Science.gov

Sample records for across-species across-assay investigation

  1. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  2. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  3. Translating dyslexia across species.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Lisa A; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-10-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the DCDC2 candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and whether children with reading impairment showed a similar impairment to animal models of the disorder (study 2). Study 1 included 37 participants who completed six trials of four different virtual Hebb-Williams maze configurations. A 2 × 4 × 6 mixed factorial repeated measures ANOVA indicated consistency in performance between humans and mice on these tasks, enabling us to translate across species. Study 2 included a total of 91 participants (age range = 8-13 years). Eighteen participants were identified with reading disorder by performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Participants completed six trials of five separate virtual Hebb-Williams maze configurations. A 2 × 5 × 6 mixed factorial ANCOVA (gender as covariate) indicated that individuals with reading impairment demonstrated impaired visuo-spatial performance on this task. Overall, results from this study suggest that we are able to translate behavioral deficits observed in genetic animal models of dyslexia to humans with reading impairment. Future studies will utilize the virtual environment to further explore the underlying basis for this impairment.

  4. Temperature sensing across species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect changes in temperature is a fundamental sensory mechanism for every species and provides organisms with a detailed view of the environment. This review focuses on what is known of the neuronal and molecular substrates for thermosensation across species, focusing on the three robust model systems extensively used to study sensory signaling, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the laboratory mouse. Nematodes migrate to thermal climes that are amenable to their survival, a behavior that is regulated primarily through a single sensory neuron. Additionally, nematodes “learn” to seek out this temperate zone based upon their prior experience, a robust model of learning and memory. Drosophila larvae also prefer select thermal zones that are optimal for growth and have also developed vigorous mechanisms to avoid unfavorable conditions. In mammals, the transduction mechanisms for thermosensation have been identified primarily due to the fact that naturally occurring plant products evoke distinct psychophysical sensation of temperature change. More remarkably, the elucidation of the molecular sensors in mammals, along with those in Drosophila, has demonstrated conservation in the molecular mediators of temperature sensation across diverse species. PMID:17219191

  5. Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity is a typical feature of development and can lead to divergent phenotypes. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are present across species, are modifiable by the environment, and are involved in developmental plasticity. Thus, in the context of the concept of developmental homology, epigenetic mechanisms may serve to create a process homology between species by providing a common molecular pathway through which environmental experiences shape development, ultimately leading to phenotypic diversity. This article will highlight evidence derived from across-species investigations of epigenetics, development, and plasticity which may contribute to our understanding of the homology that exists between species and between ancestors and descendants. PMID:22711291

  6. Attentional Set-Shifting Across Species.

    PubMed

    Brown, Verity J; Tait, David S

    Attentional set-shifting, as a measure of executive flexibility, has been a staple of investigations into human cognition for over six decades. Mediated by the frontal cortex in mammals, the cognitive processes involved in forming, maintaining and shifting an attentional set are vulnerable to dysfunction arising from a number of human neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases) and other neurological disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Our understanding of these diseases and disorders, and the cognitive impairments induced by them, continues to advance, in tandem with an increasing number of tools at our disposal. In this chapter, we review and compare commonly used attentional set-shifting tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and Intradimensional/Extradimensional tasks) and their applicability across species. In addition to humans, attentional set-shifting has been observed in a number of other animals, with a substantial body of literature describing performance in monkeys and rodents. We consider the task designs used to investigate attentional set-shifting in these species and the methods used to model human diseases and disorders, and ultimately the comparisons and differences between species-specific tasks, and between performance across species.

  7. Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitatively assess protein sequence/structural similarity across taxonomic groups as a means to predict relative intrinsic susceptibility. The intent of the tool is to allow for evaluation of any potential protein target, so it is amenable to variable degrees of protein characterization, depending on available information about the chemical/protein interaction and the molecular target itself. To allow for flexibility in the analysis, a layered strategy was adopted for the tool. The first level of the SeqAPASS analysis compares primary amino acid sequences to a query sequence, calculating a metric for sequence similarity (including detection of candidate orthologs), the second level evaluates sequence similarity within selected domains (e.g., ligand-binding domain, DNA binding domain), and the third level of analysis compares individual amino acid residue positions identified as being of importance for protein conformation and/or ligand binding upon chemical perturbation. Each level of the SeqAPASS analysis provides increasing evidence to apply toward rapid, screening-level assessments of probable cross species susceptibility. Such analyses can support prioritization of chemicals for further ev

  8. Neo-sex chromosome inheritance across species in Silene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, L A; Delph, L F

    2014-07-01

    Neo-sex chromosomes, which form through the major restructuring of ancestral sex chromosome systems, have evolved in various taxa. Such restructuring often consists of the fusion of an autosome to an existing sex chromosome, resulting in novel sex chromosome formations (e.g. X1X2Y or XY1Y2.). Comparative studies are often made between restructured sex chromosome systems of closely related species, and here we evaluate the consequences of variable sex chromosome systems to hybrids. If neo-sex chromosomes are improperly inherited across species, this could lead to aberrant development and reproductive isolation. In this study, we examine the fate of neo-sex chromosomes in hybrids of the flowering plants Silene diclinis and Silene latifolia. Silene diclinis has a neo-sex chromosome system (XY1Y2) that is thought to have evolved from an ancestral XY system that is still present in S. latifolia. These species do not hybridize naturally, and improper sex chromosome inheritance could contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated whether this major restructuring of sex chromosomes prevents their proper inheritance in a variety of hybrid crosses, including some F2 - and later-generation hybrids, with sex chromosome-linked, species-specific, polymorphic markers and chromosome squashes. We discovered that despite the differences in sex chromosomes that exist between these two species, proper segregation had occurred in hybrids that made it to flowering, including later-generation hybrids, indicating that neo-sex chromosome formation alone does not result in complete reproductive isolation between these two species. Additionally, hybrids with aberrant sex expression (e.g. neuter, hermaphrodite) also inherited the restructured sex chromosomes properly, highlighting that issues with sexual development in hybrids can be caused by intrinsic genetic incompatibility rather than improper sex chromosome inheritance.

