and the assurance data that are to be furnished by the provider to the acquirer. In any software development effort, the provider is the entity or individual that actually designs, develops, and implements the software product, while the acquirer is the entity or individual who specifies the requirements and accepts the resulting products. This standard specifies at a high level an overall software assurance program for software developed for and by NASA. Assurance includes the disciplines of quality assurance, quality engineering, verification and validation, nonconformance reporting and corrective action, safety assurance, and security assurance. The application of these disciplines during a software development life cycle is called software assurance. Subsequent lower-level standards will specify the specific processes within these disciplines.

  2. Design software for reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracz, Will

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the designing of software for reuse. Topics include terminology, software reuse maxims, the science of programming, an interface design example, a modularization example, and reuse and implementation guidelines.

  3. Foreign body ingestion: rare cause of cervical abscess.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana; Larangeiro, João; Pinto Moura, Carla; Santos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: A ingestÉo de corpo estranho é um motivo frequente de recurso à urgência hospitalar. As complicações graves, embora raras, incluem perfuraçÉo faringo-esofágica, fistula aorto-esofágica e infecçÉo cervical profunda.Material e Métodos: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, os casos de ingestÉo de corpo estranho com internamento num hospital terciário, entre 1989 e 2011. Seleccionaram-se os casos complicados por abcesso cervical profundo, descrevendo-se a semiótica, resultados de meios complementares de diagnóstico, terapêutica efectuada e evoluçÉo clínica.Resultados: Dos 1679 casos, 319 referentes a crianças e 1360 a adultos, reportam-se dois casos (0,12%): uma criança, 13 meses, com abcesso retrofaríngeo após ingestÉo de osso de frango e um adulto, 41 anos, com abcesso parafaríngeo após ingestÉo de espinha de peixe. As complicações manifestaram-se quatro e três dias após remoçÉo do corpo estranho, respectivamente. Em ambos foram efectuadas Tomografias Computorizadas cervicais com contraste e drenagem cirúrgica dos abcessos; a criança foi ainda submetida a esofagoscopia rígida para remoçÉo de corpo estranho residual e encerramento da perfuraçÉo esofágica associada.DiscussÉo: Os abcessos cervicais sÉo uma complicaçÉo possível da ingestÉo de corpo estranho e constituem um desafio diagnóstico, principalmente em idade pediátrica. A manipulaçÉo esofágica prévia por fibroscopia poderá ser considerada um factor de risco. A imagiologia (Tomografia Computorizada cervical com contraste ou Resson'ncia Magnética Cervical) foi essencial para o diagnóstico e o planeamento cirúrgico.ConclusÉo: Embora raros, perante a história recente de ingestÉo/remoçÉo de corpo estranho esofágico e a presença de sintomas compatíveis, os abcessos cervicais devem ser tidos em consideraçÉo, dado o potencial de morbilidade e mortalidade na ausência de uma abordagem terapêutica adequada.

  4. Software verification and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

  5. Microcomputer Software Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Presents overview of special considerations in developing microcomputer software collections, review of standardized cataloging practices, and discussion of problems of selection and acquisition of software. Policies governing loan procedures for microcomputer software which involve four types of copy protection (patent, trade secret, contract,…

  6. Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-18

    product The chicken#. (a.k.a. Process Focused Assessment ) – Management Systems ( ISO 9001 , ISO 27001, ISO 2000) – Capability Maturity Models (CMMI...How – Executive leadership commitment – Translate ROI to project manager vocabulary (cost, schedule, quality ) – Start small and build – Use...collaboration Vocabulary Reserved Words Software Acquisition Information Assurance Project Management System Engineering Software Engineering Software

  7. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

  8. Specifications for Thesaurus Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents specifications for software that is designed to support manual development and maintenance of information retrieval thesauri. Evaluation of existing software and design of custom software is discussed, requirements for integration with larger systems and for the user interface are described, and relationships among terms are discussed.…

  9. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  10. Software Engineering for Portability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  11. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  12. Uncommon cause for ileocolic fistulation and caecal perforation following multiple magnet ingestion in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Dave Fok Nam; Shanmugam, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Non-accidental ingestion of foreign bodies rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of multiple magnet ingestion in an adult with learning difficulties to highlight the associated abdominal complications. Multiple magnets may not pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously and approach considerations should differ from those who had ingested an isolated magnet or other foreign bodies. PMID:27887015

  13. Physics pedagogical software: The CIP software contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Denis

    1999-09-01

    In 1989, a decision was made that the journal Computers in Physics (CIP) would sponsor a software contest under the auspices of its education department. The goal was to reward software authors for their efforts to advance undergraduate pedagogy and to advertise their work to the larger physics community. The contest is now in its ninth year. In the following remarks, we will first attempt, some general observations and then some evaluative comments.

  14. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Sprint Performance Following Continuous Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahkohian, M.; Farhadi, H.; Naghizadeh Baghi, A.; Valizadeh, A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5% carbohydrate ingestion on the sprint performance immediately following 90 min of running at 70-80% of maximal heart rate reserve. Thirty young active men were selected as subjects and allocated randomly to two carbohydrate (CHO, N = 15) and placebo (PL, N = 15) groups. Pre-test 200 m dash, 90 min running and post-test 200 m dash took place, respectively. Exercise heart rate monitored during 90 min running by a cardio frequency meter. Significant differences were found between the CHO and PL post-test 200 m dash records (p<0.05). Blood glucose was found to be significantly higher at the end of the 90 min running for the CHO group than for the PL group (p<0.01). The results suggest that carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise inhibits failing of Sprint performance of young active men.

  15. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  16. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  17. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  18. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning.

  19. Basal Ganglion Hemorrhage as Delayed Complication of Diethylene Glycol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneesh; Diaz, Francisco J; Lal, Anita; Sung, Lokman; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2017-03-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), an organic compound (HOCH2CH2)2O is a commonly used solvent. Mass poisoning outbreaks have been reported because of frequent contaminations. A PubMed search for diethylene resulted in 795 publications with 151 specifically discussing the toxicity. Of the 151 reported toxicity reviews/case reports, only 6 publications discussed the long-term neurological effects of diethylene toxicity. We report a fatal case of oral ingestion of DEG with complications from delayed toxicity. She died 7 days after the second admission. Autopsy disclosed a right basal ganglia hemorrhage within the brain and microscopic deposits of polarizable crystals into small cerebral blood vessels. Both kidneys illustrate tubular necrosis with scattered tubular deposition of polarizable calcium oxalate crystals. PubMed search leads to only 2 reported cases of basal ganglia hemorrhage (based on radiological findings) after ethylene glycol intoxication. Our case is the first reportable case of basal ganglia hemorrhage after DEG ingestion.

  20. Sodium azide ingestion and secondary contamination risk in healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Downes, Michael A; Taliana, Katrina E; Muscat, Tracy M; Whyte, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the follow-up of healthcare staff directly involved in managing a fatal sodium azide ingestion. Clinical staff directly involved with the case were contacted by telephone or in person. Data collected were age, sex, time in contact with the patient, time off work following the incident and whether or not this was because of physical complications of exposure. Ten individuals had close contact with the case. Of these, five were men, median age was 39 years (range 22-52); four described being in close contact for greater than 60 min, three for 15-60 min and three for 5-15 min. Absence from work occurred in two cases for 1 day and several weeks, neither attributed to the physical effects of exposure. Our data do not support close contact with a sodium azide ingestion case as posing a high risk of significant postexposure complications in emergency service workers.

  1. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  2. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  3. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  4. Lead toxicity resulting from chronic ingestion of opium.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mohammad; Azizkhani, Reza

    2009-11-01

    A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.

  5. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics. PMID:27687574

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  7. [Detection of morphine after ingestion of poppy seeds].

    PubMed

    Angelo, H R; Kaa, E

    1993-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphine can be detected in urine after the ingestion of poppy seeds bought in Denmark. Morphine and codeine were determined in 10 different poppy seed specimens bought in Denmark. Ten and 25 g of the specimens containing the highest amount of morphine and codeine were consumed by respectively six and seven volunteers. Urine samples were collected for analysis at intervals up to 24 h. All samples were found positive by radioimmunoassay up to 24 h after ingestion. Using the less sensitive thin layer chromatography method, one of six and two of seven were positive, two to four hours after intake of respectively 10 and 25 g of the specimens. We conclude that the detection of morphine in urine does not necessarily indicate an illegal drug use.

  8. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kruti S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg) in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione. PMID:28044113

  9. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (<5 mm diameter; 'microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (<1mm) can reach 3% by weight, presenting a global conservation issue [2]. Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  10. Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    PubMed

    Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2015-12-15

    The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil.

  11. Open safety pin ingestion presenting as incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  12. Orienteering performance and ingestion of glucose and glucose polymers.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Heinonen, O J; Kvist, M; Kärkkäinen, O P; Marniemi, J; Niittymäki, K; Havas, E

    1989-06-01

    The benefit of glucose polymer ingestion in addition to 2.5 per cent glucose before and during a prolonged orienteering competition was studied. The final time in the competition in the group ingesting 2.5 per cent glucose (group G, n = 10) was 113 min 37 s +/- 8 min 11 s, and in the group which had additionally ingested glucose polymer (group G + GP, n = 8) 107 min 18s +/- 4 min 41 s (NS). One fifth (21 per cent) of the time difference between the two groups was due to difference in orienteering errors. Group G + GP orienteered the last third of the competition faster than group G (p less than 0.05). The time ratio between the last third of the competition and the first third of the competition was lower in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). After the competition, there was statistically insignificant tendency to higher serum glucose and lower serum free fatty acid concentrations in group G + GP, and serum insulin concentration was higher in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). Three subjects reported that they exhausted during the competition. These same three subjects had the lowest serum glucose concentrations after the competition (2.9 mmol.1(-1), 2.9 mmol.1(-1), 3.5 mmol.1(-1] and all of them were from group G. It is concluded that glucose polymer syrup ingestion is beneficial for prolonged psychophysical performance.

