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Sample records for acrf southern great

  1. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  3. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  4. Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

    2011-01-08

    Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

  5. The Status of the ACRF Millimeter Wave Cloud Radars (MMCRs), the Path Forward for Future MMCR Upgrades, the Concept of 3D Volume Imaging Radar and the UAV Radar

    SciTech Connect

    P Kollias; MA Miller; KB Widener; RT Marchand; TP Ackerman

    2005-12-30

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates millimeter wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several climatological regimes. The MMCRs, are the primary observing tool for quantifying the properties of nearly all radiatively important clouds over the ACRF sites. The first MMCR was installed at the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site nine years ago and its original design can be traced to the early 90s. Since then, several MMCRs have been deployed at the ACRF sites, while no significant hardware upgrades have been performed. Recently, a two-stage upgrade (first C-40 Digital Signal Processors [DSP]-based, and later the PC-Integrated Radar AcQuisition System [PIRAQ-III] digital receiver) of the MMCR signal-processing units was completed. Our future MMCR related goals are: 1) to have a cloud radar system that continues to have high reliability and uptime and 2) to suggest potential improvements that will address increased sensitivity needs, superior sampling and low cost maintenance of the MMCRs. The Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) technology, the frequency (35-GHz), the radio frequency (RF) layout, antenna, the calibration and radar control procedure and the environmental enclosure of the MMCR remain assets for our ability to detect the profile of hydrometeors at all heights in the troposphere at the ACRF sites.

  6. ACRF Archive User Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    SA Edgerton; RA McCord; DP Kaiser

    2007-10-30

    On October 30, 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sponsored an all-day workshop to assess the status of the ACRF Archive. Focus areas included usability of current functions, plans for revised functions, proposals for new functions, and an overarching discussion of new ideas. Although 13 scientists familiar with ACRF and the ARM Program were invited to the workshop, only 10 scientists were available to attend the workshop. ACRF consists of the infrastructure that was developed to support the ARM Program and includes the ACRF Archive (previously called the ARM Archive). The scientists who participated in the meeting ranged from those who used the Archive frequently to those who seldom or never had accessed the Archive. The group was spread across disciplines, i.e. modelers, conservationists, and others from universities and government laboratories. A few of the participants were funded by the ARM Program, but most were not funded currently by ARM. During the past year, several improvements were made to the ACRF Archive to link it with the ARM/ACRF web pages, add a shopping cart feature, and expand on search parameters. Additional modifications have been proposed and prototypes of these proposals were made available for the participants. The participants were given several exercises to do before the meeting, and their feedback was requested to help identify potential problems and shortcomings with the existing structure and to recommend improvements.

  7. A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

    2006-03-30

    In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

  8. ESTAR Measurements During the Southern Great Plains Experiment (SGP99)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Swift, C. T.; Haken, M.; Bidwell, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the Southern Great Plains experiment, the synthetic aperture radiometer, ESTAR, mapped L-band brightness temperature over a swath about 50 km wide and about 300 km long extending west from Oklahoma City to El Reno and north from the Little Washita River watershed to the Kansas border. ESTAR flew on the NASA P-3B Orion aircraft at an altitude of 7.6 km and maps were made on 7 days between July 8-20, 1999. The brightness temperature maps reflect the patterns of soil moisture expected from rainfall and are consistent with values of soil moisture observed at the research sites within the SGP99 study area and with previous measurements in this area. The data add to the resources for hydrologic modeling in this area and are further validation of the technology represented by ESTAR as a potential path to a future mission to map soil moisture globally from space.

  9. 3D Geologic Model of the Southern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous

  10. The Low-Level Jet over the Southern Great Plains Determined from Observations and Reanalyses and Its Impact on Moisture Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Huang, Maoyi

    2015-09-01

    This study utilizes five commonly used reanalysis products, including the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 (NCEP2), ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA)-Interim, Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25), Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) to evaluate features of the Southern Great Plains Low Level Jet (LLJ) above the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. Two sets of radiosonde data are utilized: the six-week Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), and a ten-year period spanning 2001-2010. All five reanalysis are compared to MC3E data, while only the NARR and MERRA are compared to the ten-year data. Each reanalysis is able to represent most aspects of the composite LLJ profile, although there is a tendency for each reanalysis to overestimate the wind speed between the nose of the LLJ and 700 mb. There are large discrepancies in the number of LLJ observed and derived from the reanalysis, particularly for strong LLJs that leads to an underestimate of the water vapor transport associated with LLJs. When the ten-year period is considered, the NARR overestimates and MERRA underestimates the total moisture transport, but both underestimate the transport associated with strong LLJs by factors of 2.0 and 2.7 for the NARR and MERR, respectively. During MC3E there were differences in the patterns of moisture convergence and divergence, with the MERRA having an area of moisture divergence over Oklahoma, while the NARR has moisture convergence. The patterns of moisture convergence and divergence are more consistent during the ten-year period.

  11. 78 FR 13374 - Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada AGENCY... U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Mojave- Southern Great Basin... transmission, and desert tortoise. Managers' reports of field office activities will be given at each...

  12. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMott, PJ; Suski, KJ; Hill, TCJ; Levin, EJT

    2015-03-01

    The first ever ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements to be collected at the Southern Great Plains site were made during a period from late April to June 2014, as a trial for possible longer-term measurements at the site. These measurements will also be used to lay the foundation for understanding and parameterizing (for cloud resolving modeling) the sources of these climatically important aerosols as well as to augment the existing database containing this knowledge. Siting the measurements during the spring was intended to capture INP sources in or to this region from plant, soil, dust transported over long distances, biomass burning, and pollution aerosols at a time when they may influence warm-season convective clouds and precipitation. Data have been archived of real-time measurements of INP number concentrations as a function of processing conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during 18 days of sampling that spanned two distinctly different weather situations: a warm, dry and windy period with regional dust and biomass burning influences in early May, and a cooler period of frequent precipitation during early June. Precipitation delayed winter wheat harvesting, preventing intended sampling during that perturbation on atmospheric aerosols. INP concentrations were highest and most variable at all temperatures in the dry period, where we attribute the INP activity primarily to soil dust emissions. Additional offline INP analyses are underway to extend the characterization of INP to cover the entire mixed phase cloud regime from -5°C to -35°C during the full study. Initial comparisons between methods on four days show good agreement and excellent future promise. The additional offline immersion freezing data will be archived as soon as completed under separate funding. Analyses of additional specialized studies for specific attribution of INP to biological and smoke sources are continuing via the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics

  13. Avian cholera in Southern Great Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leotta, G.A.; Rivas, M.; Chinen, I.; Vigo, G.B.; Moredo, F.A.; Coria, N.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) was found dead at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. The adult male was discovered approximately 48 hr after death. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were compatible with avian cholera and the bacterium Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida, serotype A1 was isolated from lung, heart, liver, pericardial sac, and air sacs. In addition, Escherichia coli was isolated from pericardial sac and air sacs. This is the first known report of avian cholera in a southern giant petrel in Antarctica.

  14. Dryland agriculture in Mexico and the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the "Dryland" monograph editors standardized chapter format, we describe the US southern Great Plains and northern Mexico dryland production regional boundaries and various climatic factors including: precipitation, evaporation, temperature, and water deficit. Dryland soil management, eros...

  15. Carbon and Water cycling in Southern Great Plains ecosystems converted to switchgrass production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the initiation of a multi-disciplinary, integrative program to investigate the effects of conversion of traditional southern Great Plains pasture and wheat systems to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production. The project is based at the USDA-ARS Southern Plains Range Research Stat...

  16. 75 FR 4582 - Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Rock Canyon National Conservation Area fees. March 24-25, BLM Southern Nevada District Office, 4701 N...: 14X1109] Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land...), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All meetings are open to the public. DATES...

  17. 76 FR 19523 - The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Saint Bernard Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Saint Bernard Parish, LA The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company (AGS),\\1\\ filed a verified notice of... discontinued in 2006 pursuant to Board authorization in Alabama Great Southern Railroad-- Discontinuance...

  18. Circular buffer strips in center pivot irrigation for multiple benefits in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ogallala Aquifer has converted the Southern Great Plains from a dust bowl to a highly productive agricultural region in the US. However, over exploitation of the aquifer is threatening sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the region. Partial pivots, where high water using conventional crop...

  19. 77 FR 56270 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Alabama Great Southern Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- Alabama Great... AGS and CSXT in Birmingham, Ala., near 14th Street at milepost 143.5 and the connection with the trackage of The Kansas City Southern Railway Company (KCSR) near 27th Avenue in Meridian, Miss.,...

  20. Reflectance based characterization of wheat cultivars for identifying drought tolerance in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP), drought stress is the single most important factor for reducing yield in winter wheat. Selection of drought tolerant wheat cultivars has been and will continue to be a critical strategy for wheat management under limited water conditions. Currently, yield is ...

  1. Major advances of soil and water conservation in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Southern Great Plains comprise the broad expanse of prairie and steppe lands that lie east of the Rocky Mountains and cover parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas where semi-arid dryland crop production merges into rainfed farming. Except for exposed Pliocene alluvial st...

  2. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  3. Growth and Quality of Perennial C3 Grasses in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring and fall gaps in forage production for systems utilizing winter wheat forage in the Southern Great Plains have led to an interest in additional resources such as C3 perennial grasses. We evaluated the potential of nine cool-season grass entries for forage production and quality through the fa...

  4. Growth and Quality of Cool-Season Perennial Grass Species in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annually planted winter wheat is the major cool-season livestock forage enterprise in a large part of the southern Great Plains and is a good complement to warm-season perennials. However, gaps in both fall and spring exist in the system. Cool-season perennial grasses that have origins in the Nort...

  5. Large-Scale Weather Disturbances in Mars' Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2014-11-01

    The character of large-scale extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a high-resolution version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This global circulation model imposes interactively lifted (and radiatively active) dust based on a threshold value of the instantaneous surface stress. Compared to observations, the model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a more dusty atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). In contrast to their northern-hemisphere counterparts, southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense synoptically. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather disturbances are examined. Simulations that adapt Mars' full topography compared to simulations that utilize synthetic topographies emulating essential large-scale features of the southern middle latitudes indicate that Mars' transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are significantly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). In addition, the occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring is keyed particularly to the western hemisphere via orographic influences arising from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate fundamental differences amongst such simulations and these are described.

  6. SuomiNet efforts in the U. S. Southern Great Plains.

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R. A.; Carr, F. H.; Ahern, J. L.; Liljegren, J. C.; Eagan, R. C.; Smith, J. J.

    2000-10-10

    SuomiNet provides great promise for advancing research at the University of Oklahoma in numerical weather prediction and plate tectonics studies, and will further help the U.S. DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program better specify the measurement of water vapor over the Southern Great Plains. The SuomiNet program is also allowing ARM to upgrade its data collection infrastructure to provide more reliable and near real-time observations not only to SuomiNet but also to other researchers.

  7. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B.

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  8. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description of a plausible major earthquake, released in May 2008, as the ShakeOut Scenario, a description of the impacts and consequences of a M7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (USGS OFR2008-1150). The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. The ShakeOut drill occurred in houses, businesses, and public spaces throughout southern California at 10AM on November 13, 2008, when southern Californians were asked to pretend that the M7.8 scenario earthquake had occurred and to practice actions that could reduce the impact on their lives. Residents, organizations, schools and businesses registered to participate in the drill through www.shakeout.org where they could get accessible information about the scenario earthquake and share ideas for better reparation. As of September 8, 2008, over 2.7 million confirmed participants had been registered. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The goal of the ShakeOut has been to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California, making earthquakes a reality that are regularly discussed. This implements the sociological finding that 'milling,' discussing a problem with loved ones, is a prerequisite to taking action. ShakeOut milling is taking place at all levels from individuals and families, to corporations and governments. Actions taken as a result of the ShakeOut include the adoption of earthquake

  9. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.

    1999-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  10. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

  11. AmeriFlux US-ARb ARM Southern Great Plains burn site- Lamont

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ARb ARM Southern Great Plains burn site- Lamont. Site Description - The ARM SGP Burn site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots, the US-ARb plot was burned on 2005/03/08. The second plot, US-ARc, was left unburned as the control for experimental purposes. Aside from 2005, the region evaded burning activities for at least 15 years. Current disturbances consist of only light grazing activities.

  12. Temporally and spatially uniform rates of erosion in the southern Appalachian Great Smoky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    We measured 10Be in fluvial sediment samples (n = 27) from eight Great Smoky Mountain drainages (1-330 km2). Results suggest spatially homogeneous sediment generation (on the 104-105 yr time scale and > 100 km2 spatial scale) at 73 ?? 11 t km-2 yr-1, equivalent to 27 ?? 4 m/m.y. of bedrock erosion. This rate is consistent with rates derived from fission-track, long-term sediment budget, and sediment yield data, all of which indicate that the Great Smoky Mountains and the southern Appalachians eroded during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic at ???30 m/m.y. In contrast, unroofing rates during the Paleozoic orogenic events that formed the Appalachian Mountains were higher (???102 m/m.y.). Erosion rates decreased after termination of tectonically driven uplift, enabling the survival of this ancient mountain belt with its deep crustal root as an isostatically maintained feature in the contemporary landscape.

  13. Seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: 1987 through 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harmsen, S.C.; Bufe, C.G.

    1991-12-31

    For the calendar year 1987, the southern Great basin seismic network (SGBSN) recorded about 820 earthquakes in the southern Great Basin (SGB). Local magnitudes ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 (December 30, 1987, 22:50:42 UTC at Hot Creek Valley). Five earthquakes epicenters in 1987 within the detection threshold of the seismic network are at Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential national, high-level nuclear waste repository. The maximum magnitude of those five earthquakes is 1.1, and their estimated depths of focus ranged from 3.1 to 7.6 km below sea level. For the calendar year 1988, about 1280 SGB earthquakes were catalogued, with maximum magnitude-4.4 for an Owens Valley, California, earthquake on July 5, 1988. Eight earthquake epicenters in 1988 are at Yucca Mountain, with depths ranging from three to 12 km below sea level, and maximum magnitude 2.1. For the calendar year 1989, about 1190 SGB earthquakes were located and catalogued, with maximum magnitude equal to 3.5 for earthquake about ten miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, on January 9. No Yucca Mountain earthquakes were recorded in 1989. An earthquake having a well-constrained depth of about 30 km below sea level was observed on August 21, 1989, in eastern Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  14. Traveling Weather Disturbances in Mars' Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2016-04-01

    ' transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are significantly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). In addition, the occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring is keyed particularly to the western hemisphere via orographic influences arising from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate fundamental differences amongst such simulations and these are described.

  15. Carbon export and transfer to depth across the Southern Ocean Great Calcite Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengard, S. Z.; Lam, P. J.; Balch, W. M.; Auro, M. E.; Pike, S.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.

    2015-02-01

    Sequestration of carbon by the marine biological pump depends on the processes that alter, remineralize and preserve particulate organic carbon (POC) during transit to the deep ocean. Here, we present data collected from the Great Calcite Belt, a calcite-rich band across the Southern Ocean surface, to compare the transformation of POC in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the water column. The 234Th-derived export fluxes and size-fractionated concentrations of POC, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and biogenic silica (BSi) were measured from the upper 1000 m of 27 stations across the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Great Calcite Belt. POC export out of the euphotic zone was correlated with BSi export. PIC export was not, but did correlate positively with POC flux transfer efficiency. Moreover, regions of high BSi concentrations, which corresponded to regions with proportionally larger particles, exhibited higher attenuation of >51 μm POC concentrations in the mesopelagic zone. The interplay among POC size partitioning, mineral composition and POC attenuation suggests a more fundamental driver of POC transfer through both depth regimes in the Great Calcite Belt. In particular, we argue that diatom-dominated communities produce large and labile POC aggregates, which generate high export fluxes but also drive more remineralization in the mesopelagic zone. We observe the opposite in communities with smaller calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores. We hypothesize that these differences are influenced by inherent differences in the lability of POC exported by different phytoplankton communities.

  16. Carbon export and transfer to depth across the Southern Ocean Great Calcite Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengard, S. Z.; Lam, P. J.; Balch, W. M.; Auro, M. E.; Pike, S.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.

    2015-07-01

    Sequestration of carbon by the marine biological pump depends on the processes that alter, remineralize, and preserve particulate organic carbon (POC) during transit to the deep ocean. Here, we present data collected from the Great Calcite Belt, a calcite-rich band across the Southern Ocean surface, to compare the transformation of POC in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the water column. The 234Th-derived export fluxes and size-fractionated concentrations of POC, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and biogenic silica (BSi) were measured from the upper 1000 m of 27 stations across the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Great Calcite Belt. POC export out of the euphotic zone was correlated with BSi export. PIC export was not, but did correlate positively with POC flux transfer efficiency. Moreover, regions of high BSi concentrations, which corresponded to regions with proportionally larger particles, exhibited higher attenuation of > 51 μm POC concentrations in the mesopelagic zone. The interplay among POC size partitioning, mineral composition, and POC attenuation suggests a more fundamental driver of POC transfer through both depth regimes in the Great Calcite Belt. In particular, we argue that diatom-rich communities produce large and labile POC aggregates, which not only generate high export fluxes but also drive more remineralization in the mesopelagic zone. We observe the opposite in communities with smaller calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores. We hypothesize that these differences are influenced by inherent differences in the lability of POC exported by different phytoplankton communities.

  17. Simulation of the Arid Climate of the Southern Great Basin Using a Regional Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Bates, Gary T.; Nieman, Steven J.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the development effort of a regional climate model (RCM)for the southern Great Basin, this paper present savalidation analysis of the climatology generated by a high-resolution RCM driven by observations. The RCM is aversion of the National Center for atmospheric Research-Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model, version 4 (MM4), modified for application to regional climate simulation. Two multiyear simulations, for the periods 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1983 and 1 January 1988 to 25 April 1989, were performed over the western United States with the RCM driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses of observations. The model resolution is 60 km. This validation analysis is the first phase of a project to produce simulations of future climate scenarios over a region surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the only location currently being considered as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site.Model-produced surface air temperatures and precipitation were compared with observations from five southern Nevada stations located in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation were simulated well. Monthly and seasonal temperature biases were generally negative and largely explained by differences in elevation between the observing stations and the model topography. The model-simulated precipitation captured the extreme dryness of the Great Basin. Average yearly precipitation was generally within 30% of observed and the range of monthly precipitation amounts was the same as in the observations. Precipitation biases were mostly negative in the summer and positive in the winter. The number of simulated daily precipitation events for various precipitation intervals was within factors of 1.5-3.5 of observed. Overall, the model tended to overestimate the number of light precipitation events and underestimate the number of heavy precipitation events. At Yucca Mountain, simulated

  18. Surface Forcing from CH4 at the North Slope of Alaska and Southern Great Plains Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, W.; Feldman, D.; Turner, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent increases in atmospheric CH4 have been spatially heterogeneous as indicated by in situ flask measurements and space-borne remote-sensing retrievals from the AIRS instrument, potentially leading to increased radiative forcing. We present detailed, specialized measurements at the DOE ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites to derive the time-series of both CH4 atmospheric concentrations and associated radiative implications at highly-contrasting natural and anthropogenic sources. Using a combination of spectroscopic measurements, in situ observations, and ancillary data for the atmospheric thermodynamic state from radiosondes and cloud-clearing from active sounders, we can separate out the contribution of CH4 to clear-sky downwelling radiance spectra and its infrared surface forcing. The time-series indicates year-to-year variation in shoulder season increases of CH4 concentration and forcing at NSA and large signals from anthropogenic activity at SGP.

  19. Preliminary Report of NRC Twin Otter Operations in the 1997 Southern Great Plains Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacPherson, J. Ian

    1997-01-01

    From June 18 to July 17, 1997, the NRC Twin Otter atmospheric research aircraft was operated from Oklahoma City, U.S.A., in the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment. The primary role of the aircraft was to measure the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat, CO2, ozone and momentum in the atmospheric boundary layer, along with supporting meteorological and radiometric data. Approximately 400 flux runs and 100 soundings were flown in 27 project flights over rural areas near Oklahoma City. This preliminary report documents the flight program, lists the instrumentation aboard the aircraft, and presents a summary of run-averaged data from each flux run. These data are from the in-field analysis and must be considered preliminary. A re-analysis incorporating updated calibrations is planned for the fall of 1997 followed by a more comprehensive technical report.

  20. AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont. Site Description - The ARM SGP Control site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots with identical towers, measurements at the US-ARc unburned plot are used as the experimental control. The second plot, US-Arb, was burned on 2005/03/08. Measurement comparisons between the control and burn plot are used to address questions regarding the effects of burning activities on carbon fluxes. The region evaded burning activities for at least 15 years. Current disturbances consist of only light grazing activities.

  1. Clear Sky Identification Using Data From Remote Sensing Systems at ARM's Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Monache, L.; Rodriguez, D.; Cederwall, R.

    2000-06-27

    Clouds profoundly affect our weather and climate due, in large part, to their interactions with radiation. Unfortunately, our understanding of these interactions is, at best, incomplete, making it difficult to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiation in climate models. The improved treatment of clouds and radiation, and a better understanding of their interaction, in climate models is one of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's major goals. To learn more about the distribution of water and ice, i.e., clouds, within an atmospheric column, ARM has chosen to use the remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols at its three climatologically-diverse sites as its primary observational method. ARM's most heavily instrumented site, which has operated continuously for more than a decade, is its Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility, located near Lamont, OK. Cloud-observing instruments at the Central Facility include the Whole Sky Imager, ceilometers, lidar, millimeter cloud radar, microwave radiometers and radiosondes.

  2. Presence of Symbiodinium spp. in macroalgal microhabitats from the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venera-Ponton, D. E.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2010-12-01

    Coral reefs are highly dependent on the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. These dinoflagellates spend part of their life cycle outside the coral host and in the majority of the cases have to re-infect corals each generation. While considerable insight has been gained about Symbiodinium in corals, little is known about the ecology and biology of Symbiodinium in other reef microhabitats. This study documents Symbiodinium associating with benthic macroalgae on the southern Great Barrier Reef, including some Symbiodinium that are genetically close to the symbiotic strains from reef-building corals. It is possible that some of these Symbiodinium were in hospite, associated to soritid foraminifera or ciliates; nevertheless, the presence of Symbiodinium C3 and C15 in macroalgal microhabitats may also suggest a potential link between communities of Symbiodinium associating with both coral hosts and macroalgae.

  3. A one-year climatology using data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site micropulse lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; Spinhirne, J.; Scott, S.

    1996-04-01

    The micropulse lidar (MPL) has been operational at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program for the past 15 months. The compact MPL is unique among research lidar systems in that it is eye-safe and operates continuously, except during precipitation. The MPL is capable of detecting cloud base throughout the entire depth of the troposphere. The MPL data set is an unprecedented time series of cloud heights. It is a vital resource for understanding the frequency of cloud ocurrence and the impact of clouds on the surface radiation budget, as well as for large-scale model validation and satellite retrieval verification. The raw lidar data are processed for cloud base height at a temporal frequency of one minute and a vertical resolution of 270 m. The resultant time series of cloud base is used to generate histograms as a function of month and time of day. Sample results are described.

  4. Comparison of precipitable water vapor measurements obtained by microwave radiometry and radiosondes at the Southern Great ...

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B.M.; Liljegren, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Comparisons between the precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimated by passive microwave radiometers (MWRs) and that obtained by integrating the vertical profile of water vapor density measured by radiosondes (BBSS) have generally shown good agreement. These comparisons, however, have usually been done over rather short time periods and consequently within limited ranges of total PWV and with limited numbers of radiosondes. We have been making regular comparisons between MWR and BBSS estimates of PWV at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (SGP/CART) site since late 1992 as part of an ongoing quality measurement experiment (QME). This suite of comparisons spans three annual cycles and a relatively wide range of total PWV amounts. Our findings show that although for the most part the agreement is excellent, differences between the two measurements occur. These differences may be related to the MWR retrieval of PWV and to calibration variations between radiosonde batches.

  5. Land Surface Product Validation Using the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, R.; Revercomb, H.; Tobin, D.; Osborne, B.

    2003-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) is making use of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site for validation of NASA EOS land surface products. The DOE ARM site covers a 250 km square region that includes most of Oklahoma and southern Kansas. The site is dominated by a mixture of vegetation and bare soil with a vegetation fraction that changes with the growing season. The land use is divided between cattle ranching (permanent pasture) and wheat farming (seasonal). The DOE ARM site provides routine state-of-the-art vertical profile measurements of the atmospheric state. Special radiosonde launches have been conducted by DOE ARM to coincide with overpasses of the NASA Aqua platform. The UW-SSEC has provided ground truth measurements of surface characteristics using a mobile research vehicle (the AERIbago) during several aircraft field campaigns. The UW-SSEC Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) has provided high altitude observations of the thermal infrared spectrum for comparison to satellite observations. Coincident measurements of ground-based and aircraft observations with AIRS and MODIS satellite observations have been obtained during TX-2001, TX-2002, and IHOP. Preliminary land surface products from AIRS will be compared with MODIS land products and the validation measurements obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors.

  6. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  8. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  9. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  10. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  11. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  12. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  13. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  14. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  15. Home range and habitat use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.R.; Bloom, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) are a common, widespread species that can be found in a variety of habitats across most of North America, but little is known about their space and habitat requirements. Using radiotelemetry, location data were collected on nine male and five female Great Horned Owls to determine home range and habitat use in southern California. Owls were tracked between January 1997 and September 1998 for periods ranging from 5-17 mo. Seven owls were also followed during 13 all-night observation periods. The mean 95% adaptive kernel home-range size for females was 180 ha (range = 88-282, SE = 36) and that for males was 425 ha (range = 147-1115 ha, SE = 105). Core areas estimated by the 50% adaptive kernel averaged 27 ha (range = 7-44, SE = 7) for females and 61 ha (range = 15-187, SE = 18) for males. Owls were located in areas with varying degrees of human disturbance ranging from almost entirely urban to native oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodland. Oak/sycamore (Quercus agrifolia/Platanus racemosa) woodland and ruderal grassland (Bromus spp., Avena spp., and various other non-native invasives), were used more often than expected based on availability, but we found no correlation between home-range size and any single habitat type or habitat groups. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  16. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Cassandra L.; White, William T.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  17. Evaluation of the seismicity of the southern Great Basin and its relationship to the tectonic framework of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Meremonte, M.E.

    1987-12-31

    Seismograph network recordings of local and regional earthquakes are being collected in the southern Great Basin to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard at a potential high-level radioactie waste repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. Data for 1522 earthquakes for the calendar years 1982 and 1983 are reported herein. In the period August, 1978 through December, 1983, 2800 earthquakes were located within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Earthquake hypocenters, selected focal mechanisms, and other inferred seismicity characteristics are presented and discussed in relation to the local and regional geologic framework. 105 refs., 94 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Energy and Water Fluxes across a Heterogeneous Landscape in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, J. E.; Williams, I. N.; Kueppers, L. M.; Lu, Y.; Torn, M. S.; Biraud, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fluxes of energy and water between the atmosphere and the land surface influence weather and climate. These fluxes depend on the state of the landscape, which contributes to differences in land-atmosphere coupling strength over space and time. One region with potentially strong land-atmosphere coupling is the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in North America. In this region, managed vegetation plays a key role in moderating the surface energy through effects on surface albedo, transpiration, precipitation interception, and other surface properties. However accurately modeling these effects is challenging because the vegetation in this region is very heterogeneous. Winter wheat is the dominant crop, but pasture, hayfields, corn, and recently introduced crops such as canola cover significant portions of the landscape as well. Winter wheat has a unique phenology with fall planting, maximum leaf area in late spring, and harvest in early summer. This phenology contrasts significantly with most other crops and with pastures and hayfields in the region, which have more typical spring-fall growing seasons. Therefore, to sufficiently model and assess land-atmosphere interactions in this region accurate characterization of differences in the seasonality of water and energy fluxes between vegetation types are necessary. We used observations including eddy covariance flux estimates, soil moisture data, state-of-the-art longwave and shortwave radiation measurements, and other observations available for several facilities within the SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas. We compared the timing and variations in fluxes of water and energy between winter wheat and other land cover types, focusing on vegetation influences on rates of soil dry-down following precipitation events. We found distinct differences in fluxes between winter wheat and other land types. These flux differences had a nonlinear dependency on disparities in

  19. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  1. Instability model for recurring large and great earthquakes in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The locked section of the San Andreas fault in southern California has experienced a number of large and great earthquakes in the past, and thus is expected to have more in the future. To estimate the location, time, and slip of the next few earthquakes, an earthquake instability model is formulated. The model is similar to one recently developed for moderate earthquakes on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. In both models, unstable faulting (the earthquake analog) is caused by failure of all or part of a patch of brittle, strain-softening fault zone. In the present model the patch extends downward from the ground surface to about 12 km depth, and extends 500 km along strike from Parkfield to the Salton Sea. The variation of patch strength along strike is adjusted by trial until the computed sequence of instabilities matches the sequence of large and great earthquakes since a.d. 1080 reported by Sieh and others. The last earthquake was the M=8.3 Ft. Tejon event in 1857. The resulting strength variation has five contiguous sections of alternately low and high strength. From north to south, the approximate locations of the sections are: (1) Parkfield to Bitterwater Valley, (2) Bitterwater Valley to Lake Hughes, (3) Lake Hughes to San Bernardino, (4) San Bernardino to Palm Springs, and (5) Palm Springs to the Salton Sea. Sections 1, 3, and 5 have strengths between 53 and 88 bars; sections 2 and 4 have strengths between 164 and 193 bars. Patch section ends and unstable rupture ends usually coincide, although one or more adjacent patch sections may fail unstably at once. The model predicts that the next sections of the fault to slip unstably will be 1, 3, and 5; the order and dates depend on the assumed length of an earthquake rupture in about 1700. ?? 1985 Birkha??user Verlag.

  2. A prototype physical database for passive microwave retrievals of precipitation over the US Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringerud, S.; Kummerow, C. D.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-10-01

    An accurate understanding of the instantaneous, dynamic land surface emissivity is necessary for a physically based, multi-channel passive microwave precipitation retrieval scheme over land. In an effort to assess the feasibility of the physical approach for land surfaces, a semi-empirical emissivity model is applied for calculation of the surface component in a test area of the US Southern Great Plains. A physical emissivity model, using land surface model data as input, is used to calculate emissivity at the 10 GHz frequency, combining contributions from the underlying soil and vegetation layers, including the dielectric and roughness effects of each medium. An empirical technique is then applied, based upon a robust set of observed channel covariances, extending the emissivity calculations to all channels. For calculation of the hydrometeor contribution, reflectivity profiles from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) are utilized along with coincident brightness temperatures (Tbs) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and cloud-resolving model profiles. Ice profiles are modified to be consistent with the higher frequency microwave Tbs. Resulting modeled top of the atmosphere Tbs show correlations to observations of 0.9, biases of 1K or less, root-mean-square errors on the order of 5K, and improved agreement over the use of climatological emissivity values. The synthesis of these models and data sets leads to the creation of a simple prototype Tb database that includes both dynamic surface and atmospheric information physically consistent with the land surface model, emissivity model, and atmospheric information.