  9. Aligning bona fide dendritic cell populations across species.

    PubMed

    Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Wang, Lin-Fa; Ginhoux, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen sensing and presenting cells that link innate and adaptive immunity. Consisting of functionally specialized subsets, they form a complex cellular network capable of integrating multiple environmental signals leading to immunity or tolerance. Much of DC research so far has been carried out in mice and increasing efforts are now being devoted to translating the findings into humans and other species. Recent studies have aligned these cellular networks across species at multiple levels from phenotype, gene expression program, ontogeny and functional specializations. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the definition of bona fide DC subsets across species. The understanding of functional similarities and differences of specific DC subsets in different animals not only brings light in the field of DC biology, but also paves the way for the design of future effective therapeutic strategies targeting these cells.

  10. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  12. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-18

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  13. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  14. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-06-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  15. SeqAPASS: Sequence alignment to predict across-species ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Efforts to shift the toxicity testing paradigm from whole organism studies to those focused on the initiation of toxicity and relevant pathways have led to increased utilization of in vitro and in silico methods. Hence the emergence of high through-put screening (HTS) programs, such as U.S. EPA ToxCast, and application of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for identifying and defining biological key events triggered upon perturbation of molecular initiating events and leading to adverse outcomes occuring at a level of organization relevant for risk assessment [1]. With these recent initiatives to harness the power of “the pathway” in describing and evaluating toxicity comes the need to extrapolate data beyond the model species. Sequence alignment to predict across-species susceptibilty (SeqAPASS) is a web-based tool that allows the user to begin to understand how broadly HTS data or AOP constructs may plausibly be extrapolated across species, while describing the relative intrinsic susceptibiltiy of different taxa to chemicals with known modes of action (e.g., pharmaceuticals and pesticides). The tool rapidly and strategically assesses available molecular target information to describe protein sequence similarity at the primary amino acid sequence, conserved domain, and individual amino acid residue levels. This in silico approach to species extrapolation was designed to automate and streamline the relatively complex and time-consuming process of co

  16. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 γ-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the “selective signature” of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell. PMID:18266472

  17. Scaling behavior of sleep-wake transitions across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Chou, Thomas; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Penzel, Thomas; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas; Saper, Clifford B.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Uncovering the mechanisms controlling sleep is a fascinating scientific challenge. It can be viewed as transitions of states of a very complex system, the brain. We study the time dynamics of short awakenings during sleep for three species: humans, rats and mice. We find, for all three species, that wake durations follow a power-law distribution, and sleep durations follow exponential distributions. Surprisingly, all three species have the same power-law exponent for the distribution of wake durations, but the exponential time scale of the distributions of sleep durations varies across species. We suggest that the dynamics of short awakenings are related to species-independent fluctuations of the system, while the dynamics of sleep is related to system-dependent mechanisms which change with species.

  18. Computational Integration of Structural and Functional Genomics Data Across Species to Develop Information on Porcine Inflammatory Gene Regulatory Pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative integration of structural and functional genomic data across species holds great promise in finding genes controlling disease resistance. We are investigating the porcine gut immune response to infection through gene expression profiling. We have collected porcine Affymetrix GeneChip da...

  19. Conserved and variable: Understanding mammary stem cells across species.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Gat; Ledet, Melissa M; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2017-08-22