  13. Sexual dimorphism in the osmopressor response following water ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Teodósio, Carolina; Lucena, Rui; Pereira, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether water drinking elicits a pressor response in healthy young adults. The inclusion of a variable number of women may have contributed to the discrepancies found in past research. Thus, we aimed at exploring whether the osmopressor response follows a sexually dimorphic pattern. In a randomized fashion, 31 healthy adults (16 men; 15 women, aged 18–40 years) ingested 50 and 500 ml of water before completing a resting protocol on two separate days. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate and spectral heart rate variability were measured in the seated position at pre- and post-25 min of water ingestion. Women responded to 500 ml of water with a greater proportion of change in diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P<0.05). Conversely, the percent change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate was not different between sexes after 500 ml of water. Overall, women demonstrated lower blood pressure, but higher resting heart rate compared with men (P<0.05). In contrast, heart rate variability was similar between sexes before and after ingesting either volume of water. There was a bradycardic effect of water and, irrespectively of sex; this was accompanied by increased high frequency power (HF) (P<0.05). We conclude that women display a greater magnitude of pressor response than men post-water ingestion. Accordingly, we provide direct evidence of sexual dimorphism in the haemodynamic response to water intake in young healthy adults. PMID:27129286

  14. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  15. Excretion of codeine and morphine following ingestion of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Struempler, R E

    1987-01-01

    After the ingestion of three poppy-seed bagels, the following codeine and morphine concentrations were determined in the urine: 214 ng/mL codeine and 2797 ng/mL morphine at 3 h, and 16 ng/mL codeine and 676 ng/mL morphine at 22 h. This work indicates that a positive finding of codeine or morphine in the urine of an individual does not necessarily indicate heroin, morphine, or codeine use.

  16. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    PubMed

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  17. Acute kidney injury requiring haemodialysis following ingestion of mephedrone

    PubMed Central

    Rhidian, Rhys; Babu, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old man was found to have acute kidney injury (AKI) following ingestion of mephedrone. He presented to this local emergency department with worsening bilateral loin pain. He became oligoanuric, serum creatine peaked at 1214 µmol/l and he required several sessions of haemodialysis before kidney function began to improve. The mechanism of AKI and legal aspects of the use of mephedrone are discussed. PMID:23456157

  18. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities.

  19. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  20. Payload software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A software analysis was performed of known STS sortie payload elements and their associated experiments. This provided basic data for STS payload software characteristics and sizes. A set of technology drivers was identified based on a survey of future technology needs and an assessment of current software technology. The results will be used to evolve a planned approach to software technology development. The purpose of this plan is to ensure that software technology is advanced at a pace and a depth sufficient to fulfill the identified future needs.

  1. Funding Research Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  2. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  3. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  4. Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenthal, Brennan T.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Schmitz, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2 deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.4% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from Boundary-Layer Ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.

  5. Safety-pin ingestion in children: a cultural fact.

    PubMed

    Gün, Feryal; Salman, Tansu; Abbasoglu, Latif; Celik, Rüya; Celik, Alaaddin

    2003-08-01

    Pediatric foreign-body (FB) ingestion is a common problem. Many of these FBs are sharp objects such as needles, toothpicks and safety pins (SP). This report reviews the management of SP ingestion in children. During a 16-year period, we recorded 49 pediatric cases of witnessed SP ingestion. In all children, SPs were used to attach the blue beads to the child's suits with the belief of averting the evil eye. The mean age was 8 months ranging from 4 months to 2 years, and 30 patients were males and 19 were females. SPs were most commonly sited in esophagus (37%) and stomach (37%). In the remainder, the SPs have already reached the duodenum and intestine. In this series, 20 (41%) children passed SPs spontaneously, 14 (28.5%) required endoscopic removal and 15 (30.5%) underwent surgery. The outcome of all patients was uneventful. All of the esophageal SPs require endoscopic intervention, however, after passing into stomach the patients can be observed with keeping the surgical intervention in mind if the SP displays a fixed position for more than three days.

  6. Ingestibility and Formulation Quality of Lansoprazole Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Megumi; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kasai, Ryoya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the ingestibility and formulation quality of one branded (formulation A) and five generic (formulations B, C, D, E, and F) lansoprazole orally disintegrating (OD) tablets. Methods. Ingestibility, including the oral disintegrating time, taste, mouth feeling, and palatability, was examined by sensory testing in healthy subjects. Formulation qualities, including salivary stability, gastric acid resistance, and intestinal dissolution behavior, were examined. Results and Discussion. The oral disintegration time of formulation F (52 s) was significantly longer than that of other formulations (32–37 s). More than 90% of subjects did not experience bitterness with formulations A, E, and F, whereas 50% of subjects felt rough and powdery sensations with formulations B, C, and D. More than 80% of subjects suggested that formulations A, E, and F had good palatability. Ingestibility was different between formulations. OD tablets consist of enteric granules containing lansoprazole, which is unstable in gastric acid. Enteric granules of each formulation were stable in artificial saliva and gastric juice. No differences were observed in dissolution behaviors among the formulations, indicating that the formulation quality of the formulations was almost equivalent. Conclusions. This study provides useful information for selecting branded or generic lansoprazole OD tablets for individualized treatments. PMID:28044122

  7. Numerical Investigation of Hot Gas Ingestion by STOVL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanka, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This report compiles the various research activities conducted under the auspices of the NASA Grant NAG3-1026, "Numerical Investigation of Hot Gas Ingestion by STOVL Aircraft" during the period of April 1989 to April 1994. The effort involved the development of multigrid based algorithms and computer programs for the calculation of the flow and temperature fields generated by Short Take-off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft, while hovering in ground proximity. Of particular importance has been the interaction of the exhaust jets with the head wind which gives rise to the hot gas ingestion process. The objective of new STOVL designs to reduce the temperature of the gases ingested into the engine. The present work describes a solution algorithm for the multi-dimensional elliptic partial-differential equations governing fluid flow and heat transfer in general curvilinear coordinates. The solution algorithm is based on the multigrid technique which obtains rapid convergence of the iterative numerical procedure for the discrete equations. Initial efforts were concerned with the solution of the Cartesian form of the equations. This algorithm was applied to a simulated STOVL configuration in rectangular coordinates. In the next phase of the work, a computer code for general curvilinear coordinates was constructed. This was applied to model STOVL geometries on curvilinear grids. The code was also validated in model problems. In all these efforts, the standard k-Epsilon model was used.

  8. Ingestion, cytotoxicity, and early morphological effects of asbestos on Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1988-01-01

    Crocidolite asbestos fibers are rapidly ingested in large amounts by Tetrahymena. This varies little with incubation time of fibers in the culture medium or with dilution of the medium. The ingested fibers form large, oblong bundles in the cell rather than the normal spherical food vacuoles. In addition, crocidolite results in a rapid dose dependent induction of various minor morphological abnormalities. At 0.1-3 mg/ml these are observed in approximately one third of the population. Crocidolite is, however, not cytotoxic to Tetrahymena even in these high concentrations as measured by cell death and population doubling time. Phagocytosis and cytotoxicity are thus not related in this cell. Preliminary studies indicate that all the U.I.C.C. standard reference asbestos samples have largely similar effects but that their ability to induce abnormalities depends on the species of Tetrahymena used. For studies of the effects of asbestos Tetrahymena should be a suitable model system because the massive ingestion of fibers and its short generation time should facilitate rapid detection of adverse effects. Among such effects is the induction of heterogenous cell lines. This may involve modification of non-nucleic acid carried hereditary (cytotactic) information.

  9. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P < 0.01), and surface properties of the plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P < 0.01). A strong, significant correlation between propensity for plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P < 0.01). Exposure to 1 and 10 μm PS for up to 8 days had no significant effect on C. gigas feeding or growth at <100 microplastics mL(-1). In conclusion, whil micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study.

  10. Size characteristics of stones ingested by common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hansen, Scott P.; Pokras, Mark; Miconi, Rose

    2001-01-01

    Common Loon (Gavia immer) carcasses recovered in New England had more stones of greater combined mass in their stomachs than loons from the southeastern United States. Stones retained in sieves with mesh sizes between 4.75 and 8.00 mm accounted for the greatest percentage (by mass) of grit in loon stomachs. The median longest dimension of the largest single stone in each stomach was 12.5 mm in loons from New England and 10.7 mm in loons from the southeast (maximum = 23.1 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively). A recent national proposal to restrict the use of certain fishing weights in the United States called for a ban on lead fishing sinkers of 25.4 mm or less in any dimension. Our findings suggest it is unlikely that Common Loons would ingest lead fishing weights greater than 25.4 mm in any dimension, if such ingestion was solely the result of their search for replacement stones for their stomachs. However, this does not preclude the possibility that loons may ingest larger fishing weights under other circumstances, such as the consumption of fish with attached sinkers.

  11. Post-exercise alcohol ingestion perturbs blood haemostasis during recovery.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, M; Omar, A; Lin, X

    2000-09-15

    It is known that exercise induces modification in blood haemostasis. It is, however, not known whether alcohol consumption post-exercise influences these modifications during recovery. Eleven moderately active young men were studied immediately after a standardised cycle ergometer test and during the 24-hour period of recovery. Alcohol (0. 7 g/kg body mass) was given 1 hour after exercise on one test occasion, while an equal volume of alcohol-free solution was administered on the other. Exercise induced a significant increase in factor VIII activity with a significant shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time. Parallel increases in tissue plasminogen activity and antigen with a concomitant decrease in tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity were also observed after exercise. During recovery, while the increase in factor VIII activity post-exercise persisted in both trials, fibrinolytic activity demonstrated a sharp fall. The elevated factor VIII activity was significantly higher at 5 and 22 hours during the alcohol trial compared with the control. Although no demonstrable effect of alcohol on tissue plasminogen activator activity was present from 1 hour after ingestion onward, tissue plasminogen activator antigen and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly 22 hours following alcohol ingestion. Further comparison between trials revealed a higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity 5 hours after alcohol ingestion. In conclusion, exercise-induced changes to blood haemostasis are balanced during exercise but not during recovery. Alcohol consumption after physical exercise further perturbs blood haemostasis and could constitute a thrombotic risk.

  12. Effects of alcohol ingestion following exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, M S; AL-Bayatti, M F

    2001-01-01

    The study determined the effect of alcohol ingestion postexercise on postprandial lipemia during recovery. The mean values were compared with those obtained in a control experiment during which no alcohol was given. Nineteen normolipidemic subjects (11 males and 8 females) performed two exercise trials at an intensity corresponding to 70% VO2max for 35 min. In a random order, alcoholic (0.7 g/kg) or alcohol-free drinks were given 1 h after the completion of exercise. Venous blood samples were obtained pre- (before breakfast) and postexercise and pre- and postprandially during recovery. Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no change with exercise or alcohol ingestion. In the control trial, when subjects consumed a standardized lunch, triglycerides showed no significant change, but when alcohol was consumed postexercise triglyceride concentration increased substantially 5 h during recovery in both males and females. The mechanism responsible for the rise in triglyceride concentration during recovery when alcohol was ingested following exercise is not known, but this appears to be a late phenomenon.