  3. Death Valley bright spot: a midcrustal magma body in the southern Great Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    de Voogd, B.; Serpa, L.; Brown, L.; Hauser, E.; Kaufman, S.; Oliver, J.; Troxel, B.W.; Willemin, J.; Wright, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A previously unrecognized midcrustal magma body may have been detected by COCORP deep seismic reflection profiles in the Death Valley region of the southern Great Basin. High-amplitude, relatively broad-band reflections at 6 s (15 km) are attributed to partially molten material within a subhorizontal intrusion. This bright spot extends laterally at least 15 km beneath central Death Valley. A moderately dipping normal fault can be traced from the inferred magma chamber upward to a 690,000-yr-old basaltic cinder cone. The fault zone is inferred to have been a magma conduit during the formation of the cinder cone. Vertical variations in crustal reflection character suggest that the Death Valley magma body may have been emplaced along a zone of decoupling that separates a faulted brittle upper crust from a more ductile and/or intruded lower crust. The Death Valley bright spot is similar to reflections recorded by COCORP in 1977 in the Rio Grande rift, where both geophysical and geodetic evidence support the inference of a tabular magma chamber at 20-km depth.

  4. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  5. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  6. Herbivorous and parasitic insect guilds associated with Great Basin wild rye (Elymus cinereus) in southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Youtie, B.A.; Stafford, M.; Johnson, J.B.

    1987-10-31

    Insects inhabiting Great Basin wild rye (elymus cinereus Scribn. and Merr.) were surveyed at two sites on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho during 1982 and 1983. Forty-six species of phytophagous insects were observed. In addition, eight parasitoid species were reared from insect hosts in the plant culms and identified. Life stage, abundance, plant part utilized, and study site were recorded for each insect species collected. Insect guilds at the two sites were compared based on species presence utilizing Sorensen's similarity index. Overall, 26 insect species were common to both sites, yielding a moderate similarity index of 0.62. The majority of the species that constitute the wild rye herbivore guilds were oligophagous (restricted to grasses). Many of these insects feed on grain crops as well as other native and introduced grasses. The relatively high diversity of phytophages on wild rye may be due to its tall, bunchgrass growth form, its abundance within its habitat, its broad geographic range, and the large number of related species of grasses in the region.

  7. A Prototype Physical Database for Passive Microwave Retrievals of Precipitation over the US Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringerud, S.; Kummerow, C. D.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    An accurate understanding of the instantaneous, dynamic land surface emissivity is necessary for a physically based, multi-channel passive microwave precipitation retrieval scheme over land. In an effort to assess the feasibility of the physical approach for land surfaces, a semi-empirical emissivity model is applied for calculation of the surface component in a test area of the US Southern Great Plains. A physical emissivity model, using land surface model data as input, is used to calculate emissivity at the 10GHz frequency, combining contributions from the underlying soil and vegetation layers, including the dielectric and roughness effects of each medium. An empirical technique is then applied, based upon a robust set of observed channel covariances, extending the emissivity calculations to all channels. For calculation of the hydrometeor contribution, reflectivity profiles from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) are utilized along with coincident brightness temperatures (Tbs) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and cloud-resolving model profiles. Ice profiles are modified to be consistent with the higher frequency microwave Tbs. Resulting modeled top of the atmosphere Tbs show correlations to observations of 0.9, biases of 1K or less, root-mean-square errors on the order of 5K, and improved agreement over the use of climatological emissivity values. The synthesis of these models and data sets leads to the creation of a simple prototype Tb database that includes both dynamic surface and atmospheric information physically consistent with the land surface model, emissivity model, and atmospheric information.

  8. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  9. Quantifying Uncertainty in Cloud Fraction Observations over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2010-12-01

    Different methods have been used to measure cloud fraction, and there is an increasing need to quantify the range of uncertainty associated with these observations to facilitate evaluation of model results against observations. Here we use the most recent decade-long surface- and satellite- based observations over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region of the United States to investigate uncertainties in estimates of cloud fraction. Our results show that non-negligible differences exist between these SGP cloud fraction estimates. The major sources of these differences are examined including variations in the measurement methods and/or retrieval algorithms. Observational data examined in this study include the three cloud fraction estimates from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programs’ Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) value added products: (1) From surface-based, vertically pointing remote sensing observations (ARSCL: Active Remote Sensing of Clouds), (2) From a surface-based hemispheric imager (TSI - Total Sky Imager), and (3) from geostationary satellite observations (GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite). We also employ cloud fraction estimates from hemispheric radiometer observations (SIRS - the Solar Infrared Radiation Station) and the two different satellite-based cloud fraction products: ISCCP - the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, and PATMOS-x - Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended. These results will be useful for evaluating and improving cloud parameterizations in climate models.

  10. Grassland vegetation and bird communities in the southern Great Plains of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, R.N.; Engle, David M.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Structure and composition of vegetation and abundance of breeding birds in grasslands seeded to Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischmaeum) were compared to native mixed prairie in the southern Great Plains of North America. Abundance of birds was determined using fixed-radius point counts. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to compare plant community composition and canonical correspondence analysis was used to examine the relationships between plant species composition and vegetation structure with the bird community. Plant species composition differed distinctly between seeded grassland and native mixed prairie, but the differences were not reflected in habitat structure, bird community composition, or abundance of bird species. Seeded grassland was inferior to native mixed prairie in terms of diversity of plant species, but that difference did not translate into meaningful differences in structure that drove habitat selection by breeding birds. Conservation programs that promote establishment of seeded grassland and do not allow for suitable disturbance regimes will selectively benefit a narrow suite of birds regardless of plant species composition. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing Spectral Shortwave Cloud Observations at the Southern Great Plains Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, P. J.; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Flynn, C. J.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program (now Atmospheric System Research) was established, in part, to improve radiation models so that they could be used reliably to compute radiation fluxes through the atmosphere, given knowledge of the surface albedo, atmospheric gases, and the aerosol and cloud properties. Despite years of observations, discrepancies still exist between radiative transfer models and observations, particularly in the presence of clouds. Progress has been made at closing discrepancies in the spectral region beyond 3 micron, but the progress lags at shorter wavelengths. Ratios of observed visible and near infrared cloud albedo from aircraft and satellite have shown both localized and global discrepancies between model and observations that are, thus far, unexplained. The capabilities of shortwave surface spectrometry have been improved in recent years at the Southern Great Plains facility (SGP) of the ARM Climate Research Facility through the addition of new instrumentation, the Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer, and upgrades to existing instrumentation, the Shortwave Spectroradiometer and the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer. An airborne-based instrument, the HydroRad Spectroradiometer, was also deployed at the ARM site during the Routine ARM Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. Using the new and upgraded spectral observations along with radiative transfer models, cloud scenes at the SGP are presented with the goal of characterizing the instrumentation and the cloud fields themselves.

  12. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W.

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  13. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  14. Estimation of Regional Net CO2 Exchange over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biraud, S. C.; Riley, W. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Torn, M. S.; Cooley, H. S.

    2004-12-01

    Estimating spatially distributed ecosystem CO2 exchange is an important component of the North American Carbon Program. We describe here a methodology to estimate Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) over the Southern Great Plains, using: (1) data from the Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in Oklahoma and Kansas; (2) meteorological forcing data from the Mesonet facilities; (3) soil and vegetation types from 1 km resolution USGS databases; (4) vegetation status (e.g., LAI) from 1 km satellite measurements of surface reflectance (MODIS); (5) a tested land-surface model; and (6) a coupled land-surface and meteorological model (MM5/ISOLSM). This framework allows us to simulate regional surface fluxes in addition to ABL and free troposphere concentrations of CO2 at a continental scale with fine-scale nested grids centered on the ARM central facility. We use the offline land-surface and coupled models to estimate regional NEE, and compare predictions to measurements from the 9 Extended Facility sites with eddy correlation measurements. Site level comparisons to portable ECOR measurements in several crop types are also presented. Our approach also allows us to extend bottom-up estimates to periods and areas where meteorological forcing data are unavailable.

  15. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1981 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Carr, W.J.; Spence, W.

    1983-09-01

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1981 are reported for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operations are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. These data are being collected to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard to a potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. The regional stress field orientation, as inferred from focal mechanisms, is characterized by a northwest-directed least compressive stress and a northeast-directed greatest compressive stress. We infer from this stress orientation that faults of north to northeast trend are most susceptible to slip. Faults of this orientation exist within the Yucca Mountain block, but they probably have not moved significantly in the last 500,000 years. Yucca Mountain lies within a fairly large area of relatively low level seismicity extending west to the Funeral Mountains, south of the Black Mountains and Nopah Range, and southeast to the Spring Mountains. One M 1.7 earthquake has been located in the Yucca Mountain block in about 1 year of intense monitoring. At present somewhat conflicting geologic, seismologic, and stress evidence hinder definitive conclusions about the seismic hazard at the proposed repository site. 36 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  16. Phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton structure and function across the southern Great Barrier Reef shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.; Patten, Nicole L.; McKinnon, David; Köstner, Nicole; Bourne, David G.; Brinkman, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Bacterioplankton and phytoplankton dynamics, pelagic respiration, virioplankton abundance, and the diversity of pelagic diazotrophs and other bacteria were examined in relation to water-column nutrients and vertical mixing across the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf where sharp inshore to offshore gradients in water chemistry and hydrology prevail. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed station groups clustered geographically, suggesting across-shelf differences in plankton function and structure driven by changes in mixing intensity, sediment resuspension, and the relative contributions of terrestrial, reef and oceanic nutrients. At most stations and sampling periods, microbial abundance and activities peaked both inshore and at channels between outer shelf reefs of the Pompey Reef complex. PCA also revealed that virioplankton numbers and biomass correlated with bacterioplankton numbers and production, and that bacterial growth and respiration correlated with net primary production, suggesting close virus-bacteria-phytoplankton interactions; all plankton groups correlated with particulate C, N, and P. Strong vertical mixing facilitates tight coupling of pelagic and benthic shelf processes as, on average, 37% and 56% of N and P demands of phytoplankton are derived from benthic nutrient regeneration and resuspension. These across-shelf planktonic trends mirror those of the benthic microbial community.

  17. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  18. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  19. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  2. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  4. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  5. Soil water distribution and water use efficiency of forage and grain soybeans in the southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing legumes during summer fallow periods between wheat crops in the southern Great Plains (SGP) can reduce soil erosion and add nitrogen to the soil. However, information on water use by legumes and effects on water availability for subsequent wheat crops is limited. We described soil water patt...

  6. Perennial biomass grasses and the Mason-Dixon Line: Comparative productivity across latitudes in the southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding latitudinal adaptation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J. M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize) to the southern Great Plains is key to maximizing productivity by matching each grass variety to its ideal production environment. Objectives of...

  7. 78 FR 14414 - The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gadsden, Etowah County, Ala...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Gadsden, Etowah County, Ala.; Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gadsden, Etowah County, AL The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company (AGS) and Tennessee, Alabama, and... approximately 4.25 miles of interconnected rail line in Gadsden, Etowah County, Ala. Specifically, AGS...

  8. Vulnerability of crops and native grasses to summer drying in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Great Plains are characterized by a fine-scale mixture of different land cover types, predominantly winter-wheat and pasture lands, with relatively small areas of other crops, native prairie, and switchgrass. Recent droughts and predictions of increased drought (especially during the s...

  9. Upper Cenozoic basalts with high Sr-87/Sr-86 and Sr/Rb ratios, southern Great Basin, western United States.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedge, C. E.; Noble, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The initial strontium isotopic composition of 15 mafic volcanic rocks from the southern Great Basin has been determined. Results indicate that the basalts must have been derived from unusual mantle material in which an originally high Rb/Sr ratio was markedly lowered during an earlier phase of magmatic activity.

  10. 'Duster' wheat: A durable, dual-purpose cultivar adapted to the southern great plains of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars which gain broad commercial acceptance in Oklahoma and surrounding states of the U.S. southern Great Plains must produce a definitive grain yield advantage, and they must demonstrate season-long dependability in dual purpose management systems, effective...

  11. 'Billings' wheat combines early maturity, disease resistance, and desirable grain quality for the Southern Great Plains of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection pressure for earliness, resistance to multiple pathogens, and quality attributes consistent with the hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) market class is tantamount to, or can obscure, selection for yield potential in lower elevations of the U.S. southern Great Plains. The de...

  12. Diversity, seasonality, and context of mammalian roadkills in the southern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Smith-Patten, Brenda D; Patten, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of mammals are killed annually from vehicle collisions, making the issue an important one for conservation biologists and environmental managers. We recorded all readily identifiable kills on or immediately adjacent to roads in the southern Great Plains from March 2004-March 2007. We also recorded distance traveled, whether a road was paved or divided, the number of lanes, and prevailing habitat. Surveys were opportunistic and were conducted by car during conditions of good visibility. Over our 239 surveys and > 16,500 km traveled, we recorded 1412 roadkills from 18 different mammal species (size ranged from Sciurus squirrels to the white-tailed deer, Odocolieus virginianus). The overall kill rate was 8.50/100 km. Four species were prone to collisions: the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and northern raccoon (Procyon lotor). Together they accounted for approximately 85% (1198) of all roadkills. Mortality rate differed significantly between 2- and 4-lane roads (8.39 versus 7.79/100 km). Kill rates were significantly higher on paved versus unpaved roads (8.60 versus 3.65/100 km), but did not depend on whether a road was divided. Roadkills were higher in spring than in fall (1.5 x), winter (1.4x), or summer (1.3x). The spring peak (in kills/100 km) was driven chiefly by the armadillo (2.76 in spring/summer versus 0.73 in autumn/winter) and opossum (2.65 versus 1.47). By contrast, seasonality was dampened by a late winter/early spring peak in skunk mortalities, for which 41% occurred in the 6-week period of mid-February through March. The raccoon did not exhibit a strong seasonal pattern. Our data are consistent with dispersal patterns of these species. Our results underscore the high rate of highway mortality in the southern plains, as well as differences in seasonality and road type that contribute to mortality. Conservation and management efforts should focus on

  13. Diversity, Seasonality, and Context of Mammalian Roadkills in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Patten, Brenda D.; Patten, Michael A.

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of mammals are killed annually from vehicle collisions, making the issue an important one for conservation biologists and environmental managers. We recorded all readily identifiable kills on or immediately adjacent to roads in the southern Great Plains from March 2004-March 2007. We also recorded distance traveled, whether a road was paved or divided, the number of lanes, and prevailing habitat. Surveys were opportunistic and were conducted by car during conditions of good visibility. Over our 239 surveys and >16,500 km traveled, we recorded 1412 roadkills from 18 different mammal species (size ranged from Sciurus squirrels to the white-tailed deer, Odocolieus virginianus). The overall kill rate was 8.50 / 100 km. Four species were prone to collisions: the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus), striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis), and northern raccoon ( Procyon lotor). Together they accounted for approximately 85% (1198) of all roadkills. Mortality rate differed significantly between 2- and 4-lane roads (8.39 versus 7.79 / 100 km). Kill rates were significantly higher on paved versus unpaved roads (8.60 versus 3.65 / 100 km), but did not depend on whether a road was divided. Roadkills were higher in spring than in fall (1.5×), winter (1.4×), or summer (1.3×). The spring peak (in kills / 100 km) was driven chiefly by the armadillo (2.76 in spring/summer versus 0.73 in autumn/winter) and opossum (2.65 versus 1.47). By contrast, seasonality was dampened by a late winter/early spring peak in skunk mortalities, for which 41% occurred in the 6-week period of mid-February through March. The raccoon did not exhibit a strong seasonal pattern. Our data are consistent with dispersal patterns of these species. Our results underscore the high rate of highway mortality in the southern plains, as well as differences in seasonality and road type that contribute to mortality. Conservation and management efforts should

  14. Efficacy of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Under Varying Meteorological Conditions: Southern Great Plains Vs. Pt. Reyes

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.; Schwartz, S.; Kim, B.-G.; Miller, M.; Liu, Y.; Min, Q.

    2008-03-10

    Several studies have demonstrated that cloud dynamical processes such as entrainment mixing may be the primary modulator of cloud optical properties in certain situations. For example, entrainment of dry air alters the cloud drop size distribution by enhancing drop evaporation. However, the effect of entrainment mixing and other forms or turbulence is still quite uncertain. Although these factors and aerosol-cloud interactions should be considered together when evaluating the efficacy of aerosol indirect effects, the underlying mechanisms appear to be dependent upon each other. In addition, accounting for them is impossible with the current understanding of aerosol indirect effect. Therefore, careful objective screening and analysis of observations are needed to determine the extent to which mixing related properties affect cloud optical properties, apart from the aerosol first indirect effect. This study addresses the role of aerosol-cloud interactions in the context of varying meteorological conditions based on ARM data obtained at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma and at Pt. Reyes, California. Previous analyses of the continental stratiform clouds at the SGP site have shown that the thicker clouds of high liquid water path (LWP) tend to contain sub adiabatic LWPs. These sub adiabatic LWPs, which result from active mixing processes, correspond to a lower susceptibility of the clouds to aerosol-cloud interactions, and, hence, to reduced aerosol indirect effects. In contrast, the consistently steady and thin maritime stratus clouds observed at Pt. Reyes are much closer to adiabatic. These clouds provide an excellent benchmark for the study of the aerosol influence on modified marine clouds relative to continental clouds, since they form in a much more homogeneous meteorological environment than those at the continental site.

  15. Soil moisture anomalies and convection: investigation using ground-based measurements at US Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is one of the key factors modulating the atmospheric boundary layer and thus the climate system. In this study, we use ground-based measurements to investigate the mechanism by which soil moisture anomalies affect clouds and precipitation. From decade-long warm season observation by Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement at Southern Great Plains, we carefully select daytime weather regimes that are strongly coupled with land-surface processes such as clear-sky dry convection days, forced and active non-precipitating shallow cumuli days, and late-afternoon deep convective raining days (Zhang and Klein, 2010 and 2013). Based on this framework, we statistically assess: 1) the differences in soil moisture and surface heterogeneity between different convective regimes; and 2) the variances of the associated effects on surface and boundary layer meteorological conditions inside each convective regime. A specific question will be: under different soil moisture conditions, e.g. wet/dry, which convective weather regime will be favored and how this is related to large-scale environmental factors, such as free-troposphere stability and humidity? The answer to this question will improve our understanding of how soil moisture impacts boundary layer turbulence and thermodynamics, and influences the convection triggering and maintenance and their feedbacks on soil moisture, thus establish a link between soil moisture and convection at the process level. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675737

  16. On the Micrometeorology of the Southern Great Plains 1: Legacy Relationships Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, B. B.; Pendergrass, W. R.; Vogel, C. A.; Keener, R. N.; Leyton, S. M.

    2014-06-01

    Data from a 32-m tower located near Ocotillo, Texas (N; W), provide an opportunity to examine the relevance of standard micrometeorological flux-gradient formulations to observations made in an area characteristic of a large portion of the central USA, within the Southern Great Plains. Comparison with data obtained at a greater height (80 m) reveals that the velocity distributions change substantially between the lower set of observations and the upper, with the former being constrained at the low wind-speed end. In the early morning, sensible heat-flux divergence correlates well with the measured rate of change of temperature with time within the surface layer of air sampled by the tower, but this association disappears when the depth of the mixed layer extends beyond the reach of the tower. As in the case of all previous examinations of flux-gradient relationships, the overall dependence of the dimensionless wind and temperature gradients and on stability is characterized by considerable scatter, with the familiar relationships best describing the average. For conditions of stable stratification, there is indeed the expected close proximity of and , however, describing either or in terms of the classical stability index (where is the height above the zero plane and L is the Obukhov length scale of turbulence) then appears questionable because the dependence of on the measured sensible heat flux is not always single-valued, especially near the surface. For unstable stratification, support is found for the conclusions of early workers that free convection initiates at about , and that the general behaviour is then compatible with the concept of a moving air mass from which momentum is continuously extracted, embedded within freely convective cells. It is concluded that legacy descriptions of the relationships between fluxes and gradients apply to averages that might occur rarely, that a dominant factor is likely the chaotic nature of the processes that control the

  17. Thermodynamic and Turbulence Characteristics of the Southern Great Plains Nocturnal Boundary Layer Under Differing Turbulent Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Blumberg, William G.; Klein, Petra M.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2015-12-01

    The nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL) can generally be classified into the weakly stable boundary layer (wSBL) and very stable boundary layer (vSBL). Within the wSBL, turbulence is relatively continuous, whereas in the vSBL, turbulence is intermittent and not well characterized. Differentiating characteristics of each type of SBL are still unknown. Herein, thermodynamic and kinematic data collected by a suite of instruments in north central Oklahoma in autumn 2012 are analyzed to better understand both SBL regimes and their differentiating characteristics. Many low-level jets were observed during the experiment, as it took place near a climatological maximum. A threshold wind speed, above which bulk shear-generated turbulence develops, is found to exist up to 300 m. The threshold wind speed must also be exceeded at lower heights (down to the surface) in order for strong turbulence to develop. Composite profiles, which are normalized using low-level jet scaling, of potential temperature, wind speed, vertical velocity variance, and the third-order moment of vertical velocity (overline{w'^3}) are produced for weak and moderate/strong turbulence regimes, which exhibit features of the vSBL and wSBL, respectively. Within the wSBL, turbulence is generated at the surface and transported upward. In the vSBL, values of vertical velocity variance are small throughout the entire boundary layer, likely due to the fact that a strong surface inversion typically forms after sunset. The temperature profile tends to be approximately isothermal in the lowest portions of the wSBL, and it did not substantially change over the night. Within both types of SBL, stability in the residual layer tends to increase as the night progresses. It is thought that this stability increase is due to differential warm air advection, which frequently occurs in the southern Great Plains when southerly low-level jets and a typical north-south temperature gradient are present. Differential radiative

  18. Multiple new-particle growth pathways observed at the US DOE Southern Great Plains field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodshire, Anna L.; Lawler, Michael J.; Zhao, Jun; Ortega, John; Jen, Coty; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Brewer, Jared F.; Kodros, Jack K.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Hanson, Dave R.; McMurry, Peter H.; Smith, James N.; Pierce, Jeffery R.

    2016-07-01

    New-particle formation (NPF) is a significant source of aerosol particles into the atmosphere. However, these particles are initially too small to have climatic importance and must grow, primarily through net uptake of low-volatility species, from diameters ˜ 1 to 30-100 nm in order to potentially impact climate. There are currently uncertainties in the physical and chemical processes associated with the growth of these freshly formed particles that lead to uncertainties in aerosol-climate modeling. Four main pathways for new-particle growth have been identified: condensation of sulfuric-acid vapor (and associated bases when available), condensation of organic vapors, uptake of organic acids through acid-base chemistry in the particle phase, and accretion of organic molecules in the particle phase to create a lower-volatility compound that then contributes to the aerosol mass. The relative importance of each pathway is uncertain and is the focus of this work. The 2013 New Particle Formation Study (NPFS) measurement campaign took place at the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility in Lamont, Oklahoma, during spring 2013. Measured gas- and particle-phase compositions during these new-particle growth events suggest three distinct growth pathways: (1) growth by primarily organics, (2) growth by primarily sulfuric acid and ammonia, and (3) growth by primarily sulfuric acid and associated bases and organics. To supplement the measurements, we used the particle growth model MABNAG (Model for Acid-Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth) to gain further insight into the growth processes on these 3 days at SGP. MABNAG simulates growth from (1) sulfuric-acid condensation (and subsequent salt formation with ammonia or amines), (2) near-irreversible condensation from nonreactive extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs), and (3) organic-acid condensation and subsequent salt formation with ammonia or amines. MABNAG is able to corroborate the observed differing growth

  19. Observational Evaluation of Simulated Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. J.; Klein, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    In a recent study of observed features of land-atmosphere coupling (LAC) at the ARM Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) site in northern Oklahoma (Phillips and Klein, 2014 Journal of Geophysical Research), we identified statistically significant interactions between 1997-2008 summertime daily averages of soil moisture (at 10 cm depth) and a number of surface atmospheric variables, such as surface evaporation, relative humidity, and temperature. Here we will report on an evaluation of similar features of LAC simulated by version 5 of the global Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), coupled to its native CLM4 land model, and downscaled to the vicinity of the ARM SGP site. In these case studies, the CAM5 was initialized from a 6-hourly atmospheric reanalysis for each day of the years 2008 and 2009 (where the CLM4 land state was equilibrated to the atmospheric model state), thus permitting a close comparison of the modeled and observed summer daily average features of the LAC in these years. Correlation coefficients R and "sensitivity indices" I (a measure of the comparative change of an atmospheric variable for a one-standard-deviation change in soil moisture) provided quantitative measures of the respective coupling strengths. Such a comparison of observed versus modeled LAC is complicated by differences in atmospheric forcings of the land; for example, the CAM5's summertime precipitation is too scant, and thus the model's upper soil layer often is drier than observed. The modeled daily average covariations of soil moisture with lower atmospheric variables also display less coherence (lower R values), but sometimes greater "sensitivity" (higher I values) than are observed at the ARM SGP site. Since the observational estimate of LAC may itself be sensitive to soil moisture measurement biases, we also will report on a planned investigation of the dependence of LAC on several alternative choices of soil moisture data sets local to the ARM SGP site. AcknowledgmentsThis work was

  20. Preliminary assessment of climatic change during late Wisconsin time, southern Great Basin and vicinity, Arizona, California, and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, W.G.; Robinson, S.W.; Paillet, L.

    1984-12-31

    Concentration and relative abundance of plant macrofossils illustrate compositional variations in samples from the Eleana Range-2 packrat midden. Nine macrofossil assemblages spanning 6500 radiocarbon years record local vegetational changes in the southern Great Basin of Nevada during the last one-half of the late Wisconsin glacial age. The vegetation of the Eleana Range-2 site, on a south-facing slope at 1810 meters altitude, was characterized by limber pine and steppe shrubs, from before 17,100 radiocarbon years before present to shortly after 13,200 radiocarbon years before present. Changes toward a more xerophytic plant association at the site began by 16,000 radiocarbon years before present, culminating in a major change to pinyon-juniper woodland between 13,200 and 11,700 radiocarbon years before present. The climatic reconstruction for the late full glacial episode (17,000 to 15,000 radiocarbon years before present) that is proposed to account for limber pine-shrub vegetation in the Eleana Range is characterized by increased winter precipitation, and very little summer rainfall. A major warming trend occurred between about 16,000 and 12,000 radiocarbon years before present and was largely concordant with major dessication of closed lakes in the southern Great Basin. A period of wetter conditions in the southern Great Basin during the latest Wisconsin may have incorporated increased precipitation during both the summer and winter, and lower temperatures during the winter, relative to the present. 93 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Multiple new-particle growth pathways observed at the US DOE Southern Great Plains field site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hodshire, Anna L.; Lawler, Michael J.; Zhao, Jun; Ortega, John; Jen, Coty; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Brewer, Jared F.; Kodros, Jack K.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Hanson, Dave R.; et al

    2016-07-28

    New-particle formation (NPF) is a significant source of aerosol particles into the atmosphere. However, these particles are initially too small to have climatic importance and must grow, primarily through net uptake of low-volatility species, from diameters  ∼  1 to 30–100 nm in order to potentially impact climate. There are currently uncertainties in the physical and chemical processes associated with the growth of these freshly formed particles that lead to uncertainties in aerosol-climate modeling. Four main pathways for new-particle growth have been identified: condensation of sulfuric-acid vapor (and associated bases when available), condensation of organic vapors, uptake of organic acids through acid–base chemistrymore » in the particle phase, and accretion of organic molecules in the particle phase to create a lower-volatility compound that then contributes to the aerosol mass. The relative importance of each pathway is uncertain and is the focus of this work. The 2013 New Particle Formation Study (NPFS) measurement campaign took place at the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility in Lamont, Oklahoma, during spring 2013. Measured gas- and particle-phase compositions during these new-particle growth events suggest three distinct growth pathways: (1) growth by primarily organics, (2) growth by primarily sulfuric acid and ammonia, and (3) growth by primarily sulfuric acid and associated bases and organics. To supplement the measurements, we used the particle growth model MABNAG (Model for Acid–Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth) to gain further insight into the growth processes on these 3 days at SGP. MABNAG simulates growth from (1) sulfuric-acid condensation (and subsequent salt formation with ammonia or amines), (2) near-irreversible condensation from nonreactive extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs), and (3) organic-acid condensation and subsequent salt formation with ammonia or amines. MABNAG is able to corroborate the

  2. In the shadow of 1857-the effect of the great Ft. Tejon earthquake on subsequent earthquakes in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Simpson, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The great 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake is the largest earthquake to have hit southern California during the historic period. We investigated if seismicity patterns following 1857 could be due to static stress changes generated by the 1857 earthquake. When post-1857 earthquakes with unknown focal mechanisms were assigned strike-slip mechanisms with strike and rake determined by the nearest active fault, 13 of the 13 southern California M???5.5 earthquakes between 1857 and 1907 were encouraged by the 1857 rupture. When post-1857 earthquakes in the Transverse Ranges with unknown focal mechanisms were assigned reverse mechanisms and all other events were assumed strike-slip, 11 of the 13 earthquakes were encouraged by the 1857 earthquake. These results show significant correlations between static stress changes and seismicity patterns. The correlation disappears around 1907, suggesting that tectonic loading began to overwhelm the effect of the 1857 earthquake early in the 20th century.

  3. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  4. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1994-06-01

    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC.

  5. A late Pleistocene tephra layer in the southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau derived from Mono Craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, D.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Thompson, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A newly identified tephra in stratified deposits in southwestern Utah, dated ???14,000 14C yr B.P., may aid in correlating late Pleistocene deposits across parts of the southern Great Basin and west-central Colorado Plateau. Geochemical analyses of the ash suggest the tephra originated from Mono Craters, California, and most probably correlates with Wilson Creek ash #3. Because the ash is 2 mm thick ???550 km from its source, the event may have been larger than others correlated to Mono Craters eruptions. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  6. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the Southern Great Basin of Nevada and California, January 1992 - September 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmsen, S. C.

    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC.

  7. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  8. Southern Great Basin Seimological data report for 1980 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.W.; Engdahl, E.R.

    1984-06-01

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1980 are presented for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Nevada seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operation are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. The principal results are that (1) earthquakes concentrate in fault zones having a northeast orientation, (2) fault zones having a northwest orientation are quiescent or nearly so, and (3) no earthquakes have been detected closer than 12 km to the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository study area. 12 references, 13 figures.

  9. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1980 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Carr, W.J.

    1981-12-31

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1980 are presented for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Nevada seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operation are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. The principal results are that (1) earthquakes concentrate in fault zones having a northeast orientation, (2) fault zones having a northwest orientation are quiescent or nearly so, and (3) no earthquakes have been detected closer that 12 km to the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository study area. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  11. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  12. Lotus utahensis: southern great basin legume for possible use in rangeland revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecosystems in the western USA are increasingly vulnerable to wildland fires, weed invasion, and mismanagement. On many of these rangelands, revegetation/restoration may be required to improve degraded conditions, speed recovery, and minimize soil erosion. Legumes native to the Great Basi...