    Postnatal mammary gland development requires the presence of mammary stem and progenitor cells (MaSC), which give rise to functional milk-secreting cells and regenerate the mammary epithelium with each cycle of lactation. These long-lived, tissue-resident MaSC are also targets for malignant transformation and may be cancer cells-of-origin. Consequently, MaSC are extensively researched in relation to their role and function in development, tissue regeneration, lactation, and breast cancer. The basic structure and function of the mammary gland are conserved among all mammalian species, from the most primitive to the most evolved. However, species vary greatly in their lactation strategies and mammary cancer incidence, making MaSC an interesting focus for comparative research. MaSC have been characterized in mice, to a lesser degree in humans, and to an even lesser degree in few additional mammals. They remain uncharacterized in most mammalian species, including "ancient" monotremes, marsupials, wild, and rare species, as well as in common and domestic species such as cats. Identification and comparison of MaSC across a large variety of species, particularly those with extreme lactational adaptations or low mammary cancer incidence, is expected to deepen our understanding of development and malignancy in the mammary gland. Here, we review the current status of MaSC characterization across species, and underline species variations in lactation and mammary cancer through which we may learn about the role of MaSC in these processes. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Tree ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological signals motivates us to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> such properties in tree ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 tree ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 species studied in the work. The long-range scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of tree ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of tree ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the long-range correlations within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621335"><span>Ecology has contrasting effects on genetic variation within species versus rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in water beetles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujisawa, Tomochika; Vogler, Alfried P; Barraclough, Timothy G</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>Comparative analysis is a potentially powerful approach to study the effects of ecological traits on genetic variation and rate of evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, the lack of suitable datasets means that comparative studies of correlates of genetic traits across an entire clade have been rare. Here, we use a large DNA-barcode dataset (5062 sequences) of water beetles to test the effects of species ecology and geographical distribution on genetic variation within species and rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We <span class="hlt">investigated</span> species traits predicted to influence their genetic characteristics, such as surrogate measures of species population size, latitudinal distribution and habitat types, taking phylogeny into account. Genetic variation of cytochrome oxidase I in water beetles was positively correlated with occupancy (numbers of sites of species presence) and negatively with latitude, whereas substitution rates <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> depended mainly on habitat types, and running water specialists had the highest rate. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions from nearly-neutral theories of evolution, and suggest that the comparative analysis using large databases can give insights into correlates of genetic variation and molecular evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286044','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286044"><span>Ecology has contrasting effects on genetic variation within species versus rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in water beetles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fujisawa, Tomochika; Vogler, Alfried P.; Barraclough, Timothy G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Comparative analysis is a potentially powerful approach to study the effects of ecological traits on genetic variation and rate of evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, the lack of suitable datasets means that comparative studies of correlates of genetic traits across an entire clade have been rare. Here, we use a large DNA-barcode dataset (5062 sequences) of water beetles to test the effects of species ecology and geographical distribution on genetic variation within species and rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We <span class="hlt">investigated</span> species traits predicted to influence their genetic characteristics, such as surrogate measures of species population size, latitudinal distribution and habitat types, taking phylogeny into account. Genetic variation of cytochrome oxidase I in water beetles was positively correlated with occupancy (numbers of sites of species presence) and negatively with latitude, whereas substitution rates <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> depended mainly on habitat types, and running water specialists had the highest rate. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions from nearly-neutral theories of evolution, and suggest that the comparative analysis using large databases can give insights into correlates of genetic variation and molecular evolution. PMID:25621335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=305292&keyword=routine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=305292&keyword=routine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SeqAPASS (Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility) software and documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SeqAPASS is a software application facilitates rapid and streamlined, yet transparent, comparisons of the similarity of toxicologically-significant molecular targets <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The present application facilitates analysis of primary amino acid sequence similarity (including ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=305292&keyword=box&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90555174&CFTOKEN=88025912','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=305292&keyword=box&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90555174&CFTOKEN=88025912"><span>SeqAPASS (Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility) software and documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SeqAPASS is a software application facilitates rapid and streamlined, yet transparent, comparisons of the similarity of toxicologically-significant molecular targets <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The present application facilitates analysis of primary amino acid sequence similarity (including ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726214"><span>The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eckers, Anna; Jakob, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goy, Christine; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Sansone, Roberto; Esser, Charlotte; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Altschmied, Joachim; Ventura, Natascia; Haendeler, Judith</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ubiquitously expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces drug metabolizing enzymes as well as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Certain AhR ligands promote atherosclerosis, an age-associated vascular disease. Therefore, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the role of AhR in vascular functionality and aging. We report a lower pulse wave velocity in young and old AhR-deficient mice, indicative of enhanced vessel elasticity. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) showed increased activity in the aortas of these animals, which was reflected in increased NO production. Ex vivo, AhR activation reduced the migratory capacity of primary human endothelial cells. AhR overexpression as well as treatment with a receptor ligand, impaired eNOS activation and reduced S-NO content. All three are signs of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, AhR expression in blood cells of healthy human volunteers positively correlated with vessel stiffness. In the aging model Caenorhabditis elegans, AhR-deficiency resulted in increased mean life span, motility, pharynx pumping and heat shock resistance, suggesting healthier aging. Thus, AhR seems to have a negative impact on vascular and organismal aging. Finally, our data from human subjects suggest that AhR expression levels could serve as an additional, new predictor of vessel aging. PMID:26790370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587648','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587648"><span>Probabilistic Identification of Cerebellar Cortical Neurones <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van Dijck, Gert; Van Hulle, Marc M.; Heiney, Shane A.; Blazquez, Pablo M.; Meng, Hui; Angelaki, Dora E.; Arenz, Alexander; Margrie, Troy W.; Mostofi, Abteen; Edgley, Steve; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik; Jörntell, Henrik; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Holtzman, Tahl</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> may have broad application to a variety of future cerebellar cortical <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, particularly in awake animals where opportunities for definitive cell identification are limited. PMID:23469215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028317','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028317"><span>NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.; Katz, Paul S.; Kristan, William B.; Macagno, Eduardo R.; Mitra, Partha P.