  13. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  14. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

  15. A fatality from an oral ingestion of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Elizabeth; Lee, C Jeff; Marinetti, Laureen

    2009-10-01

    The case presented is of a 49-year-old white male decedent who admitted to oral ingestion of methamphetamine. He believed he was being followed by the police while walking his daughter to school in the morning and swallowed the "8-ball of meth," which is known to be one-eighth of an ounce or the equivalent of about 3 g. The following autopsy specimens were analyzed for the presence of methamphetamine and amphetamine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: femoral blood, urine, bile, vitreous fluid, brain, liver, and gastric contents. Blood drawn at the hospital approximately 12 h after ingestion was also analyzed. The methamphetamine concentration in the hospital blood was 3.0 mg/L, and the concentration in the femoral blood from autopsy was 30 mg/L. Other drugs confirmed included tramadol, lorazepam, and 11-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. The pathologist ruled the cause of death to be cardiac dysrhythmia due to excited delirium as a result of methamphetamine drug effects. Discussion of the timeline from ingestion to death and the clinical presentation of the decedent are included.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolecules via endocytosis during intracellular replication has not been tested. Here, we show that Toxoplasma ingests host cytosolic proteins and digests them using cathepsin L and other proteases within its endolysosomal system. Ingestion was reduced in mutant parasites lacking an intravacuolar network of tubular membranes, implicating this apparatus as a possible conduit for trafficking to the parasite. Genetic ablation of proteins involved in the pathway is associated with diminished parasite replication and virulence attenuation. We show that both virulent type I and avirulent type II strain parasites ingest and digest host-derived protein, indicating that the pathway is not restricted to highly virulent strains. The findings provide the first definitive evidence that T. gondii internalizes proteins from the host during intracellular residence and suggest that protein digestion within the endolysosomal system of the parasite contributes to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25028423

  17. Healthcare Software Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jason G.; Pauley, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    Software assurance is a rigorous, lifecycle phase-independent set of activities which ensure completeness, safety, and reliability of software processes and products. This is accomplished by guaranteeing conformance to all requirements, standards, procedures, and regulations. These assurance processes are even more important when coupled with healthcare software systems, embedded software in medical instrumentation, and other healthcare-oriented life-critical systems. The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory requirements and guidance documentation do not address certain aspects of complete software assurance activities. In addition, the FDA’s software oversight processes require enhancement to include increasingly complex healthcare systems such as Hospital Information Systems (HIS). The importance of complete software assurance is introduced, current regulatory requirements and guidance discussed, and the necessity for enhancements to the current processes shall be highlighted. PMID:17238324

  18. Orthodontic Wire Ingestion during Treatment: Reporting a Case and Review the Management of Foreign Body Ingestion or Aspiration (Emergencies).

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided.

  19. Orthodontic Wire Ingestion during Treatment: Reporting a Case and Review the Management of Foreign Body Ingestion or Aspiration (Emergencies)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided. PMID:23853727

  20. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  1. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  2. Scientific Software for the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Douglas; Gabaldon, Diana J.

    1985-01-01

    Lists and describes representative software for Macintosh microcomputers. Included are Apple University Consortium software, word processing software, statistics packages, integrated packages, database management systems, and others. Source of software and costs (when available) are included. (JN)

  3. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  4. Solar Asset Management Software

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Aaron; Zviagin, George

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  5. Perspective on Software Reuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    structured systems analysis [Gane & Sarson; McMenamin & Palmer] which tries to separate the "logical system" requirements from the "physical aspects...6. Lewis. T.G., Apple Macintosh Software, Software Reviews, IEEE Software, March 1985, pp. 89-92. 7. McMenamin S.M. and Palmer, J.F., Essential...lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS NONE 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY N/A 2b. OECLASSIFICATION/OOWNGRAOING SCHEDULE 3. OlSTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  6. On Software Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershov, Andrei P.

    The problem of compatibility of software hampers the development of computer application. One solution lies in standardization of languages, terms, peripherais, operating systems and computer characteristics. (AB)

  7. Instructional Software Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Margret

    1985-01-01

    Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)

  8. Classification software technique assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Atkinson, R.; Dasarathy, B. V.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapryian, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of software options is presented for the use of local user communities to obtain software for analyzing remotely sensed multispectral imagery. The resources required to utilize a particular software program are described. Descriptions of how a particular program analyzes data and the performance of that program for an application and data set provided by the user are shown. An effort is made to establish a statistical performance base for various software programs with regard to different data sets and analysis applications, to determine the status of the state-of-the-art.

  9. Software Reuse Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Susan J. (Editor); Smith, Kathryn A. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center sponsored a Workshop on NASA Research in Software Reuse on November 17-18, 1988 in Melbourne, Florida, hosted by Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. Participants came from four NASA centers and headquarters, eight NASA contractor companies, and three research institutes. Presentations were made on software reuse research at the four NASA centers; on Eli, the reusable software synthesis system designed and currently under development by SPS; on Space Station Freedom plans for reuse; and on other reuse research projects. This publication summarizes the presentations made and the issues discussed during the workshop.

  10. Dtest Testing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  11. Architecture for Verifiable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

  12. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  13. Statistical modelling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

  14. A lethal case of DEET toxicity due to intentional ingestion.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Devin; Yee, Justin; Castillo, Uvidelio; Russell, Jason; Spiller, Henry; Casavant, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male with prior medical history of profound developmental delay experienced seizure and cardiac arrest following ingestion of 6 ounces of a 40% N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) containing solution. The patient was unresponsive, acidemic, tachycardic and hypotensive on presentation. Over three hospital days, the patient's vitals recovered to baseline but he remained unresponsive and areflexic with fixed and dilated pupils. Non-contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebral edema, transtentorial and tonsillar herniations. A rapid, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was utilized for the analysis of postmortem plasma blood and urine samples of a lethal case of DEET intentional ingestion. The method combined the use of C18 SepPak cartridges for solid phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC. One urine and five blood samples from this patient were analyzed for DEET concentration. Mixtures of serum/urine postcentrifuge were eluted and reduced to 1 mL using a solvent evaporator. Blood in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), whole blood, serum, blood with heparin and urine DEET concentrations were 9.84, 9.21, 10.18, 8.66dl and 0.642 mg/dL, respectively. All samples were collected <1 h postingestion. Although seizures and cardiac toxicity have been described in other case reports, this case is atypical due to the exceptional dose ingested and the timing of the fluid test samples being drawn so soon following exposure. Although a widely used and extremely safe insect repellent, DEET can be highly toxic in large but easily obtainable doses.

  15. Effects of alcohol ingestion post-exercise on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud S

    2002-01-15

    The present study examined the influence of ingesting a moderate dose of alcohol on platelet count and platelet aggregation during recovery following exercise. Nineteen subjects (11 male and 8 female) were studied immediately after a standardised cycle ergometer test and during the 24-h period of recovery. In random order, alcohol (0.7 g/kg body mass) was given 1 h after exercise on one test occasion, while an equal volume of alcohol-free solution was administered on the other. Venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, post-exercise, and at 1, 5, and 22 h post-alcohol ingestion. Blood alcohol level increased significantly 1 h after the ingestion of alcohol, but decreased and returned to the resting baseline level at 5 h during recovery. Males and females subjects exhibited similar mean values of platelet count, platelet aggregation, and beta-thromboglobulin concentration at rest and following exercise and recovery. A significant increase in platelet count and a decrease in platelet aggregation using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was found following exercise. Although plasma beta-thromboglobulin level (pooled data for males and females) showed an increase by 26.0% (from a mean pre-exercise value of 22.3-28.1 IU/ml), this rise was not significant (P>.05). The post-exercise increase in platelet count was mainly due to exercise-induced plasma volume loss. During recovery, while the increase in platelet count post-exercise returned to the baseline level in control and alcohol trials, the optical density of platelet aggregation remained significantly depressed at 5-h during recovery in the alcohol trial but not in the normal control condition. It is concluded that exercise induces significant reduction in platelet aggregation and the consumption of alcohol after physical exercise delays the normal return of platelet aggregation to the resting baseline levels during recovery.

  16. Teaching Social Software with Social Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejias, Ulises

    2006-01-01

    Ulises Mejias examines how social software--information and communications technologies that facilitate the collaboration and exchange of ideas--enables students to participate in distributed research, an approach to learning in which knowledge is collectively constructed and shared. During Fall 2005, Mejias taught a graduate seminar that provided…

  17. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  18. [Ingestion of an open safety pin--challenging treatment].

    PubMed

    DeRowe, Ari; Fishman, Gadi; Avni, Hadas; Reider, Ivgeny; Ogorek, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    A 9 month old girl at the emergency room appeared with an acute onset of restlessness, drooling and suspected foreign body ingestion. An X-Ray revealed an open safety pin in the child's upper aero-digestive tract. The source of the safety pin was a "Hamsah" good luck charm that was attached to her bed. Open safety pins in the aero-digestive tract are difficult to manage and great care must be taken during removal to prevent further injury. Parents should be counseled regarding the presence of safety pins in the child's surroundings in order to prevent such hazards.

  19. [Long QRS tachycardia secondary to Aconitum napellus alkaloid ingestion].

    PubMed

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Gelmini, Gian Paolo; Montresor, Graziano; Canel, Daniela; Comini, Teresa; Fracalossi, Claudio; Martinetti, Claudio; Poeta, Maria Luisa; Ziacchi, Vigilio

    2002-08-01

    The roots and seeds of the aconite (Aconitum napellus) contain alkaloids with modulatory activity on the sodium voltage-dependent channels; most fatal cases have been determined by ventricular tachycardia and respiratory paralysis. The only established treatment is supportive. We report a case of poisoning from Aconitum napellus, ingested by a husband and wife who thought the plant was "mountain chicory". They both had tachyarrhythmias, but the husband had more malignant episodes of hemodynamically unstable wide QRS tachycardia and respiratory paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation.

  20. Variable angle of strabismus related to timing of opiate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jonathan J; Brown, Valerie; Fern, Alasdair I

    2009-04-01

    Heroin (diamorphine) is a highly addictive opiate with potential for misuse. A small number of reports have linked the commencement of heroin misuse to acute exotropia with diplopia and subsequent withdrawal to esotropia in individuals without previous symptoms.(1-5) We describe a young adult who sought strabismus surgery to correct a large-angle exotropia. Detailed patient history and orthoptic measurements at different times of the day revealed a fluctuating angle of divergence relating to the timing of opiate ingestion, rendering surgery inappropriate. We suggest that opiate misuse, which may not willingly be disclosed by patients, should be specifically asked about before acquired-strabismus surgery is undertaken in adults.