  13. Glacially conditioned specific stream powers in low-relief river catchments of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. T. J.; Desloges, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    Fluvial systems of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes region are carved into a complex glacial landscape shaped by continental ice and meltwater of the late Pleistocene. These glacially conditioned river catchments are typically small with drainage areas < 104 km2. A 10-m digital elevation model (DEM) is used to map the spatial distribution of stream gradient for 22 major river catchments of peninsular southern Ontario, which drain to base levels in the lower Great Lakes (Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Raw data from the DEM show stream gradients that exhibit multiscale variance from real and from artifact sources. Based on a vertical slice and multiple-pass moving-window averaging approach, slope data are generalised to the river reach scale (1-2 km) as a representative spatial scale for fluvial processes operating over Holocene timescales. Models of specific stream power are then compared with glacial landform and surface geology mapping. Inherited glacial signatures in river slope appear as deviations in a stream length-gradient index (SL/K index), where river reaches are frequently oversteepened or understeepened. Based on a slope-area analysis, and complementary to theories of channel pattern discrimination, constant stream power curves (with power-law exponent of - 0.4) provide a first-order approach to stratify river reaches in terms of glacial conditioning and expected planform morphologies. However, multiple-channel planform types are rare and localised in southern Ontario, indicating that oversteepened reaches with high stream powers may often be moderated by (1) sediment calibre, with cobble-beds from inherited glacial sediments; and/or (2) relative bank strength, with limited channel widening particularly in gravel and sand-bed channels. Further discrimination of glacially conditioned fluvial process domains will ultimately require consideration of alluvial floodplain characteristics in addition to general observations of river morphology and

  14. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  15. Cambrian-Ordovician craton margin section, southern Great Basin: A sequence stratigraphic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.D. ); Edwards, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    The Upper Cambrian through Upper Ordovician cratonal to miogeoclinal transition section in southern Nevada and eastern California accumulated on a gentle homoclinal ramp and includes a variety of peritidal and subtidal carbonate facies. This section consists of a westward-thickening wedge assigned to the Nopah and Mountain Springs formations and can be related to one type 1 and least four type 2 sequences. The basal part of the section is the Dunderberg Shale Member of the Nopah Formation, which is composed of meter-scale cyclical shale-carbonate bundles. Carbonate interbeds signify a variety of peritidal to deep subtidal paleoenvironments that comprise shelf margin and transgressive systems tracts. The progradation of a thrombolitic bank complex in the overlying upper Nopah may reflect emergence on the craton, evidenced by the Sauk II-Sauk III cratonic disconformity. The overlying A' member of the Mountain Springs Formation rests in sharp and, in places, slightly discordant contact with the top of the Nopah. This contact is interpreted as a marine flooding surface and type 2 sequence boundary. Member A consists of Lower Ordovician transgressive and highstand systems tracts comprised of oolitic shoal and back-shoal to intertidal carbonates. The type 1 unconformity that separates member A from overlying B' member is the top of the first-order Sauk Sequence. The B' member is a thin stratal interval of late Middle to Late Ordovician age and consists of dark, burrow-mottled skeletal wackestone and mudstone that is part of a transgressive systems tract. It is bounded above by another type 1 unconformity and therefore represents the first-order Tippecanoe sequence of Sloss.

  16. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the southern Great Salt Lake Desert and summary of the hydrology of west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Kruer, Stacie A.

    1981-01-01

    This report is the last of 19 hydrologic reconnaissances of the basins in western Utah. The purposes of this series of studies are (1) to analyze available hydrologic data and describe the hydrologic system, (2) to evaluate existing and potential water-resources development, and (3) to identify additional studies that might be needed. Part 1 of this report gives an estimate of recharge and discharge, an estimate of the potential for water-resources development, and a statement on the quality of water in the southern Great Salt Lake Desert part of west-central Utah. Part 2 deals with the same aspects of west-central Utah as a whole. Part 2 also summarizes the evidence of interbasin ground-water flow in west-central Utah and presents a theory for the origin of the water discharged from Fish Springs.

  17. Stability of coral-endosymbiont associations during and after a thermal stress event in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, M.; Loh, W. K. W.; Lajeunesse, T. C.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Carter, D. A.

    2009-09-01

    Shifts in the community of symbiotic dinoflagellates to those that are better suited to the prevailing environmental condition may provide reef-building corals with a rapid mechanism by which to adapt to changes in the environment. In this study, the dominant Symbiodinium in 10 coral species in the southern Great Barrier Reef was monitored over a 1-year period in 2002 that coincided with a thermal stress event. Molecular genetic profiling of Symbiodinium communities using single strand conformational polymorphism of the large subunit rDNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region did not detect any changes in the communities during and after this thermal-stress event. Coral colonies of seven species bleached but recovered with their original symbionts. This study suggests that the shuffling or switching of symbionts in response to thermal stress may be restricted to certain coral species and is probably not a universal feature of the coral-symbiont relationship.

  18. TIMING, EXTENT, AND SPATIAL PROGRESSION OF NEOGENE DISPLACEMENT TRANSFER, SOUTHERN WALKER LANE, WESTERN GREAT BASIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Oldow, J. S.; Stockli, D. F.; Grow, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Displacement transfer through structural stepovers linking misaligned segments of large-magnitude intracontinental transcurrent faults involve components of translational and rotational displacement and strain accommodated by complex three-dimensional arrays of structures. Although vertical-axis rotation of large spatial domains is well documented in many structural stepovers, the degree to which rotation is accommodated by rigid block and/or by distributed strain is not adequately resolved. Similarly, it is seldom established whether or to what degree translational and rotational deformation occur simultaneously over broad regions or if they are parts of a tectonic process involving different components of translational and rotational deformation occurring in spatially and temporally discrete domains. Our current understanding suggests that the displacement transfer system linking faults of the northern Eastern California Shear Zone and central Walker Lane during the mid-Miocene through the mid-Pliocene involves the development of three detachment fault systems underlying a NW-SE trending region stretching from the region east of Death Valley to beyond the northern end of the White Mountains and encompassing southern Walker Lane in Nevada. Integrated geologic mapping, paleomagnetic, thermochronologic ((U-Th)/HE), and structural analysis provides insight into the history and kinematics of transcurrent, high-angle normal faulting and slip on low-angle detachment faults and their relation to differential rotation of upper-plate, and locally lower-plate, rocks. Two extensional systems (Funeral - Bullfrog - Bare Mountain and Silver Peak - Lone Mountain) broadly share an inception age but the age of the third (Gold Mountain) is unknown. The extensional complexes apparently show a progressive decrease in the age at which exhumation ceased from SE to NW, over a duration of about 5 Ma. In contrast, the magnitude of clockwise rotation of upper-plate, and locally of lower

  19. Circulation in the southern Great Barrier Reef studied through an integration of multiple remote sensing and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yadan; Luick, John L.

    2014-03-01

    New mechanisms for stratification and upwelling in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are identified, and dynamic details of Capricorn Eddy, a transient feature located off the shelf at the southern extremity of the GBR, are revealed using the newly available surface current from High Frequency (HF) radar combined with other remote sensing and mooring data. The HF radar surface currents were used for tidal harmonic analysis and current-wind correlation analysis. These analyses, combined with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data, mooring data, and altimetry-based geostrophic currents, enabled the effects of forcing from the large-scale oceanic currents (including the East Australian Current (EAC)), wind, and tides in a topographically complex flow regime to be separately identified. Within the indentation region where the width of the shelf abruptly narrows, current is strongly coupled with the EAC. Here strong residual flows, identified on current maps and SST images, fall into three patterns: southward flow, northwestward flow, and an eddy. Multiple data sets shed light on the prerequisite for the formation of the eddy, the reasons for its geometric variation, and its evolution with time. Intrusions of the eddy onto the shelf result in stratification characterized by a significant increase of surface temperature. Upwelling driven by wind or oceanic inflow is shown to cause stratification of previously well-mixed shelf water. The upwelling appears to be associated with equatorward-traveling coastal-trapped waves. The integrative method of analysis embodied here is applicable to other coastal regions with complex circulation.

  20. Internal structure and Holocene evolution of One Tree Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. F.; Davies, P. J.

    1982-06-01

    Analysis of core from six drill holes and ten vibrocores from One Tree Reef has delineated five major biosedimentological facies: algal pavement, coral head facies, branching coral facies, reef flat rubble facies and sand facies. Holocene growth began around 8,000 years B.P. with a high energy coral head facies on windward margins and a lower energy branching coral facies on patch reefs and on leeward margins. Vertical accumulation rates for these two principal facies are not greatly different; the coral head facies grew at 1.8 7.3 m/1,000 years and the branching coral facies at 0.6 8.3 m/1,000 years. Growth was initially much slower than the rate of sea level rise, a situation which changed only after sea level stabilized around 6,200 years B.P. A facies evolution model with rigidly imposed time constraints divides growth into three phases, i.e. vertical growth to sea level, transitional adjustment of biofacies at sea level, and leeward progradative phases.

  1. Implications of invasion by Juniperus virginiana on small mammals in the southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horncastle, V.J.; Hellgren, E.C.; Mayer, P.M.; Ganguli, A.C.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examined effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on small mammals in 3 plant communities (tallgrass prairie, old field, and cross-timbers forest) in the cross-timbers ecoregion in Oklahoma. We sampled small mammals seasonally from May 2001 to August 2002 by using Sherman live traps and mark-recapture techniques on 3.24-ha, 450-trap grids in each plant community. We sampled vegetation in two hundred twenty-five 12 x 12-m cells within each grid. The structure of the small-mammal community differed among the 3 habitat types, with higher species diversity and richness in the tallgrass-prairie and old-field sites. Overall, the small-mammal community shifted along a gradient of increasing eastern red cedar. In the old-field and tallgrass-prairie plots, occurrence of grassland mammals decreased with increasing red cedar, whereas only 1 woodland mammal species increased. In the cross-timbers forest site, percent woody cover (<1 m in height), rather than cover of red cedar, was the most important factor affecting woodland mammal species. Examination of our data suggests that an increase in overstory cover from 0% to 30% red cedar can change a species-rich prairie community to a depauperate community dominated by 1 species, Peromyscus leucopus. Losses in species diversity and changes in mammal distribution paralleled those seen in avian communities invaded by eastern red cedar. Our results highlight ecological effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on diversity and function at multiple trophic levels. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. Role of the strengthened El Niño teleconnection in the May 2015 floods over the southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon Wang, S.-Y.; Huang, Wan-Ru; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Gillies, Robert R.

    2015-10-01

    The climate anomalies leading to the May 2015 floods in Texas and Oklahoma were analyzed in the context of El Niño teleconnection in a warmer climate. A developing El Niño tends to increase late-spring precipitation in the southern Great Plains, and this effect has intensified since 1980. Anthropogenic global warming contributed to the physical processes that caused the persistent precipitation in May 2015: Warming in the tropical Pacific acted to strengthen the teleconnection toward North America, modification of zonal wave 5 circulation that deepened the stationary trough west of Texas, and enhanced Great Plains low-level southerlies increasing moisture supply from the Gulf of Mexico. Attribution analysis using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 single-forcing experiments and the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project indicated a significant increase in the El Niño-induced precipitation anomalies over Texas and Oklahoma when increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse gases were taken into account.

  3. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and its Potential Effects on the Mullica River-Great Bay Ecosystem in Southern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, J. E.; Gao, Y.

    2005-05-01

    To characterize atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition to the Mullica River-Great Bay Estuary and to examine its impact on the coastal ecosystem, atmospheric sampling has been conducted at Tuckerton in southern New Jersey since March 2004. A total of 43 precipitation samples have been collected on an event basis using a wet-only automatic precipitation sampler. A total of 23 aerosol samples were also taken during this period of time with a high-volume aerosol sampler. Chemical analysis was performed using a Dionex Ion Chromatograph to determine the concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in precipitation and associated with aerosols. Atmospheric deposition of nitrate and ammonium were calculated using simple wet and dry atmospheric deposition models. The results show that nitrate and ammonium concentrations vary strongly with season, and the highest concentrations were observed during the spring. The average concentrations in precipitation for nitrate and ammonium in the samples collected to date are 2.41 mg l-1 and 0.56 mg l-1, respectively. The average aerosol concentrations are 3.7 μg m-3 for nitrate and 1.5 μg m-3 for ammonium. The results also indicate that wet deposition is the main contributor to the atmospheric nitrogen entering the Mullica River-Great Bay Estuary. High wet deposition rates of nitrogen were seen in the spring and summer with total average values of 429.08 mg m-2 month-1 for the spring and 229.28 mg m-2 month-1 for the summer. These results will be combined with satellite ocean color to investigate the effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on coastal primary productivity in this ecosystem. The atmospheric nitrogen data can also be combined with water column nutrient data that is being collected at the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve, to assist in generating a nutrient budget to better manage the coastal resources of the Mullica River-Great Bay Estuary.

  4. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-Southern Oscillation records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Nin??o events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Nin??o-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

  5. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion. PMID:15263069

  6. Downscaling Soil Moisture in the Southern Great Plains Through a Calibrated Multifractal Model for Land Surface Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascaro, Giuseppe; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Deidda, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Accounting for small-scale spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture (theta) is required to enhance the predictive skill of land surface models. In this paper, we present the results of the development, calibration, and performance evaluation of a downscaling model based on multifractal theory using aircraft!based (800 m) theta estimates collected during the southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97).We first demonstrate the presence of scale invariance and multifractality in theta fields of nine square domains of size 25.6 x 25.6 sq km, approximately a satellite footprint. Then, we estimate the downscaling model parameters and evaluate the model performance using a set of different calibration approaches. Results reveal that small-scale theta distributions are adequately reproduced across the entire region when coarse predictors include a dynamic component (i.e., the spatial mean soil moisture ) and a stationary contribution accounting for static features (i.e., topography, soil texture, vegetation). For wet conditions, we found similar multifractal properties of soil moisture across all domains, which we ascribe to the signature of rainfall spatial variability. For drier states, the theta fields in the northern domains are more intermittent than in southern domains, likely because of differences in the distribution of vegetation coverage. Through our analyses, we propose a regional downscaling relation for coarse, satellite-based soil moisture estimates, based on ancillary information (static and dynamic landscape features), which can be used in the study area to characterize statistical properties of small-scale theta distribution required by land surface models and data assimilation systems.

  7. Southern Great Plains Newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prell L. R. Roeder

    2010-09-01

    This months issue contains the following articles: (1) Scientists convene at SGP site for complex convective cloud experiment; (2) VORTEX2 spins down; (3) Sunphotometer supports SPARTICUS (a Sun and Aureole Measurement imaging sunphotometer) campaign and satellite validation studies; and (4) Ceilometer represents first deployment of new ground-based instruments from Recovery Act.

  8. Comparison of Meteorological Measurements from Sparse and Dense Surface Observation Networks in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    JW Monroe; MT Ritsche; M Franklin; KE Kehoe

    2008-02-28

    The primary objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity across Kansas (KS) and Oklahoma (OK) for sparse and dense networks by comparing data from (1) the Surface Meteorological Observing System (SMOS) installations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM; Peppler et al. 2008) Program’s Southern Great Plains site and (2) the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM; McPherson et al. 2007). Given the wealth of observations available from these networks, this study provided the unique opportunity to determine, within a quantifiable statistical limit, an optimal distance between stations deployed for observation of the climatological values of temperature and relative humidity. Average distances between a given station and its closest neighboring station for the ARM SMOS (~ 70 km) and the OKM (~ 30 km; Brotzge and Richardson 2003) networks provided an excellent framework for comparisons of sparse and dense observations (Figure 1). This study further lays groundwork for a future investigation to determine the necessary spacing between observations for initialization of gridded numerical models.

  9. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  10. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Gaustad, Krista L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Long, Charles N.; Delamere, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  11. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  12. Land-atmosphere coupling manifested in warm-season observations on the U.S. southern great plains

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Thomas J.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2014-01-28

    This study examines several observational aspects of land-atmosphere coupling on daily average time scales during warm seasons of the years 1997 to 2008 at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility site near Lamont, Oklahoma. Characteristics of the local land-atmosphere coupling are inferred by analyzing the covariability of selected land and atmospheric variables that include precipitation and soil moisture, surface air temperature, relative humidity, radiant and turbulent fluxes, as well as low-level cloud base height and fractional coverage. For both the energetic and hydrological aspects of this coupling, it is found that large-scale atmospheric forcings predominate, with local feedbacks of the land on the atmosphere being comparatively small much of the time. The weak land feedbacks are manifested by 1) the inability of soil moisture to comprehensively impact the coupled land-atmosphere energetics, and 2) the limited recycling of local surface moisture under conditions where most of the rainfall derives from convective cells that originate at remote locations. There is some evidence, nevertheless, of the local land feedback becoming stronger as the soil dries out in the aftermath of precipitation events, or on days when the local boundary-layer clouds are influenced by thermal updrafts known to be associated with convection originating at the surface. Finally, we also discuss potential implications of these results for climate-model representation of regional land-atmosphere coupling.

  13. An integrated approach to historical population assessment of the great whales: case of the New Zealand southern right whale.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jennifer A; Carroll, Emma L; Smith, Tim D; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Patenaude, Nathalie J; Baker, C Scott

    2016-03-01

    Accurate estimation of historical abundance provides an essential baseline for judging the recovery of the great whales. This is particularly challenging for whales hunted prior to twentieth century modern whaling, as population-level catch records are often incomplete. Assessments of whale recovery using pre-modern exploitation indices are therefore rare, despite the intensive, global nature of nineteenth century whaling. Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were particularly exploited: slow swimmers with strong fidelity to sheltered calving bays, the species made predictable and easy targets. Here, we present the first integrated population-level assessment of the whaling impact and pre-exploitation abundance of a right whale, the New Zealand southern right whale (E. australis). In this assessment, we use a Bayesian population dynamics model integrating multiple data sources: nineteenth century catches, genetic constraints on bottleneck size and individual sightings histories informing abundance and trend. Different catch allocation scenarios are explored to account for uncertainty in the population's offshore distribution. From a pre-exploitation abundance of 28 800-47 100 whales, nineteenth century hunting reduced the population to approximately 30-40 mature females between 1914 and 1926. Today, it stands at less than 12% of pre-exploitation abundance. Despite the challenges of reconstructing historical catches and population boundaries, conservation efforts of historically exploited species benefit from targets for ecological restoration. PMID:27069657

  14. An integrated approach to historical population assessment of the great whales: case of the New Zealand southern right whale

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Carroll, Emma L.; Smith, Tim D.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Patenaude, Nathalie J.; Baker, C. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of historical abundance provides an essential baseline for judging the recovery of the great whales. This is particularly challenging for whales hunted prior to twentieth century modern whaling, as population-level catch records are often incomplete. Assessments of whale recovery using pre-modern exploitation indices are therefore rare, despite the intensive, global nature of nineteenth century whaling. Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were particularly exploited: slow swimmers with strong fidelity to sheltered calving bays, the species made predictable and easy targets. Here, we present the first integrated population-level assessment of the whaling impact and pre-exploitation abundance of a right whale, the New Zealand southern right whale (E. australis). In this assessment, we use a Bayesian population dynamics model integrating multiple data sources: nineteenth century catches, genetic constraints on bottleneck size and individual sightings histories informing abundance and trend. Different catch allocation scenarios are explored to account for uncertainty in the population's offshore distribution. From a pre-exploitation abundance of 28 800–47 100 whales, nineteenth century hunting reduced the population to approximately 30–40 mature females between 1914 and 1926. Today, it stands at less than 12% of pre-exploitation abundance. Despite the challenges of reconstructing historical catches and population boundaries, conservation efforts of historically exploited species benefit from targets for ecological restoration. PMID:27069657

  15. Investigation of the Impact of Aerosols on Clouds During May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.; Penner, J.E.; Herzog, M.

    2005-03-18

    The effect of aerosols on the clouds, or the so-called aerosol indirect effect (AIE), is highly uncertain (Penner et al. 2001). The estimation of the AIE can vary from 0.0 to -4.8 W/m2 in Global Climate Models (GCM). Therefore, it is very important to investigate these interactions and cloud-related physical processes further. The Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (AIOP) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in May 2003 dedicated some effort towards the measurement of the Cloud Condensation Nucleus concentration (CCN) as a function of super-saturation and in relating CCN concentration to aerosol composition and size distribution. Furthermore, airborn measurement for the cloud droplet concentration was also available. Therefore this AIOP provides a good opportunity to examine the AIE. In this study, we use a Cloud Resolving Model (CRM), i.e., Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM), to discuss the effect of aerosol loadings on cloud droplet effective radius (Re) and concentration. The case we examine is a stratiform cloud that occurred on May 17, 2003.

  16. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Gaustad, K. L.; Mlawer, E. J.; Long, C. N.; Delamere, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  17. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Gaustad, K. L.; Mlawer, E. J.; Long, C. N.; Delamere, J.

    2011-09-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  18. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T.

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  19. AGRONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF A CONTINUOUS DOUBLE CROP OF WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN GROWN SOLELY FOR FORAGE IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern Great Plains winter wheat is grown for grain-crop and used extensively for forage. During summer, wheat fields are normally fallow and summer forage is mostly native and improved warm-season perennial grass that decline in quality as they mature. Dry-land double cropping soybean behi...

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  1. The Liuqu Conglomerate: early Miocene basin development related to deformation within the Great Counter Thrust system, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, R.; DeCelles, P. G.; Quade, J.

    2013-12-01

    Cenozoic sedimentary basins along the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone are key to reconstructing the evolution of the Tibetan orogen. Here, I present data on the age, provenance, and paleoelevation of the Liuqu Conglomerate, a continental deposit exposed within this suture zone. Paleocurrent analysis indicates that sediment was shed northward in the paleo-Liuqu basin. However, detrital U-Pb zircon age spectra and clast counts indicate that the Liuqu Conglomerate contains both Asian and Indian detritus. Analysis of paleosols and carbon isotopic composition of paleosol carbonates provide constraints on the paleoaltimetry of the Liuqu Conglomerate. New zircon U-Pb and biotite 40Ar/39Ar analyses are used to assign a preliminary, early Miocene age to this formation. More analyses are required to confirm this age determination. The Liuqu Conglomerate was deposited in alluvial fans and other coarse-grained fluvial deposystems. The Liuqu basin formed between ophiolitic mélanges (to the south) and uplifted Cretaceous forearc deposits (to the north) along the central, 1000 km long segment of the Yarlung-Tsangpo suture zone in southern Tibet. Sedimentological analysis shows the unit to be composed of mixed fluvial and sediment-gravity flow lithofacies assemblages, locally punctuated by mature, clay-rich paleosols. Structural and architectural analyses indicate that the Liuqu Conglomerate was deposited in a contractional setting. Paleocurrent and provenance data demonstrate that sediment was transported northward from the hanging wall of a Great Counter Thrust related thrust system that forms the southern limit of Liuqu outcrops. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages cluster around 80-110 Ma (ɛHf = -23.5 - 14.6), 120-135 Ma (ɛHf = -12.6 - 13.1), 500-600 Ma (ɛHf = -26 - 3.4), and 1100-1200 Ma (ɛHf = -27.6 - 2.9), requiring input from both Asian and Indian sources. Two detrital zircon U-Pb ages obtained from the Liuqu Conglomerate are ca. 18 Ma and provide a preliminary maximum depositional

  2. Building the foundations for a physically based passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm over the US Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringerud, Sarah

    The recently launched NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) offers the opportunity for a greatly increased understanding of global rainfall and the hydrologic cycle. The GPM algorithm team has made improvements in passive microwave remote sensing of precipitation over land a priority for this mission, and implemented a framework allowing for algorithm advancement for individual land surface types as new techniques are developed. In contrast to the radiometrically cold ocean surface, land emissivity in the microwave is large with highly dynamic variability. An accurate understanding of the instantaneous, dynamic emissivity in terms of the associated surface properties is necessary for a physically based retrieval scheme over land, along with realistic profiles of frozen and liquid hydrometeors. In an effort to better simulate land surface microwave emissivity, a combined modeling technique is developed and tested over the US Southern Great Plains (SGP) area. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Noah land surface model is utilized for surface information, with inputs optimized for SGP. A physical emissivity model, using land surface model data as input, is used to calculate emissivity at the 10 GHz frequency, combining contributions from the underlying soil and vegetation layers, including the dielectric and roughness effects of each medium. An empirical technique is then applied, based upon a robust set of observed channel covariances, extending the emissivity calculations to all channels. The resulting emissivities can then be implemented in calculation of upwelling microwave radiance, and combined with ancillary datasets to compute brightness temperatures (Tbs) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). For calculation of the hydrometeor contribution, reflectivity profiles from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) are utilized along with coincident Tbs from the TRMM radiometer (TMI), and cloud resolving

  3. Land data assimilation and estimation of soil moisture using measurements from the Southern Great Plains 1997 Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Dennis; Entekhabi, Dara; Dunne, Susan

    2002-12-01

    Remotely sensed microwave measurements provide useful but indirect observations of surface soil moisture. Ground-based measurements are more direct but are very localized and limited in coverage. Model predictions provide a more regional perspective but rely on many simplifications and approximations and depend on inputs that are difficult to obtain over extensive areas. The only effective way to achieve soil moisture estimates with the accuracy and coverage required for hydrologic and meteorological applications is to merge information from satellites, ground-based stations, and models. In this paper we describe a convenient data merging (or data assimilation) procedure based on an ensemble Kalman filter. This procedure is illustrated with an application to the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) field experiment. It uses land surface and radiative transfer models to derive soil moisture estimates from airborne L band microwave observations and ground-based measurements of micrometeorological variables, soil texture, and vegetation type. The ensemble filter approach is appealing because (1) it can accommodate a wide range of models, (2) it can account for input and measurement uncertainties, (3) it provides information on the accuracy of its estimates, and (4) it is relatively efficient, making large-scale applications feasible. Results from our SGP97 application of the ensemble Kalman filter include large-scale maps (˜10,000 km2) of soil moisture estimates and estimation error standard deviations for the entire month long experiment and comparisons of filter soil moisture and latent heat estimates to ground truth measurements (gravimetric and flux tower observations). The ground truth comparisons show that the filter is able to track soil moisture fluctuations. The filter estimates are significantly better than those from an "open loop" simulation that includes the same ground-based data but does not incorporate radio brightness measurements. Overall, the results

  4. Application of Aerosol Hygroscopicity Measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains Site to Examine Composition and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Runjun, Li; Collins, Don R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Brackett, Vincent G.

    2006-01-01

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure submicron aerosol size distributions, hygroscopicity, and occasionally volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) at the Central Facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) site. Hygroscopic growth factor distributions for particles at eight dry diameters ranging from 0.012 micrometers to 0.600 micrometers were measured throughout the study. For a subset of particle sizes, more detailed measurements were occasionally made in which the relative humidity or temperature to which the aerosol was exposed was varied over a wide range. These measurements, in conjunction with backtrajectory clustering, were used to infer aerosol composition and to gain insight into the processes responsible for evolution. The hygroscopic growth of both the smallest and largest particles analyzed was typically less than that of particles with dry diameters of about 0.100 micrometers. It is speculated that condensation of secondary organic aerosol on nucleation mode particles is largely responsible for the minimal hygroscopic growth observed at the smallest sizes considered. Growth factor distributions of the largest particles characterized typically contained a nonhygroscopic mode believed to be composed primarily of dust. A model was developed to characterize the hygroscopic properties of particles within a size distribution mode through analysis of the fixed size hygroscopic growth measurements. The performance of this model was quantified through comparison of the measured fixed size hygroscopic growth factor distributions with those simulated through convolution of the size-resolved concentration contributed by each of the size modes and the mode-resolved hygroscopicity. This transformation from sizeresolved hygroscopicity to mode-resolved hygroscopicity facilitated examination of changes in the hygroscopic

  5. Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning, is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types. At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.5C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness

  6. Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony D.; Wolf, Audrey B.

    1999-01-01

    Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types: At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.50 C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2, which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness

  7. A 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaiyer, M. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Nordeen, M. L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.

    2001-01-01

    While the various instruments maintained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) provide detailed cloud and radiation measurements for a small area, satellite cloud property retrievals provide a means of examining the large-scale properties of the surrounding region over an extended period of time. Seasonal and inter-annual climatological trends can be analyzed with such a dataset. For this purpose, monthly datasets of cloud and radiative properties from December 1996 through November 1999 over the SGP region have been derived using the layered bispectral threshold method (LBTM). The properties derived include cloud optical depths (ODs), temperatures and albedos, and are produced on two grids of lower (0.5 deg) and higher resolution (0.3 deg) centered on the ARM SGP CF. The extensive time period and high-resolution of the inner grid of this dataset allows for comparison with the suite of instruments located at the ARM CF. In particular, Whole-Sky Imager (WSI) and the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) cloud products can be compared to the cloud amounts and heights of the LBTM 0.3 deg grid box encompassing the CF site. The WSI provides cloud fraction and the ARSCL computes cloud fraction, base, and top heights using the algorithms by Clothiaux et al. (2001) with a combination of Belfort Laser Ceilometer (BLC), Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), and Micropulse Lidar (MPL) data. This paper summarizes the results of the LBTM analysis for 3 years of GOES-8 data over the SGP and examines the differences between surface and satellite-based estimates of cloud fraction.

  8. A Modeling Study of Irrigation Effects on Surface Fluxes and Land-Air-Cloud Interactions in the Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Huang, Maoyi; Yang, Ben; Berg, Larry K.

    2013-06-13

    In this study, the authors incorporate an operational-like irrigation scheme into the Noah land surface model as part of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). A series of simulations, with and without irrigation, is conducted over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) for an extremely dry (2006) and wet (2007) year. The results show that including irrigation reduces model bias in soil moisture and surface latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes, especially during a dry year. Irrigation adds additional water to the surface, leading to changes in the planetary boundary layer. The increase in soil moisture leads to increases in the surface evapotranspiration and near-surface specific humidity but decreases in the SH and surface temperature. Those changes are local and occur during daytime. There is an irrigation-induced decrease in both the lifting condensation level (ZLCL) and mixed-layer depth. The decrease in ZLCL is larger than the decrease in mixed-layer depth, suggesting an increasing probability of shallow clouds. The simulated changes in precipitation induced by irrigation are highly variable in space, and the average precipitation over the SGP region only slightly increases. A high correlation is found among soil moisture, SH, and ZLCL. Larger values of soil moisture in the irrigated simulation due to irrigation in late spring and summer persist into the early fall, suggesting that irrigation-induced soil memory could last a few weeks to months. The results demonstrate the importance of irrigation parameterization for climate studies and improve the process-level understanding on the role of human activity in modulating land–air–cloud interactions.