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Preuss, Todd M.; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Stevens, Charles F.; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system ‘maps’ comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of <span class="hlt">investigators</span> coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of ‘reference species’ to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603302"><span>NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of <span class="hlt">investigators</span> coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of 'reference species' to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be supported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24596113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24596113"><span>NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of <span class="hlt">investigators</span> coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of 'reference species' to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be supported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764020','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764020"><span>Was it a pain or a sound? <span class="hlt">Across-species</span> variability in sensory sensitivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hu, Li; Xia, Xiaolei L.; Peng, Weiwei W.; Su, Wenxin X.; Luo, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao T.; Liang, Meng; Iannetti, Giandomenico</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Natural selection has shaped the physiological properties of sensory systems <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, yielding large variations in their sensitivity. Here, we used laser stimulation of skin nociceptors, a widely used technique to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> pain in rats and humans, to provide a vivid example of how ignoring these variations can lead to serious misconceptions in sensory neuroscience. In 6 experiments, we characterized and compared the physiological properties of the electrocortical responses elicited by laser stimulation in rats and humans. We recorded the electroencephalogram from the surface of the brain in freely moving rats and from the scalp in healthy humans. Laser stimuli elicited 2 temporally distinct responses, traditionally interpreted as reflecting the concomitant activation of different populations of nociceptors with different conduction velocities: small-myelinated Aδ-fibres and unmyelinated C-fibres. Our results show that this interpretation is valid in humans, but not in rats. Indeed, the early response recorded in rats does not reflect the activation of the somatosensory system, but of the auditory system by laser-generated ultrasounds. These results have wide implications: retrospectively, as they prompt for a reconsideration of a large number of previous interpretations of electrocortical rat recordings in basic, preclinical, and pharmacological research, and prospectively, as they will allow recording truly pain-related cortical responses in rats. PMID:26270592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2596859','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2596859"><span>The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jetz, Walter; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Traits such as clutch size vary markedly <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and environmental gradients but have usually been <span class="hlt">investigated</span> from either a comparative or a geographic perspective, respectively. We analyzed the global variation in clutch size across 5,290 bird species, excluding brood parasites and pelagic species. We integrated intrinsic (morphological, behavioural), extrinsic (environmental), and phylogenetic effects in a combined model that predicts up to 68% of the interspecific variation in clutch size. We then applied the same species-level model to predict mean clutch size across 2,521 assemblages worldwide and found that it explains the observed eco-geographic pattern very well. Clutches are consistently largest in cavity nesters and in species occupying seasonal environments, highlighting the importance of offspring and adult mortality that is jointly expressed in intrinsic and extrinsic correlates. The findings offer a conceptual bridge between macroecology and comparative biology and provide a global and integrative understanding of the eco-geographic and cross-species variation in a core life-history trait. PMID:19071959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270592"><span>Was it a pain or a sound? <span class="hlt">Across-species</span> variability in sensory sensitivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Li; Xia, Xiaolei L; Peng, Weiwei W; Su, Wenxin X; Luo, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao T; Liang, Meng; Iannetti, Giandomenico</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Natural selection has shaped the physiological properties of sensory systems <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, yielding large variations in their sensitivity. Here, we used laser stimulation of skin nociceptors, a widely used technique to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> pain in rats and humans, to provide a vivid example of how ignoring these variations can lead to serious misconceptions in sensory neuroscience. In 6 experiments, we characterized and compared the physiological properties of the electrocortical responses elicited by laser stimulation in rats and humans. We recorded the electroencephalogram from the surface of the brain in freely moving rats and from the scalp in healthy humans. Laser stimuli elicited 2 temporally distinct responses, traditionally interpreted as reflecting the concomitant activation of different populations of nociceptors with different conduction velocities: small-myelinated Aδ-fibres and unmyelinated C-fibres. Our results show that this interpretation is valid in humans, but not in rats. Indeed, the early response recorded in rats does not reflect the activation of the somatosensory system, but of the auditory system by laser-generated ultrasounds. These results have wide implications: retrospectively, as they prompt for a reconsideration of a large number of previous interpretations of electrocortical rat recordings in basic, preclinical, and pharmacological research, and prospectively, as they will allow recording truly pain-related cortical responses in rats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3409165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3409165"><span>Taking a Comparative Approach: Analysing Personality as a Multivariate Behavioural Response <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Animal personality, repeatable behaviour through time and across contexts, is ecologically and evolutionarily important as it can account for the exhibition of sub-optimal behaviours. Interspecific comparisons have been suggested as important for understanding the evolution of animal personality; however, these are seldom accomplished due, in part, to the lack of statistical tools for quantifying differences and similarities in behaviour between groups of individuals. We used nine species of closely-related coral reef fishes to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the usefulness of ecological community analyses for the analysis of between-species behavioural differences and behavioural heterogeneity. We first documented behavioural carryover <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> by observing the fishes' behaviour and measuring their response to a threatening stimulus to quantify boldness. Bold fish spent more time away from the reef and fed more than shy fish. We then used ecological community analysis tools (canonical variate analysis, multi-response permutation procedure, and permutational analysis of multivariate dispersion) and identified four ‘clusters’ of behaviourally similar fishes, and found that the species differ in the behavioural variation expressed; some species are more behaviourally heterogeneous than others. We found that ecological community analysis tools are easily and fruitfully applied to comparative studies of personality and encourage their use by future studies. PMID:22860126</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25939552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25939552"><span><span class="hlt">Across-Species</span> Scaling of Monoclonal Antibody Pharmacokinetics Using a Minimal PBPK Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jie; Cao, Yanguang; Jusko, William J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>To examine the <span class="hlt">across-species</span> scalability of monoclonal antibody (mAb) pharmacokinetics (PK) and assess similarities in tissue distribution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using a recently developed minimal PBPK (mPBPK) model. Twelve sets of antibody PK data from various species were obtained from the literature, which were jointly and individually analyzed. In joint analysis, vascular reflection coefficients for tissues with either tight (σ 1 ) or leaky endothelium (σ 2 ) were assumed consistent <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with systemic clearance allometrically scaled (CL = a∙BW (b) ). Four parameters (σ 1 , σ 2 , a, and b) were estimated in the joint