  1. The Effect of Turbulence Ingestion on Propeller Broadband Thrust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    unsteady force caused by turbulence ingestion has been studied by several investigators in the past. Most previous studies are based upon special...correlation method because it is the more direct approach and is easier to apply numerically. However, for completeness of the study , the spec- trum...p($RT)2]2(CR) 2U2/ (Q RT)2 2 (~- n(Y) q( ) _ I A,[(k 2 sin + c Cos -)b] 1 UT UTUT 0 2(k 2)dk2 where UT is the resultant tip speed VV 2 + (RTQ) 2 (V

  2. Severe generalized argyria secondary to ingestion of colloidal silver protein.

    PubMed

    White, J M L; Powell, A M; Brady, K; Russell-Jones, R

    2003-05-01

    Argyria is a rare cause of cutaneous discolouration caused by silver deposition. We report a case of dramatic and diffuse argyria secondary to ingestion of colloidal silver protein over a 1-year period. Stained electron microscopy with spectral analysis was used to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Silver-protein complexes are deposited in the skin and reduced to inert silver salts by sunlight in a process similar to that harnessed in photography. Our patient had obtained the silver for consumption via mail order. It had been advertised as a cure for a variety of diseases. Colloidal silver protein is commercially available as a 'food supplement', hence circumventing the strict controls placed on medicines.

  3. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice.

  5. Adverse reaction to mefloquine associated with ethanol ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Wittes, R C; Saginur, R

    1995-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with no history of neuropsychiatric illness was taking one 250-mg tablet of mefloquine (MFQ) weekly for malaria prophylaxis while in Tanzania. He experienced no adverse reaction in association with his first two doses. Concurrently with both his third and his fourth dose he consumed about half a litre of whisky. On both occasions he experienced hallucinations, paranoid delusions and suicidal ideation. Thereafter he continued taking the MFQ, abstained completely from ethanol ingestion and had no recurrence of psychiatric symptoms. It is hypothesized that the combination of MFQ and ethanol caused the two episodes of severe psychiatric disturbance. PMID:7859199

  6. Acute pesticide ingestion managed with yohimbine as a rescue therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Juneja, Deven

    2016-01-01

    Amitraz is used as a pesticide in agricultural and veterinary medicine. It is primarily a central α2 adrenergic agonist and known to cause central nervous system depression, convulsions, respiratory depression, and bradycardia on severe intoxication. We report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with accidental ingestion of amitraz solution with signs of severe poisoning. There is no specific antidote of amitraz poisoning in humans, however, animal experiments with α2 adrenergic antagonists such as yohimbine and atimepazole have been successful. The child was managed besides intensive management with enteral yohimbine, and he regained consciousness in 18 h and was successfully weaned off mechanical ventilation. PMID:28149034

  7. Predictability of outcome of caustic ingestion by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ezer, Semire Serin; Ince, Emine; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) to predict the outcome of caustic ingestion in children. METHODS: The study included 206 children who underwent EGD because of ingestion of caustic substances between January 2005 and August 2010. Retrospective analysis of data of the patients was performed. RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 1.6 and mean age was 38.1 ± 28.8 mo. The caustic substances were acidic in 72 (34.9%) cases, alkaline in 56 (27.2%), liquid household bleach in 62 (30.1%), and unknown in 16 (7.8%). Fifty-seven (27.7%) patients were symptom-free. Significant clinical findings were observed in 149 (72.3%) patients. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings of esophageal injury were grade 0 in 86 (41.7%) patients, grade 1 in 49 (23.8%), grade 2a in 42 (20.4%), grade 2b in 28 (13.6%), and grade 3a in 1 (0.5%) patient. 35 patients with grade 2a, 2b, and 3a injuries underwent esophageal dilation at second week of ingestion. Esophageal stricture, which necessitated a regular dilation program developed in 13 of the aforementioned 35 patients. There is no statistically significant difference in the rate of development of esophageal stricture between the patients who ingested acidic (15.3%) and alkaline (8.9%) substances (P = 0.32). Severe gastric injury was detected in 38 (18.5%) patients. The rate of development of gastric injury was significantly higher in the acidic group (14%) than in the alkaline group (2.9%) (P = 0.001). Out of 149 patients with clinical findings, 49 (32.9%) patients had no esophageal injury and 117 (78.5%) patients had no gastric lesion. Esophageal and severe gastric injuries were detected in 20 (35.1%) and 8 (14%) of patients with no clinical findings respectively. Pyloric stenosis developed in 6 patients. Pyloric obstruction improved with balloon dilation in 2 patients. Mean hospitalization time were 1.2 ± 0.5 d for grade 0 and 2.3 ± 5 d for grade 1 and 6.3 ± 6.2 d for grade 2a and 15.8 ± 18.6 d for grade 2

  8. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant.

  9. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    PubMed

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  10. Fishbone ingestion: two cases of late presentation as pediatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Casadio, G; Chendi, D; Franchella, A

    2003-09-01

    The authors report 2 cases of pediatric emergencies caused by fishbone ingestion. In the first case, 2 fishbones within the sac of an inguinal hernia were detected during an emergency operation for suspected testicular torsion; in the second case, a big fishbone was found in the omentum covering an inflammed appendix during an emergency appendicectomy. In some cases this three foreign bodies can be detected with a simple abdominal X-ray; the relationship between the fish species involved and the diagnosis is discussed.

  11. Cartographic applications software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    The Office of the Assistant Division Chief for Research, National Mapping Division, develops computer software for the solution of geometronic problems in the fields of surveying, geodesy, remote sensing, and photogrammetry. Software that has been developed using public funds is available on request for a nominal charge to recover the cost of duplication.

  12. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  13. Selecting the Right Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  14. Software Product Lines Essentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvement Technology innovation Reuse 7 Software Product Lines Linda Northrop © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Few Systems Are Unique Most...Focus was small-grained, opportunistic, and technology -driven. Results did not meet business goals. Reuse History 9 Software Product Lines Linda...servers, storage servers, network camera and scanner servers Bold Stroke Avionics Customized solutions for transportation industries E-COM Technology

  15. Who Owns Computer Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Anne Wells

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the protection of intellectual property as it applies to computer software and its impact on private enterprise and the public good. Highlights include the role of patents, copyrights, and trade secrets; some court cases; and recommendations for alternatives to the existing legal framework for protecting computer software. (KRN)

  16. Software process assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

  17. Software Marketing Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    Seven factors that currently affect the potential for marketing and publishing computer software for education are discussed: (1) computers as an inplace technology in education, (2) marketing and distribution patterns for software, (3) consumer demand, (4) quality, (5) timelessenss, (6) basic skills, and (7) the future. The proliferation of…

  18. Computer Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Intended to provide guidance in the selection of the best computer software available to support instruction and to make optimal use of schools' financial resources, this publication provides a listing of computer software programs that have been evaluated according to their currency, relevance, and value to Hawaii's educational programs. The…

  19. Software Solution Saves Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses computer software that can give classrooms and computer labs the capabilities of costly PC's at a small fraction of the cost. A growing number of cost-conscious school districts are finding budget relief in low-cost computer software known as "open source" that can do everything from manage school Web sites to equip…

  20. STARLINK Software Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Steve; Lawden, Mike; Bly, Martin

    The Starlink Software Collection is a set of software which is managed and distributed by the Starlink Project. Some of the software was written by members of the Project, but some of it comes from outside the Project. This note describes the functions of the individual items in the Collection and provides an overview of the software so that readers can identify the items they need. The software is classified into four main divisions: * Packages -- are large collections of programs for people who want to analyse, convert, and display data. They are subdivided into eleven classes to help you find what you want. * Utilities -- are small programs devoted to a specific purpose. For example, they help you prepare for observations, write documents, and write programs. * Subroutine Libraries -- are for programmers writing astronomical software. They provide facilities such as astronomical calculations, data management and graphics. * Infrastructure -- are items which are mainly of interest to people writing programs within the Starlink Software Environment. They are included for completeness. Each item is described in sufficient detail for you to decide whether or not to investigate it further. If you want to find out more about an item, follow the document references given opposite the item name. If you are using the hypertext version of this document, the most up-to-date document references can be found by following the link from the software item name.

  1. Cactus: Software Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    The early eighties saw a period of rapid change in computing and teachers lost control of how they used computers in their classrooms. Software companies produced computer tools that looked so good that teachers forgot about writing their own classroom materials and happily purchased software--that offered much more than teachers needed--from…

  2. No System? No Software!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Noting that the computer software cataloging system at the media center of the Washington (Illinois) Center for Continuing Education is essentially a card catalog in notebook form, this article describes aspects of the development and utilization of the system. Major sections describe: (1) software cataloging system terminology; (2) steps for…

  3. Software measurement guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassman, Mitchell J.; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1994-01-01

    This software Measurement Guidebook presents information on the purpose and importance of measurement. It discusses the specific procedures and activities of a measurement program and the roles of the people involved. The guidebook also clarifies the roles that measurement can and must play in the goal of continual, sustained improvement for all software production and maintenance efforts.

  4. Documentation Driven Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    reliability standards, ease of reconfigurability, and interoperability with other systems. The key challenges encountered during design of complex...software life cycles. The challenge here is to ensure proper transformation of project requirements, which may be specified informally, into the formal...software is becoming a more challenging task— often resulting in unexpected safety risks, schedule delays, and cost overruns. This research is

  5. Reusable Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Reusable Software System (RSS) is to provide NASA Langley Research Center and its contractor personnel with a reusable software technology through the Internet. The RSS is easily accessible, provides information that is extractable, and the capability to submit information or data for the purpose of scientific research at NASA Langley Research Center within the Atmospheric Science Division.

  6. Software engineering ethics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  7. PREVAPORATION PERFORMANCE PREDICTION SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pervaporation, Performance, Prediction Software and Database (PPPS&D) computer software program is currently being developed within the USEPA, NRMRL. The purpose of the PPPS&D program is to educate and assist potential users in identifying opportunities for using pervaporati...

  8. Plating Tank Control Software

    SciTech Connect

    Krafcik, John

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  9. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  10. Measuring software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An extensive series of studies of software design measures conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory is described. Included are the objectives and results of the studies, the method used to perform the studies, and the problems encountered. The document should be useful to researchers planning similar studies as well as to managers and designers concerned with applying quantitative design measures.

  11. Software Quality Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  12. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  13. Predicting software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlewood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed look is given to software reliability techniques. A conceptual model of the failure process is examined, and some software reliability growth models are discussed. Problems for which no current solutions exist are addressed, emphasizing the very difficult problem of safety-critical systems for which the reliability requirements can be enormously demanding.