  9. Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Model Predictions of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. J.; Klein, S. A.; Ma, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Statistically significant interactions between summertime soil moisture and a number of atmospheric surface and boundary-layer variables have been observed at the U.S. Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SGP CF) site that is maintained by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program in northern Oklahoma (Phillips and Klein, 2014 JGR). The observed land-atmosphere coupling (LAC) strength was assessed by means of correlation coefficients R and "sensitivity indices" I (a measure of the comparative change in an atmospheric variable for a one-standard-deviation change in soil moisture). In the current study, we evaluate similar features of LAC in global predictions generated by version 5.1 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1), when coupled to the CLM4 land model and downscaled to the ARM SGP site. Each day's prediction was made after initializing the CAM5 atmosphere with ERA Interim reanalysis state variables, while other needed variables were obtained from a nudging simulation. In addition, the CLM4 daily initial conditions were determined by running the land model offline using observed surface net radiation, precipitation, and wind as forcings. Different aspects of LAC in the CAM5 will be compared with those found in the ARM observations during the summers of 2003-2011, when 3 independent measurements of soil moisture are available to provide an estimate of the inherent uncertainties in the LAC strengths determined from the ARM observations. This evaluation may uncover some unrealistic aspects of LAC in the CAM5 model that point toward potential deficiencies in its land or atmospheric model parameterizations. AcknowledgmentsThis work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and was performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Structural and functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities following woody plant encroachment in the southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, Emily B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Ansley, R J; Boutton, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    In the southern Great Plains (USA), encroachment of grassland ecosystems by Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) is widespread. Mesquite encroachment alters net primary productivity, enhances stores of C and N in plants and soil, and leads to increased levels of soil microbial biomass and activity. While mesquite's impact on the biogeochemistry of the region is well established, it effects on soil microbial diversity and function are unknown. In this study, soils associated with four plant types (C{sub 3} perennial grasses, C{sub 4} midgrasses, C{sub 4} shortgrasses, and mesquite) from a mesquite-encroached mixed grass prairie were surveyed to in an attempt to characterize the structure, diversity, and functional capacity of their soil microbial communities. rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used in conjunction with the GeoChip functional gene array to evaluate these potential differences. Mesquite soil supported increased bacterial and fungal diversity and harbored a distinct fungal community relative to other plant types. Despite differences in composition and diversity, few significant differences were detected with respect to the potential functional capacity of the soil microbial communities. These results may suggest that a high level of functional redundancy exists within the bacterial portion of the soil communities; however, given the bias of the GeoChip toward bacterial functional genes, potential functional differences among soil fungi could not be addressed. The results of this study illustrate the linkages shared between above- and belowground communities and demonstrate that soil microbial communities, and in particular soil fungi, may be altered by the process of woody plant encroachment.

  11. Seasonal and interannual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, Margaret S.; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Still, Christopher J.; Riley, William J.; Berry, Joe A.

    2011-04-01

    The δ13C value of terrestrial CO2 fluxes (δbio) provides important information for inverse models of CO2 sources and sinks as well as for studies of vegetation physiology, C3 and C4 vegetation fluxes, and ecosystem carbon residence times. From 2002-2009, we measured atmospheric CO2 concentration and δ13C-CO2 at four heights (2 to 60 m) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) and computed δbio weekly. This region has a fine-scale mix of crops (primarily C3 winter wheat) and C4 pasture grasses. δbio had a large and consistent seasonal cycle of 6-8‰. Ensemble monthly mean δbio ranged from -25.8 ± 0.4‰ (±SE) in March to -20.1 ± 0.4‰ in July. Thus, C3 vegetation contributed about 80% of ecosystem fluxes in winter-spring and 50% in summer-fall. In contrast, prairie-soil δ13C values were about -15‰, indicating that historically the region was dominated by C4 vegetation and had more positive δbio values. Based on a land-surface model, isofluxes (δbio× NEE) in this region have large seasonal amplitude because δbio and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) covary. Interannual variability in isoflux was driven by variability in NEE. The large seasonal amplitude in δbio and isoflux imply that carbon inverse analyses require accurate estimates of land cover and temporally resolved 13CO2 and CO2 fluxes.

  12. Quantifying the Land-Atmosphere Coupling Behavior in Modern Reanalysis Products over the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanello, J. A.; Roundy, J. K.; Dirmeyer, P.

    2014-12-01

    The coupling of the land with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on diurnal timescales is critical to regulating the strength of the connection between soil moisture and precipitation. To improve our understanding of land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions, recent studies have focused on the development of diagnostics to quantify the strength and accuracy of the land-PBL coupling at the process-level. In this paper, we apply a suite of local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) metrics to modern reanalysis (RA) products and observations during a 17-year period over the U. S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, a range of diagnostics exploring the links between soil moisture, evaporation, PBL height, temperature, humidity, and precipitation are applied to the summertime monthly mean diurnal cycles of the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). Results show that CFSR is the driest and MERRA the wettest of the three RAs in terms of overall surface-PBL coupling. When compared against observations, CFSR has a significant dry bias that impacts all components of the land-PBL system. CFSR and NARR are more similar in terms of PBL dynamics and response to dry and wet extremes, while MERRA is more constrained in terms of evaporation and PBL variability. The implications for moist processes are also discussed, which warrants further investigation into the potential downstream impacts of land-PBL coupling on the diurnal cycle of clouds, convection, and precipitation. Lastly, the results are put into context of community investigations into drought assessment and predictability over the region and underscore that caution should be used when treating RAs as truth, as the coupled water and energy cycle representation in each can vary considerably.

  13. Migrating birds : assessment of impact on 915-MHz radar wind profiler performance at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's southern great plains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, M. S.

    2002-03-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program is running a small network of 915-MHz radar wind profilers (RWPs) at its Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas. Seasonal migration of passerines may cause significant interference with the operation of 915-MHz RWPs. The extent of this ''bird jamming'' depends on the radar's parameters, the place of deployment, the season, and the time of day. This poster presents a new diagnostic method for detecting possible bird contamination in RWP data, along with an evaluation of the method using a three-year data set for two RWPs.

  14. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quade, Jay; Forester, R.M.; Pratt, W.L.; Carter, C.

    1998-01-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappaniana and Vertigo berryi are the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus, and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobi and Scottia tumida, typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The ??13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26???, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C3 (sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C4 (saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ???10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yrB.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  15. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, Richard M.; Pratt, William L.; Carter, Claire

    1998-03-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappanianaand Vertigo berryiare the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus,and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobiand Scottia tumida,typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The δ 13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26‰, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C 3(sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C 4(saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ˜10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yr B.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  16. Evaluation of Daytime Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor made by an Operational Raman Lidar over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David; Clayton, Marian; Schmid, Beat; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Orgren, John; Andrews, Elisabeth; Goldsmith, John E. M.; Jonsson, Hafidi

    2006-01-01

    Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles acquired during the daytime over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma (36.606 N, 97.50 W, 315 m) are evaluated using profiles measured by in situ and remote sensing instruments deployed during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (IOP). The automated algorithms used to derive these profiles from the Raman lidar data were first modified to reduce the adverse effects associated with a general loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar since early 2002. The Raman lidar water vapor measurements, which are calibrated to match precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from coincident microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements were, on average, 5-10% (0.3-0.6 g/m(exp 3) higher than the other measurements. Some of this difference is due to out-of-date line parameters that were subsequently updated in the MWR PWV retrievals. The Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements were, on average, about 0.03 km(exp -1) higher than aerosol measurements derived from airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical thickness and in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption. This bias, which was about 50% of the mean aerosol extinction measured during this IOP, decreased to about 10% when aerosol extinction comparisons were restricted to aerosol extinction values larger than 0.15 km(exp -1). The lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio and airborne Sun photometer measurements of the aerosol optical thickness were used along with in situ measurements of the aerosol size distribution to retrieve estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo (omega(sub o)) and the effective complex refractive index. Retrieved values of omega(sub o) ranged from (0.91-0.98) and were in generally good agreement with omega(sub o) derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering and absorption. Elevated aerosol

  17. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within

  18. Investigation of the 2006 Drought and 2007 Flood Extremes at the Southern Great Plains Through an Integrative Analysis of Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Feng, Zhe; Entin, Jared K.; Houser, Paul R.; Schiffer, Robert A.; LEucyer, Tristan; Olson, William S.; Hsu, Kuo-lin; Liu, W. Timothy; Lin, BIng; Deng, Yi; Jiang, Tianyu

    2010-01-01

    Hydrological years 2006 (HY06, 10/2005-09/2006) and 2007 (HY07, 10/2006-09/2007) provide a unique opportunity to examine hydrological extremes in the central US because there are no other examples of two such highly contrasting precipitation extremes occurring in consecutive years at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in recorded history. The HY06 annual precipitation in the state of Oklahoma, as observed by the Oklahoma Mesonet, is around 61% of the normal (92.84 cm, based on the 1921-2008 climatology), which results in HY06 the second-driest year in the record. In particular, the total precipitation during the winter of 2005-06 is only 27% of the normal, and this winter ranks as the driest season. On the other hand, the HY07 annual precipitation amount is 121% of the normal and HY07 ranks as the seventh-wettest year for the entire state and the wettest year for the central region of the state. Summer 2007 is the second-wettest season for the state. Large-scale dynamics play a key role in these extreme events. During the extreme dry period (10/2005-02/2006), a dipole pattern in the 500-hPa GH anomaly existed where an anomalous high was over the southwestern U.S. region and an anomalous low was over the Great Lakes. This pattern is associated with inhibited moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico and strong sinking motion over the SGP, both contributing to the extreme dryness. The precipitation deficit over the SGP during the extreme dry period is clearly linked to significantly suppressed cyclonic activity over the southwestern U.S., which shows robust relationship with the Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The precipitation events during the extreme wet period (May-July 2007) were initially generated by active synoptic weather patterns, linked with moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico by the northward low level jet, and enhanced by the mesoscale convective systems. Although the drought and pluvial conditions are dominated by large-scale dynamic

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  1. Comparison of meteorological measurements from sparse and dense surface observational networks in the U.S. southern Great Plains.

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, J. W.; Ritsche, M. T.; Franklin, M.; Kehoe, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; Univ.of Oklahoma

    2008-08-13

    The primary objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity across Kansas (KS) and Oklahoma (OK) for sparse and dense networks by comparing data from (1) the Surface Meteorological Observing System (SMOS) installations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM; Peppler et al. 2007) Program's Southern Great Plains site and (2) the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM; McPherson et al. 2007). Given the wealth of observations available from these networks, this study provided the unique opportunity to determine, within a quantifiable statistical limit, an optimal distance between stations deployed for observation of the climatological values of temperature and relative humidity. Average distances between a given station and its closest neighboring station for the ARM SMOS ({approx} 70 km) and the OKM ({approx} 30 km; Brotzge and Richardson 2003) networks provided an excellent framework for comparisons of sparse and dense observations (Figure 1). This study further lays groundwork for a future investigation to determine the necessary spacing between observations for initialization of gridded numerical models. The spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity was examined over KS and OK by comparing observations between station pairs located in three primary domains: (1) a sparse domain in KS, consisting only of ARM SMOS stations; (2) a dense domain centered in northern OK, consisting of both ARM SMOS and OKM stations; and (3) a dense domain centered in central OK, also consisting of both ARM SMOS and OKM stations (Figure 2). In addition, the ARM SMOS stations in OK were utilized to create two secondary sparse domains. Before the observations were compared, quality control (QC) beyond the standard ARM range test was added through implementation of tighter range tests specified by data quality objectives (DQOs). Furthermore, instances of poor-quality data were removed from the data set on the basis of ARM data quality

  2. Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains: Diagnosis of Mechanisms from SGP ARM Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant Nigam

    2013-02-01

    Work reported included analysis of pentad (5 day) averaged data, proposal of a hypothesis concerning the key role of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains, analysis of recurrent super-synoptic evolution of the Great Plains low-level jet, and study of pentad evolution of the 1988 drought and 1993 flood over the Great Plains from a NARR perspective on the atmospheric and terrestrial water balance.

  3. Surface circulation in the Great Lakes as observed by LANDSAT-1 August 1972 - December 1973: Southern Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stumpf, H. G.; Strong, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The surface current circulation patterns of southern Lake Michigan were charted for all cardinal and subcardinal wind directions, employing LANDSAT-1 observations of the distribution of natural tracing material borne in the surface waters. These colorants consist chiefly of river discharges composed of suspended sediments, pollutants, and algae; extensive chemical precipitations proved valuable for areas farther from shore. Comparison of the satellite-derived surface current charts with previous theoretical and empirical studies shows good agreement.

  4. Proceedings of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Nederlandse Anatomen Vereniging and the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    A joint meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Nederlandse Anatomen Vereniging and the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa was held from 15 to 17 April 1998 at Rolduc, Limburg, The Netherlands. It included symposia on ‘Recent advances in human evolution research’ on Wednesday 15 April and on ‘Adaptation of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli’ on Thursday 16 April. The first EFEM Lecture was given by Professor J. Voogd of Erasmus University Rotterdam on ‘Transformations and interactions of cerebellar maps’ on Friday 17 April. The following are abstracts of communications and demonstrations presented at the meeting. PMID:17103655

  5. The rediscovery of the Great Winterberg endemic Lotononis harveyi B.-E.van Wyk after 147 years, and notes on the poorly known Amathole endemic Macowania revoluta Oliv. (southern Great Escarpment, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, Vincent Ralph; Bentley, Joanne; Dold, Anthony P; Zikishe, Vathiswa; Barker, Nigel P

    2016-01-01

    South Africa's 800 km-long southern Great Escarpment hosts numerous endemic plant species only known from their type specimens or from very few records. This is a legacy of a 100-150 year lag between the pioneer work of 19(th) century botanists and repeat fieldwork in the 21(st) century. As a result, population and ecological data are lacking for many local endemic species. Here we report on the rediscovery of Lotononis harveyi B.-E.van Wyk 147 years after its original description, and provide the first detailed ecological notes on the poorly known shrub Macowania revoluta Oliv. Both species are locally endemic to the Great Winterberg-Amatholes (Eastern Cape Province). With only six known individuals, Lotononis harveyi is recommended the conservation status of Critically Endangered, with fire (and potentially grazing) being the main population constraints. Macowania revoluta is locally abundant, and it is surprising that it has been so poorly collected in recent decades. It occupies an important local niche as a keystone montane wetland species, and its narrow distribution range - combined with pressure from woody alien invasive species - suggests that its conservation status should be Rare. The research further highlights the need for continued biodiversity field research along South Africa's poorly explored Great Escarpment. PMID:27212887

  6. The rediscovery of the Great Winterberg endemic Lotononis harveyi B.–E.van Wyk after 147 years, and notes on the poorly known Amathole endemic Macowania revoluta Oliv. (southern Great Escarpment, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Vincent Ralph; Bentley, Joanne; Dold, Anthony P.; Zikishe, Vathiswa; Barker, Nigel P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract South Africa’s 800 km-long southern Great Escarpment hosts numerous endemic plant species only known from their type specimens or from very few records. This is a legacy of a 100–150 year lag between the pioneer work of 19th century botanists and repeat fieldwork in the 21st century. As a result, population and ecological data are lacking for many local endemic species. Here we report on the rediscovery of Lotononis harveyi B.–E.van Wyk 147 years after its original description, and provide the first detailed ecological notes on the poorly known shrub Macowania revoluta Oliv. Both species are locally endemic to the Great Winterberg–Amatholes (Eastern Cape Province). With only six known individuals, Lotononis harveyi is recommended the conservation status of Critically Endangered, with fire (and potentially grazing) being the main population constraints. Macowania revoluta is locally abundant, and it is surprising that it has been so poorly collected in recent decades. It occupies an important local niche as a keystone montane wetland species, and its narrow distribution range – combined with pressure from woody alien invasive species – suggests that its conservation status should be Rare. The research further highlights the need for continued biodiversity field research along South Africa’s poorly explored Great Escarpment. PMID:27212887

  7. A New View on the Space-Time Pattern of Great or Large Earthquakes along the Northern Japan to Southern Kurile Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Satake, K.; Ishibashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Japan to southern Kurile trenches have been regarded as a typical subduction zone with spatially and temporally regular recurrence of great interplate earthquakes. The source regions had been divided into six segments, named A to F from SW to NE (Utsu, 1972; 1984), on the basis of great interplate events during an active period from 1952 to 1973. New active period seems to have started in 2003 with Tokachi-oki earthquake (M 8.2). However, some large interplate events (M>7.5) occurred in the 1990’s. The 1994 interplate earthquake (M 7.8) in A region re-ruptured one (southern) of the two asperities of the 1968 (M 8.2) event (Nagai et al., 2001). In addition, the 1994 intraslab event (M 8.3) occurred in D region. Harada and Ishibashi (1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007) have pointed out several questions on the so-far believed regularities by examining relocated mainshock-aftershock distributions of great or large earthquakes after the 1950’s. One of the most important results is that the 1958 Etorofu earthquake (M 8.3) in E region was not an interplate event but an intraslab one. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion of Japanese government (2004) divided the southern Kurile subduction zone into four segments and evaluated future probabilities of great interplate earthquakes in this region. Satake et al. (2008) revealed that the B and C regions were ruptured simultaneously in the 17th century. In this study, we re-examine relocated mainshock-aftershock distribution of great or large earthquakes after 1918 and propose a new view on the space-time pattern of great or large earthquakes during the last 90 years. The procedure is useful for the examination of space-time pattern of great or large earthquakes over a long period because arrival-time data are continuously available before the 1960's when other data like waveforms are not enough. We relocate mainshocks and 1-month aftershocks by using the HYPOSAT (Schweitzer, 2003). The travel

  8. Coral Luminescence Identifies the Pacific Decadal Oscillation as a Primary Driver of River Runoff Variability Impacting the Southern Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Grove, Craig A.; Zinke, Jens; Pandolfi, John M.; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a large-scale climatic phenomenon modulating ocean-atmosphere variability on decadal time scales. While precipitation and river flow variability in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments are sensitive to PDO phases, the extent to which the PDO influences coral reefs is poorly understood. Here, six Porites coral cores were used to produce a composite record of coral luminescence variability (runoff proxy) and identify drivers of terrestrial influence on the Keppel reefs, southern GBR. We found that coral skeletal luminescence effectively captured seasonal, inter-annual and decadal variability of river discharge and rainfall from the Fitzroy River catchment. Most importantly, although the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was evident in the luminescence records, the variability in the coral luminescence composite record was significantly explained by the PDO. Negative luminescence anomalies (reduced runoff) were associated with El Niño years during positive PDO phases while positive luminescence anomalies (increased runoff) coincided with strong/moderate La Niña years during negative PDO phases. This study provides clear evidence that not only ENSO but also the PDO have significantly affected runoff regimes at the Keppel reefs for at least a century, and suggests that upcoming hydrological disturbances and ecological responses in the southern GBR region will be mediated by the future evolution of these sources of climate variability. PMID:24416214

  9. Coral luminescence identifies the Pacific Decadal Oscillation as a primary driver of river runoff variability impacting the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Grove, Craig A; Zinke, Jens; Pandolfi, John M; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a large-scale climatic phenomenon modulating ocean-atmosphere variability on decadal time scales. While precipitation and river flow variability in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments are sensitive to PDO phases, the extent to which the PDO influences coral reefs is poorly understood. Here, six Porites coral cores were used to produce a composite record of coral luminescence variability (runoff proxy) and identify drivers of terrestrial influence on the Keppel reefs, southern GBR. We found that coral skeletal luminescence effectively captured seasonal, inter-annual and decadal variability of river discharge and rainfall from the Fitzroy River catchment. Most importantly, although the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was evident in the luminescence records, the variability in the coral luminescence composite record was significantly explained by the PDO. Negative luminescence anomalies (reduced runoff) were associated with El Niño years during positive PDO phases while positive luminescence anomalies (increased runoff) coincided with strong/moderate La Niña years during negative PDO phases. This study provides clear evidence that not only ENSO but also the PDO have significantly affected runoff regimes at the Keppel reefs for at least a century, and suggests that upcoming hydrological disturbances and ecological responses in the southern GBR region will be mediated by the future evolution of these sources of climate variability. PMID:24416214

  10. Analytical study of the effects of the Low-Level Jet on moisture convergence and vertical motion fields at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, X.; Zhong, S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Stage, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is located in a region that is strongly affected by a prominent meteorological phenomenon--the Great Plains Low-Level Jet (LLJ). Observations have shown that the LLJ plays a vital role in spring and summertime cloud formation and precipitation over the Great Plains. An improved understanding of the LLJ characteristics and its impact on the environment is necessary for addressing the fundamental issue of development and testing of radiational transfer and cloud parameterization schemes for the general circulation models (GCMs) using data from the SGP CART site. A climatological analysis of the summertime LLJ over the SGP has been carried out using hourly observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wind Profiler Demonstration Network and from the ARM June 1993 Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The hourly data provide an enhanced temporal and spatial resolution relative to earlier studies which used 6- and 12-hourly rawinsonde observations at fewer stations.

  11. Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S. Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather forecasting approach

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, S A; Jiang, X; Boyle, J; Malyshev, S; Xie, S

    2006-07-11

    Weather forecasts started from realistic initial conditions are used to diagnose the large warm and dry bias over the United States Southern Great Plains simulated by the GFDL climate model. The forecasts exhibit biases in surface air temperature and precipitation within 3 days which appear to be similar to the climate bias. With the model simulating realistic evaporation but underestimated precipitation, a deficit in soil moisture results which amplifies the initial temperature bias through feedbacks with the land surface. The underestimate of precipitation is associated with an inability of the model to simulate the eastward propagation of convection from the front-range of the Rocky Mountains and is insensitive to an increase of horizontal resolution from 2{sup o} to 0.5{sup o} latitude.

  12. Implementation and evaluation of the Heffter method to calculate the height of the planetary boundary layer above the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Pesenson, Igor

    2003-11-30

    This paper explores the Heffter Method--an algorithm for finding the height of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The algorithm is applied to the Balloon Borne Sounding System (BBSS) data collected over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. After discussing the successes and shortcomings of the algorithm, the resulting PBL height estimates for dates in May of 2002 are related to CO{sub 2} concentration and wind data. The CO{sub 2} data used is from the Precision Gas System (PGS) while the wind data is a combination of data from the Portable CO{sub 2} Flux System on the SGP site and BBSS.

  13. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    PubMed

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. PMID:27232135

  14. Mapping the Duration and Severity of Drought Impacts on Grasslands in the Southern Great Plains through a Water-related Vegetation Index Derived from MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Wagle, P.; Bajgain, R.; Basara, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands in the Southern Great Plains of the United States are sensitive to drought. Previous studies have utilized a variety of methods and indices to monitor drought and assess the impacts. These drought indices were based on climate data such as precipitation and surface air temperature. However, water-related vegetation indices such as land surface water index (LSWI) have not been widely used as an indicator of drought severity at large scales. In this study, we analyzed land surface temperature (LST) data (MYD11A2) and LSWI data (MOD09A1) from 2006 and 2007 (H10V05, covering parts of Oklahoma and Kansas) to assess drought. First, LST data from an entire year were used to define and map the temperature-defined plant growing season (start and end dates as well as duration of LST > 5 °C). Second, LSWI data from within the LST-based growing season were used to assess vegetation growing condition and delineate the LSWI-based growing season (between the first date and the last date when LSWI > 0). The number of days with LSWI < 0 within the LSWI-based growing season is around zero in a year without summer droughts (e.g. 2007), but increases substantially in a year with severe summer droughts (e.g. 2006), varying between 100 to 150 day. Four levels (severe drought, moderate drought, abnormally dry, and no drought) of drought indicators were used to define the drought severity of grasslands based on the length of the LSWI-based growing season and the total number of LSWI < 0. Preliminary results revealed that the frequency of LSWI < 0 within the LSWI-defined growing season corresponded well with the drought condition in 2006. The LSWI-based approach developed in this study, at a spatial resolution of 500-m and a temporal resolution of 8-day, may provide an additional drought indicator in the Southern Great Plains.

  15. Thermal evolution of the Sisters shear zone, southern New Zealand; Formation of the Great South Basin and onset of Pacific-Antarctic spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy J.; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2009-10-01

    The separation of Zealandia from West Antarctica was the final stage in the Cretaceous breakup of the Gondwana Pacific margin. Continental extension resulting in formation of the Great South Basin and thinning of the Campbell Plateau leading to development of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge was partially accommodated along the Sisters shear zone. This east-northeast striking brittle-ductile structure exposed along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand, is a greenschist facies extensional shear zone that separates a hanging wall of chloritic, brecciated granites, and undeformed conglomerate from a footwall of mylonitic Carboniferous and Early Cretaceous granites. This complex structure exhibits bivergent kinematics and can be subdivided into a northern and southern segment. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology indicates that cooling of the shear zone footwall began at ˜94 Ma with accelerated cooling over the interval ˜89-82 Ma. Structural and thermochronological data indicate a spatial and temporal link between the Sisters shear zone, initial sedimentation within the offshore Great South Basin, extension of the Campbell Plateau, and initiation of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge.

  16. Why do summer droughts in the Southern Great Plains occur in some La Niña years but not others?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fernando, D. Nelun

    2016-02-01

    Droughts in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) have been attributed to the cold phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation or La Niña. While La Niña events have been clearly linked to winter droughts, their link to summer droughts has remained unclear. We analyze the difference in precipitation between dry and nondry summers over the SGP during La Niña years. Anomalously high geopotential height and subsidence over the SGP occur in spring, along with an intensified northward moisture flux that advects moisture away to the northern plains and Midwest. The dependence of SGP drought on La Niña is statistically significant only in winter and becomes insignificant in spring and summer. The drought development in La Niña years is related to an anomalous warming over the tropical North Atlantic in spring and an anomalous negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in summer, both of which suppress precipitation by strengthening the anomalous high over the SGP and displacing the subtropical jet streams. In years with relatively large precipitation anomalies (i.e., the 27% driest and wettest La Niña years over the SGP), up to 45% of the variances of summer precipitation can be explained by a linear combination of the Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), tropical North Atlantic SST, and NAO indices. An anomalously strong dry summer appears to be largely a result of a superposition of these factors.

  17. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  18. A Comparison of Multiscale Variations of Decade-long Cloud Fractions from Six Different Platforms over the Southern Great Plains in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang; Jensen, Michael; Toto, Tami; Foster, Michael J.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-03-27

    This study investigates 1997-2011 observationally based cloud fraction estimates from different platforms over the Southern Great Plains, United States, including three ground-based estimates and three satellite-based estimates at multiple temporal and spatial scales. They are: 1) the Active Remotely Sensed Clouds Locations (ARSCL); 2) the Total Sky Imager (TSI); 3) the Radiative Flux Analysis (RFA); 4) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); 5) the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP); and 6) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x). A substantial disagreement is evident among different estimates, especially for ISCCP and ARSCL with statistically significant larger cloud fractions than the other estimates. For example, ISCCP and ARSCL mean cloud fractions in January are ~21% and 8% larger than the average from all the other estimates, respectively. Three estimates (ISCCP, ARSCL, GOES) exhibit an 8%-10% overall increase in the annually averaged cloud fractions from 1998 to 2009; the other three estimates (TSI, RFA, and PATMOS-x) exhibit no significant tendency of increase in this decade. Monthly cloud fractions from all the estimates exhibit Gaussian-like distributions while the distributions of daily cloud fractions are dependent on spatial scales. Investigations of high-resolution cloud fractions reveal that the differences stem from the inconsistent definitions of cloud fraction. Findings from this study suggest caution when using observationally based cloud fraction estimates for climate studies, highlighting that the consistency in defining cloud fraction between models and observations is crucial for studying the Earth’s climate.

  19. Parameterizing atmosphere-land surface exchange for climate models with satellite data: A case study for the Southern Great Plains CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, W.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution satellite data provide detailed, quantitative descriptions of land surface characteristics over large areas so that objective scale linkage becomes feasible. With the aid of satellite data, Sellers et al. and Wood and Lakshmi examined the linearity of processes scaled up from 30 m to 15 km. If the phenomenon is scale invariant, then the aggregated value of a function or flux is equivalent to the function computed from aggregated values of controlling variables. The linear relation may be realistic for limited land areas having no large surface contrasts to cause significant horizontal exchange. However, for areas with sharp surface contrasts, horizontal exchange and different dynamics in the atmospheric boundary may induce nonlinear interactions, such as at interfaces of land-water, forest-farm land, and irrigated crops-desert steppe. The linear approach, however, represents the simplest scenario, and is useful for developing an effective scheme for incorporating subgrid land surface processes into large-scale models. Our studies focus on coupling satellite data and ground measurements with a satellite-data-driven land surface model to parameterize surface fluxes for large-scale climate models. In this case study, we used surface spectral reflectance data from satellite remote sensing to characterize spatial and temporal changes in vegetation and associated surface parameters in an area of about 350 {times} 400 km covering the southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  20. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  1. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Results of LACIE integrated drought analysis (Southern U.S. Great Plains drought 1975-76)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The development and intensification of the drought in the United States southern Great Plains was monitored during the initial growing period of the 1975-76 winter wheat crop. Because of the severity of the drought conditions, a drought analysis plan was developed and implemented beginning on March 8, 1976. Sample segments and full-frame imagery were used at 9-day intervals to identify the drought area and quantify the effects on the wheat acreage. Yield model simulations were run to extrapolate the effects of the drought on yield estimates at harvest, assuming 10 and 90 percent of normal rainfall for subsequent months and 30-day forecast. A survey of LANDSAT data for improvement of distribution of rainfall patterns in the drought area was done for April and yield models run for drought affected crop reporting districts. Special aggregations were performed by the Crop Assessment Subsystem on the drought area to evaluate the utility of remote sensing to monitor the effect of the drought on wheat area, yield, and production.

  2. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling During the 2006-7 Dry/Wet Extremes in the U. S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanello, J. A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kennedy, A. D.; Kumar, S.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of land surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL) temperature and moisture states and fluxes. In turn, these interactions regulate the strength of the connection between surface moisture and precipitation in a coupled system. To address deficiencies in numerical weather prediction and climate models due to improper treatment of L-A interactions, recent studies have focused on development of diagnostics to quantify the strength and accuracy of the land-PBL coupling at the process-level. In this study, a diagnosis of the nature and impacts of local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) during dry and wet extreme conditions is presented using a combination of models and observations during the summers of 2006-7 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which provides a flexible and high-resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are examined for the dry/wet regimes of this region, along with the behavior and accuracy of different land-PBL scheme couplings under these conditions. Results demonstrate how LoCo diagnostics can be applied to coupled model components in the context of their integrated impacts on the process-chain connecting the land surface to the PBL and support of hydrological anomalies.

  3. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling During the 2006-7 Dry/Wet Extremes in the U. S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Dong, Xiquan; Kennedy, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The degree of coupling between the land surface and PBL in NWP models remains largely undiagnosed due to the complex interactions and feedbacks present across a range of scales. In this study, a framework for diagnosing local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) is presented using a coupled mesoscale model with observations during the summers of 2006/7 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which enables a suite of PBL and land surface model (LSM) options along provides a flexible and high-resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. This coupling is one component of a larger project to develop a NASA-Unified WRF (NU-WRF) system. A range of diagnostics exploring the feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are examined for the dry/wet extremes, along with the sensitivity of PBL-LSM coupling to perturbations in soil moisture.