analysis. In addition, the PK from each species was individually analyzed to assess species similarities in tissue distribution. Twelve mAb PK profiles were well-captured by the mPBPK model in the joint analysis. The estimated σ 1 ranged 0.690 to 0.999 with an average of 0.908; and σ 2 ranged 0.258 to 0.841 with an average of 0.579. Clearance was reasonably scaled and b ranged 0.695 to 1.27 averaging 0.91. Predictions of plasma concentrations for erlizumab and canakinumab in humans using parameters obtained from fitting animal data were consistent with actual measurements. Therapeutic mAbs given IV usually exhibit biexponential kinetics with their distribution properties best captured using physiological concepts. The mPBPK modeling approach may facilitate efforts in translating antibody distribution and overall PK <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23937709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23937709"><span>The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Carissa A; Bello, Susan M; Smith, Cynthia L; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R; Shimoyama, Mary; Eppig, Janan T; Reecy, James M</p> <p>2013-08-09</p> <p>The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing <span class="hlt">investigators</span> with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> connections among these data types. The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL Database for annotation of QTL data for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3851175','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3851175"><span>The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing <span class="hlt">investigators</span> with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428368"><span>ModuleBlast: identifying activated sub-networks within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zinman, Guy E; Naiman, Shoshana; O'Dee, Dawn M; Kumar, Nishant; Nau, Gerard J; Cohen, Haim Y; Bar-Joseph, Ziv</p> <p>2015-02-18</p> <p>Identifying conserved and divergent response patterns in gene networks is becoming increasingly important. A common approach is integrating expression information with gene association networks in order to find groups of connected genes that are activated or repressed. In many cases, researchers are also interested in comparisons <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (or conditions). Finding an active sub-network is a hard problem and applying it <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> requires further considerations (e.g. orthology information, expression data and networks from different sources). To address these challenges we devised ModuleBlast, which uses both expression and network topology to search for highly relevant sub-networks. We have applied ModuleBlast to expression and interaction data from mouse, macaque and human to study immune response and aging. The immune response analysis identified several relevant modules, consistent with recent findings on apoptosis and NFκB activation following infection. Temporal analysis of these data revealed cascades of modules that are dynamically activated within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We have experimentally validated some of the novel hypotheses resulting from the analysis of the ModuleBlast results leading to new insights into the mechanisms used by a key mammalian aging protein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3875825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3875825"><span>Conserved Changes in the Dynamics of Metabolic Processes during Fruit Development and Ripening <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>1[C][W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klie, Sebastian; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Drincovich, María F.; Fait, Aaron; Giovannoni, James J.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Computational analyses of molecular phenotypes traditionally aim at identifying biochemical components that exhibit differential expression under various scenarios (e.g. environmental and internal perturbations) in a single species. High-throughput metabolomics technologies allow the quantification of (relative) metabolite levels across developmental stages in different tissues, organs, and species. Novel methods for analyzing the resulting multiple data tables could reveal preserved dynamics of metabolic processes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The problem we address in this study is 2-fold. (1) We derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the <span class="hlt">investigated</span> set of multiple tables containing data on different fruit development and ripening stages in three climacteric (i.e. peach [Prunus persica] and two tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] cultivars, Ailsa Craig and M82) and two nonclimacteric (i.e. strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa] and pepper [Capsicum chilense]) fruits; in addition, we demonstrate the power of the method to discern similarities and differences between multiple tables by analyzing publicly available metabolomics data from three tomato ripening mutants together with two tomato cultivars. (2) We identify the conserved dynamics of metabolic processes, reflected in the data profiles of the corresponding metabolites that contribute most to the determined compromise. Our analysis is based on an extension to principal component analysis, called STATIS, in combination with pathway overenrichment analysis. Based on publicly available metabolic profiles for the <span class="hlt">investigated</span> species, we demonstrate that STATIS can be used to identify the metabolic processes whose behavior is similarly affected during fruit development and ripening. These findings ultimately provide insights into the pathways that are essential during fruit development and ripening <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24243932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27866286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27866286"><span>Social learning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuetz, Aurelia; Farmer, Kate; Krueger, Konstanze</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, in this case from humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22413791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22413791"><span>Considerations for extrapolating in vivo bioequivalence data <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and routes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Modric, S; Bermingham, E; Heit, M; Lainesse, C; Thompson, C</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to discuss the numerous species-specific and route-specific factors that can influence the peak and extent of exposure of an active pharmaceutical ingredient as they relate to the demonstration of bioequivalence between veterinary drug products (test and reference formulations). Evaluation of potential circumstances when species-to-species or route-to-route extrapolations of bioequivalence data could be considered is provided, together with suggestions for alternative statistical analysis. It is concluded that further research is much needed in this area to establish an appropriate scientific basis for <span class="hlt">across-species</span> and across-route comparisons. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9298648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9298648"><span>Proteome analysis of Spiroplasma melliferum (A56) and protein characterisation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> boundaries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cordwell, S J; Basseal, D J; Humphery-Smith, I</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Spiroplasma melliferum (Class: Mollicutes) is a wall-less, helical bacterium with a genome of approximately 1460 kbp encoding 800-1000 gene-products. A two-dimensional electrophoresis gel reference map of S. melliferum was produced by Phoretix 2-D gel software analysis of eight high quality gels. The reference map showed 456 silver-stained and replicated protein spots. 156 proteins (34% of visible protein spots) from S. melliferum were further characterised by one, or a combination, of the following: amino acid analysis, peptide-mass fingerprinting via matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, and N-terminal protein microsequencing. Proteins with close relationship to those previously determined from other species were identified <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> barriers. Thus, this study represents the first larger-scale analysis of a proteome based upon the attribution of predominantly 'unique numerical parameters' for protein characterisation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> boundaries, as opposed to a sequence-based approach. This approach allowed all database entries to be screened for homology, as is currently the case for studies based on nucleic acid or protein sequence information. Several proteins studied from this organism were identified as hypothetical, or having no close homolog already present in the databases. Gene-products from major families such as glycolysis, translation, transcription, cellular processes, energy metabolism and protein synthesis were identified. Several gene-products characterised in S. melliferum were not previously found in studies of the entire Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (both closely related Mollicutes) genomes. The presence of such gene-products in S. melliferum is discussed in terms of genome size as compared with the smallest known free-living organisms. Finally, the levels of expression of S. melliferum