  14. The PCMDI software and the next generation internet project

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, G. L.; Williams, Dean N.

    1999-10-15

    One problem facing many scientists is not the absence of tools to analyze data, but rather a shortage of interrelated diagnostic software that is consistent, flexible, portable, adaptable, efficient, sharable, and easy to use. Consequently, many scientists are writing their own programs to ingest, manipulate and display data. Debugging and enhancing special purpose software diverts time that otherwise would be spent on research. The result is often not ''friendly'', reusable, or portable, nor does it promote standards within the research community. In response to the needs of the scientific community, PCMDI has developed a suite of software tools for the storage, diagnosis, and visualization of data. PCMDI's principal tools are the Climate Data Analysis Tool (CDAT), the Climate Database Management System (CDMS), and the Visualization and Computation System (VCS). The design goal of this suite of software is to reduce the redundancy encountered so often in scientific analysis and to allow researchers to concentrate on their science. One obstacle to sharing analysis software is the wide variety of data file formats that are in use. Programs must be written to convert data to a user's preferred file format and conventions. This data conversion requires additional expenditure of efforts on testing and quality assurance. Modular and interrelated software performs such tasks transparently.

  15. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  16. Cleanroom software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, M.; Mills, H. D.

    1981-01-01

    The 'cleanroom' software development process is a technical and organizational approach to developing software with certifiable reliability. Key ideas behind the process are well structured software specifications, randomized testing methods and the introduction of statistical controls; but the main point is to deny entry for defects during the development of software. This latter point suggests the use of the term 'cleanroom' in analogy to the defect prevention controls used in the manufacturing of high technology hardware. In the 'cleanroom', the entire software development process is embedded within a formal statistical design, in contrast to executing selected tests and appealing to the randomness of operational settings for drawing statistical inferences. Instead, random testing is introduced as a part of the statistical design itself so that when development and testing are completed, statistical inferences are made about the operation of the system.

  17. Software quality in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1997-11-01

    For many years, software quality assurance lagged behind hardware quality assurance in terms of methods, metrics, and successful results. New approaches such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) the ISO 9000-9004 standards, the SEI maturity levels, and Total Quality Management (TQM) are starting to attract wide attention, and in some cases to bring software quality levels up to a parity with manufacturing quality levels. Since software is on the critical path for many engineered products, and for internal business systems as well, the new approaches are starting to affect global competition and attract widespread international interest. It can be hypothesized that success in mastering software quality will be a key strategy for dominating global software markets in the 21st century.

  18. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  19. Caffeine ingestion, affect and perceived exertion during prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Susan H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Bishop, Nicolette C; Williams, Clyde

    2011-08-01

    Caffeine's metabolic and performance effects have been widely reported. However, caffeine's effects on affective states during prolonged exercise are unknown. Therefore, this was examined in the present study. Following an overnight fast and in a randomised, double-blind, counterbalanced design, twelve endurance trained male cyclists performed 90 min of exercise at 70% VO(₂ max) 1h after ingesting 6 mg kg⁻¹ BM of caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Dimensions of affect and perceived exertion were assessed at regular intervals. During exercise, pleasure ratings were better maintained (F(₃,₃₈)=4.99, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial with significantly higher ratings at 15, 30 and 75 min (all P < 0.05). Perceived exertion increased (F(₃,₃₈) = 19.86, P < 0.01) throughout exercise and values, overall, were significantly lower (F(₁,₁₁) = 9.26, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial. Perceived arousal was elevated during exercise but did not differ between trials. Overall, the results suggest that a moderate dose of CAF ingested 1h prior to exercise maintains a more positive subjective experience during prolonged cycling. This observation may partially explain caffeine's ergogenic effects.

  20. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    PubMed

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration.

  1. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species.

  2. A case of methanol intoxication caused by methomyl pesticide ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gil, H W; Hong, J R; Song, H Y; Hong, S Y

    2012-12-01

    When clinicians treat patients with pesticide poisoning, they often pay attention only to the chief toxic agent and ignore the toxicity of the pesticide's additives or solvents. Occasionally, however, a solvent (e.g. methanol) may itself be the cause of poisoning. We report a case of acute methanol intoxication that occurred after ingestion of a methomyl pesticide that contained methanol as an additive. A 49-year-old man was brought to the emergency department in an unconscious state after ingestion of 20 ml of a carbamate pesticide (chief ingredient: methomyl; active ingredient: methanol). Upon arrival, he was semicomatose and did not breathe spontaneously; however, his cholinesterase level was within normal limits and cholinergic symptoms were not observed. High anion gap metabolic acidosis was present. His blood ethanol level was 74.8 mg/dL. The urine methanol level was 55.60 mg/dL, and urine ethanol level was 22.0 mg/dL. He was treated with hemodialysis; subsequently, his metabolic acidosis resolved and he returned to normal mental status. We guessed that methanol, as the solvent of the methomyl, had produced the symptoms. When treating pesticide-poisoned patients, clinicians should identify the solvent used in the pesticide, because solvents such as methanol may exacerbate the symptoms of poisoned patients.

  3. Changes in mouse gastrointestinal microbial ecology with ingestion of kale.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Y; Katayama, S; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-01

    Kale, a cultivar of Brassica oleracea, has attracted a great deal of attention because of its health-promoting effects, which are thought to be exerted through modulation of the intestinal microbiota. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of kale ingestion on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology of mice. 21 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or experimental diets supplemented with different commercial kale products for 12 weeks. Contents of the caecum and colon of the mice were processed for the determination of active bacterial populations by a bacterial rRNA-based quantification method and short-chain fatty acids by HPLC. rRNAs of Bacteroides-Prevotella, the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group, and Clostridium leptum subgroup constituted the major fraction of microbiota regardless of the composition of the diet. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was higher in the colon samples of one of the kale diet groups than in the control. The colonic butyrate level was also higher with the kale-supplemented diet. Overall, the ingestion of kale tended to either increase or decrease the activity of specific bacterial groups in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, however, the effect might vary depending on the nutritional composition.

  4. HINCOF-1: a Code for Hail Ingestion in Engine Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalaswamy, N.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major concerns during hail ingestion into an engine is the resulting amount and space- and time-wise distribution of hail at the engine face for a given geometry of inlet and set of atmospheric and flight conditions. The appearance of hail in the capture streamtube is invariably random in space and time, with respect to size and momentum. During the motion of a hailstone through an inlet, a hailstone undergoes several processes, namely impact with other hailstones and material surfaces of the inlet and spinner, rolling and rebound following impact; heat and mass transfer; phase change; and shattering, the latter three due to friction and impact. Taking all of these factors into account, a numerical code, designated HINCOF-I, has been developed for determining the motion hailstones from the atmosphere, through an inlet, and up to the engine face. The numerical procedure is based on the Monte-Carlo method. The report presents a description of the code, along with several illustrative cases. The code can be utilized to relate the spinner geometry - conical or, more effective, elliptical - to the possible diversion of hail at the engine face into the bypass stream. The code is also useful for assessing the influence of various hail characteristics on the ingestion and distribution of hailstones over the engine face.

  5. Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M; Milich, R; Stumbo, P; Schultz, F

    1985-04-01

    A challenge design was used in two separate studies to investigate the effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior and learning of hyperactive boys. In both studies, 16 boys were admitted to a clinical research center for 3 successive days, on each of which they were given a sucrose-free diet. On day 1, baseline levels on the learning tasks were established; on days 2 and 3 a challenge drink of either sucrose 1.75 gm/kg or a placebo (aspartame in equivalent sweetness) was presented, in a counterbalanced order. In the first study the challenge drink was administered 1 hour after lunch; in the second study it was given in the morning after an overnight fast. On days 2 and 3 of both studies, 37 behavioral (playroom observation and examiner ratings) and cognitive (learning and memory tasks) measures were collected, starting 1/2 hour after ingestion of the drink. The results of both studies revealed no differences between the boys' performance on the two challenge days. These findings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays a major role in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys.

  6. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  7. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  8. Anaphylaxis associated with the ingestion of Goji berries (Lycium barbarum).

    PubMed

    Monzón Ballarín, S; López-Matas, M A; Sáenz Abad, D; Pérez-Cinto, N; Carnés, J

    2011-01-01

    Goji berry (wolfberry), a member of the Solanacea family, has been recently introduced in Western countries and its consumption has increased rapidly. The objectives of the study were to describe the cases of 2 patients who experienced allergic symptoms after Goji berry consumption, to identify the protein profile of the extract, to analyze the allergenic profile of individuals, and to determine cross-reactivity with other members of the Solanaceae family (tomato). We describe 2 cases of allergic reaction, 1 of which was an anaphylactic reaction, after Goji berry ingestion. A Goji berry extract was manufactured and immunochemically characterized. The patients were skin prick tested with a battery of common aeroallergens including mites, epithelia, and molds. Individuals were also skin prick tested with food allergens, including Goji berries. A positive skin prick test and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to Goji berry was detected in both cases. Serum samples recognized a 9-kDa band, probably related to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Cross-reactivity with tomato was analyzed by inhibition studies, which showed that the 9-kDa band was totally inhibited by the tomato extract. This study describes the first 2 cases of allergic reaction following Goji berry ingestion. LTPs seem to be involved in allergic sensitization to Goji berries, as evidenced by cross-reactivity with tomato.

  9. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  10. Behavioral Analyses of Taste Function and Ingestion in Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    In 1975, at the start of my junior year in college, I took a course on experimental methods in psychology from Dr. James C. Smith, when he was a Visiting Professor at Penn State University. That experience set me on the professional path of studying the neural bases of taste function and ingestion on which I remain to this day. Along the way, I did my graduate work at Florida State University under the tutelage of Jim, I did my postdoctoral training at the University of Pennsylvania under the supervision of Harvey Grill, and I also worked closely with Ralph Norgren, who was at the Penn State Medical College. This article briefly summarizes some of the lessons I learned from my mentors and highlights a few key research findings arising from my privilege of working with gifted students and postdocs. After close to 40 years of being a student of the gustatory system and ingestive behavior, it is still with the greatest conviction that I believe rigorous analysis of behavior is indispensable to any effort seeking to understand brain function. PMID:25892670

  11. Short term salbutamol ingestion and supramaximal exercise in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Panse, B Le; Arlettaz, A; Portier, H; Lecoq, A‐M; De Ceaurriz, J; Collomp, K

    2006-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that chronic salbutamol intake improves performance during supramaximal exercise and to estimate the effects of this treatment on body composition, bone mass, and metabolic indices in healthy women. Methods Fourteen female volunteers (seven sedentary and seven recreationally trained) performed a 30 second Wingate test with and without salbutamol ingestion (12 mg/day for four weeks) in a random, double blind, crossover design. Blood samples were collected at rest, at the end of the test, and during passive recovery for lactate measurement. Body composition and bone mass were determined by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. Results Peak power appeared significantly earlier and was significantly (p<0.05) increased after salbutamol intake in all subjects. There was no difference in total work performed and fatigue indices with salbutamol compared with placebo. No significant alterations in lean or fat body mass and bone variables were observed with salbutamol treatment in either trained or untrained subjects during the trial. In contrast, blood lactate was significantly (p<0.05) increased during the recovery period after salbutamol ingestion compared with placebo. Conclusion As in men, chronic administration of therapeutic concentrations of salbutamol did not induce an anabolic effect in women but increased maximal anaerobic power. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms involved. PMID:16687481

  12. A case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil; Jeong, Yi Yeong

    2010-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots.