  4. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling During the 2006-7 Dry/Wet Extremes in the U. S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kennedy, Aaron D.; Kumar, Sujay; Dong, Xiquan

    2011-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of land surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL) temperature and moisture states and fluxes. In turn, these interactions regulate the strength of the connection between surface moisture and precipitation in a coupled system. To address deficiencies in numerical weather prediction and climate models due to improper treatment of L-A interactions, recent studies have focused on development of diagnostics to quantify the strength and accuracy of the land-PBL coupling at the process-level. In this study, a diagnosis of the nature and impacts of local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) during dry and wet extreme conditions is presented using a combination of models and observations during the summers of2006-7 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which provides a flexible and high resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are examined for the dry/wet regimes of this region, along with the behavior and accuracy of different land-PBL scheme couplings under these conditions. Results demonstrate how LoCo diagnostics can be applied to coupled model components in the context of their integrated impacts on the process-chain connecting the land surface to the PBL and support of hydrological anomalies.

  5. Interbasin flow in the Great Basin with special reference to the southern Funeral Mountains and the source of Furnace Creek springs, Death Valley, California, U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, W.R.; Bedinger, M.S.; Back, J.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Interbasin flow in the Great Basin has been established by scientific studies during the past century. While not occurring uniformly between all basins, its occurrence is common and is a function of the hydraulic gradient between basins and hydraulic conductivity of the intervening rocks. The Furnace Creek springs in Death Valley, California are an example of large volume springs that are widely accepted as being the discharge points of regional interbasin flow. The flow path has been interpreted historically to be through consolidated Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the southern Funeral Mountains. This work reviews the preponderance of evidence supporting the concept of interbasin flow in the Death Valley region and the Great Basin and addresses the conceptual model of pluvial and recent recharge [Nelson, S.T., Anderson, K., Mayo, A.L., 2004. Testing the interbasin flow hypothesis at Death Valley, California. EOS 85, 349; Anderson, K., Nelson, S., Mayo, A., Tingey, D., 2006. Interbasin flow revisited: the contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, California. Journal of Hydrology 323, 276-302] as the source of the Furnace Creek springs. We find that there is insufficient modern recharge and insufficient storage potential and permeability within the basin-fill units in the Furnace Creek basin for these to serve as a local aquifer. Further, the lack of high sulfate content in the spring waters argues against significant flow through basin-fill sediments and instead suggests flow through underlying consolidated carbonate rocks. The maximum temperature of the spring discharge appears to require deep circulation through consolidated rocks; the Tertiary basin fill is of insufficient thickness to generate such temperatures as a result of local fluid circulation. Finally, the stable isotope data and chemical mass balance modeling actually support the interbasin flow conceptual model rather than the alternative presented in Nelson et al. [Nelson

  6. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  7. Cordilleran cratonal-miogeoclinal hinge zone in the Mojave Desert and southern Great Basin: What is it How can it be recognized Where is it

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Fedo, C.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Commonly referred to as hingelines, ancient cratonal-miogeoclinal transitions are best defined by rift-related structures because during the rift-to-drift history of continental margins, hingelines exert their most profound influences as active tectonic and physiographic features. Where rift-related structures are not preserved, stratigraphic development, as the most direct response to early continental margin tectonic activity, is the more sensitive indicator of paleotectonic setting. Accordingly, it is the initial, Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian basement-cover deposits of the evolving southwestern US Cordilleran passive margin that provide the clear signature of cratonal-miogeoclinal affinity and hinge definition. At a facies scale, the similarities between cratonal and miogeoclinal strata are compelling; thus the major difference between the craton and miogeocline expressed not by lithofacies, but by stratigraphic unit representation and thickness. Throughout the eastern Mojave Desert and southern Great Basin regions, three distinct expressions of Upper Proterozoic-Lower Cambrian stratigraphic unit representation and thickness relate to hinge definition and location. Basal cratonal stratigraphic sections begin with middle member Wood Canyon Formation that rests nonconformably on Proterozoic basement. Basal miogeoclinal stratigraphic sections are typified by a kilometers-thick sub-Wood Canyon Formation interval ([+-]Pahrump Group; Noonday Dolomite, Johnnie Formation, Stirling Quartzite) and the presence of lower member Wood Canyon Formation. A third, transitional stratigraphic succession begins with a comparatively thin, poorly developed sub-Wood Canyon Formation interval and contains no lower member Wood Canyon Formation. This transitional stratigraphic style represents a craton-margin setting and is crucial for constraining a hinge.

  8. Late Quaternary environmental change inferred from phytoliths and other soil-related proxies: Case studies from the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, C.E.; Johnson, W.C.; Mandel, R.D.; Palmer, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates stable carbon isotopes (??13C), opal phytolith assemblages, burnt phytoliths, microscopic charcoal and Sporormiella spores from modern soils and paleosols in Kansas and Oklahoma. Grass and dicot phytoliths in combination with ??13C are used as proxies for reconstructing the structure of grasslands and woodlands. Burnt grass phytoliths and microscopic charcoal are evaluated as proxies for reconstructing paleofire incidence. Concentrations of the fungal spore Sporormiella are used as a proxy for assessing large herbivore activity. These proxies were tested on various modern grassland communities of the central and southern Great Plains, including areas with bison, cattle, and small herbivores, and areas under different fire frequencies.Opal phytolith assemblages and ??13C values show that before cal 11ka, C3 grasses and woody plants predominated in areas that today are dominated by C4 grasses. The origin of the shortgrass prairie dates back to about cal 10ka. The origin of the tallgrass prairie, however, is not clear as phytolith data show variable assemblages throughout the Holocene (mixed-grass, tallgrass, and tallgrass-woodland mosaic). Different proxies (burnt phytoliths vs. charcoal) reveal different fire frequencies, but it is apparent that microfossil evidence for fire incidence is closely related to the abundance of woody plants in the landscape.Before cal 12. ka, soils show somewhat elevated concentration of Sporormiella, but lower concentrations than the modern high-density bison and cattle grazing areas. Throughout the Holocene, Sporormiella frequencies are low, which suggests lower large ungulate densities and perhaps high mobility. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations of the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  10. Long-term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol Chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Parworth, Caroline; Fast, Jerome D.; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Timothy R.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Tilp, Alison; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. Over the period of 19 months (Nov. 20, 2010 – June 2012) highly time resolved (~30 min.) NR-PM1 data was recorded. Using this dataset the value-added product (VAP) of deriving organic aerosol components (OACOMP) is introduced. With this VAP, multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix can be performed on long term data to return organic aerosol (OA) factors that are associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. Three factors were obtained from this VAP including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when nitrate increased due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations showed little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increased and were mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were computed by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. From this model there is evidence to support that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  11. Impacts of the triggering function of cumulus parameterization on warm-season diurnal rainfall cycles at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Pan, Hua-Lu; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impacts of the triggering function of the deep convection scheme on diurnal rainfall variation in the middle latitudes by using the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model (SCAM). Using the climate statistics of a long-term ensemble analysis of SCAM simulations, we quantified and validated the diurnal rainfall climatological regimes at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The results showed that the averaged diurnal rainfall cycle simulated using the default Zhang-Mcfarlane (ZM) scheme of the SCAM peaks near noon, which is far earlier than the observed nighttime peak phase. This bias was due to the ZM scheme, which produced spurious daytime rainfall, even during days in which only light rainfall was observed. By contrast, using a weather-focused scheme, the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) scheme, we successfully simulated the nocturnal peak of the diurnal cycle. Experiments conducted on the ZM and SAS schemes featuring different triggering functions revealed that the relaxation of launching parcels above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the inclusion of convective inhibition (CIN) were crucial designs for the model to capture the nocturnal rainfall events of the SGP. The inclusion of CIN reduces spurious weak convective events, and the allowance of launching parcels being above the PBL better captures convective cloud base. The results of this study highlight the modulatory effect of low-level inhomogeneity on the diurnal variation of convection over midlatitudes and the importance of the triggering function of the deep convection scheme in capturing those variations.

  12. Diagnosing the Local Land-Atmosphere Coupling (LoCo) in Models and Observations: A Study of Dry/Wet Extremes in the U. S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanello, J. A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Dong, X.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface temperature and moisture states. The degree of coupling between the land surface and PBL in numerical weather prediction and climate models remains largely unexplored and undiagnosed due to the complex interactions and feedbacks present across a range of scales. Further, uncoupled systems or experiments (e.g., the Project for Intercomparison of Land Parameterization Schemes, PILPS) may lead to inaccurate water and energy cycle process understanding by neglecting feedback processes such as PBL-top entrainment. In this study, a framework for diagnosing local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) is presented using a coupled mesoscale model with a suite of PBL and land surface model (LSM) options along with observations during the summers of 2006/7 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which provides a flexible and high-resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are examined for the dry/wet extremes of this region, along with the sensitivity of PBL-LSM coupling to perturbations in soil moisture. As such, this methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which is serving as a testbed for LoCo experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  13. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling During the 2006-7 Dry/Wet Extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Dong, Xiquan; Kennedy, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in determining the. diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface temperature and moisture states. The degree of coupling between the land surface and PBL in numerical weather prediction and climate models remains largely unexplored and undiagnosed due to the complex interactions and feedbacks present across a range of scales. Further, uncoupled systems or experiments (e.g., the Project for Intercomparison of Land Parameterization Schemes, PILPS) may lead to inaccurate water and energy cycle process understanding by neglecting feedback processes such as PBL-top entrainment. In this study, a framework for diagnosing local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) is presented using a coupled mesoscale model with a suite of PBL and land surface model (LSM) options along with observations during the summers of 200617 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which provides a flexible and high-resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are examined for the dry/wet extremes of this region, along with the sensitivity of PBL-LSM coupling to perturbations in soil moisture. As such, this methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which is serving as a testbed for LoCo experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  14. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, M.S.; Biraud, S.; Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Berry, J.A.

    2010-09-22

    The {delta}{sup 13}C signature of terrestrial carbon fluxes ({delta}{sub bio}) provides an important constraint for inverse models of CO{sub 2} sources and sinks, insight into vegetation physiology, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} vegetation productivity, and ecosystem carbon residence times. From 2002-2009, we measured atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and {delta}{sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} at four heights (2 to 60 m) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) and computed {delta}{sub bio} weekly. This region has a fine-scale mix of crops (primarily C{sub 3} winter wheat) and C{sub 4} pasture grasses. {delta}{sub bio} had a large and consistent seasonal cycle of 6-8{per_thousand}. Ensemble monthly mean {delta}{sub bio} ranged from -25.8 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} ({+-}SE) in March to -20.1 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} in July. Thus, C{sub 3} vegetation contributed about 80% of ecosystem fluxes in winter-spring and 50% in summer-fall. In contrast, prairie-soil {delta}{sub 13}C values were about -15{per_thousand}, indicating that historically the region was dominated by C{sub 4} vegetation and had more positive {delta}{sub bio} values. Based on a land-surface model, isofluxes ({delta}{sub bio} x NEE) in this region have large seasonal amplitude because {delta}{sub bio} and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) covary. Interannual variability in isoflux was driven by variability in NEE. The large seasonal amplitude in {delta}{sub bio} and isoflux imply that carbon inverse analyses require accurate estimates of land cover and temporally resolved {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes.

  15. Spatial-temporal dynamics of agricultural drought in the tallgrass prairie region of the Southern Great Plains during 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Bajgain, R.; Dong, J.; Qin, Y.; Jin, C.; Wagle, P.; Basara, J. B.; McCarthy, H. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tallgrass prairie is an important ecosystem type and a major feed for beef cattle in the Southern Great Plains (SGP: Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas). Frequent drought in the SGP affects the production of tallgrass prairie and ultimately the beef cattle production. It is, therefore, necessary to map drought vulnerable areas to help ranchers adapt cattle industry to drought conditions. In this study, we analyzed Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) calculated from near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and quantified the spatial-temporal dynamics of agricultural drought in the tallgrass prairie region of the SGP during 2000-2013. The number of days with LSWI < 0 during the thermal growing season (start and end dates as well as duration of land surface temperature > 5 °C) was defined as the duration of drought to generate drought duration maps for each year. Following the decreasing rainfall gradient from east to west in the SGP, counties in the west experienced whole growing season drought (WGSZ) more (three or more out of 14 years with WGSD), middle counties had one to two months summer drought, and eastern counties experienced less drought (mainly one year with WGSD and less than one month of summer drought). The LSWI-based drought duration map showed similar patterns with Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) and U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) in wet, summer drought, and whole growing season drought years. Our drought map has identified the vulnerability of counties to different droughts (summer drought and whole growing season drought) in the SGP. This finer resolution (500 m) drought map has the potential to show the drought condition for individual ranch, which can be used to guide drought mitigation activities and livestock production.

  16. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling: A Case Study of Dry/Wet Extremes in the U. S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A. Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kennedy, Aaron; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of land surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL) temperature and moisture states and fluxes. In turn, these interactions regulate the strength of the connection between surface moisture and precipitation in a coupled system. To address model deficiencies, recent studies have focused on development of diagnostics to quantify the strength and accuracy of the land- PBL coupling at the process-level. In this paper, a diagnosis of the nature and impacts of local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) during dry and wet extreme conditions is presented using a combination of models and observations during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are applied to the dry/wet regimes exhibited in this region, and in the process a thorough evaluation of nine different land-PBL scheme couplings is conducted under the umbrella of a high-resolution regional modeling testbed. Results show that the sign and magnitude of errors in land surface energy balance components are sensitive to the choice of land surface model, regime type, and running mode. In addition, LoCo diagnostics show that the sensitivity of L-A coupling is stronger towards the land during dry conditions, while the PBL scheme coupling becomes more important during the wet regime. Results also demonstrate how LoCo diagnostics can be applied to any modeling system (e.g. reanalysis products) in the context of their integrated impacts on the process-chain connecting the land surface to the PBL and in support of hydrological anomalies.

  17. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Parworth, Caroline; Tilp, Alison; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ~30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations ofmore » the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.« less

  18. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parworth, Caroline; Fast, Jerome; Mei, Fan; Shippert, Tim; Sivaraman, Chitra; Tilp, Alison; Watson, Thomas; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this study the long-term trends of non-refractory submicrometer aerosol (NR-PM1) composition and mass concentration measured by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are discussed. NR-PM1 data was recorded at ∼30 min intervals over a period of 19 months between November 2010 and June 2012. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on the measured organic mass spectral matrix using a rolling window technique to derive factors associated with distinct sources, evolution processes, and physiochemical properties. The rolling window approach also allows us to capture the dynamic variations of the chemical properties in the organic aerosol (OA) factors over time. Three OA factors were obtained including two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors, differing in degrees of oxidation, and a biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor. Back trajectory analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of major NR-PM1 species at the SGP site. Organics dominated NR-PM1 mass concentration for the majority of the study with the exception of winter, when ammonium nitrate increases due to transport of precursor species from surrounding urban and agricultural areas and also due to cooler temperatures. Sulfate mass concentrations have little seasonal variation with mixed regional and local sources. In the spring BBOA emissions increase and are mainly associated with local fires. Isoprene and carbon monoxide emission rates were obtained by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the 2011 U.S. National Emissions Inventory to represent the spatial distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The combined spatial distribution of isoprene emissions and air mass trajectories suggest that biogenic emissions from the southeast contribute to SOA formation at the SGP site during the summer.

  19. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Berkelmans, Ray; Peplow, Lesa M.; Jones, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative isolation and contributes

  20. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Berkelmans, Ray; Peplow, Lesa M; Jones, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative isolation and contributes

  1. Escape of Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block Motion Contributes to Upper-Plate Contraction Within the Southern Cascadia Margin Near Humboldt Bay, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Kelsey, H. M.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent GPS-derived site velocities (1993-2002) in northwestern California reveal that an additional mechanism other than subduction is in part accountable for observed upper plate contraction north of the migrating Mendocino triple junction. Sites at and near Cape Mendocino are moving approximately 30 mm/yr and are consistently oriented approximately N 10° W, sub-parallel to the southern Cascadia trench. Sites just north of latitude 40.4° N begin to be oriented east of north, sub-parallel to the Gorda-North America plate convergence direction. The transition from west-of-north to east-of-north site azimuths occurs 20 km north of the Mendocino Fault. The change in site azimuths is abrupt, with an eastward swing of 25°-30° occurring over a distance of approximately 8 km across the Eel River valley. North and east of Cape Mendocino, sites 50-300 km inland have velocities oriented west of north, consistent with the direction of northern Sierra Nevada-Great Valley (SNGV) block and Pacific-North America (P-NA) relative motion. Northern SNGV block motion is 11 mm/yr directed to the northwest. This velocity persists northwestward to within 50 km of the coast at the latitude of Humboldt Bay. Approximately 20 mm/yr of distributed P-NA motion occurs inland of Cape Mendocino across the northern projections of the Ma'acama and Bartlett Springs fault zones, and continues northward into the Humboldt Bay region. The direction of observed SNGV motion is obliquely convergent to the P-NA relative motion direction. The observed convergence between SNGV and the Coast Ranges begins approximately 130 km inland of the coast near Weaverville, CA. We observe 3-6 mm/yr of roughly east-west contraction in that area, which is near the location of the highest topography in the northern Coast Ranges. Near Humboldt Bay, NE-SW convergence of 16+/-2 mm/yr occurs from the coast to approximately 50 km inland. After removing an estimate of the interseismic subduction zone signal from the

  2. Eustatic control on early dolomitization of cyclic peritidal carbonates: Evidence from the Early Ordovician Upper Knox Group, Appalachians and Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montanez, I.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The origin of massive dolomite in ancient cyclic carbonate successions remains a poorly resolved issue reflecting the lack of modern analogs of extensive dolomitization. This paper presents evidence for extensive synsedimentary dolomitization of peritidal cyclic carbonates of the Early Ordovician upper Knox Group, Appalachians, and of the Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin. Early dolomitization of these Cambro-Ordovician carbonates was synchronous with regressive conditions governed by superimposed sea-level oscillations (fifth-, fourth-, and third-order).

  3. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  4. Comparison of CERES-MODIS Stratus Cloud Properties with Ground-Based Measurements at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis Patrick; Xi, Baike; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Overcast stratus cloud properties derived for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy system (CERES) Project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site from March 2000 through December 2004. Retrievals from ARM surface-based data were averaged over a 1-hour interval centered at the time of each satellite overpass, and the CERES-MODIS cloud properties were averaged within a 30-km x 30 km box centered on the ARM SGP site. Two datasets were analyzed: all of the data (ALL) which include multilayered, single-layered, and slightly broken stratus decks and a subset, single-layered unbroken decks (SL). The CERES-MODIS effective cloud heights were determined from effective cloud temperature using a lapse rate method with the surface temperature specified as the 24-h mean surface air temperature. For SL stratus, they are, on average, within the ARM radar-lidar estimated cloud boundaries and are 0.534 +/- 0.542 km and 0.108 +/- 0.480 km lower than the cloud physical tops and centers, respectively, and are comparable for day and night observations. The mean differences and standard deviations are slightly larger for ALL data, but not statistically different to those of SL data. The MODIS-derived effective cloud temperatures are 2.7 +/- 2.4 K less than the surface-observed SL cloud center temperatures with very high correlations (0.86-0.97). Variations in the height differences are mainly caused by uncertainties in the surface air temperatures, lapse rates, and cloud-top height variability. The biases are mainly the result of the differences between effective and physical cloud top, which are governed by cloud liquid water content and viewing zenith angle, and the selected lapse rate, -7.1 K km(exp -1). Based on a total of 43 samples, the means and standard deviations of the differences between the daytime Terra and surface

  5. Error characterization of retrievals for active remote Sensing instruments in the ARM climate research facility at the Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, C. V.; Hardin, J. C.; Jensen, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility deploys a network of highly instrumented ground stations, including both mobile and aerial facilities to support the study of global climate change by the national and international research community. The Southern Great Plains facility (SGP) hosts a network of C, X, and K band radars; some are in scanning mode and some are in vertically pointing mode. As an example, the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) (Jensen, et al. 2011), was a joint DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NASA Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) field campaign which took place from April - June 2011 in Central Oklahoma centered at the ARM SGP site. This paper presents retrieval methodologies for the ARM instrument suite with a focus on the error characterization for the radar measurements and the retrievals. There is extensive literature on retrieval algorithms for precipitation and cloud parameters from single frequency, dual-polarization radar systems. Multiple radar deployments are becoming more common, and the MC3E is a text book example of such a deployment. Additionally, networked deployments are becoming more common (Chandrasekar, et al. 2010), resulting in networked retrievals, initially used for attenuation mitigation. Since then, networked retrievals have expanded to include DSDs from networked X-band or Ku-band radars (Yoshikawa, et al., 2012). The above retrieval methodologies were for homogeneous, single frequency systems; the multi frequency nature of the deployment during the MC3E program is the motivation for the integrated formulation and error characterization presented in this paper. The set of radars consists of the NASA NPOL radar at S-band, as well as the C and X-band radars from the ARM program, namely the C-SAPR and X-SAPR family. This paper presents a comprehensive integrated retrieval methodology focusing on error characterization to obtain microphysical retrieval including drop size

  6. GPS-derived strain in northwestern California: Termination of the San Andreas fault system and convergence of the Sierra Nevada Great Valley block contribute to southern Cascadia forearc contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Todd B.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2006-02-01

    GPS-derived velocities (1993-2002) in northwestern California show that processes other than subduction are in part accountable for observed upper-plate contraction north of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ) region. After removing the component of elastic strain accumulation due to the Cascadia subduction zone from the station velocities, two additional processes account for accumulated strain in northern California. The first is the westward convergence of the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley (SNGV) block toward the coast and the second is the north-northwest impingement of the San Andreas fault system from the south on the northern California coastal region in the vicinity of Humboldt Bay. Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block motion is northwest toward the coast, convergent with the more northerly, north-northwest San Andreas transform fault-parallel motion. In addition to the westward-converging Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block, San Andreas transform-parallel shortening also occurs in the Humboldt Bay region. Approximately 22 mm/yr of distributed Pacific-SNGV motion is observed inland of Cape Mendocino across the northern projections of the Maacama and Bartlett Springs fault zones but station velocities decrease rapidly north of Cape Mendocino. The resultant 6-10 mm/yr of San Andreas fault-parallel shortening occurs above the southern edge of the subducted Gorda plate and at the latitude of Humboldt Bay. Part of the San Andreas fault-parallel shortening may be due to the viscous coupling of the southern edge of the Gorda plate to overlying North American plate. We conclude that significant portions of the upper-plate contraction observed north of the MTJ region are not solely a result of subduction of the Gorda plate but also a consequence of impingement of the western edge of the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block and growth of the northernmost segments of the San Andreas fault system.

  7. TAM 304 wheat – Adapted to the adequate rainfall or high-input irrigation production system in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TAM 304 wheat is a medium-early hard red winter wheat. It is a great dryland or semi-irrigated wheat. TAM 304 performs best under adequate rainfall, limited irrigation, or irrigation, but does not perform as well under extended drought. TAM 304 performs exceptionally well under foliar disease pressu...

  8. Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): New insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolembo Ventura, Brunella; Serpelloni, Enrico; Argnani, Andrea; Bonforte, Alessandro; Bürgmann, Roland; Anzidei, Marco; Baldi, Paolo; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Along the ˜500 km long Sicily-Calabria segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary GPS data highlight a complex, and debated, kinematic pattern. We focus on eastern Sicily, where the style of crustal deformation rapidly changes in the space of few tens of kilometers. In southeastern Sicily, struck by the 1693 MW˜7.4 earthquake, GPS measurements highlight a steep velocity gradient, with ˜2.4 mm/yr of ˜N-S shortening in ˜10 km, changing to broader extension (˜3 mm/yr in ˜60 km) in northern Sicily and shortening in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS data and kinematic elastic block models highlight a complex fragmentation of the Sicilian domain into three tectonic blocks, which move independently from Nubia, describing an overall clockwise rotation of this crustal domain with respect to Eurasia. Shortening in southeastern Sicily is associated with a system of high-angle reverse faults resulting from tectonic inversion of extensional faults at the northern tip of the Hyblean plateau. Extension in northern Sicily occurs on a broader deformation belt, developed on the former Kumeta-Alcantara line, extending west of Mount Etna toward the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea, accommodating the faster rotation of the northeastern Sicily block with respect to central Sicily. Although the seismic potential of inland faults is not negligible, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the Malta escarpment is the likely source of the large 1693 earthquake and tsunami. The observed kinematics appears only subordinately driven by the Nubia-Eurasia convergence and the dynamics of the Mediterranean subduction system is likely playing a major role in governing block motions and active tectonics in Sicily.

  9. Sand and nest temperatures and an estimate of hatchling sex ratio from the Heron Island green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) rookery, Southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, David T.; Freeman, Candida

    2006-11-01

    Sand and nest temperatures were monitored during the 2002-2003 nesting season of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Sand temperatures increased from ˜ 24°C early in the season to 27-29°C in the middle, before decreasing again. Beach orientation affected sand temperature at nest depth throughout the season; the north facing beach remained 0.7°C warmer than the east, which was 0.9°C warmer than the south, but monitored nest temperatures were similar across all beaches. Sand temperature at 100 cm depth was cooler than at 40 cm early in the season, but this reversed at the end. Nest temperatures increased 2-4°C above sand temperatures during the later half of incubation due to metabolic heating. Hatchling sex ratio inferred from nest temperature profiles indicated a strong female bias.

  10. Cooling Before Super-Eruption: No Evidence of Rejuvenation in a Crystal-Rich Dacite Magma Body, Southern Great Basin Ignimbrite Province, Utah and Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K. T.; Christiansen, E. H.; Best, M. G.; Dorais, M.

    2015-12-01

    The model of rejuvenation of a near-solidus crystal mush to produce large volumes of crystal-rich magma is tested here by analyzing the mineralogical, chemical, modal, and physical characteristics of the 31.1 Ma super-eruptive (2000 km3) Cottonwood Wash Tuff. It is the oldest in a series of three so-called "monotonous intermediate" ignimbrites from the Indian Peak-Caliente volcanic field in southern Utah and Nevada. A crystal-rich (~50% Pl + Qz + Hbl + Bt + Mag + Ilm + Cpx + Zrn + Ap + Po) dacite (62 - 69 wt% SiO2), the Cottonwood Wash Tuff is similar in age, volume, mineralogy, crystallinity, and elemental composition to the 28.0 Ma, ~5000 km3 Fish Canyon Tuff (~45% Pl + Kfs + Qz + Hbl + Bt + Ttn + Mag + Ilm + Ap + Zrn + Po, 66 - 68 wt% SiO2), used as the basis of the rejuvenation model. The Cottonwood Wash magma chamber was compositionally varied as shown by mineral and juvenile clast compositions. Whole-rock compositional variations are likely due to the variation of mineral proportions induced by shear in the magma chamber. Mineral compositions and experimental phase relationships show the pre-eruption magma crystallized at 800°C, 2.5 kb under water-undersaturated but oxidized conditions (delta QFM = 2.1). The majority of plagioclase and amphibole grains exhibit small-scale oscillatory zonation; where systematic compositional zonation exists, normal and reverse zonation are equally present. Cathodoluminescence of quartz reveals typically normally zoned phenocrysts with late resorption, considered to be the result of eruptive decompression. Many of the characteristics used to identify the rejuvenation of a near-solidus mush for the Fish Canyon Tuff are not present in the Cottonwood Wash Tuff [i.e., reversely zoned hornblende or plagioclase, partially remelted mineral aggregates, evidence of fluid saturation, resorption textures not related to decompression, rapakivi mantles, and hybrid andesite inclusions.] The Cottonwood Wash magma system did not undergo

  11. Evolution of the great river systems of southern Asia during the Cenozoic India-Asia collision: Rivers draining north from the Pamir syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, M. E.

    2008-08-01

    During uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding ranges, tectonic processes have interacted with climatic change and with local random effects (such as landslides) to determine the development of the major river systems of Asia. Rivers draining northward from the Pamir syntaxis have three distinctive patterns that are controlled by different tectonic and climatic regimes. West of the Pamir, the rivers have moderate but irregular gradients and drain northwards to disappear into arid depressions. Relatively steady uplift of the Hindu Kush in northern Afghanistan allowed rivers to cut across the rising ranges, modified by the shear along the Harirud fault zone, local faulting, and by increasing rain-shadow effects from the rising Makran. In the transition to the Pamir the rivers have steeper but more even gradients suggesting more even flow and downcutting during uplift, possibly related to larger glacial sources. In the central Pamir, only one antecedent river, the Pyandzh appears to have kept its northward course with compression and uplift of the indenter, and its course strangely corresponds with a major geophysical boundary (a distorted subducted slab) but not a geological boundary: the other rivers are subsequent rivers developed along deformation fronts during development and northward displacements of the Pamir structural units. The above areas have sources north of the Cretaceous Karakorum-South Pamir Andean margin. On the eastern flank of the Pamir, in the Kunlun and northern Tibetan plateau, the rivers rise similarly north of the Cretaceous Andean margin of southern Tibet, but then flow with low gradients across the plateau, before cutting and plunging steeply down across the Kunlun to disappear into the arid Tarim. These steep profiles are the result of late Neogene uplift of the northern Tibetan plateau and Kunlun possibly modified by glacial diversion and river capture. The drainage history of the Pamir indenter can be reconstructed by restoring the

  12. Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): new insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolembo Ventura, B.; Serpelloni, E.; Argnani, A.; Bonforte, A.; Burgmann, R.; Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Puglisi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Sicily and Calabria lye at the boundary between the converging Nubia and Eurasian plates and this sector of the plate boundary is consensually recognized as a key area for understanding the ongoing kinematics and geodynamics of the Mediterranean region. The kinematics of the complex tectonic blocks mosaic that characterizes the central Mediterranean, and particularly southern Italy, is, infact, still matter of debate. The increasing number of GPS stations available from mid-2000, particularly from continuous GPS networks, suggest a partially independent motion of this block with respect to Nubia. Interseismic GPS velocities in Eastern Sicily show two significant velocity gradients along a SSENNW direction, highlighting a contraction of ~2 mm/yr and an extension of ~2.5 mm/yr that are accommodated within a few tens of kilometers in correspondence of the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau, the locus of the 1693 (Mw ~7.4) event, and the Nebrodi mountains, respectively. This complex velocity pattern suggests that different active tectonic structures likely contribute to the observed crustal deformation. This also suggests a significant internal deformation of the Sicily block, which deserves further investigation. In this work we first develop a kinematic block model to test different hypotheses about the tectonic blocks configuration in the study area. Then we model the observed ~N-S velocity gradients in eastern Sicily running a suite of block models, while varying the geometric parameters (dip angle and locking depth) and the top-edge position of the fault bounding the SES block to the north. Our kinematic analysis and performed statistical tests confirm the hypothesis of a kinematic independence of Sicily with respect to both Nubia and Eurasia, and highlights a more complex internal fragmentation of the tectonic blocks into three blocks, a north-eastern (NES), a central (CS) and a south-eastern (SES) Sicily crustal blocks. Results from the NNW-SSE velocity

  13. Human Land Use and Land Abandonment Greatly Impacted Sedimentation Rates and Fluvial Styles Since the Iron Age in the Valdaine (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notebaert, B.; Berger, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present the Holocene time differentiated sediment budget for the Valdaine region (334 km²) and its main streams (Roubion and Jabron, totaling 610 km²). Sediment budget studies have been used previously in western and central Europe to quantify the changing sediment dynamics under climatic variations and changes in human land use. This study is one of the first attempts to quantify such Holocene sediment dynamics in southern Europe. We achieved a more detailed chronology than comparable European sediment budgets, by combining traditional geomorphology with geo-archaeological research. The results demonstrate that total colluvial deposition is high in comparison with catchments in temperate Europe, while alluvial deposition falls within the range of those other studies. High colluvial deposition values are explained by the long intensive land use in this region, combined with a Mediterranean climate. The temporal evolution of sediment deposition shows a pattern of three main deposition phases alternating with three phases of hillslope stability and valley incision. Intensive human land use in the lower fertile parts of the region is responsible for the deposition phases, while land abandonment caused hillslope stability and valley incision. The first major peaks in soil erosion occurred during the Iron Age and Roman Period, with rates about half as high as for the last 800 years. In addition to these variations in sedimentation rates, there occurred also major variations in sediment texture and fluvial style. During most of the Holocene rivers had a meandering pattern and deposited silty and clayey sediments. But major sedimentation peaks during the Roman Period and especially since the 12th century coincided with the establishment of a braided river and deposition of gravel and sand. These changes in river style demonstrate how the montane headwaters become an important sediment source. It remains an open question whether this is only related to

  14. Effect of colony size and surrounding substrate on corals experiencing a mild bleaching event on Heron Island reef flat (southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. C.; Gomez-Cabrera, M. Del C.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2009-12-01

    In January-May 2006, Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef experienced a mild bleaching event. The effect of colony size, morphology and surrounding substrate on the extent of bleaching was explored. In contrast with previous studies, colony size did not influence bleaching sensitivity, suggesting that there may be a threshold of light and temperature stress beyond which size plays a role. Also contrasting with previous studies, massive corals were more affected by bleaching than branching corals. Massive corals surrounded by sand were more affected than the ones surrounded by rubble or dead coral. It is hypothesized that light reflectance from sand increases stress levels experienced by the colonies. This effect is maximized in massive corals as opposed to branching corals that form dense thickets on Heron Island. These results emphasize the importance of the ecological dynamics of coral communities experiencing low, moderate and high levels of bleaching for the understanding of how coral communities may change under the stress of climate change.