gene-products were determined with respect to total optical intensity associated with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704548"><span>Control of food intake by metabolism of fuels: a comparison <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Michael S; Bradford, Barry J</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Research with laboratory species suggests that meals can be terminated by peripheral signals carried to brain feeding centres via hepatic vagal afferents, and that these signals are affected by oxidation of fuels. Pre-gastric fermentation in ruminants greatly alters fuels, allowing mechanisms conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to be studied with different types and temporal absorption of fuels. These fuels include SCFA, glucose, lactate, amino acids and long-chain fatty acid (FA) isomers, all of which are absorbed and metabolised by different tissues at different rates. Propionate is produced by rumen microbes, absorbed within the timeframe of meals, and quickly cleared by the liver. Its hypophagic effects are variable, likely due to its fate; propionate is utilised for gluconeogenesis or oxidised and also stimulates oxidation of acetyl-CoA by anapleurosis. In contrast, acetate has little effect on food intake, likely because its uptake by the ruminant liver is negligible. Glucose is hypophagic in non-ruminants but not ruminants and unlike non-ruminant species, uptake of glucose by ruminant liver is negligible, consistent with the differences in hypophagic effects between them. Inhibition of FA oxidation increases food intake, whereas promotion of FA oxidation suppresses food intake. Hypophagic effects of fuel oxidation also vary with changes in metabolic state. The objective of this paper is to compare the type and utilisation of fuels and their effects on feeding <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We believe that the hepatic oxidation theory allows insight into mechanisms controlling feeding behaviour that can be used to formulate diets to optimise energy balance in multiple species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660056"><span>A cost minimisation and Bayesian inference model predicts startle reflex modulation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bach, Dominik R</p> <p>2015-04-07</p> <p>In many species, rapid defensive reflexes are paramount to escaping acute danger. These reflexes are modulated by the state of the environment. This is exemplified in fear-potentiated startle, a more vigorous startle response during conditioned anticipation of an unrelated threatening event. Extant explanations of this phenomenon build on descriptive models of underlying psychological states, or neural processes. Yet, they fail to predict invigorated startle during reward anticipation and instructed attention, and do not explain why startle reflex modulation evolved. Here, we fill this lacuna by developing a normative cost minimisation model based on Bayesian optimality principles. This model predicts the observed pattern of startle modification by rewards, punishments, instructed attention, and several other states. Moreover, the mathematical formalism furnishes predictions that can be tested experimentally. Comparing the model with existing data suggests a specific neural implementation of the underlying computations which yields close approximations to the optimal solution under most circumstances. This analysis puts startle modification into the framework of Bayesian decision theory and predictive coding, and illustrates the importance of an adaptive perspective to interpret defensive behaviour <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737272','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737272"><span>Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27899636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27899636"><span>The Monarch Initiative: an integrative data and analytic platform connecting phenotypes to genotypes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mungall, Christopher J; McMurry, Julie A; Köhler, Sebastian; Balhoff, James P; Borromeo, Charles; Brush, Matthew; Carbon, Seth; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; Gourdine, J P; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Keith, Dan; Laraway, Bryan; Lewis, Suzanna E; NguyenXuan, Jeremy; Shefchek, Kent; Vasilevsky, Nicole; Yuan, Zhou; Washington, Nicole; Hochheiser, Harry; Groza, Tudor; Smedley, Damian; Robinson, Peter N; Haendel, Melissa A</p> <p>2017-01-04</p> <p>The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms. Advanced informatics tools can identify phenotypically relevant disease models in research and diagnostic contexts. Large-scale integration of model organism and clinical research data can provide a breadth of knowledge not available from individual sources and can provide contextualization of data back to these sources. The Monarch Initiative (monarchinitiative.org) is a collaborative, open science effort that aims to semantically integrate genotype-phenotype data from many species and sources in order to support precision medicine, disease modeling, and mechanistic exploration. Our integrated knowledge graph, analytic tools, and web services enable diverse users to explore relationships between phenotypes and genotypes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23362954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23362954"><span>Comparing radiation toxicities <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: an examination of radiation effects in Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, William; Haley, Benjamin; Kwasny, Mary J; Li, Jian Jian; Grdina, David J; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Life shortening and pathological complications in similarly irradiated cohorts of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus and the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus were recorded in the course of the Janus studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory from 1970-1992. This study examines how lifespan, tumor and non-tumor disease incidence, and tumor multiplicity are differentially affected by gamma-rays and neutron radiation exposure in two different animal species. Survival analyses examined differences in lifespan <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, while decision tree analyses examined statistically significant associations between lifespan, radiation exposure, and specific diseases. Logistic regression models were generated to examine the likelihood of disease incidence in these two species following gamma-ray or neutron radiation exposure. Life shortening in response to radiation was more significant in Peromyscus leucopus than in Mus musculus, irrespective of radiation quality. Many types of tumor and non-tumor diseases were found to be consistently species specific. Tumor multiplicity was observed in both species in response to radiation, although more pronounced in Mus musculus. The response to radiation was highly species specific, highlighting the difficulty in extrapolating conclusions from one species to another, irrespective of their phenotypic similarities and ecologic niches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5210586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5210586"><span>The Monarch Initiative: an integrative data and analytic platform connecting phenotypes to genotypes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mungall, Christopher J.; McMurry, Julie A.; Köhler, Sebastian; Balhoff, James P.; Borromeo, Charles; Brush, Matthew; Carbon, Seth; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; Gourdine, J.P.; Jacobsen, Julius O.B.; Keith, Dan; Laraway, Bryan; Lewis, Suzanna E.; NguyenXuan, Jeremy; Shefchek, Kent; Vasilevsky, Nicole; Yuan, Zhou; Washington, Nicole; Hochheiser, Harry; Groza, Tudor; Smedley, Damian; Robinson, Peter N.; Haendel, Melissa A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype–phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms. Advanced informatics tools can identify phenotypically relevant disease models in research and diagnostic contexts. Large-scale integration of model organism and clinical research data can provide a breadth of knowledge not available from individual sources and can provide contextualization of data back to these sources. The Monarch Initiative (monarchinitiative.org) is a collaborative, open science effort that aims to semantically integrate genotype–phenotype data from many species and sources in order to support precision medicine, disease modeling, and mechanistic exploration. Our integrated knowledge graph, analytic tools, and web services enable diverse users to explore relationships between phenotypes and genotypes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:27899636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4843434','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4843434"><span>Individual differences in frontolimbic circuitry and anxiety emerge with adolescent changes in endocannabinoid signaling <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gee, Dylan G.; Fetcho, Robert N.; Jing, Deqiang; Li, Anfei; Glatt, Charles E.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Cohen, Alexandra O.