  13. Radiation dose assessment from ingestion pathway in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.R.A.F.; Abulfaraj, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Levels of radioactivities in foodstuffs in the local market have been measured for the period from November 1987 until end of June 1988. Out of the 674 samples analyzed there were 83 milk powder, 85 infant milk powder, 54 infant cereals, 89 meat, 16 lentils, 14 wheat, and 26 macaroni samples. The average radioactivity concentration of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, in these samples in Bq/kg were 19, 13, 18, 6, 10, 25 and 13 respectively. The rest adults and infant foodstuffs had negligible radioactivity levels. The calculated annual doses from ingestion pathway due to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs for adults were 3.13 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv while for one year old infant they were 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively. The estimated accumulated dose for 50 years from {sup 90}Sr due to one year food ingestion for adults and one year old infants were 3.76 {times} 3.76 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 5.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively.

  14. Value of radiography in the management of possible fishbone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, P C; Burnett, A; Maly, P V

    1994-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 42 consecutive patients to examine the value of radiography in the management of complaints of fishbone ingestion. All patients underwent an oral examination followed by radiographic examination with plain films, barium swallows, barium and water swallows, and an endoscopic examination. All radiographs were reviewed by two unbiased, experienced radiologists. Of the 7 cases with fishbone found at endoscopic examination, only two (29%) bones were seen by the primary radiologist and 5 (71%) by the reviewing radiologists. Except for one case in which all three radiologists detected a fishbone that passed during the examination, and thereby was not found on endoscopy, no fishbones were found at the radiographic examination that were not seen on the endoscopic examination. Thus, radiography added no valuable information but only delayed the endoscopic examination with ensuing removal of the foreign body, which had to be performed regardless of the outcome of the radiographic examination. Therefore, we suggest that patients with a short history of complaints of fishbone ingestion, ie, 48 hours or less, should first be evaluated with oral and endoscopic examination.

  15. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish.

  16. Software for Better Documentation of Other Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinedo, John

    2003-01-01

    The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

  17. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  18. CASE: Software design technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanov, G.N.

    1994-05-01

    CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) is a set of methodologies for software design, development, and maintenance supported by a complex of interconnected automation tools. CASE is a set of tools for the programmer, analyst, and developer for the automation of software design and development. Today, CASE has become an independent discipline in software engineering that has given rise to a powerful CASE industry made up of hundreds of firms and companies of various kinds. They include companies that develop tools for software analysis and design and have a wide network of distributors and dealers, firms that develop specialized tools for narrow subject areas or for individual stages of the software life cycle, firms that organize seminars and courses for specialists, consulting firms, which demonstrate the practical power of CASE toolkits for specific applications, and companies specializing in the publication of periodicals and bulletins on CASE. The principal purchasers of CASE toolkits abroad are military organizations, data-processing centers, and commercial software developers.

  19. Software Measurement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Software Measurement Guidebook is based on the extensive experience of several organizations that have each developed and applied significant measurement programs over a period of at least 10 years. The lessons derived from those experiences reflect not only successes but also failures. By applying those lessons, an organization can minimize, or at least reduce, the time, effort, and frustration of introducing a software measurement program. The Software Measurement Guidebook is aimed at helping organizations to begin or improve a measurement program. It does not provide guidance for the extensive application of specific measures (such as how to estimate software cost or analyze software complexity) other than by providing examples to clarify points. It does contain advice for establishing and using an effective software measurement program and for understanding some of the key lessons that other organizations have learned. Some of that advice will appear counterintuitive, but it is all based on actual experience. Although all of the information presented in this guidebook is derived from specific experiences of mature measurement programs, the reader must keep in mind that the characteristics of every organization are unique. Some degree of measurement is critical for all software development and maintenance organizations, and most of the key rules captured in this report will be generally applicable. Nevertheless, each organization must strive to understand its own environment so that the measurement program can be tailored to suit its characteristics and needs.

  20. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  1. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  2. Study of Bird Ingestions into Small Inlet Area Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    occurred on a civilian airplane resulting in the death of the copilot. Ingestion of birds into airplane engines is a safety problem for civil as well as... problem of engine damage resulting from bird ingestion is similar to that for windshield birdstrike, e.g., either design-consideration of the...well as the number of times it appears. The mode is a relevant measure of the bird ingestion problem . It represents the weight which will be

  3. Management systems and software.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2001-02-01

    To ensure that your software optimizes your practice management systems, design systems that allow you and your team to achieve your goals and provide high levels of quality dentistry and customer service to your patients. Then use your current software system or purchase a new practice management software program that will allow your practice to operate within the guidelines of the systems which you have established. You can be certain that taking these steps will allow you to practice dentistry with maximum profitability and minimum stress for the remainder of your career.

  4. Ascent/Descent Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Charles; Andrew, Robert; Roe, Scott; Frye, Ronald; Harvey, Michael; Vu, Tuan; Balachandran, Krishnaiyer; Bly, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Software Suite has been used to support a variety of NASA Shuttle Program mission planning and analysis activities, such as range safety, on the Integrated Planning System (IPS) platform. The Ascent/Descent Software Suite, containing Ascent Flight Design (ASC)/Descent Flight Design (DESC) Configuration items (Cis), lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle ascent and entry modeling analysis and mission design, resides on IPS/Linux workstations. A list of tools in Navigation (NAV)/Prop Software Suite represents tool versions established during or after the IPS Equipment Rehost-3 project.

  5. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  6. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  7. Towards a software profession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1986-01-01

    An increasing number of programmers have attempted to change their image. They have made it plain that they wish not only to be taken seriously, but they also wish to be regarded as professionals. Many programmers now wish to referred to as software engineers. If programmers wish to be considered professionals in every sense of the word, two obstacles must be overcome: the inability to think of software as a product, and the idea that little or no skill is required to create and handle software throughout its life cycle. The steps to be taken toward professionalization are outlined along with recommendations.

  8. Error Free Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  9. CNEOST Control Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  10. Advanced fingerprint verification software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradarani, A.; Taylor, J. R. B.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a fingerprint software package that can be used in a wide range of applications from law enforcement to public and private security systems, and to personal devices such as laptops, vehicles, and door- locks. The software and processing units are a unique implementation of new and sophisticated algorithms that compete with the current best systems in the world. Development of the software package has been in line with the third generation of our ultrasonic fingerprinting machine1. Solid and robust performance is achieved in the presence of misplaced and low quality fingerprints.

  11. Software quality assurance handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    There are two important reasons for Software Quality Assurance (SQA) at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD): First, the benefits from SQA make good business sense. Second, the Department of Energy has requested SQA. This handbook is one of the first steps in a plant-wide implementation of Software Quality Assurance at KCD. The handbook has two main purposes. The first is to provide information that you will need to perform software quality assurance activities. The second is to provide a common thread to unify the approach to SQA at KCD. 2 figs.

  12. Soil ingestion by sheep grazing the metal enriched floodplain soils of mid-Wales.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Peter W; Steigmajer, Jörg

    2003-03-01

    Floodplain soils within and downstream from the mineralised and mined areas of mid-Wales, are contaminated by metals, especially Pb, because of historical and contemporary fluvial pollution. Rates of soil ingestion by sheep grazing these sites have been quantified to establish the relative importance of the soil-plant-animal and soil-animal pathway of metals. The highest rates of soil ingestion occurred during the winter/spring period. During March, soil ingestion exceeded 30% of the D.M. intake at 2 of the 11 sites investigated. The total daily intake of metals by sheep reflects the degree of soil metal enrichment, and is elevated during the winter/spring period, coincident with the higher rates of soil ingestion and the generally higher pasture herbage metal concentrations. Because the soil-plant transfer of Pb is low, ingested soil is often the major pathway of this metal to sheep. This is especially evident in March and May when on average 80.0 and 82.9%, respectively of the Pb intake was via soil ingestion. At one site in May, 97% of the Pb intake was attributable to ingested soil. Even when soil-plant transfers are not so low, as found for Cu and Zn, ingested soil can occasionally supply greater than 60% of these metals to the animal. However, despite the potential importance of soil ingestion, little is known about the availability to and absorption of soil-borne metals by animals.

  13. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol)-containing cologne, perfume, and after-shave ingestions in children.

    PubMed

    Scherger, D L; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1988-06-01

    Colognes, perfumes, and after-shaves containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) are frequently ingested by children. These products may contain from 50% to 99% ethanol. To determine if ingestion of colognes, perfumes, or after-shaves by children results in serious ethanol toxic reactions, this retrospective study was performed. One hundred twenty-three cases of children younger than 6 years old who ingested these products were reviewed. The cases were arbitrarily divided into three groups based on the amount ingested by history. Group 1 included children in whom less than 30 mL was ingested; group 2, 30 to 60 mL was ingested; and group 3, more than 60 to 105 mL was ingested. Of the 102 patients in group 1, no children experienced symptoms or signs. One of 17 children in group 2 was described by parents as sleepy but was asymptomatic one hour later. Two of four children in group 3 behaved as if intoxicated, yet blood ethanol levels were undetectable within 2 1/2 hours after ingestion. Based on our study, asymptomatic children who ingested by history less than 105 mL of a cologne, perfume, or after-shave and remain asymptomatic can be safely watched at home. All children with symptoms of intoxication need health care facility referral.