  15. Holocene sea level instability in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: high-precision U-Th dating of fossil microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Nicole D.; Zhao, J.-x.; Welsh, K. J.; Feng, Y.-x.; Smithers, S. G.; Pandolfi, J. M.; Clark, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    Three emergent subfossil reef flats from the inshore Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, were used to reconstruct relative sea level (RSL). Forty-two high-precision uranium-thorium (U-Th) dates obtained from coral microatolls and coral colonies (2σ age errors from ±8 to 37 yr) in conjunction with elevation surveys provide evidence in support of a nonlinear RSL regression throughout the Holocene. RSL was as least 0.75 m above present from ~6500 to 5500 yr before present (yr BP; where "present" is 1950). Following this highstand, two sites indicated a coeval lowering of RSL of at least 0.4 m from 5500 to 5300 yr BP which was maintained for ~200 yr. After the lowstand, RSL returned to higher levels before a 2000-yr hiatus in reef flat corals after 4600 yr BP at all three sites. A second possible RSL lowering event of ~0.3 m from ~2800 to 1600 yr BP was detected before RSL stabilised ~0.2 m above present levels by 900 yr BP. While the mechanism of the RSL instability is still uncertain, the alignment with previously reported RSL oscillations, rapid global climate changes and mid-Holocene reef "turn-off" on the GBR are discussed.

  16. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  17. Great Apes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  18. Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  19. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  20. Interannual variation of cloud optical properties at ACRF Manus and Nauru sites from MFRSR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bangsheng; Li, Siwei; Li, Rui; Min, Qilong; Duan, Minzheng

    2015-03-01

    The long-term measurements of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers and other instruments at two Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Climate Research Facility sites of Manus and Nauru have been processed to develop the climatology of cloud properties in the tropical warm pool region. Due to their unique geolocations and associated large-scale circulation patterns, cloud properties at these two sites exhibit distinctive characteristics. At the Nauru site, cloud properties are statistically significantly correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation index; the monthly anomaly values of cloud fraction, overcast cloud occurrence and optical depth decrease with Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). At the Manus site, monthly anomaly values of cloud fraction, overcast cloud occurrence and optical depth, to some extent, are bifurcately correlated with SOI, depending on the phase of El Niño/Southern Oscillation. The correlation of SOI and the MFRSR retrieved cloud optical properties can be explained by the drifting of tropical convection center in the equatorial area.

  1. A 38,000-year record of floods and debris flows in the Ilo region of southern Peru and its relation to El Niño events and great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.; DeFrance, Susan D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work throughout the Ilo region of south coastal Peru has documented the existence of flood and debris-flow deposits produced by two El Niño events evidently much more severe than any in recent history. These two events have been dated to ca. AD 1300–1400 and AD 1607–08. The Late Pleistocene to Holocene record of older sedimentary deposits in this region is dominated by flood and debris-flow deposits of similar scale. These older deposits have been described and dated from three coastal, alluvial-fan sites. These deposits, which are as old as 38 200 years, are dominated by massive debris-flow deposits, several tens of cm thick, typically composed of cobble- and boulder-sized clasts in a matrix of silty sand, with characteristics indicating generation by heavy rainfall in an arid environment. Twenty-two radiocarbon dates and a single infrared-stimulated luminescence date show that particularly severe El Niño events occurred throughout the Late Pleistocene and two of three divisions of the Holocene with significantly different frequencies. The period of greatest activity was during the Early Holocene when at least six such events took place during a period of ca. 3600 years, beginning near the end of the Younger Dryas ca. 12 000 years ago. One of these events produced a debris flow that may have caused abandonment of the Paleo-Indian site at Quebrada Tacahuay, one of the oldest on the Andean coast. No severe events took place during the Middle Holocene between ca. 8400 and 5300 years ago, when a wide variety of other paleoclimate proxy records indicate that the El Niño–Southern Oscillation regime was particularly weak. Since ca. 5300 years ago, four of these severe events have taken place. The Late Pleistocene sequence is constrained by only two dates, which indicate that at least ten severe events took place between ca. 38 200 and 12 900 years ago. Mechanisms probably responsible for generating these large-scale deposits include: (1)

  2. Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Areas of Concern across the southern Laurentian Great Lakes: Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in relation to circulating concentrations of thyroxine and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; de Solla, Shane R; Sandau, Courtney D; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-11-01

    The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as other halogenated phenolic contaminants (HPCs) have been shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties, and have been reported with increasing frequency in the blood of wildlife, and mainly in mammals and birds. However, little is known about the persistence, accumulation and distribution of these contaminants in long-lived freshwater reptiles. In the present study, in addition to a large suite of chlorinated and brominated contaminants, metabolites and HPCs, we assessed and compared hydroxylated (OH) PCBs and OH-PBDEs relative to PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, in the plasma of adult male common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Blood samples were collected from 62 snapping turtles (2001-2004) at 12 wetland sites between the Detroit River and the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian side of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Turtles were sampled from sites designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) and from a relatively clean reference site in southern Georgian Bay (Tiny Marsh), Lake Huron. Plasma concentrations of Σ46PCB (10-340 ng/g wet weight (ww)) and Σ28OH-PCB (3-83 ng/g ww) were significantly greater (p<0.05) in turtles from the Turkey Creek and Muddy Creek-Wheatley Harbour sites in Lake Erie compared with the reference site turtles. The HPC, pentachlorophenol (PCP), had a mean concentration of 9.6±1.1 ng/g ww. Of the 28 OH-CB congeners screened for, 4-OH-CB187 (42±7 ng/g ww) was the most concentrated of all HPCs measured. Of the 14 OH-BDE congeners examined, four (4'-OH-BDE17, 3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49) were consistently found in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE was the most concentrated of the 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) examined. The mean concentrations of circulating total thyroxine (TT4), dehydroretinol and retinol in the plasma of the male snapping turtles regardless of sampling site were 5.4±0.3, 81±4.7 and 291±13

  3. What do Great Subduction Earthquakes tell us About Continental Deformation of the Upper Plate in the Central Andes Forearc? Insights From Seismotectonics, Continental Deformation and Coulomb Modelisation Along Southern Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, L.; Perfettini, H.; Tavera, H.

    2007-05-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Peruvian margin has produced numerous megathrust earthquakes during the last century and still constitutes mature seismic gaps in some places such as in between Ilo (Peru) and Arica (Chile). The rupture zones of the 1604, 1784 and 1868 southern Peru events were partially reactivated by the Arequipa 2001 (Mw = 8.5) seismic event, whose rupture zone was about 350km-long and stopped its propagation towards the south on Ilo Peninsula. Just after the occurrence of 2001 event, some reactivation of continental fault systems are identified and monitored thanks to the Peruvian seismic network and describe continental deformation processes occurring perpendicularly to the trench or parallel to the trench, traducing the continental plate response to major subduction earthquakes and some partitioning of the deformation. The Chololo and associated ( perpendicular to the trench) fault systems define some 80-km-long margin crustal blocks and the major one coincides with the 2001 earthquake southern limit of the rupture zone as it propagated to the south. These blocks are made from Late Jurassic and Cretaceous plutonic rocks from the Coastal Batholith; these are outcropping in some places and are evidenced by the aeromagnetic mapping elsewhere around the area. Northward along the subduction zone, another boundary between two rupture zones of major subduction earthquake was reactivated recently, perpendicularly to the trench, by the seismic crisis of October 2006, M=6.4, near Lima, right at the southern end of the rupture zone of the 1974 event (Mw=8.1).Those boundaries corresponding to discontinuities (lithospheric fault systems) in the upper plate, trending nearly perpendicular to the trench, act as earthquake barriers during rupture of large seismic events. Additionally occurred on 20 of November 2006 another seismic event (Mw=5.6 Neic, Ml=5.3) in Tacna region, showing a reverse focal mechanism compatible with the trend of the Sama

  4. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  6. Arapahos on the Great Plains. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoonhunter, Bob; Woodenlegs, Martha

    The student workbook is derived from "An Ethnological Report on Cheyenne and Arapaho: Aboriginal Occupation," by Zachary Gussow and "Northern Snows to Southern Summers--An Arapaho Odyssey," by Bob Spoonhunter. The first section discusses the Arapaho origins by recounting many different legends that explain how they arrived on the Great Plains. The…

  7. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  8. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  9. Southern Rains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...   View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  10. Gravity drives Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Gordon; Forster, Marnie

    2010-05-01

    The most violent of Great Earthquakes are driven by ruptures on giant megathrusts adjacent to actively forming mountain belts. Current theory suggests that the seismic rupture harvests (and thus releases) elastic energy that has been previously stored in locked segments of the megathrust. The general belief, however, is that this energy was accumulated as the result of relative motion of the adjacent stiff elastic tectonic plates. This mechanism fails to explain many first order aspects of large earthquakes, however. The energy source for strain accumulation must also include gravitational collapse of orogenic crust and/or in the foundering (or roll-back) of an adjacent subducting lithospheric slab. Therefore we have conducted an analysis of the geometry of aftershocks, and report that this allows distinction of two types of failure on giant megathrusts. Mode I failure involves horizontal shortening, and is consistent with the classic view that megathrusts fail in compression, with motion analogous to that expected if accretion takes place against a rigid (or elastic) backstop. Mode II failure involves horizontal extension, and requires the over-riding plate to stretch during an earthquake. This process is likely to continue during the subsequent period of afterslip, and therefore will again be evident in aftershock patterns. Mode I behaviour may well have applied to the southern segment of the Sumatran megathrust, from whence emanated the rupture that drove the 2004 Great Earthquake. Mode II behaviour appears to apply to the northern segment of the same rupture, however. The geometry of aftershocks beneath the Andaman Sea suggest that the crust above the initial rupture failed in an extensional mode. The edge of the Indian plate is foundering, with slab-hinge roll-back in a direction orthogonal to its motion vector. The only possible cause for this extension therefore is westward roll-back of the subducting Indian plate, and the consequent gravity-driven movement

  11. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  12. The Next Great Generation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  13. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has primary responsibility within the U.S. for conducting surveillance monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes. This monitoring is intended to fulfill provis...

  14. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  15. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  16. Southern Great Plains cloud and radiation testbed site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document presents information about the Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. Topics include; measuring methods, general circulation methods, milestones, instrumentation, meteorological observations, and computing facilities.

  17. Paradigms and proboscideans in the southern Great Lakes region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, J.J.; Grimm, E.C.; Widga, C.C.; Campbell, G.D.; Curry, B. Brandon; Grimley, D.A.; Hanson, P.R.; McCullum, J.P.; Oliver, J.S.; Treworgy, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen new chronometric dates for Illinois proboscideans are considered in relation to well-dated pollen records from northeastern and central Illinois. These dates span an interval from 21,228 to 12,944 cal BP. When compared to pollen spectra, it is evident that Mammut americanum inhabited spruce (Picea) and black ash (Fraxinus nigra) forest during the B??lling-Aller??d (14,700-12,900 cal BP) and early Younger Dryas (12,900-11,650 cal BP) chronozones. Both Mammuthus jeffersonii and Mammuthus primigenius inhabited spruce dominated open-woodland during the Oldest Dryas chronozone, while M.??primigenius persisted in a forest of predominantly black ash during the Aller??d chronozone. A newly discovered specimen from Lincoln, IL, clarifies the taxonomic distinction between M. primigenius and M.??jeffersonii. Hitherto, a paradigm of proboscidean succession during the full- to late-glacial periods was based on the vegetation succession of steppe tundra-like vegetation to spruce forest to spruce-deciduous forest. The presumed proboscidean succession was that of cold, dry steppe-adapted M. primigenius succeeded by more mesic-tolerant M. jeffersonii that in turn was succeeded by the wet forest-adapted M.??americanum. Reported data do not support this view and indicate a need for re-evaluation of assumptions of proboscidean ecology and history, e.g., the environmental tolerances and habits of M.??primigenius in regions south of 55??N, and its dynamic relationship with other proboscidean taxa. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  18. Statistics of Cirrus Horizontal Inhomogeneity in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Variability of cloud properties on scales smaller than that of a GCM grid is potentially important both for realistic parameterizations of microphysical processes and for the prediction of the large-scale radiative effects of clouds, have suggested that a simple model of marine stratocumulus variability, based on the assumption of Gaussian variation statistics of cloud depth, can explain the liquid water path histogram shapes observed in Landsat data. In advance of ARM SGP MMCR ice water path climatologies, we have examined aircraft ice water content statistics for cirrus clouds observed over Coffeyville, Kansas during FIRE 2. We find similar associations of histogram shape and cloud cover for these clouds, and we show that a simple modification of the model for cirrus combined with observed mean cloud depths, their standard deviations, and ambient thermodynamic conditions predicts both the histogram shape and cirrus cloud cover fairly well. This suggests that subgrid variability of cloud properties may be similar for vastly different cloud types, and that a universal parameterization of the effects of subgrid variability in GCMs as a function of only a few parameters may be a realistic goal.

  19. Modeling the surface evapotranspiration over the southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liljegren, J. C.; Doran, J. C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Shaw, W. J.; Zhong, S.; Collatz, G. J.; Cook, D. R.; Hart, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a method to apply the Simple Biosphere Model of Sellers et al to calculate the surface fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor at high spatial resolution over the domain of the US DOE's Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in Kansas and Oklahoma. The CART, which is within the GCIP area of interest for the Mississippi River Basin, is an extensively instrumented facility operated as part of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Flux values calculated with our method will be used to provide lower boundary conditions for numerical models to study the atmosphere over the CART domain.

  20. Triticum mosaic virus isolates in the southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)-resistant wheat variety RonL was found to have mosaic symptoms similar to WSMV. The virus inducing the symptoms was determined to be previously unknown and given the name Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV). Since, TriMV has been found in plant samples isolate...

  1. Modeling the surface evapotranspiration over the southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, J.C.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.; Shaw, W.J.; Zhong, S.; Collatz, G.J.; Cook, D.R.; Hart, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a method to apply the Simple Biosphere Model of Sellers et al to calculate the surface fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor at high spatial resolution over the domain of the US DOE`s Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in Kansas and Oklahoma. The CART, which is within the GCIP area of interest for the Mississippi River Basin, is an extensively instrumented facility operated as part of the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Flux values calculated with our method will be used to provide lower boundary conditions for numerical models to study the atmosphere over the CART domain.

  2. Spectral Measurement of Watershed Coefficients in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Bausch, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was apparent that the spectra calibration of runoff curve numbers cannot be achieved on watersheds where significant areas of timber were within the drainage area. The absorption of light by wet soil conditions restricts differentiation of watersheds with regard to watershed runoff curve numbers. It appeared that the predominant factor influencing the classification of watershed runoff curve numbers was the difference in soil color and its associated reflectance when dry. In regions where vegetation grown throughout the year, where wet surface conditions prevail or where watersheds are timbered, there is little hope of classifying runoff potential with visible light alone.

  3. Forecasting southern california earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, C B; Sieh, K; Sykes, L R; Anderson, D L

    1982-09-17

    Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length. PMID:17740956

  4. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  5. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. THE GREAT RIVERS NEWSLETTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Rivers Newsletter is a periodic publication of the EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division. It is designed to disseminate timely information about the EMAP-GRE project among EPA investigators; state, federal, and tribal collaborators; and other stakeholders.

  7. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  8. The Great 1787 Mexican Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Ortiz, M.; Sanchez, J. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2008-12-01

    Tsunamis have proven to represent a significant hazard around the globe and there is increased awareness about their occurrence. The Pacific coast in southern México is no exception, because there is firm evidence of the effects of past large tsunamis. Here we present results from computer-aided modeling of the March 28, 1787 - 'San Sixto' earthquake and tsunami, and focus on the regions of Acapulco, Corralero, Jamiltepec, and Tehuantepec, located along the Guerrero- Oaxaca coast. The theoretical waveforms suggest wave heights in excess of 4 m, and 18 m at specific locations in Acapulco and Corralero, respectively, and wave heights of at least 2 m at locations in Jamiltepec and Tehuantepec. From our modelling results and based on historical documents and the topography of the area, we conclude that these wave heights would have been sufficient to cause inundations that in the case of Acapulco were restricted to several meters inland, but in other areas like Corralero reached at least 6 km inland. Our results are consistent with published and unpublished damage reports that attest to the hazards associated with great earthquakes and tsunamis along the subduction zone in Mexico.

  9. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  10. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  11. The Great Poetry Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…

  12. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  13. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  14. The Great Mathematician Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  15. What great managers do.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel. PMID:15768677

  16. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  17. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  18. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  19. The great intimidators.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  20. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  1. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  2. Great Dike of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwae, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Great Dike of Zimbabwe (17.5S, 31.5E) bisects the entire length of Zimbabwae in southern Africa and is one of the prominent visual features easily recognized from low orbit. The volcanic rocks which make up the dike are about 1.2 billion years old and are rich in chromite and platinum which are mined from it. The straight line of the dike is offset in places by faults which are often occupied by streams flowing through the fractures.

  3. ERTS-1 views the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The meteorological content of ERTS images, particularly mesoscale effects of the Great Lakes and air pollution dispersion is summarized. Summertime lake breeze frontal clouds and various winter lake-effect convection patterns and snow squalls are revealed in great detail. A clear-cut spiral vortex over southern Lake Michigan is related to a record early snow storm in the Chicago area. Marked cloud changes induced by orographic and frictional effects on Lake Michigan's lee shore snow squalls are seen. The most important finding, however, is a clear-cut example of alterations in cumulus convection by anthropogenic condensation and/or ice nuclei from northern Indiana steel mills during a snow squall situation. Jet aircraft condensation trails are also found with surprising frequency.

  4. Great Galactic Buddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 8.15 Billion Lightyears8.59 Billion Lightyears8.98 Billion Lightyears 9.09 Billion Lightyears

    Like great friends, galaxies stick together. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have spotted a handful of great galactic pals bonding back when the universe was a mere 4.6 billion years old. The universe is believed to be 13.7 billion years old.

    Collectively, these great galactic buddies are called galaxy clusters. A typical galaxy cluster can contain hundreds of galaxies and trillions of stars.

    In this false-color composite, some of the oldest galaxy clusters in the universe pose for Spitzer's infrared array camera. The individual galaxies that make up the distant clusters are shown as red dots in all four images.

    The green blobs are Milky Way stars along the line of sight, and the blue specks are faint galaxies at various distances along the line of sight. The green and blue data are from a visible-light, ground-based telescope.

    The cluster at 9.1 billion light-years away (lower right panel) is currently the most distant galaxy cluster ever detected.

    These images are three-color composites, in which blue represents visible light with a wavelength of 0.4 microns, and green indicates visible light of 0.8 microns. The visible data were captured by the ground-based Mosaic I camera at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. Red represents infrared light of 4.5 microns, captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera.

  5. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  6. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  7. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  8. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  9. Southern Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater

    This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Angola: a great future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

  11. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  12. Ending the great drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Michael

    2008-10-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) springing to life at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, the great data drought in elementary particle physics is finally about to end. Not since the second phase of CERN's Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) began operations in 1996 has the field been able to probe virgin territory and measure truly new and exotic phenomena. And that machine merely doubled the energy reach of electron-positron colliders into regions that had already been partially explored using the Tevatron at Fermilab in the US. Researchers at these colliders - the world's most powerful for over a decade - could only chip away at the outer fringes of the unknown. But the LHC, built by installing thousands of superconducting magnets in the LEP tunnel, will permit physicists to strike deep into its dark heart. There they will almost certainly discover something distinctively different.

  13. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  14. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  15. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  16. 14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  17. Language, Education and Development: Case Studies from the Southern Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…

  18. Increasing the Resilience to Natural Hazards in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile; Cox, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    Southern California is at great risk for extreme catastrophic losses owing to numerous natural hazards, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and coastal changes, that occur in this area (fig. 1). Expected losses from these hazards are estimated to exceed $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California.

  19. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. Methods We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960–2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. Results The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. PMID:25339416

  1. The Next Great Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  2. Transposition of the great vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Transposition of the great vessels is a heart defect that occurs from birth (congenital). The two major vessels that carry blood ... nutrition) Rubella or other viral illness during pregnancy ... the great vessels is a cyanotic heart defect. This means there ...

  3. Dusty Skies over Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.

    This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.

    This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. Miocene precursors to Great Barrier Reef

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.

    1988-01-01

    Huge reefs of Miocene age are present in the Gulf of Papua north of the present-day Great Barrier Reef and to the east on the Marion and Queensland Plateaus. In the Gulf of Papua, Miocene barrier reefs formed the northern forerunner of the Great Barrier Reef, extending for many hundreds of kilometers along the eastern and northern margin of the Australian craton within a developing foreland basin. Barrier reefs, slope pinnacle reefs, and platform reefs are seen in seismic sections and drill holes. Leeside talus deposits testify to the high energy impinging on the eastern margin of these Miocene reefs. The Queensland Plateau is a marginal plateau east of the central Great Barrier Reef and separated from it by a rift trough. Miocene reefs occupied an area of about 50,000 km/sup 2/ and grew on salt-controlled highs on the western margin of the plateau and on a regional basement high extending from the platform interior to its southern margin. Reef growth has continued to the present day, although two major contractions in the area covered by reefs occurred during the Miocene. The Marion Plateau is present directly east of the Great Barrier Reef and during the Micoene formed a 30,000-km/sup 2/ platform with barrier reefs along its northern margin and huge platform reefs and laggons on the platform interior. These reefs grew on a flat peneplained surface, the whole area forming a large shallow epicontinental sea. In all three areas, the middle Miocene formed the acme of reef expansion in the region.

  5. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  6. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    astronomers will have at their disposal the best optical/infrared telescope in the world. We can now look forward with great expectations to the realization of many exciting research projects. The First Light Images Images of various celestial objects were obtained with the VLT CCD Test Camera, some of which are included in a new series, First Astronomical Images from the VLT UT1. None have been subjected to image processing beyond flat-fielding (to remove variations of the digital detector sensitivity over the field) and cosmetic cleaning. They all display the recorded image structure, pixel by pixel. A detailed evaluation with accompanying explanations is presented in the figure captions. 1. Omega Centauri Tracking Tests This 10-minute image demonstrates that the telescope is able to track continuously with a very high precision and thus is able to take full advantage of the frequent, very good atmospheric conditions at Paranal. The images of the stars in this southern globular cluster are very sharp (0.43 arcsec) and are perfectly round, everywhere in the field. 2. The Quadruple Clover Leaf Quasar This 2-minute exposure of the well-known Clover Leaf quasar, a quadruple gravitational lens in which the largest distance between two components is only 1.3 arcsec, was obtained during a period of excellent seeing (0.32 arcsec) measured with a seeing monitor at the top of Paranal. The recorded angular resolution of just 0.38 arcsec demonstrates near-perfect optical quality of the telescope . 3. The Central Area of Globular Cluster M4 This is a colour composite of a field near the centre of the nearest globular cluster. At a seeing of 0.53 arcsec, the blue exposure reaches magnitude B = 24 in only 2 minutes (at signal-to-noise ratio = 5) in a bright sky. A simple extrapolation shows that B ~ 28 would be reached in a 1-hour exposure in a dark sky. The large mirror surface of the VLT UT1 and its ability to produce very sharp images, ensures that faint objects may be observed

  7. Inclusion body disease in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Carlson, H C; Crumley, S C

    1975-01-01

    The carcass of a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), which had been found moribund in southern Ontario, was presented for necropsy. Throughout the liver and spleen were numerous white foci 1-2 mm in diameter; also noted were white plaques in the mucosae of the pharyngeal papillae and intestine. Results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to two captive great horned owls suggested that this was a herpvirus disease similar and possibly indentical to the owl disease reported by other workers in Wiconsin and Australia. PMID:163384

  8. Geothermal resources of the Washakie and Great Divide basins, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Great Divide and Washakie Basins of southern Wyoming are described. Oil well bottomhole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data were interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. It was concluded large areas in Wyoming are underlain by water hotter than 120{sup 0}F. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist within each basin. 68 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  9. [Great moments in renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Ghossain, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    A selective review of some great moments in renal transplantation experienced or witnessed with some of the great architects of this epic. The path was strewn with hazards, sometimes halts or changes of attitude that harmed or helped some patients. PMID:26591188

  10. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  11. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  12. GREAT LAKES CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although discharges of toxic substances to the Great Lakes have been reduced in the last 20 years, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised...

  13. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  14. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  15. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  16. Jupiter - Region from the Great Red Spot to the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows a region of the southern hemisphere extending from the Great Red Spot to the south pole. The white oval is seen beneath the Great Red Spot, and several small scale spots are visible farther to the south. Some of these organized cloud spots have similar morphologies, such as anticyclonic rotations and cyclonic regions to their west. The presence of the white oval causes the streamlines of the flow to bunch up between it and the Great Red Spot.

  17. Late Quaternary environments and biogeography in the Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. S.; Mead, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Plant and animal remains found in packrat ( Neotoma spp.) middens and cave fill from the eastern and southern Great Basin region reveal the presence of subalpine conifers and boreal mammals at relatively low elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis) and bristlecone pine ( P. longaeva) were important in the late Pleistocene plant communities throughout this region. Spruce ( Picea cf. engelmannii) and common juniper ( Juniperus communis) were present in some of the more northerly localities, and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir ( Abies concolor) were present in southern and eastern localities. Single needle pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla), common across this region today, was apparently not present north of the Sheep Range of southern Nevada during the Late Wisconsin. Pikas ( Ochotona cf. princeps), small boreal mammals present in only a few Great Basin mountain ranges today, were common throughout the region. Heather voles ( Phenacomys cf. intermedius) have been found in two cave fill deposits in Nevada, though they are unknown in the Great Basin today. Limber and bristlecone pines are generally restricted to rocky substrates in modern subalpine habitats in the Great Basin, and this may also have been the case when these plants grew at lower elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Subalpine conifers were present on the rock outcrops sampled by the packrat middens, but shrub communities, perhaps dominated by sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), may have been present on alluvial valley-bottom substrates. Forested habitats would thus have been isolated habitat islands, as they are today. Boreal small mammals, including pikas and heather voles, were able to colonize the Great Basin mountain ranges during the late Pleistocene. We suggest that these mammals were able to survive in the intervening valley-bottoms under a cool-summer climatic regime, and that continuous forest or woodland corridors were not necessary for migration.

  18. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  19. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors' objective was to describe egg size in relation to laying order for Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ), and Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ) in a southern Texas colony and Great Egrets in a southern Florida colony. Based on egg-size patterns in other colonial waterbirds and the occurrence of brood reduction in egrets and herons, they predicted that the final egg laid in a clutch would be smaller than those laid earlier.

  20. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  1. Dynamical connection between Great Plains low-level winds and variability of central Gulf States precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fu, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet has been related to summer precipitation over the northern Great Plains and Midwest through its moisture transport and convergence at the jet exit area. Much less studied has been its negative relationship with precipitation over the southern Great Plains and the Gulf coastal area. This work shows that the southerly low-level winds at 30°-40°N over the southern Great Plains are significantly correlated with anticyclonic vorticity to its east over the central Gulf States (30°-35°N, 85°-95°W) from May to July. When the low-level jet is strong in June and July, anomalous anticyclonic vorticity over the central Gulf States leads to divergence and consequent subsidence suppressing precipitation over that region. In contrast, an enhanced southerly flow at the entrance region of the jet over the Gulf of Mexico, largely uncorrelated with the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains, is correlated with increased precipitation over the central Gulf States. Precipitation is large over the central Gulf States when the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains is weakest and over the Gulf of Mexico is strongest. This increase is consistent with the increased moisture transport and dynamic balance between loss of vorticity by advection and friction and gain by convergence.

  2. Neptune - Changes in Great Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    These images show changes in the clouds around Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS) over a four and one-half-day period. From top to bottom the images show successive rotations of the planet an interval of about 18 hours. The GDS is at a mean latitude of 20 degrees south, and covers about 30 degrees of longitude. The violet filter of the Voyager narrow angle camera was used to produce these images at distances ranging from 17 million kilometers (10.5 million miles) at the top, to 10 million kilometers (6.2 million miles) at bottom. The images have been mapped on to a rectangular latitude longitude grid to remove the effects of changing viewing geometry and the changing distance to Neptune. The sequence shows a large change in the western end (left side) of the GDS, where a dark extension apparent in the earlier images converges into an extended string of small dark spots over the next five rotations. This 'string of beads' extends from the GDS at a surprisingly large angle relative to horizontal lines of constant latitude. The large bright cloud at the southern (bottom) border of the GDS is a more or less permanent companion of the GDS. The apparent motion of smaller clouds at the periphery of the GDS suggests a counterclockwise rotation of the GDS reminiscent of flow around the Great Red Spot in Jupiter's atmosphere. This activity of the GDS is surprising because the total energy flux from the sun and from Neptune's interior is only 5 percent as large as the total energy flux on Jupiter.

  3. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  4. [Great Arab physician-practitioners].