  14. Ingestion of computer circuit boards causing esophageal impaction and small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in patients with psychiatric diagnoses. Ingested objects can become impacted in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, causing serious complications. We report a case of a schizophrenic who ingested large pieces of computer circuit boards, which impacted at the mid-esophagus, in the stomach, and in the cecum. Endoscopic removal of the esophageal object was unsuccessful, and the foreign objects were removed by esophagotomy and laparotomy. Expeditious removal through endoscopic or surgical means is extremely important, as complications can be life-threatening. This is the first report of ingestion of a computer printed circuit board. PMID:28127146

  15. Acute Stimulant Ingestion and Neurocognitive Performance in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Concussion management has become an area of great concern in athletics, and neurocognitive tests, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), are commonly used as management tools. Given the restrictive nature of current management plans, anecdotal concerns have been raised about athletes trying to cheat the assessments and return to participation sooner. Stimulants have been shown to improve neurocognitive measures similar to those used in ImPACT. Therefore, they could possibly improve performance during baseline and postinjury testing. Objective: To examine the effects of a supplement containing stimulants on ImPACT performance. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 5 men (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 176.3 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 76.9 ± 18.6 kg) and 7 women (age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, height = 162.9 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 60.9 ± 8.2 kg) with no histories of physician-diagnosed head injury, learning disability, or attention-deficit disorder. Intervention(s): Participants were assessed under supplement (5.5 g of Jacked 3D, which contains caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine), placebo, and control conditions separated by 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): I compared ImPACT composite scores for verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control, and a cognitive-efficiency index under each of the 3 conditions and assessed them 30 minutes after ingestion. Results: I observed a difference when comparing reaction times, as the participants reacted faster during the supplement condition (0.53 ± 0.03 seconds) than during the placebo (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) and control (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) conditions (F2,22 = 4.31, P = .03). A difference also was observed for the cognitive-efficiency index, as participants scored higher during the supplement condition (0.49 ± 0.09) than during the placebo (0.41 ± 0.10) and control (0.41 ± 0.12) conditions (F2,22 = 4

  16. Caffeine Ingestion Improves Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Landers, Grant; Fulton, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1st, 3rd, and 5th sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint. There was a moderate effect for improved mean sprint time in the CAF condition (0.52 s; 1.3%; d = 0.50). When assessed individually, there was a large effect for improved performance in sprints 3 (1.00 s; 2.5%; d = 1.02) and 4 (0.84 s; 2.1%; d = 0.84) in CAF compared to placebo, with worthwhile performance improvement found for each of the first 5 sprints. There was a significant treatment effect for higher blood lactate concentration for CAF (p = 0.029), and a significant treatment*time effect for reduced pH in the CAF condition (p = 0.004). Mean heart rate (167 ± 9 bpm vs 169 ± 7 bpm) and RPE (17 ± 1 vs 17 ± 1) were not different between placebo and CAF trials, respectively. This investigation is the first to demonstrate enhanced repeat-sprint ability in swimmers following acute caffeine ingestion. It appears likely that the combination of a moderate dose of caffeine (3-6 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes is most likely to enhance repeat-sprint ability in various athletic populations; however, the exact mechanism(s) for an improved repeat-sprint ability following acute caffeine ingestion remain unknown. Key points A moderate dose of caffeine (3 mg·kg-1) ingested 1 h before a repeat-sprint freestyle set significantly improves mean sprint time in elite swimmers. The combination of at least a moderate dose of caffeine (>3 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes appears the most likely to result in ergogenic benefit to anaerobic

  17. A Novel Software Evolution Model Based on Software Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weifeng; Li, Bing; Ma, Yutao; Liu, Jing

    Many published papers analyzed the forming mechanisms and evolution laws of OO software systems from software reuse, software pattern, etc. There, however, have been fewer models so far merely built on the software components such as methods, classes, etc. and their interactions. In this paper, a novel Software Evolution Model based on Software Networks (called SEM-SN) is proposed. It uses software network at class level to represent software systems, and uses software network’s dynamical generating process to simulate activities in real software development process such as new classes’ dynamical creations and their dynamical interactions with already existing classes. It also introduces the concept of node/edge ageing to describe the decaying of classes with time. Empirical results on eight open-source Object-Oriented (OO) software systems demonstrate that SCM-SN roughly describes the evolution process of software systems and the emergence of their complex network characteristics.

  18. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  19. Investing in Software Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Investing in Software Sustainment Robert Ferguson, Software Engineering...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investing in Software Sustainment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In many government weapon systems, sustaining software depends heavily on organic engineering efforts. This is different

  20. Software For Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steve E.

    1992-01-01

    SPLICER computer program is genetic-algorithm software tool used to solve search and optimization problems. Provides underlying framework and structure for building genetic-algorithm application program. Written in Think C.

  1. Software for FASTBUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, E. M.

    1989-11-01

    FASTBUS is an international standard high-speed bus system for data acquisition and processing. It is used by several large high-energy physics experiments. Mandatory bus protocols and programmable system features permit sophisticated configurations of embedded and external processors to operate coherently. The associated software should support: all defined modes of bus access, test facilities for hardware development, fault diagnosis for device and system debugging, automated configuration and initialisation of large systems, and distributed data collection and processing. An overview of the definition and design of FASTBUS software is presented. The need for and use of software engineering methods is outlined. Basic concepts are illustrated by examples at the bus and system levels, with emphasis on general purpose, experiment-independent software.

  2. Effectiveness of Software Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    quantitative measures of these factors. A useful analysis of the perception of software sustainment support within the Army C4ISR community is possible...6 Unit of Analysis and Research...6 Data Collection and Statistical Analysis

  3. Economics of software utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the reuse principle to software (use of methods, concepts, or system components in a context or a situation which is different from that originally envisaged in the development phase) requires solving many problems of technical, economic, organizational, and legal nature. At present, it is the technical problems of reuse that are receiving the greater attention. Economic aspects of reuse, which are the subject of this paper, are only beginning to be studied. In our analysis, an integrated approach to the economics of software recycling suggests three models that can be applied to examine reusability. Section 1 characterizes the application of the reuse principle in software systems. Section 2 identifies the factors which are relevant for reuse. Section 3 briefly describes the main processes of reuse. Section 4 presents the metrics for the evaluation of reuse models. Section 5 examines the reuse models, and Section 6 presents some recommendations for reducing the development costs of reusable software.

  4. A Symphony of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Offers a descriptive table of databases that help higher education institutions orchestrate advancement operations. Information includes vendor, contact, software, price, database engine/server platform, recommended reporting tools, record capacity, and client type. (EV)

  5. Writing Instructional Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Marian; Moose, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the main categories of instructional software, including drill/practice, tutorials, simulation/problem solving, games, and management, along with factors involved in their design. (Author/MBR)

  6. Computer Center: Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhrkopf, Richard, Ed.; Belshe, John F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a software package, "Mitosis-Meiosis," available for Apple II or IBM computers with colorgraphics capabilities. Describes the documentation, presentation and flexibility of the program. Rates the program based on graphics and usability in a biology classroom. (CW)

  7. Error-Free Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    001 is an integrated tool suited for automatically developing ultra reliable models, simulations and software systems. Developed and marketed by Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI), it has been applied in engineering, manufacturing, banking and software tools development. The software provides the ability to simplify the complex. A system developed with 001 can be a prototype or fully developed with production quality code. It is free of interface errors, consistent, logically complete and has no data or control flow errors. Systems can be designed, developed and maintained with maximum productivity. Margaret Hamilton, President of Hamilton Technologies, also directed the research and development of USE.IT, an earlier product which was the first computer aided software engineering product in the industry to concentrate on automatically supporting the development of an ultrareliable system throughout its life cycle. Both products originated in NASA technology developed under a Johnson Space Center contract.

  8. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  9. Software Solutions for ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, G. J.; Engstrom, A.; Bernhardt, R.; Prahl, U.; Adam, L.; Seyfarth, J.; Apel, M.; de Saracibar, C. Agelet; Korzhavyi, P.; Ågren, J.; Patzak, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.

  10. Tier2 Submit Software

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Download this tool for Windows or Mac, which helps facilities prepare a Tier II electronic chemical inventory report. The data can also be exported into the CAMEOfm (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) emergency planning software.

  11. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as

  12. Statistical Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    engineers, scientists, and statisticians The most important findings are: What is needed to address the challenge of cost- effectively building huge...MOST IMPORTANT RESULTS What is needed to address the challenge of cost- effectively building huge high- quality software systems is productive...information across software engineering projects as a means of evaluating effects of technology, language, organization, and process. CONTENTS OF THIS REPORT

  13. Public Key FPGA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Hymel, Ross

    2013-07-25

    The Public Key (PK) FPGA software performs asymmetric authentication using the 163-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) on an embedded FPGA platform. A digital signature is created on user-supplied data, and communication with a host system is performed via a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. Software includes all components necessary for signing, including custom random number generator for key creation and SHA-256 for data hashing.

  14. Open Source Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Agency’s XMM-Newton Observatory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and others. These are three highly visible astrophysics research projects whose...In scientific fields like astrophysics that critically depend on software, open source is considered an essential precondition for research to...space are made, this in turn often leads to modification, extension, and new versions of the astronomical software in use that enable astrophysical

  15. Software Architecture Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    viii Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Motivating example...211 xii 1 Introduction Architectural change is commonplace in real-world software systems. However, today’s software architects have few tools to help...the target architecture (the intended design to which the system must evolve) 1 1 Introduction are known. In fact, of course, this is often not the case

  16. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    acquisition and development of software-reliant systems . Novak has more than 25 years of experience with real-time embedded software product development...Problem Poor acquisition program performance inhibits military performance by depriving the warfighter of critical systems to achieve mission...objectives • Delayed systems withhold needed capabilities • Wasted resources drain funding needed for new systems Acquisitions fail for both technical

  17. Biological imaging software tools.

    PubMed

    Eliceiri, Kevin W; Berthold, Michael R; Goldberg, Ilya G; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B S; Martone, Maryann E; Murphy, Robert F; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Stuurmann, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E

    2012-06-28

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the inherent challenges and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open-source options.

  18. Biological Imaging Software Tools

    PubMed Central

    Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Berthold, Michael R.; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B.S.; Martone, Maryann E.; Murphy, Robert F.; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L.; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R.; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis, and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the challenges in that domain, and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open source options. PMID:22743775

  19. Self-Healing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Self-Awareness as an Aspect of Self-Healing * A Working Taxonomy for Software Self-Healing * Failures, errors and faults * Approaches to Software Self-Healing * Self-healing at code level * Self-healing through self-organisation * Self-healing based on policies * Architectures for self-healing * Model-based solutions for self-healing * Discussion and Conclusion

  20. Foundations for Software Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Psychological acceptability: It is essential that the human interface be designed for ease of use, so that users routinely and automatically apply...industries such as banking, medicine and retail . Software assurance is the commonly used term to describe this broader context. The Committee on...Service points out that, ‘The pipeline of new talent [with the skills to ensure the security of software systems] is inadequate. . . . only 40 percent

  1. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways.