    PubMed

    Masić, I; Konjhodzić, F

    1994-01-01

    In the pleiad of the great names from the Golden Age of the Arabian medicine: at-Taberi, ar-Razi, al-Magusi, al-Baitar, al-Zahrawi, ibn-Sina, ibn-Haitam, ibn-Zuhr, ibn-Rushd, ibn-Nefis the important place belongs to the physicians-practitioners--many of the applied methods by the Arabian doctors were forerunners of the contemporary diagnostic or therapeutical methods. Later the methods were modernized by the great surgeons Ambroise Pare, Agnew, Hunter, Warren, Billroth, Mayo et al. No doubts, the methods and instruments of that time were primitive and the possibilities for research work, difficult. Because of this reason a respect should be given to those great man in the history of medicine. PMID:7967797

  5. Delta spots and great flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Liggett, Margaret A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of delta spots and the great flares they produce are reviewed based on 18 years of observations. Delta groups are found to develop in three ways: (1) by the eruption of a single complex active region formed below the surface; (2) by the eruption of large satellite spots near a large older spot; and (3) by the collision of spots of opposite polarity from different dipoles. It is shown that the present sample of 21 delta spots never separate once they lock together, and that the driving force for the shear is spot motion. Indicators for the prediction of the occurrence of great flares are identified.

  6. Great Books 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, David

    2009-01-01

    As documented by multiple NEA studies ("Reading at Risk," 2004; "To Read or Not to Read," 2007), reading has become devalued in American life, on sale in the clearance bin along with notions of greatness, classic works and ideas, and Western civilization itself. Trying to teach fine literature, writes the author, has become the struggle of how to…

  7. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were truly…

  8. Great cleanup skims the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, S.

    1990-09-03

    Appalled by the pollution of the Great Lakes, the United States embarked on a multibillion-dollar cleanup. Twenty years later the nation's largest freshwater source is teeming with life, but problems caused by man and nature remain. Amid the finger-pointing, states in the region and Congress are continuing to clean up the mess.

  9. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  10. Trichomoniasis in great horned owls.

    PubMed

    Jessup, D A

    1980-07-01

    Three cases of Trichomonas gallinae infection of deep tissues of the skull or of unusual tissues in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), refractory to recommended doses but responsive to higher doses of dimetridazole, are discussed. Trichomonads were isolated from the lesions. PMID:7432340

  11. The Great Books and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  12. Welcome to the Great Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    No matter how hard teachers and administrators work, they cannot fulfill society's enormous list of demands for schools without addressing the four basics of public sentiment: community understanding, trust, permission, and support. They can do this through the Great Conversation, a positive, ongoing discussion between educators and the public…

  13. The Great School Bus Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nicolaus, Ed.

    This anthology attempts to put the great school bus controversy of the 1970's in perspective by providing a forum in which a series of widely differing views, backed by hard data, can be compared. The first section, "Background and Legal History," places the controversy in a perspective that predates the 1970's. One article focuses on the history…

  14. Mars' great storm of 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capen, C. F.; Martin, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the development of this planet-wide storm and its subsequent decline through mid-January 1972. The initial core of the disturbance extended northeast to southwest. Preliminary examination of photographic data indicates that the storm, yellow in color, spread completely around the planet in about 16 days. During the storm, red- and green-light photographs recorded Mars as brighter than normal, while in blue it was only slightly brighter, and in the ultraviolet there was no significant change. The history of yellow clouds is discussed. They seem to germinate in specific areas in the southern hemisphere, such as the Hellas-Noachis region. Another yellow cloud is predicted for July or August of 1973.

  15. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  16. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  18. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  19. Penetrating Wounds of Great Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Symbas, P. N.; Kourias, E.; Tyras, D. H.; Hatcher, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with penetrating wounds of the great vessels treated at Grady Memorial Hospital during a 7-year period were reviewed. In more than 50% of the cases, diagnosis of the injury was made at the time of emergency thoracotomy for massive bleeding. In the remaining patients the diagnosis was suspected: 1) when the pulse distal to the vascular injury was absent or weak; 2) when the patient had symptoms and signs of impaired central nervous system perfusion; 3) when the missile had traversed the mediastinum and there was roentgenographic evidence of widening of the mediastinal shadow; or, 4) when a new murmur appeared. In all suspected cases with great vessel injury, the diagnosis was confirmed arteriographically. Arteriography in such patients should be performed to define the type and site of vascular injury so that its repair can be properly planned. Twenty-nine patients recovered from their injury, 6 succumbed as a result of it and 1 required midforearm amputation following repair of a subclavian artery and vein injury. Most of these patients underwent autotransfusion which greatly contributed to their successful outcome. Local temporary shunt was used for protection of the spinal cord and/or brain when impairment of their perfusion was required for the repair of the vascular wounds. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:17859862

  20. Is the great attractor really a great wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Albert; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the cosmological consequences are discussed of a late time phase transition which produces light domain walls. The observed peculiar velocity field of the Universe and the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation severely constrain the wall surface density in such a scenario. The most interesting consequence of such a phase transition is the possibility that the local, coherent streaming motion reported by the Seven Samurai could be explained by the repulsive effect of a relic domain wall with the Hubble volume (the Great Wall).

  1. SCIGN; new Southern California GPS network advances the study of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnut, Ken; King, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Southern California is a giant jigsaw puzzle, and scientists are now using GPS satellites to track the pieces. These puzzle pieces are continuously moving, slowly straining the faults in between. That strain is then eventually released in earthquakes. The innovative Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) tracks the motions of these pieces over most of southern California with unprecedented precision. This new network greatly improves the ability to assess seismic hazards and quickly measure the larger displacements that occur during and immediatelyafter earthquakes.

  2. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes (43.0N, 70.0W) area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water.

  3. 54. Virginia Route 615/Norfolk Southern Railroad. This example of a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Virginia Route 615/Norfolk Southern Railroad. This example of a prestressed concrete girder grade separation structure was built in 1959. View to the west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Speech About the Great Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Of all the sights that I saw during that trip, the one that provoked the most thought on my part was the Great Wall. The Great Wall defies imagination. It is simple and strong. It winds gracefully up and down. It scales slowly but steadily the distant hill, to disappear down into the valley beyond, only to climb again, inexorably, to surmount the next mountain in its path. As one examines the individual stones with which it was built, one realizes how much sweat and blood there must have been in its complex history. As one looks at the overall structure, at its strength and elegance, its real significance begins to emerge. It is long. It is tenacious. It is flexible in every turn, but is persistent and persisting in the long range development. Its overall unity of purpose is what gives it strength and character. And its overall unity of purpose is what makes it one of the man-made structures on the surface of the earth to become first visible to a visitor approaching our planet from outer space...

  5. Two-million-year record of deuterium depletion in great basin ground waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winograd, I.J.; Szabo, B. J.; Coplen, T.B.; Riggs, A.C.; Kolesar, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in uranium series-dated calcitic veins from the southern Great Basin record a reduction of 40 per mil in the deuterium content of groundwater recharge during the Pleistocene. This variation is tentatively attributed to major uplift of the Sierra Nevada Range and the Transverse Ranges during this epoch with attendant increasing orographic depletion of deuterium from inlandbound Pacific storms.

  6. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  7. 207. Oconaluffee River Bridge is the southern terminus of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    207. Oconaluffee River Bridge is the southern terminus of the Blue Ride Parkway. It is a concrete girder bridge completed in 1957. It is the only concrete girder bridge with stone-faced piers. Looking east-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Tools for Tomorrow. Educational Technology in Southern Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan

    1986-01-01

    The quality of education received by children in the southern states will be greatly impacted by technological change, which will present educators with both unprecedented opportunities and substantial risks. As the four model programs described in this paper illustrate, advances in telecommunications and computer hardware and software can be used…

  9. The dawn of the Southern Plains Range Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On 31 October 1913, U.S. Senator Thomas P. Gore announced that Woodward would be the site of the government experiment farm in western Oklahoma. This marked the beginning of a century of USDA agricultural research on the southern Great Plains. A 160 acre parcel of land located southwest of the cit...

  10. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  11. 'They of the Great Rocks'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows 'Adirondack,' the rover's first target rock. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of the football-sized rock on Sunday, Jan. 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because its dust-free, flat surface is ideally suited for grinding. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating. Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The word Adirondack is Native American and means 'They of the great rocks.'

  12. Great Time to Do Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Has there ever been a more exciting time to do physics? Whether you're interested in the big philosophical questions of matter and energy or just the next cool wireless gadget, in saving the world from nuclear annihilation or saving a single life with positron emission tomography, physics is a great place to begin the journey. In this talk, I'll expound a bit on career trajectories of hidden physicists, and touch on tales from a variety of physics research topics, from spintronics to spallation to spandex. Yes, it is an unlikely trio, but within each are opportunities for ``a meaningful undergraduate research experience,'' the kind advocated by the SPS Council for all undergraduate physics majors. Along the way, I'll mention some pointers for physics undergraduates about preparing for their future, whether it includes summer research internships, industry aspirations, or graduate school.

  13. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  14. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters....

  15. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters....

  16. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  17. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  18. Southern Sclerotium blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotium rolfsii attacks a wide range of plants throughout the world. It is most severe in tropical and subtropical areas. Southern Sclerotium blight is of major concern in the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern United States and in Mexico. Although severe losses are reported annually in pe...

  19. Southern (In)hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  20. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  1. Great Plains Synfuels` hidden treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.; Duncan, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Great Plains Synfuels Project was commissioned 12 years ago. While demonstrating success regarding SNG production, DGC quietly started development of chemical products derived from the liquid by-product streams of Lurgi moving bed gasifiers. Naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil are the primary by-products, and these contain valuable compounds such as phenol, cresylic acid, catechols, naphthols, fluorene, and BTX. Process technologies have been developed for (1) separation of various impurities from cresylic acid distillate fractions or from whole cresylic acid; (2) extracting cresylic acid from tar oil; (3) conversion of tar pitch to a blend stock used in making anode binder pitch; and (4) separating high purity catechol and methyl catechols. As a result of this work, DGC built a phenol/cresylic acid facility. The cresylic acid side supplies over 10 percent of the world market. The achievement with the catechols is presently leading to bench scale routes for synthesis of chemical intermediates which ultimately may include compounds such as vanillin, pyrogallol, sesamol, homoveratrylamine, and many others, penetrating the fields of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, photographic chemicals, dyes, etc. These efforts stimulate DGC`s growth and will provide an economic uplift. By-products already contribute more than 10% of revenues and are destined to rival natural gas in importance.

  2. A Great Salt Lake waterspout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, M.; Roff, G.; Morton, B. R.; Labas, K.; Dietachmayer, G.; Penc, R.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of a waterspout funnel and spray ring performed under a cumulus line over the Great Salt Lake for about 5 min shortly after sunrise on June 26, 1985. These observations were used as the basis for a study of the initiation and evolution of waterspouts through a series of numerical experiments at two scales, that of a cloud and a waterspout. The cloud scale was simulated using an improved Goddard-Schlesinger model with nearby Salt Lake City soundings. Results showed that for each mode of cloud initiation, the vortex that started at the anticyclonic center grew faster than those started at other centers. This result strongly suggests that the cloud vorticity was important in its initiation. The greatest azimuthal speed for the bubble-initiated cloud was 11 m/s, when the vortex model was started at 28-min cloud time with time-varying boundary conditions, whereas it was 21 m/s when started at 12 min in the line-initiated cloud. The results support the hypothesis that, at least in some circumstances, cloud processes alone can produce waterspouts in the absence of external vorticity sources such as surface convergence lines or other shear features.

  3. Tipping Points, Great and Small

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Foster

    2010-12-01

    The Forum by Jordan et al. [2010] addressed environmental problems of various scales in great detail, but getting the critical message through to the formulators of public policies requires going back to basics, namely, that exponential growth (of a population, an economy, or most anything else) is not sustainable. When have you heard any politician or economist from anywhere across the ideological spectrum say anything other than that more growth is essential? There is no need for computer models to demonstrate “limits to growth,” as was done in the 1960s. Of course, as one seeks more details, the complexity of modeling will rapidly outstrip the capabilities of both observation and computing. This is common with nonlinear systems, even simple ones. Thus, identifying all possible “tipping points,” as suggested by Jordan et al. [2010], and then stopping just short of them, is impractical if not impossible. The main thing needed to avoid environmental disasters is a bit of common sense.

  4. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  5. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  6. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  7. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  8. Genomic Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a detailed protocol for genomic Southern blot analysis which can be used to detect transgene or endogenous gene sequences in cereal genomes. The protocol follows a standard approach that has been shown to generate high-quality results: size fractionation of genomic DNA; capillary transfer to a nylon membrane; hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled probe; and detection using a chemiluminescent-based system. High sensitivity and limited background are key to successful Southern blots. The critical steps in this protocol are complete digestion of the right quantity of DNA, careful handling of the membrane to avoid unnecessary background, and optimization of probe concentration and temperatures during the hybridization step. Detailed instructions on how to successfully master these techniques are provided. PMID:24243203

  9. Great Scarps Above Sea Coasts in Global Morphotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufimtsev, G. F.

    High and extensive tectonic scarps play an important part in global morphotectonics, and are one of the basic tectonic landforms of the southern continental and subcontinental margins and transition zones between the continent and the ocean in the east of Asia. These are proper rear boundaries of continental margins, the geodynamics of which are characterized by rifting on shelves, continental slopes, and marginal oceanic depressions. Great scarps are initiated at the thinning and breaking of the continental lithosphere and have a long phase in the ensuing development, with a successive self parallel retreat—a process that may be defined as tectonic planation, with the occurrence of a basal surface for shelf sediments. Great scarps are seen located above the passive continental margins and in the rear boundaries of the belt of transition from the continent to the ocean, in the western Pacific. Great scarps are uncommon in intracontinental regions and tend to have additional morphotectonic features at the land elevation and land subsidence boundaries.

  10. Transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paula; Castela, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA) discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500-5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs) have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases.The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually required soon after birth

  11. Smoke in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

  12. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-09-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2009-05-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-08-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M; Egan, D

    2004-12-01

    We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

  20. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Stensrud, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  1. The ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility Best Estimate Radiative Flux CD

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN

    2002-04-01

    The BEFlux VAP directly compares data from the three Normal Incidence Perheliometers, shaded pyranometers, and shaded pyrgeometers at the SGP CF. Extensive analysis with several years of data has produced limits of typical ranges of agreement when these instruments are performing as expected. These limits are used to screen the data, and then the average is taken of the two that agree best, given that at least two instruments agree to within the established limits. This is done for the downwelling direct normal and diffuse shortwave, and the downwelling longwave. The total (global) downwelling shortwave is then the sum of the direct and diffuse components.

  2. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturer specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.

  3. Aerosol Indirect Effect Studies at Southern Great Plains During the May 2003 Intensive Operations Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feingold, Graham; Furrer, Reinhard; Pilewskie, Peter; Remer, Lorraine A.; Min, Qilong; Jonsson, Haflidi

    2006-01-01

    During May 2003 the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program conducted an Intensive Operations Period (IOP) to measure the radiative effects of aerosol and clouds. A suite of both in situ and remote sensing measurements were available to measure aerosol and cloud parameters. This paper has three main goals: First, it focuses on comparison between in situ retrievals of the radiatively important drop effective radius r(sub e) and various satellite, airborne, and surface remote sensing retrievals of the same parameter. On 17 May 2003, there was a fortuitous, near-simultaneous sampling of a stratus cloud by five different methods. The retrievals of r(sub e) agree with one another to within approx.20%, which is approximately the error estimate for most methods. Second, a methodology for deriving a best estimate of r(sub e) from these different instruments, with their different physical properties and sampling volumes, is proposed and applied to the 17 May event. Third, the paper examines the response of r(sub e) to changes in aerosol on 3 days during the experiment and examines the consistency of remote sensing and in situ measurements of the effect of aerosol on r(sub e). It is shown that in spite of the generally good agreement in derived r(sub e), the magnitude of the response of r(sub e), to changes in aerosol is quite sensitive to the method of retrieving r(sub e) and to the aerosol proxy for cloud condensation nuclei. Nonphysical responses are sometimes noted, and it is suggested that further work needs to be done to refine these techniques.

  4. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturermore » specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.« less

  5. 76 FR 10914 - Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (FACA), the... Resource Management Plans, Land Use Planning, Recreation and Off-Highway Vehicle Use, Wildland Policy and... sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, or who wish to receive a copy of...

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. Scientists are using the information obtained from the permanent SGP site to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. More than 30 instrument clusters have been placed around the SGP site. The locations for the instruments were chosen so that the measurements reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. The continuous observations at the SGP site are supplemented by intensive observation periods, when the frequency of measurements is increased and special measurements are added to address specific research questions. During such periods, 2 gigabytes or more of data (two billion bytes) are generated daily. SGP data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/ http. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) Central Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph J.; Min, Qilong; Barnard, James C.; Marchand, Roger T.; Pilewskie, Peter

    2003-04-30

    In this study, a data analysis is performed to determine the area-averaged, spectral albedo at ARM's SGP central facility site. The spectral albedo is then fed into radiation transfer models to show that the diffuse discrepancy is diminished when the spectral albedo is used (as opposed to using the broadband albedo).

  8. Flood impacts in Keppel Bay, southern great barrier reef in the aftermath of cyclonic rainfall.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison M; Berkelmans, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In December 2010, the highest recorded Queensland rainfall associated with Tropical Cyclone 'Tasha' caused flooding of the Fitzroy River in Queensland, Australia. A massive flood plume inundated coral reefs lying 12 km offshore of the Central Queensland coast near Yeppoon and caused 40-100% mortality to coral fringing many of the islands of Keppel Bay down to a depth of ∼8 m. The severity of coral mortality was influenced by the level of exposure to low salinity seawater as a result of the reef's distance from the flood plume and to a lesser extent, water depth and whether or not the reef faced the plume source. There was no evidence in this study of mortality resulting from pollutants derived from the nearby Fitzroy Catchment, at least in the short term, suggesting that during a major flood, the impact of low salinity on corals outweighs that of pollutants. Recovery of the reefs in Keppel Bay from the 2010/2011 Fitzroy River flood is likely to take 10-15 years based on historical recovery periods from a similar event in 1991; potentially impacting visitor numbers for tourism and recreational usage. In the meantime, activities like snorkeling, diving and coral viewing will be focused on the few shallow reefs that survived the flood, placing even further pressure on their recovery. Reef regeneration, restoration and rehabilitation are measures that may be needed to support tourism in the short term. However, predictions of a warming climate, lower rainfall and higher intensity summer rain events in the Central and Coastal regions of Australia over the next decade, combined with the current anthropogenic influences on water quality, are likely to slow regeneration with consequent impact on long-term reef resilience. PMID:24427294

  9. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. In order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3-8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturer specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.

  10. Effects of land use change from grassland and wheat to switchgrass in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have begun an inter-agency, interdisciplinary experiment to observe and quantify some of the effects of the conversion of wheat and pasture lands in northwestern Oklahoma to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production. Switchgrass is a candidate crop for the production of cellulosic ethanol, an...

  11. Evaluation of Utah trefoil collections for rangeland restoration in the southern Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires, weed invasion, and various other land disturbances are common in rangeland ecosystems of the Intermountain Region in the western U.S. Revegetation/restoration may be required on many of these rangelands to improve degraded conditions, speed recovery, and minimize soil erosion. Legumes n...

  12. Performance of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) in the southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lablab is widely cultivated in parts of Africa, south and Central America, the Indian sub-continent and other regions of Asia. Though used as a grain crop, its potential as forage or green manure has been recognized in Brazil, Africa and Australia. While some cultivar development has occurred in sou...

  13. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy

    2009-11-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  14. Status of instrumentation for the Southern Great Plains Clouds and Radiation Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Planning for the initial complement of instrumentation at the first Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has concentrated on obtaining a sufficient level of instrumentation at the central facility for studies of radiative transfer processes in a narrow column above the site. The auxiliary facilities, whose sole purpose is cloud mapping above the central facility, will not be activated as such until provisions are made for all-sky imaging systems. In the meantime, the auxiliary facilities wig be instrumented as extended facilities if the locations are suitable, which would be the case if they serve the primary purpose of the extended facilities of obtaining representative observations of surface energy exchanges, state variables, precipitation, soil and vegetative conditions, and other factors that must be considered in terms of boundary conditions by single-column and related models. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) radar wind profiler network is being considered to provide observations of vertical profiles at the boundaries of the CART site. If possible, these locations will be used for boundary facilities. Efforts are proceeding to gain access to the wind profiler network data and to determine if a sufficient number of the profilers can be equipped as Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS). Profiles of temperature as well as winds are needed at the boundary facilities for studies with single-column models and four-dimensional data assimilation models. Balloon-home sounding systems will be used there initially for both temperature and moisture profiles. Infrared spectrometers will eventually be used to infer moisture profiles at these boundary facilities.

  15. Status of instrumentation for the Southern Great Plains Clouds and Radiation Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Planning for the initial complement of instrumentation at the first Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has concentrated on obtaining a sufficient level of instrumentation at the central facility for studies of radiative transfer processes in a narrow column above the site. The auxiliary facilities, whose sole purpose is cloud mapping above the central facility, will not be activated as such until provisions are made for all-sky imaging systems. In the meantime, the auxiliary facilities wig be instrumented as extended facilities if the locations are suitable, which would be the case if they serve the primary purpose of the extended facilities of obtaining representative observations of surface energy exchanges, state variables, precipitation, soil and vegetative conditions, and other factors that must be considered in terms of boundary conditions by single-column and related models. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) radar wind profiler network is being considered to provide observations of vertical profiles at the boundaries of the CART site. If possible, these locations will be used for boundary facilities. Efforts are proceeding to gain access to the wind profiler network data and to determine if a sufficient number of the profilers can be equipped as Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS). Profiles of temperature as well as winds are needed at the boundary facilities for studies with single-column models and four-dimensional data assimilation models. Balloon-home sounding systems will be used there initially for both temperature and moisture profiles. Infrared spectrometers will eventually be used to infer moisture profiles at these boundary facilities.

  16. Modeling differential growth in switchgrass cultivars across the Central and Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been recognized as a potential biofuel crop, because it is adapted to a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions. Zones of adaptation for many switchgrass cultivars are well documented and attributed to local adaptation to the temperature and photope...

  17. Flood Impacts in Keppel Bay, Southern Great Barrier Reef in the Aftermath of Cyclonic Rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alison M.; Berkelmans, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In December 2010, the highest recorded Queensland rainfall associated with Tropical Cyclone ‘Tasha’ caused flooding of the Fitzroy River in Queensland, Australia. A massive flood plume inundated coral reefs lying 12 km offshore of the Central Queensland coast near Yeppoon and caused 40–100% mortality to coral fringing many of the islands of Keppel Bay down to a depth of ∼8 m. The severity of coral mortality was influenced by the level of exposure to low salinity seawater as a result of the reef's distance from the flood plume and to a lesser extent, water depth and whether or not the reef faced the plume source. There was no evidence in this study of mortality resulting from pollutants derived from the nearby Fitzroy Catchment, at least in the short term, suggesting that during a major flood, the impact of low salinity on corals outweighs that of pollutants. Recovery of the reefs in Keppel Bay from the 2010/2011 Fitzroy River flood is likely to take 10–15 years based on historical recovery periods from a similar event in 1991; potentially impacting visitor numbers for tourism and recreational usage. In the meantime, activities like snorkeling, diving and coral viewing will be focused on the few shallow reefs that survived the flood, placing even further pressure on their recovery. Reef regeneration, restoration and rehabilitation are measures that may be needed to support tourism in the short term. However, predictions of a warming climate, lower rainfall and higher intensity summer rain events in the Central and Coastal regions of Australia over the next decade, combined with the current anthropogenic influences on water quality, are likely to slow regeneration with consequent impact on long-term reef resilience. PMID:24427294

  18. On the Micrometeorology of the Southern Great Plains. 2: Turbulence Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Bruce B.; Pendergrass, W. R.; Vogel, C. A.; Keener, R. N.; Leyton, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    Fast-response micrometeorological data obtained from an instrumented 32-m tower at an arid site near Ocotillo, Texas are used to examine the daily time evolution of the lower atmosphere. Correlation coefficients between turbulence properties (fast response wind-speed components and temperature) confirm that over this sparsely vegetated site the effects of convection are observed soon after sunrise, well ahead of the morning transition from stable to unstable stratification. Details of this kind are obscured when results are considered as functions of conventional stability parameters, since such standard analytical methods combine features of the morning and evening transitions into a single presentation. Partial correlation coefficients and semi-partials indicate that the local turbulent kinetic energy is mainly associated with local fluxes of heat and momentum near neutral and in most stable conditions, but decreases substantially during the times of strongest instability (possibly reflecting the scatter introduced by sampling infrequent convective episodes using a single tower). For many of the variables considered here, the standard deviations are about the same as the linear averages, indicating that the distributions are close to log-normal. The present data indicate that if the intent is to address some specific situation then 10 % error bounds on turbulence quantities (e.g. fluxes) correspond to averaging over a distance scale of the order of 10 km and a time scale of about 3 h. As the distance and time scales become smaller, the uncertainties due to factors external to the local surface increase.

  19. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Michael P.; Holdridge, Donna J.; Survo, Petteri; Lehtinen, Raisa; Baxter, Shannon; Toto, Tami; Johnson, Karen L.

    2016-07-01

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41 (fourth generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and pressure. In order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in north-central Oklahoma, USA. During 3-8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results show that for most of the observed conditions the RS92 and RS41 measurements agree much better than the manufacturer-specified combined uncertainties with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet-bulbing" effect appears to be mitigated for several cases in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements of temperature and humidity, with applied correction algorithms, also appear to show less sensitivity to solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions. For many science applications - such as atmospheric process studies, retrieval development, and weather forecasting and climate modeling - the differences between the RS92 and RS41 measurements should have little impact. However, for long-term trend analysis and other climate applications, additional characterization of the RS41 measurements and their relation to the long-term observational records will be required.

  20. Flood variability east of Australia’s Great Dividing Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustomji, Paul; Bennett, Neil; Chiew, Francis

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe variability of flow in river channels influences the spatial and temporal variability of many biophysical processes including the transport of sediment and waterborne pollutants and the recruitment of aquatic animals and plants. In this study, inter- and intra-basin patterns of flood variability are examined for catchments east of Australia's Great Dividing Range. Three measures of flood variability are explored with uncertainty quantified using bootstrap resampling. The two preferred measures of flood variability (namely a flood quantile ratio and a power law scaling coefficient) produced similar results. Catchments in the wet tropics of far north Queensland experience low flood variability. Flood variability increased southwards through Queensland, reaching a maximum in the vicinity of the Fitzroy and Burnett River basins. The small near-coast catchments of southern Queensland and northern New Wales experience low flood variability. Flood variability is also high in the southern Hunter River and Hawkesbury-Nepean basins. Using L-moment ratio diagrams with data from 424 streamflow stations, we also conclude that the Generalised Pareto distribution is preferable for modelling flood frequency curves for this region. These results provide a regional perspective that can be used to develop new hypotheses about the effects of hydrologic variability on the biophysical characteristics of these Australian rivers.

  1. Tholeiitic great dikes' across New England and Atlantic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    McHone, J.G. . Graduate Liberal Studies Program); McHone, N.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Extremely large dolerite great dikes'' are traceable for distances of 100 to 400 km across southern and eastern New England, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and portions of the continental shelf. The largest in New England is up to 70 m wide and at least 210 km long, extending northeastward through central Connecticut (Higganum dike) and Massachusetts. Limited exposures in Maine reveal great dike segments up to 50 m wide at Hiram, Harpswell Nick, Pemaquid Harbor, and Schoodic Point. Other Maine dike exposures at Milo and Grand Lake are along a linear magnetic anomaly that stretches at least 140 km, and represent the US extension of the Caraquet dike that extends another 330 km across New Brunswick. This dike may connect with the Higganum, revealing a dike or system of dike segments at least 1,000 km long. At least two other Canadian dikes, the Shelburne dike of coastal Nova Scotia and the Avalon dike of eastern Newfoundland, are more than 100 km long. Other large tholeiite dikes in New Brunswick occur at Beaver Harbor, Passamaquoddy Bay, and Grand Manan Island, but these have not been traced. The dikes all appear to be quartz-normative, high-titanium tholeiites with subophitic plagioclase-augite groundmasses, microphenocrysts of bronzite or hypersthene, and interior zones of quartz-feldspar granophyres. Their total volume is vast: Assuming 100 km of depth, a dike 20 m wide by 200 km long contains 400 billion cubic meters of dolerite, with a mass of 1.2 trillion metric tons. Such dikes are known to be feeders to large Early Jurassic (c. 190 Ma) flood basalts in southern New England and Nova Scotia, and their presence through eastern New England and New Brunswick could mark areas in which regional erosion has removed much more extensive Jurassic flood basalts.

  2. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  4. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  5. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  6. Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

  7. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  8. Leading Good Schools to Greatness: Mastering What Great Principals Do Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan Penny; Streshly, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Great leaders are made, not born. Written by the authors of "From Good Schools to Great Schools," this sequel shows how great school leaders can be developed and how leaders can acquire the powerful personal leadership characteristics that the best administrators use to lead their schools to greatness. Based on sound strategies and the work of Jim…

  9. The Southern Coalsack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, L.-Å.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern Coalsack is the most prominent, isolated dark cloud in the southern Milky Way. It is situated on the Galactic equator at l=303° and has a diameter of about 6°. The visual extinction over the cloud varies by between 1 and 3 magnitudes but can be much higher in small condensations and globules. From photometric studies the distance to the Coalsack has been estimated to ˜ 150 pc. A CO (1-0) survey of the whole cloud showed that it is very fragmented, consisting of clumps and filaments, and the total mass is estimated to ˜ 3500 M_{sun}. A cloud of this size and mass would be expected to contain young stars, but so far none has been found, although searches have been made for T Tauri stars, flare stars, HH objects, and IRAS point sources with color-color characteristics of young stars. The Coalsack may not be forming stars because it contains an unusually small amount of dense gas compared to typical star-forming clouds, as indicated by a ^{13}CO survey, or it is a young molecular cloud complex, implied by the fact that the densest globule is not centrally condensed, which is normally the case for globules and star-forming cores.

  10. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  11. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  12. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  13. Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

  14. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Southern Bald Eagle perched on top of a utility pole searches the area. About a dozen bald eagles live in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nest in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  15. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Southern Bald Eagle perches on top of a utility pole at Kennedy Space Center. About a dozen bald eagles live in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nest in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. Low calcification in corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Reef-building coral communities in the Great Barrier Reef—the world's largest coral reef—may now be calcifying at only about half the rate that they did during the 1970s, even though live coral cover may not have changed over the past 40 years, a new study finds. In recent decades, coral reefs around the world, home to large numbers of fish and other marine species, have been threatened by such human activities as pollution, overfishing, global warming, and ocean acidification; the latter affects ambient water chemistry and availability of calcium ions, which are critical for coral communities to calcify, build, and maintain reefs. Comparing data from reef surveys during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s with present-day (2009) measurements of calcification rates in One Tree Island, a coral reef covering 13 square kilometers in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, Silverman et al. show that the total calcification rates (the rate of calcification minus the rate of dissolution) in these coral communities have decreased by 44% over the past 40 years; the decrease appears to stem from a threefold reduction in calcification rates during nighttime.