  2. Acute respiratory failure due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ntelios, D; Kargakis, M; Topalis, T; Drouzas, A; Potolidis, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: A variety of organisms produce potent toxins that impact human health through compromising respiratory function. Case report: We describe a rare case of abrupt respiratory failure afterNicotiana glaucaingestion in a previously healthy sixty years old female patient. She presented complaining for gait instability and malaise after ingestion of cooked leaves of the wild plant and two hours after the onset she developed respiratory failurefor which she was intubated and mechanically ventilated for two days. The patient fully recovered and was discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: Anabasine, the plant’s main active ingredient, can cause severe systemic intoxication due to its nicotinic receptor agonist action with respiratory muscle paralysis being the main effect. PMID:24376330

  3. Hepatotoxicity associated with the ingestion of Papaver Rhoease.

    PubMed

    Gonullu, Hayriye; Karadas, Sevdegul; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Ebinc, Senar

    2014-10-01

    Liver injury appears to be associated with the use of herbal products and wild plants.This paper presents what is to our knowledge the first case report in the world of acute liver toxicity caused by Papaver Rhoease. A 17-year- old woman from eastern Turkey ingested Papaver Rhoease which is known as "poppy flower" among the local inhabitants. Her liver function tests were initially 10- 15 fold higher than normal. She was hospitalised in intensive care unit and on day 2 of hospitalisation, the results of her liver function tests showed about a hundred-fold increase compared to the normal level. Her general status deteriorated and she was transferred to another medical centre for liver transplantation.

  4. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach.

  5. The assimilation of elements ingested by marine copepods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Fisher, N.S. )

    1991-02-15

    The efficiency with which a variety of ingested elements (Ag, Am, C, Cd, P, S, Se, and Zn) were assimilated in marine calanoid copepods fed uniformly radiolabeled diatoms ranged from 0.9% for Am to 97.1% for Se. Assimilation efficiencies were directly related to the cytoplasmic content of the diatoms. This relation indicates that the animals obtained nearly all their nutrition from this source. The results suggest that these zooplankton, which have short gut residence times, have developed a gut lining and digestive strategy that provides for assimilation of only soluble material. Because the fraction of total cellular protein in the cytoplasm of the diatoms increased markedly with culture age, copepods feeding on senescent cells should obtain more protein than those feeding on rapidly dividing cells. Elements that are appreciably incorporated into algal cytoplasm and assimilated in zooplankton should be recycled in surface waters and have longer oceanic residence times than elements bound to cell surfaces.

  6. Acute renal toxicity after ingestion of Lava light liquid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Zabaneh, R; Reid, R

    1996-06-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse and seizure disorder presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, increased anion gap acidosis, phenytoin toxicity, and acute kidney failure. The patient had ingested the liquid contents of a Lava light, which contained chlorinated paraffin, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 200), kerosene, and micro-crystalline wax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of the patient's blood produced results consistent with the same analysis of the Lava light contents. After 3 days of declining mental status and worsening kidney function, the patient required hemodialysis. After a prolonged hospitalization, the patient was discharged home with residual renal insufficiency. Although multifactorial, the associated renal toxicity was most probably related to the low molecular weight polyethylene glycol content of the lamp's liquid contents.

  7. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1999-02-01

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways.

  8. [Benzodiazepine drug ingestion and evaluation of after care].

    PubMed

    Dandelot, D; Bertholon, F; Pascalis, J G

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary drug ingestion with benzodiazepine represent today the most frequent method of attempt of autolysis. One must note the difficulties the doctor may find in front such problems to judge the reliability of interviews made in such difficult conditions. Residual disturbances of superior functions, more precisely of vigilance during the period with follow the suicidal action must not be overlooked. Thanks to a clinical scale easily used the residual disturbances have been put in evidence on a sample of 20 subjects who had been admitted with this aim in view in a university ward specialized in psychiatric emergencies. The possibility of continuity within middle range care must allow an improvement of minimum care of such pathologies.

  9. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.; Guru, P. K.; Park, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated. PMID:25684875

  10. Epidemiology of coronial deaths from pesticide ingestion in Australia.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Nicholas J; Cairns, Rose; Dawson, Andrew H; Chitty, Kate M; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides in Australia are tightly regulated but it is unknown how this may affect the distribution of misuse and self-harm across Australia, both spatially and within subgroups in the population. We performed an observational study to examine spatial differences in suicide/deliberate poisonings with pesticides in Australia. We examined Coronial inquest cases of self-harm by pesticide ingestion for the years 2001-2013 (n=209). Coronial cases were older, more likely to be male, have lower SES status and live in outer regional areas as opposed to cities when compared to the general population. Case densities (cases/100,000 population) were lower in large capital cities and higher in agricultural areas: despite this half the cases occurred in major cities.

  11. Alcohol sensory processing and its relevance for ingestion.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Castro, Norma; Feretic, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol possesses complex sensory attributes that are first detected by the body via sensory receptors and afferent fibers that promptly transmit signals to brain areas involved in mediating ingestive motivation, reinforcement, and addictive behavior. Given that the chemosensory cues accompanying alcohol consumption are among the most intimate, consistent, and immediate predictors of alcohol's postabsorptive effects, with experience these stimuli also gain powerful associative incentive value to elicit craving and related physiologic changes, maintenance of ongoing alcohol use, and reinstatement of drug seeking after periods of abstinence. Despite the above, preclinical research has traditionally dichotomized alcohol's taste and postingestive influences as independent regulators of motivation to drink. The present review summarizes current evidence regarding alcohol's ability to directly activate peripheral and central oral chemosensory circuits, relevance for intake of the drug, and provides a framework for moving beyond a dissociation between the sensory and postabsorptive effects of alcohol to understand their neurobiological integration and significance for alcohol addiction.

  12. Effects of acute ingestion of salbutamol during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Candau, R; Collomp, R; Carra, J; Lasne, F; Préfaut, C; De Ceaurriz, J

    2000-10-01

    To assess the eventual effects of acute oral salbutamol intake on performance and metabolism during submaximal exercise, nine healthy volunteers completed two cycling trials at a power corresponding to 80-85% VO2max, after either placebo (Pla) or salbutamol (Sal, 6 mg) treatment, according to a double-blind randomized protocol. Blood samples were collected both at rest and during exercise (5 min-, 10 min-, 15 min-exhaustion) for C-peptide, FFA, lactate and blood glucose measurements. Cycling performance was significantly improved in the Sal vs. Pla trials (p < 0.05). After Sal intake, resting C-peptide, lactate, FFA and blood glucose values were higher whereas exercise lactate and free fatty acid concentrations were greater during and at the conclusion of the exercise period (p < 0.05). These results suggest that acute salbutamol ingestion improved performance during submaximal exercise probably through an enhancement of the overall contribution to energy production from both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms.

  13. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  14. Would decreased aluminum ingestion reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, D R; Kruck, T P; Lukiw, W J; Krishnan, S S

    1991-01-01

    Although the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown there is mounting evidence that implicates aluminum as a toxic environmental factor of considerable importance. Four independent lines of evidence--laboratory studies of the effects of intracerebral aluminum on the cognitive and memory performance of animals, biochemical studies, epidemiologic studies and the slowing of the progress of the disease with the use of an agent that removes aluminum from the body--now support the concept that aluminum is one of the pathogenic factors in AD. The evidence warrants serious consideration of reducing human exposure to aluminum. We hypothesize that a public health effort to restrict human ingestion of aluminum would reduce the incidence of this common chronic illness in the elderly. PMID:1822096

  15. Ingestion of drugs by "parachuting": a unique drug delivery technique.

    PubMed

    Kenerson, Katherine L; Lear-Kaul, Kelly C

    2012-06-01

    "Parachuting" is a technique of drug delivery where medications or illicit drugs are ingested by wrapping the drug of choice in a covering, which then will dissolve or unravel in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby releasing the drug for absorption. Parachuting of drugs can entail crushing of a pill prior to packaging to theoretically increase the surface area for absorption or may involve the packaging of a higher than usual dose of a drug in attempts to attain a sustained-release effect as the "parachute" dissolves or unravels. A case is presented in which a prescription drug abuser known to parachute his medications dies from obstruction of his airway by the inhaled packet. Risks of parachuting any drug would include overdose and fatal toxic effect from the drug itself and adverse effects from the packaging including bowel obstruction or perforation, or airway obstruction.

  16. Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.

  17. Gastric perforation due to foreign body ingestion mimicking acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Daniel; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; Ritchie, Ewan D; van den Bremer, Jephta

    2015-03-04

    An 82-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms that were suggestive of acute cholecystitis. He underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the intervention, a wooden foreign body was removed from the infiltrated omentum, probably after it had perforated the gastric antrum. The gastric perforation had led to a secondary infection of the gallbladder. The presumed gastric perforation was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. Secondary inflamed gallbladders are rare; the current case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reporting a secondary infection of the gallbladder due to a gastric perforation. Clinicians should be aware of possible ingestion of foreign bodies in elderly patients wearing dental prosthetic devices.

  18. Gastric perforation due to foreign body ingestion mimicking acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Daniel; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; Ritchie, Ewan D; van den Bremer, Jephta

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms that were suggestive of acute cholecystitis. He underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the intervention, a wooden foreign body was removed from the infiltrated omentum, probably after it had perforated the gastric antrum. The gastric perforation had led to a secondary infection of the gallbladder. The presumed gastric perforation was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. Secondary inflamed gallbladders are rare; the current case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reporting a secondary infection of the gallbladder due to a gastric perforation. Clinicians should be aware of possible ingestion of foreign bodies in elderly patients wearing dental prosthetic devices. PMID:25739796

  19. Calculations of hot gas ingestion for a STOVL aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, David M.; Holdeman, James D.; Vanka, Surya P.

    1992-01-01

    Hot gas ingestion problems for Short Take-Off, Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft are typically approached with empirical methods and experience. In this study, the hot gas environment around a STOVL aircraft was modeled as multiple jets in crossflow with inlet suction. The flow field was calculated with a Navier-Stokes, Reynolds-averaged, turbulent, 3D computational fluid dynamics code using a multigrid technique. A simple model of a STOVL aircraft with four choked jets at 1000 K was studied at various heights, headwind speeds, and thrust splay angles in a modest parametric study. Scientific visualization of the computed flow field shows a pair of vortices in front of the inlet. This and other qualitative aspects of the flow field agree well with experimental data.

  20. Encyclopedia of software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwarren, Lloyd (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.