  17. Ionospheric response to great geomagnetic storms during solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline Matamba, Tshimangadzo; Bosco Habarulema, John

    2016-07-01

    The analyses of ionospheric responses due to great geomagnetic storms i.e. Dst index < 350 nT that occurred during solar cycle 23 are presented. The GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) and ionosonde data over Southern and Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes were used to study the ionospheric responses. A geomagnetic latitude region of ±30° to ±46° within a longitude sector of 15° to 40° was considered. Using a criteria of Dst < -350 nT, there were only four great storm periods (29 March - 02 April 2001, 27 - 31 October 2003, 18 - 23 November 2003 and 06 - 11 November 2004) in solar cycle 23. Analysis has shown that ionospheric dynamics during these disturbed conditions could be due to a number of dynamic and electrodynamics processes in both Hemispheres. In some instances the ionosphere responds differently to the same storm condition in both Hemispheres. Physical mechanisms related to (but not limited to) composition changes and electric fields will be discussed.

  18. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Southern Kordofan

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a disease that poses a great threat to public health owing to its high mortality rate (30-70%), mode of transmission and geographic distribution. Here, we report on a nine years-old Sudanese boy from Southern Kordofan State who presented with Jaundice, high-grade fever, severe headache, abdominal pain and a history of hematemesis. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed based on clinical and serological findings. PMID:27493394

  19. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Oliver S; Jones, Craig H; Sheehan, Anne F

    2004-07-30

    Seismic tomography reveals garnet-rich crust and mantle lithosphere descending into the upper mantle beneath the southeastern Sierra Nevada. The descending lithosphere consists of two layers: an iron-rich eclogite above a magnesium-rich garnet peridotite. These results place descending eclogite above and east of high P wave speed material previously imaged beneath the southern Great Valley, suggesting a previously unsuspected coherence in the lithospheric removal process. PMID:15286370

  20. Revisiting the Great Lessons. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers the role of the Great Lessons--formation of the universe, evolution of life, evolution of humans, and discovery of language and mathematics--in the Montessori elementary curriculum. Discusses how the Great Lessons guide and organize the curriculum, as well as the timing of the lessons across the 6-12 age span. (JPB)

  1. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  2. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  3. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  4. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  5. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  6. Life on the Great Plains. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this four-part lesson, students examine the concept of geographic region by exploring the history of the United States Great Plains. In Part I, students gather information about the location and environment of the Great Plains in order to produce a map outlining the region in formal terms. In Part II, students examine how the region has been…

  7. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  8. Great Books. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Great Books" is a program that aims to improve the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students in kindergarten through high school. The program is implemented as a core or complementary curriculum and is based on the Shared Inquiry[TM] method of learning. The purpose of "Great Books" is to engage students in higher-order thinking…

  9. Directory of Great Lakes Education Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission surveyed several hundred educators and producers of educational programs. One of the results of the survey was the development of this directory, which is limited to materials and producers of materials dealing with the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem, environmental studies,…

  10. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13947 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8833 of June 1, 2012 Great Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the..., trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long legacy of...

  11. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-13666 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45 am] Billing code...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010 Great Outdoors Month, 2010 By the President of the United... friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural...

  12. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-14185 Filed 6-6-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011 Great Outdoors Month, 2011 By the President of the United... stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month,...

  13. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13540 Filed 6-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8988 of May 31, 2013 Great Outdoors Month... Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the land entrusted to us by our forebears and resolve to pass it...

  14. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  15. Scientific review of great basin wildfire issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  16. Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  17. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  18. EPA Research Strengthens Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, the Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) are a source of economic prosperity, recreation and raw materials. Human activity, however, has resulted in pollution and other stressors. The Great Lakes curren...

  19. Notes from the Great American Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.; LaCost, Barbara Y.

    2005-01-01

    In the good old days, the state that is Nebraska was identified as part of the Great American Desert. In many ways, in climate and terrain, it still bears a resemblance to a desert. As a frontier or a land of pioneers, it deserves recognition. Invisibility may be one of the greatest challenges women face. One of the great flaws in the writing of…

  20. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  1. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  2. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  3. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  4. The astronomy of Chaco style great kivas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, Gene

    Are Chaco style great kivas the product of a common design criterion that was applied in order to be able to view solar and lunar events? This thesis will guide the reader through a consideration of the form of the great kiva and the history of its development. It examines how this traditional architectural form was adopted during the beginning of the Chaco era as a mechanism to coordinate seasonal ceremonial activities by observation of astronomical events, and suggests why this change may have occurred. Using excavation reports from Chaco style great kivas, along with recent astronomical observations obtained inside the Great Kiva at Aztec, it argues that a common design criterion was applied to most Chaco style great kivas, and that this common design criterion involved an orientation of building elements to the summer and winter solstice sunrise and sunsets.

  5. The Relationship Between ENSO Phases and Southern Hemisphere Jet Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical convection affects Southern Hemisphere jet dynamics through the process of mass outflow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and through radiation of planetary wave trains through the connecting westerly waveguide. Seasonal changes and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases have an impact on the structure of the Subtropical, Polar and Polar Night Jet in the high latitude Southern Hemisphere. Through reanalysis of ERA-Interim data sets, an investigation of the different southern hemispheric jet structures that result from the various phases of ENSO. A classification of months into categories of El Niño, neutral and La Niña and then further sub classify the El Niño and La Niña into strong, moderate and weak events. The strength of the polar jet and subtropical jet vary greatly between the El Niño and La Niña episodes and also vary in latitudinal placement. Also, the structure of the jets vary between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean Basins. Seasonal progression also has an impact on the structure and shape of the polar and subtropical jets. During the Winter in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, a more diffuse jet structure occurs during La Nina while a more focused jet structure is favored in El Niño periods. In addition, a strong link between the Polar-Night Jet and and the tropospheric polar jet is discovered.

  6. Distribution and nesting success of ferruginous hawks and Swainson's hawks on an agricultural landscape in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied nest site land cover associations, and reproductive success of two Buteo species of conservation concern on the southern Great Plains, USA. The study area was in Cimarron County, Oklahoma, where land use is dominated by row crop agriculture, livestock grazing, and Conservation Reserve Pro...

  7. Eddies in the southern Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartly, G. D.; Srokosz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Agulhas Current system contains one of the world's strongest western boundary currents, and plays an important part in the warm water path of the global thermohaline circulation. However, there have been few surveys of the source regions of the Agulhas Current, and thus little in situ measurement of their variability. Utilizing the more than 5-year record of SeaWiFS data, we examine the eddy activity present in the southern portion of the Mozambique Channel. The two sources of Agulhas input from the central Indian Ocean (southward flow through the Mozambique Channel and westward flow around the southern limit of Madagascar) both show great temporal variability, with no clear seasonal signal. A number of large (˜200 km diameter) anticyclonic rings intermittently propagate poleward along the western edge of the channel, sweeping coastal waters into mid-channel. Their passage past Maputo appears to affect the circulation of the lee eddy in the Delagoa Bight. The eastern side of the channel is mainly characterized by cyclonic eddies. These are made manifest in the lee of the southern tip of Madagascar, although it is not clear whether many form there or just develop a visible presence due to entrainment of high-chlorophyll coastal waters. Several of these cyclonic eddies then appear to move in west-southwesterly direction. The chlorophyll data do reveal the apparent East Madagascar Retroflection on occasions, but do not show clear examples of the pinching off of anticyclonic eddies. However, surface waters from the East Madagascar Current may reach the African mainland on occasions when no retroflection is present.

  8. Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Barquete, Viviane; Domingues, Beatriz S; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2009-01-01

    The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx shearwater, Cory's shearwater and Antarctic fulmar were found to have greater quantities and frequencies of occurrence of plastic. There was no significant difference in the number of plastics between the birds from longline fisheries and beached birds. No correlation was found between the number of prey and number of plastics in the digestive tract of the birds analyzed, but this does not discard the hypothesis that, in some cases, the presence of plastic in the digestive tract has a negative effect on the feeding efficiency of these birds. PMID:18840384

  9. Malaria epidemiology and control in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E; Norris, Douglas E; Mulenga, Modest; Chalwe, Victor; Chipeta, James; Munyati, Shungu; Mutambu, Susan; Mason, Peter R

    2012-03-01

    The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, following the scale-up of interventions supported by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the President's Malaria Initiative and other partners. It is important to appreciate that the reductions in malaria have not been uniform between and within countries, with some areas experiencing resurgence instead. Furthermore, while interventions have greatly reduced the burden of malaria in many countries, it is also recognized that the malaria decline pre-dated widespread intervention efforts, at least in some cases where data are available. This raises more questions as what other factors may have been contributing to the reduction in malaria transmission and to what extent. The International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) in Southern Africa aims to better understand the underlying malaria epidemiology, vector ecology and parasite genomics using three contrasting settings of malaria transmission in Zambia and Zimbabwe: an area of successful malaria control, an area of resurgent malaria and an area where interventions have not been effective. The Southern Africa ICEMR will capitalize on the opportunity to investigate the complexities of malaria transmission while adapting to intervention and establish the evidence-base to guide effective and sustainable malaria intervention strategies. Key approaches to attain this goal for the region will include close collaboration with national malaria control programs and contribution to capacity building at the individual, institutional and national levels. PMID:21756864

  10. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  11. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries.

  12. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries. PMID:27625528

  13. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  14. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: THE GREAT LAKES AND GREAT RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal research objective is develop assessment methodology that can be used to report on the condition of the Great Rivers and Great Lakes that can be used for state's reporting conditions under Section 303(b) of the CWA. One component of Great River research will determ...

  15. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  16. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    For more than half a century after Lewis and Clark crossed the country in 1805-6, the Great Plains was the testing ground of frontier America here America grew to maturity (fig. 1). In 1805-7, explorer Zebulon Pike crossed the southcentral Great Plains, following the Arkansas River from near Great Bend, Kans., to the Rocky Mountains. In later years, Santa Fe traders, lured by the wealth of New Mexican trade, followed Pike's path as far as Bents Fort, Colo., where they turned southwestward away from the river route. Those pioneers who later crossed the plains on the Oregon Trail reached the Platte River near the place that would become Kearney, Nebr., by a nearly direct route from Independence, Mo., and followed the Platte across the central part of the Great Plains.

  17. 8 Great "Whys" Seniors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Family 2009 8 Great "Whys" Seniors Should Exercise Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... Protecting Toddlers and Teens / 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise / Practicing Healthy Adult Living / Assuring Healthy Aging / 8 ...

  18. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  20. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left ... of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta —are switched in position, or “transposed”. Normally, blood ...

  1. Animation: 'Great Lake' on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Video Gallery

    Data from a NASA planetary mission have provided scientists evidence of what appears to be a body of liquid water, equal in volume to the North American Great Lakes, beneath the icy surface of Jupi...

  2. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  3. Subungual nodule of the great toe.

    PubMed

    Morais, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    An otherwise healthy male, 17 years of age, presented with a 2 year history of an enlarging lump under the right great toenail. There was no history of trauma. Examination revealed an exophytic, non-tender, fixed, firm flesh-coloured subungal nodule on the dorsal aspect of the right great toe. The lesion was about 10 mm in diameter and was associated with nail plate deformity and onycholysis. PMID:23550247

  4. The great asteroid nomenclature controversy of 1801

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    1992-01-01

    With the almost complete neglect of 19th century asteroid research by professional historians of science, it is scarcely surprising that great gaps exist in our knowledge of that important field. This paper focuses on issue of naming the first asteroid. This seemingly innocuous issue assumed great importance because many believed the object discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory to be the eighth primary planet of the solar system.

  5. Early eutrophication in the lower great lakes:.

    PubMed

    Schelske, C L; Stoermer, E F; Conley, D J; Robbins, J A; Glover, R M

    1983-10-21

    New Evidence from Biogenic Silica in Sediments New evidence from studies of biogenic silica and diatoms in sediment cores indicates that eutrophication in the lower Great Lakes resulted from nutrient enrichment associated with early settlement and forest clearance. Diatom production peaked from 1820 to 1850 in Lake Ontario, at about 1880 in Lake Erie, but not until 1970 in Lake Michigan. This is the first reported sediment record of the silica-depletion sequence for the Great Lakes. PMID:17734831

  6. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  7. Sustainability Within the Great Monsoon River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    For over five millenia, the great monsoon river basins of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus have provided for great and flourishing agrarian civilizations. However, rapid population growth and urbanization have placed stress on the rural sector causing the use of land that is more prone for flood and drought. In addition, increased population and farming have stressed the availability of fresh water both from rivers and aquifers. Additionally, rapid urbanization has severely reduced water quality within the great rivers. Added to these problems is delta subsidence from water withdrawal that, at the moment far surpasses sea level rise from both natural and anthropogenic effects. Finally, there appear to be great plans for river diversion that may reduce fresh water inflow into the Brahmaputra delta. All of these factors fall against a background of climate change, both anthropogenic and natural, of which there is great uncertainty. We an attempt a frank assessment assessment of the sustainability of society in the great basins and make some suggestions of factors that require attention in the short term.

  8. Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These views of Callisto's southern hemisphere were taken by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer just after closest approach in orbit G8 on May 6, 1997. These false color images show surface compositional differences, red = more ice, blue = less ice.

    The upper left view contains Buri, a crater with a diameter of about 60 km. In the infrared spectrum, Buri and the rays that extend from the crater have high abundance of water ice compared to the surrounding region. The center view, a large (200 km or 120 mile diameter) unnamed impact crater with a distinct ring or circle around it reveals a complex mix of ice and non-ice materials. This is possibly due to impact excavation of the ice-rich subsurface which suggests that the darker material is just a thin surface covering caused by impact debris or a lag deposit from which the ice has evaporated away. The infrared data shows spectral signatures for both sulfur and carbon as two potential materials which could play a part in the complicated make-up of Callisto's surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  9. Arsia Mons Southern Flank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The final VIS image of Arsia Mons is located on the southern flank of the volcano adjacent to the NE trending feature. There has been a significant amount of collapse features formed in this region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -11.1, Longitude 238.6 East (121.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  11. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  12. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  13. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA R-EMAP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassessment of Southern California Watersheds with a survey of aquatic ecological conditions using a probablistic design. This area is an intensive study area that is a subset of the larger western US REMAP project.

  14. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  15. Southern Hospitality with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian efforts of St. Luke's Parish to reach out to the community and help others. Its attempts to spread justice and peace have made it a healing presence in southern society. (YKH)

  16. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  17. Feeding habitat selection by great blue herons and great egrets nesting in east central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Galli, J.

    2002-01-01

    Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) partitioned feeding habitat based on wetland size at Peltier Lake rookery in cast central Minnesota. Great Blue Herons preferred large water-bodies ( greater than or equal to350 ha), whereas Great Egrets fed most often at small ponds (<25 ha). Forty-nine percent of Great Blue Herons used wetlands 301 - 400 hectares in size and 83% of Great Egrets fed in wetlands <100 ha in size. Great Blue Herons selected large wetlands more often than expected both at the regional (30-km radius) and local (4-km radius) scales. Habitat use by Great Egrets was in proportion to availability at the regional scale, but they selected smaller wetlands for feeding more often than expected at a local scale. The median flight distance of Great Blue Herons was 2.7 km, similar to distances reported elsewhere. Great Egrets flew farther to feeding sites than Great Blue Herons, and flew farther (median = 13.5 km) than reported in other geographic areas. Received 22 September 2001, accepted 5 November 2001.

  18. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  19. Jalal A. Aliyev (1928-2016): a great scientist, a great teacher and a great human being.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Govindjee

    2016-06-01

    Jalal A. Aliyev was a distinguished and respected plant biologist of our time, a great teacher, and great human being. He was a pioneer of photosynthesis research in Azerbaijan. Almost up to the end of his life, he was deeply engaged in research. His work on the productivity of wheat, and biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology of gram (chick pea) are some of his important legacies. He left us on February 1, 2016, but many around the world remember him as he was engaged in international dialog on solving global issues, and in supporting international conferences on ''Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability" in 2011 and 2013. PMID:27000095

  20. Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

  1. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Great Basin semi-arid woodland dynamics during the late quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Wigand, P.E.; Hemphill, M.L.; Sharpe, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Semi-arid woodlands have dominated the middle elevations of Great Basin mountain ranges during the Holocene where subalpine woodlands prevailed during the Pleistocene. Ancient woodrat middens, and in a few cases pollen records indicate in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene woodland history lowered elevation of subalpine woodland species. After a middle Holocene retrenchment at elevations in excess of 500 meters above today, Juniper-dominated semi-arid woodland reached its late Holocene maximum areal extent during the Neoglacial (2 to 4 ka). These records, along with others indicate contracting semi-arid woodland after the Neoglacial about 1.9 ka. Desert shrub community expansion coupled with increased precariousness of wetland areas in the southern Great Basin between 1.9 and 1.5 ka coincide with shrinking wet-lands in the west-central and northern Great Basin. Coincident greater grass abundance in northern Great Basin sagebrush steppe, reaching its maximum between 1.5 and 1.2 ka, corresponds to dramatic increases in bison remains in the archaeological sites of the northern Intermontane West. Pollen and woodrat midden records indicate that this drought ended about 1.5 ka. Succeeding ameliorating conditions resulted in the sudden northward and downward expansion of pinon into areas that had been dominated by juniper during the Neoglacial. Maximum areal extent of pinon dominated semi-arid woodland in west-central Nevada was centered at 1.2 ka. This followed by 100 years the shift in dominance from juniper to pinon in southern Nevada semi-arid woodlands. Great Basin woodlands suffered from renewed severe droughts between .5 to .6 ka. Effectively wetter conditions during the {open_quotes}Little Ice Age{close_quotes} resulted in re-expansion of semi-arid woodland. Activities related to European settlement in the Great Basin have modified prehistoric factors or imposed new ones that are affecting woodland response to climate.

  3. Large-Scale Weather Disturbances in Mars’ Southern Extratropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2015-11-01

    Between late autumn and early spring, Mars’ middle and high latitudes within its atmosphere support strong mean thermal gradients between the tropics and poles. Observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that this strong baroclinicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). These extratropical weather disturbances are key components of the global circulation. Such wave-like disturbances act as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of large-scale, traveling extratropical synoptic-period disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively lifted and radiatively active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to their northern-hemisphere counterparts, southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are examined. Simulations that adapt Mars’ full topography compared to simulations that utilize synthetic topographies emulating key large-scale features of the southern middle latitudes indicate that Mars’ transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are highly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). The occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring appears to be anchored to the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre

  4. Tectonic reconstructions of the southwestern Great Basin: Stratigraphic tests of structural models

    SciTech Connect

    Prave, A.R. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences); Snow, J.K. . Division of Geology and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Accurate paleogeographic reconstruction of the tectonically dismembered southwestern Great Basin is in large part dependent on the validity of the Wernicke et al. (1988) and Snow and Wernicke (1989) correlations of Mesozoic (pre-Tertiary) contractile deformational features. In order to independently assess these structurally based models and their predictions, carefully chosen stratigraphic data were used as tests. In the northern Death Valley region, sediment dispersal trends in two regionally developed facies of the Lower Cambrian Wood Canyon Formation and Zabriskie Quartzite suggest that otherwise uniformly northwest-directed paleocurrent indicators have undergone vertical axis rotations comparable in direction and magnitude to those predicted for anti-clockwise rotation of the Grapevine Mountains structural block. In the central Death Valley region, stratigraphic differences in upper plate rocks in the proposed Tucki Mountain-northern Nopah Range pierce point prevent the adjacent juxtaposition of those rocks but are permissive of such a correlation. Finally, in the southern Death Valley region, the Levy and Christie-Blick (1989) pre-Mesozoic reconstruction results in overlap of range blocks and juxtaposition of disparate facies in the Proterozoic Pahrump Group rocks. This implies that the Cenozoic deformational vector displacement paths, determined for elsewhere in the southern Great Basin, are not applicable to southern Death Valley and must be reassessed.

  5. [The Great Ape Project--human rights for the great anthropoid apes].

    PubMed

    Scharmann, W

    2000-01-01

    The Great Ape Project (GAP) is an appeal of 36 scientist from different disciplines aiming at the legal equalisation of the non-human great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans) with man. The appeal is expressed by a number of essays stating zoological, genetical, ethological, anthropological, ethical and psychological knowledge and, based on these arguments, demanding the abolition of the species barrier between human beings and great apes. The central point of the initiative is the "Declaration on Great Apes", claiming the inclusion of great apes in the "community of equals" and thus securing three basic rights for all great apes: 1. The Right of Life; 2. The Protection of Individual Liberty; 3. The Prohibition of Torture. Not only experiments with great apes and their capture from the wilderness will be banned, but it is also intended to enfranchise as many great apes as possible from research laboratories and zoos. As a legal basis for the achievement of basic rights most of the authors plead for the idea of conferring the moral status of "persons" on great apes. Criticism of the GAP is due to its anthropocentrism. Rejection is especially expressed by advocates of pathocentric ethics who argue that the species barrier will not be abolished but only shifted, running then between the great apes and the remaining living beings. However, the GAP resulted in a greater retention in the use of great apes for experiments in several industrial countries. Additionally, the popular literature published by ethologists in the passed decades has supported a more responsible attitude of the public towards primates. Despite of all efforts the survival of the great apes is greatly endangered within their native countries. PMID:11178555

  6. The Shillong Plateau and the great 1897 Assam earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Philip; Bilham, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Previous analysis of triangulation data of the Survey of India concluded that the great 1897 Assam earthquake occurred on a south dipping fault near the northern edge of the Shillong Plateau, which was named the Oldham fault. This attribution has been questioned on geological and geodetic grounds. We refine the triangulation data, adding recently discovered observations, and demonstrate that they require average slip of 25 ± 5 m on a fault that dips south at ˜40° beneath the plateau. The best fitting solution to the geodetic observations gives a rupture length of 79 km. However, the Chedrang fault, immediately to the west of the Oldham fault, appears to have slipped as a subvertical tear fault during or shortly after the 1897 earthquake, with over 10 m of down-to-the-west normal-sense slip. This observation suggests that the western end of the main rupture approached within a few kilometers of the Chedrang fault, giving a length of 95 km for the rupture. This range of parameters gives a magnitude 8.15southern edge of the Shillong Plateau nor by slip on a south dipping fault that has been postulated in the Brahmaputra Valley. GPS velocities show that up to 5 mm/yr of shortening is taken up across the plateau and its borders; this suggests, via moment-frequency relations, that the interval between great earthquakes in the region is several thousand years but that earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater should occur roughly once per century.

  7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  8. Lessons from a great developmental biologist.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, Edward M

    2014-07-01

    The announcement that Sir John Gurdon had been awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was received with great joy by developmental biologists. It was a very special occasion because of his total dedication to science and turning the Golden Rule of western civilization - love your neighbor as yourself - into a reality in our field. This essay attempts to explain how John became such a great scientific benefactor, and to review some of his discoveries that are less well known than the nuclear transplantation experiments. A few personal anecdotes are also included to illustrate the profound goodness of this unique man of science. PMID:25455202

  9. Studies on the Great Barrier Reef

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, S.

    1985-01-01

    Proposals to drill for oil on Australia's Great Barrier Reef have led to the appointment of a royal commission to study the environmental impact of such activities. The Australian Institute of Marine Science has developed a 5-part research plant which covers the Australian mangrove environment; nearshore habitat; processes and interactions, energy flows, resource cycling and their consequences within the reef ecosystems; patterns, abundances and relationships within the reef; and the continental shelf of the Great Barrier Reef region. Research in each of these areas is described.

  10. Lessons from a Great Developmental Biologist

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    The announcement that Sir John Gurdon had been awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was received with great joy by developmental biologists. It was a very special occasion because of his total dedication to science and turning the Golden Rule of western civilization – love your neighbor as yourself – into a reality in our field. This essay attempts to explain how John became such a great scientific benefactor, and to review some of his discoveries that are less well known than the nuclear transplantation experiments. A few personal anecdotes are also included to illustrate the profound goodness of this unique man of science. PMID:25455202

  11. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  12. Spectrophotometric Evolution of Eta Carinae's Great Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Prieto, Jose Luis; Bianco, Federica; Matheson, Thomas; Smith, Nathan; Smith, Chris; Chornock, Ryan; Sinnott, Brendan; Welch, Douglas; Walborn, Nolan

    2013-06-01

    Eta Carinae is one of the most massive binaries in the Milky Way, and its expanding circumstellar nebula has been studied in detail. It was seen as the second brightest star in the sky during its 1800s "Great Eruption", but only visual estimates of its brightness were recorded. We discovered light echoes of the Great Eruption, which allowed us to obtain a spectrum of this event now, 150 years after it was first observed. We will present our new follow-up observations with which we have started to retrace its spectrophotometric evolution during and before the eruption.

  13. The Southern Ocean CIRCLE initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The circumpolar Southern Ocean is the principal ocean connection between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and exerts a profound influence on world climate through ocean circulation and its major role in the global carbon cycle. It is a major repository of biodiversity and also the only ocean system where significant marine living resources are yet to be fully exploited. However, this key component of the Earth System is still poorly understood, in part due to the logistical problems of a harsh, remote location and the circumpolar nature of the environment. Circumpolar patterns of variability have now been recognized and the current challenge is to understand how, at a circumpolar scale, this variability is generated, its impact on the regional biogeochemical cycles, its interaction with ecosystem processes and the links to global scale processes. Many of these scientific issues can only be addressed by Southern Ocean scale studies, and although a range of national and international research programmes are already targeting particular aspects, the research effort is largely uncoordinated. The European Polar Board is sponsoring a pan-European initiative (Southern Ocean CIRCLE) to coordinate the currently disparate Southern Ocean research effort and this initiative aims to address climate variability, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics with particular reference to the links between these aspects in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. This poster outlines the development of the SO CIRCLE initiative, the major areas of science and proposals for implementation. It also outlines how SO CIRCLE will link to other programmes with a Southern Ocean component (e.g. CLIVAR, CliC, GLOBEC, SOLAS). A key aspect of the initiative will be to coordinate European scientific effort in the Southern Ocean with that of the wider international community.

  14. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  15. Southern Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at

  16. Monitoring amphibians in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Park’s amphibians, the factors affecting their distribution, a review of important areas of biodiversity, and a summary of amphibian life history in the Southern Appalachians. In addition, survey techniques are described as well as examples of how the techniques are set up, a critique of what the results tell the observer, and a discussion of the limitations of the techniques and the data. The report reviews considerations for site selection, outlines steps for biosecurity and for processing diseased or dying animals, and provides resource managers with a decision tree on how to monitor the Park’s amphibians based on different levels of available resources. It concludes with an extensive list of references for inventorying and monitoring amphibians. USGS and Great Smoky Mountains National Park biologists need to establish cooperative efforts and training to ensure that congressionally mandated amphibian surveys are performed in a statistically rigorous and biologically meaningful manner, and that amphibian populations on Federal lands are monitored to ensure their long-term survival. The research detailed in this report will aid these cooperative efforts.

  17. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  18. Mercury and cause of death in great white herons

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, M.G.; Sundlof, S.F. ); Djork, R.D.; Powell, G.V.N. )

    1994-10-01

    Mercury contamination is suspected to adversely affect wading birds in southern Florida. To determine the magnitude of contamination associated with cause of death we followed 3 adult and 19 juvenile radio-tagged great white herons (Ardea herodias occidentalis), recovered them soon after death, and determined liver mercury content and cause of death. Birds that died from acute causes had less (P < 0.001) mercury in their livers (geometric [bar x] [GM] = 1.77 ppm wet mass [wm], range 0.6-4.0 ppm, n = 9) than did those that died of chronic, often multiple, diseases (GM = 9.76 ppm, range 2.9-59.4 ppm, n = 13). Juvenile herons that migrated to mainland Florida accumulated more (P = 0.009) mercury in their livers than those that did not migrate. Kidney disease and gout were present in birds that died with >25 ppm wm liver mercury. Although detrimental to the health of wading birds, mercury contamination is presumably more detrimental to their reproductive efforts; therefore, an understanding of its ill effects is important in the management of these birds. 29 refs., 1 fig.

  19. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  20. Great Lakes Environmental Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The International Joint Commission report builds on a previous report to the Governments of the United States and Canada that recommended the Great Lakes (GL) States and Provinces incorporate the GL ecosystem as a priority topic in existing school curricula. This report begins by building an argument showing the need for environmental education…

  1. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  2. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  3. A Hierarchical Grouping of Great Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Donald G.

    1977-01-01

    Great educators of history were categorized on the basis of their: aims of education, fundamental ideas, and educational theories. They were classed by Ward's method of hierarchical analysis into six groupings: Socrates, Ausonius, Jerome, Abelard; Quintilian, Origen, Melanchthon, Ascham, Loyola; Alciun, Comenius; Vittorino, Basedow, Pestalozzi,…

  4. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  5. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  6. The Five Great Ideas of Our Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Identifies five great ideas of the U.S. Constitution as power, liberty, justice, equality, and property. The first of two installments, article focuses on how ideas of power and liberty are presented in the Constitution. It also discusses how people may exercise power through voting and public protest and liberty through their First Amendment…

  7. Why Community College Students Need Great Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    As community colleges increasingly embrace their vocational role at the expense of their general education mission, the author of this chapter argues that a curriculum centered on a "Great Books" canon as developed by Mortimer Adler in the 1920s would revitalize liberal education at community colleges and serve both the general education…

  8. INDICATORS OF GREAT BASIN RANGELAND HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-warning indicators of rangeland health can be used to estimate the functional integrity of a site and may allow sustainable management of desert rangelands. The utility of several vegetation canopy-based indicators of rangeland health at 32 Great Basin rangeland locations was investigated. T...

  9. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  10. Growing Great Minds: Seizing the Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers must seize the opportunity to grow great minds. Contextualizing the argument in the writing of renowned poets, noted educators, and distinguished moral heroes whose life's work was dedicated to the principles of democracy, this article reminds practicing teachers in this challenging moment that "You are braver than you believe,…

  11. Beyond "It Was Great"? Not so Fast!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, E. David

    2015-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad's Ninth Annual Conference in 2013 was organized around the provocative theme, "Moving Beyond It Was Great." In the opening plenary speech, Lilli Engle warned the audience of study abroad researchers, leaders, administrators, and providers that study abroad programs were not as effective as they may want to…

  12. Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

    The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

  13. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow. PMID:27543863

  14. Temperature Over Time at the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rick; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which water temperature is investigated in relation to water depth, weather patterns, land use, time of year, and other factors students choose to investigate with data collected from the Internet. Uses the Great Lakes as the setting for this investigation and examines how and why the temperature of a body of water changes…

  15. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  16. The Great Acting Teachers and Their Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brestoff, Richard

    This book explores the acting theories and teaching methods of great teachers of acting--among them, the Europeans Stanislavski, Meyerhold, Brecht, and Grotowski; the Japanese Suzuki (who trained in Europe); and the contemporary Americans, Stella Adler, Lee Strasberg, and Sanford Meisner. Each chapter of the book includes a sample class, which…

  17. UV - GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 132 is located in Great Smoky Mountain NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instrume...

  18. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the submission with the…

  19. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  20. GreatSchools.org Finds Its Niche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    GreatSchools.org neatly ranks more than 136,000 traditional public, private, and charter schools nationwide on a scale of 1 to 10, based on state test scores. But what often draws readers are the gossipy insider comments posted by parents, students, and teachers, and the star ratings those commenters contribute. The growth of online school rating…