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Yang, Rui R.; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Lee, Francis S.; Casey, B.J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Anxiety disorders peak in incidence during adolescence, a developmental window that is marked by dynamic changes in gene expression, endocannabinoid signaling, and frontolimbic circuitry. We tested whether genetic alterations in endocannabinoid signaling related to a common polymorphism in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which alters endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) levels, would impact the development of frontolimbic circuitry implicated in anxiety disorders. In a pediatric imaging sample of over 1,000 3- to 21-y-olds, we show effects of the FAAH genotype specific to frontolimbic connectivity that emerge by ∼12 y of age and are paralleled by changes in anxiety-related behavior. Using a knock-in mouse model of the FAAH polymorphism that controls for genetic and environmental backgrounds, we confirm phenotypic differences in frontoamygdala circuitry and anxiety-related behavior by postnatal day 45 (P45), when AEA levels begin to decrease, and also, at P75 but not before. These results, which converge <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and level of analysis, highlight the importance of underlying developmental neurobiology in the emergence of genetic effects on brain circuitry and function. Moreover, the results have important implications for the identification of risk for disease and precise targeting of treatments to the biological state of the developing brain as a function of developmental changes in gene expression and neural circuit maturation. PMID:27001846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5395953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5395953"><span>The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kumar, Vikas; Lammers, Fritjof; Bidon, Tobias; Pfenninger, Markus; Kolter, Lydia; Nilsson, Maria A.; Janke, Axel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Bears are iconic mammals with a complex evolutionary history. Natural bear hybrids and studies of few nuclear genes indicate that gene flow among bears may be more common than expected and not limited to polar and brown bears. Here we present a genome analysis of the bear family with representatives of all living species. Phylogenomic analyses of 869 mega base pairs divided into 18,621 genome fragments yielded a well-resolved coalescent species tree despite signals for extensive gene flow <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, genome analyses using different statistical methods show that gene flow is not limited to closely related species pairs. Strong ancestral gene flow between the Asiatic black bear and the ancestor to polar, brown and American black bear explains uncertainties in reconstructing the bear phylogeny. Gene flow across the bear clade may be mediated by intermediate species such as the geographically wide-spread brown bears leading to large amounts of phylogenetic conflict. Genome-scale analyses lead to a more complete understanding of complex evolutionary processes. Evidence for extensive inter-specific gene flow, found also in other animal species, necessitates shifting the attention from speciation processes achieving genome-wide reproductive isolation to the selective processes that maintain species divergence in the face of gene flow. PMID:28422140</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3528575','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3528575"><span>A common rule for decision making in animal collectives <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arganda, Sara; Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A diversity of decision-making systems has been observed in animal collectives. In some species, choices depend on the differences of the numbers of animals that have chosen each of the available options, whereas in other species on the relative differences (a behavior known as Weber’s law), or follow more complex rules. We here show that this diversity of decision systems corresponds to a single rule of decision making in collectives. We first obtained a decision rule based on Bayesian estimation that uses the information provided by the behaviors of the other individuals to improve the estimation of the structure of the world. We then tested this rule in decision experiments using zebrafish (Danio rerio), and in existing rich datasets of argentine ants (Linepithema humile) and sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), showing that a unified model <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can quantitatively explain the diversity of decision systems. Further, these results show that the different counting systems used by animals, including humans, can emerge from the common principle of using social information to make good decisions. PMID:23197836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26179195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26179195"><span>Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554020"><span>QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> via NF-YC interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Zheng, Wenguang; Zhu, Yanbing; Ye, Huaxun; Tang, Buyun; Arendsee, Zebulun W; Jones, Dallas; Li, Ruoran; Ortiz, Diego; Zhao, Xuefeng; Du, Chuanlong; Nettleton, Dan; Scott, M Paul; Salas-Fernandez, Maria G; Yin, Yanhai; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin</p> <p>2015-11-24</p> <p>The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua-Quine Starch; At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates metabolic processes affecting carbon and nitrogen partitioning among proteins and carbohydrates, modulating leaf and seed composition in Arabidopsis and soybean. Here the universality of QQS function in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation is exemplified by a series of transgenic experiments. We show that ectopic expression of QQS increases soybean protein independent of the genetic background and original protein content of the cultivar. Furthermore, transgenic QQS expression increases the protein content of maize, a C4 species (a species that uses 4-carbon photosynthesis), and rice, a protein-poor agronomic crop, both highly divergent from Arabidopsis. We determine that QQS protein binds to the transcriptional regulator AtNF-YC4 (Arabidopsis nuclear factor Y, subunit C4). Overexpression of AtNF-YC4 in Arabidopsis mimics the QQS-overexpression phenotype, increasing protein and decreasing starch levels. NF-YC, a component of the NF-Y complex, is conserved across eukaryotes. The NF-YC4 homologs of soybean, rice, and maize also bind to QQS, which provides an explanation of how QQS can act in species where it does not occur endogenously. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first insight into the mechanism of action of QQS in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. They have major implications for the emergence and function of orphan genes, and identify a nontransgenic strategy for modulating protein levels in crop species, a trait of great agronomic significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161053"><span>Computational models of ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Implications for risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gohlke, Julia M; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Computational, systems-based approaches can provide a quantitative construct for evaluating risk in the context of mechanistic data. Previously, we developed computational models for the rat, mouse, rhesus monkey, and human, describing the acquisition of adult neuron number in the neocortex during the key neurodevelopmental processes of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Here we apply mechanistic data from the rat describing ethanol-induced toxicity in the developing neocortex to evaluate the utility of these models for analyzing neurodevelopmental toxicity <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Our model can explain long-term neocortical neuronal loss in the rodent model after in utero exposure to ethanol based on inhibition of proliferation during neurogenesis. Our human model predicts a significant neuronal deficit after daily peak BECs reaching 10-20 mg/dl, which is the approximate BEC reached after drinking one standard drink within one hour. In contrast, peak daily BECs of 100 mg/dl are necessary to predict similar deficits in the rat. Our model prediction of increased sensitivity of primate species to ethanol-induced inhibition of proliferation is based on application of in vivo experimental data from primates showing a prolonged rapid growth period in the primate versus rodent neuronal progenitor population. To place our predictions into a broader context, we evaluate the evidence for functional low-dose effects across rats, monkeys, and humans. Results from this critical evaluation suggest subtle effects are evident at doses causing peak BECs of approximately 20 mg/dl daily, corroborating our model predictions. Our example highlights the utility of a systems-based modeling approach in risk assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664325','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664325"><span>QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> via NF-YC interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Zheng, Wenguang; Zhu, Yanbing; Ye, Huaxun; Tang, Buyun; Arendsee, Zebulun W.; Jones, Dallas; Li, Ruoran; Ortiz, Diego; Zhao, Xuefeng; Du, Chuanlong; Nettleton, Dan; Scott, M. Paul; Salas-Fernandez, Maria G.; Yin, Yanhai; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua-Quine Starch; At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates metabolic processes affecting carbon and nitrogen partitioning among proteins and carbohydrates, modulating leaf and seed composition in Arabidopsis and soybean. Here the universality of QQS function in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation is exemplified by a series of transgenic experiments. We show that ectopic expression of QQS increases soybean protein independent of the genetic background and original protein content of the cultivar. Furthermore, transgenic QQS expression increases the protein content of maize, a C4 species (a species that uses 4-carbon photosynthesis), and rice, a protein-poor agronomic crop, both highly divergent from Arabidopsis. We determine that QQS protein binds to the transcriptional regulator AtNF-YC4 (Arabidopsis nuclear factor Y, subunit C4). Overexpression of AtNF-YC4 in Arabidopsis mimics the QQS-overexpression phenotype, increasing protein and decreasing starch levels. NF-YC, a component of the NF-Y complex, is conserved across eukaryotes. The NF-YC4 homologs of soybean, rice, and maize also bind to QQS, which provides an explanation of how QQS can act in species where it does not occur endogenously. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first insight into the mechanism of action of QQS in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. They have major implications for the emergence and function of orphan genes, and identify a nontransgenic strategy for modulating protein levels in crop species, a trait of great agronomic significance. PMID:26554020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161959"><span>The concentration of stress at the rotator cuff tendon-to-bone attachment site is conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saadat, Fatemeh; Deymier, Alix C; Birman, Victor; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The tendon-to-bone attachment site integrates two distinct tissues via a gradual transition in composition, mechanical properties, and structure. Outcomes of surgical repair are poor, in part because surgical repair does not recreate the natural attachment, and in part because the mechanical features that are most critical to mechanical and physiological functions have not been identified. We employed allometric analysis to resolve a paradox about how the architecture of the rotator cuff contributes to load transfer: whereas published data suggest that the mean muscle stresses expected at the tendon-to-bone attachment are conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, data also show that the relative dimensions of key anatomical features vary dramatically, suggesting that the amplification of stresses at the interface between tendon and bone should also vary widely. However, a mechanical model that enabled a sensitivity analysis revealed that the degree of stress concentration was in fact highly conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: the factors that most affected stress amplification were most highly conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, while those that had a lower effect showed broad variation across a range of relative insensitivity. Results highlight how micromechanical factors can influence structure-function relationships and cross-species scaling over several orders of magnitude in animal size, and provide guidance on physiological features to emphasize in surgical and tissue engineered repair of the rotator cuff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330090&keyword=DNA&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330090&keyword=DNA&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS): A web-based tool for addressing the challenges of cross-species extrapolation of chemical toxicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Conservation of a molecular target <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330090&keyword=molecular+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91075041&CFTOKEN=12102135','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330090&keyword=molecular+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91075041&CFTOKEN=12102135"><span>Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS): A web-based tool for addressing the challenges of cross-species extrapolation of chemical toxicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Conservation of a molecular target <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28754432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28754432"><span>The 5 choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT): A novel tool to assess cognitive control <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhakta, Savita G; Young, Jared W</p> <p>2017-07-25</p> <p>Neurodevelopmental disorders including Tourette's syndrome (TS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by significant impairment in attention and cognitive control. These cognitive deficits persist throughout development, contribute significantly to socio-occupational impairment, and are relatively impervious to available treatment. A critical challenge in pro-cognitive drug discovery is translatability of findings <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, underscoring the need for developing valid and reliable cross-species cognitive tasks. Here we describe a cross-species 5 choice continuous performance task that was developed to measure cognitive control processes of attention, vigilance, and response inhibition, enabling the translation of findings for pro-cognitive drug discovery <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and delineate neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control construct. Construct validity of 5C-CPT has been verified by multiple cross-species studies. Several lines of evidence report consistent findings <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> including, deficits resulting from 36-h sleep deprivation studies, engagement of parietal cortex in human brain imaging and rodent lesion studies, and vigilance decrements over time. Unlike the widely used rodent 5 choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) and the sustained attention task (SAT), the rodent 5C-CPT includes both target and non-target stimuli that allow measuring of cognitive control elements including response inhibition, an ability to inhibit pre-potent response during non-target trials, detect vigilance decrement and calculate signal detection parameters in rodents analogous to human CPT. The cross-species 5C-CPT is a robust translational tool to characterize the neurobiological substrates underlying cognitive control deficits in clinical population including, ADHD and TS and develop targeted pro-cognitive therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151560"><span>The sunk cost effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: A review of persistence in a course of action due to prior investment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magalhães, Paula; Geoffrey White, K</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The sunk cost effect is the bias or tendency to persist in a course of action due to prior investments of effort, money or time. At the time of the only review on the sunk cost effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Arkes & Ayton, 1999), research with nonhuman animals had been ecological in its nature, and the findings about the effect of past investments on current choice were inconclusive. However, in the last decade a new line of experimental laboratory-based research has emerged with the promise of revolutionizing the way we approach the study of the sunk cost effect in nonhumans. In the present review we challenge Arkes and Ayton's conclusion that the sunk cost effect is exclusive to humans, and describe evidence for the sunk cost effect in nonhuman animals. By doing so, we also challenge the current explanations for the sunk cost effect in humans, as they are not applicable to nonhumans. We argue that a unified theory is called for, because different independent variables, in particular, investment amount, have the same influence on the sunk cost effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Finally, we suggest possible psychological mechanisms shared across different species, contrast and depreciation, that could explain the sunk cost effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24925106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24925106"><span>Evolution of aging: individual life history trade-offs and population heterogeneity account for mortality patterns <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Le Cunff, Y; Baudisch, A; Pakdaman, K</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A broad range of mortality patterns has been documented <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, some even including decreasing mortality over age. Whether there exist a common denominator to explain both similarities and differences in these mortality patterns remains an open question. The disposable soma theory, an evolutionary theory of aging, proposes that universal intracellular trade-offs between maintenance/lifespan and reproduction would drive aging <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The disposable soma theory has provided numerous insights concerning aging processes in single individuals. Yet, which specific population mortality patterns it can lead to is still largely unexplored. In this article, we propose a model exploring the mortality patterns which emerge from an evolutionary process including only the disposable soma theory core principles. We adapt a well-known model of genomic evolution to show that mortality curves producing a kink or mid-life plateaus derive from a common minimal evolutionary framework. These mortality shapes qualitatively correspond to those of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, medflies, yeasts and humans. Species evolved in silico especially differ in their population diversity of maintenance strategies, which itself emerges as an adaptation to the environment over generations. Based on this integrative framework, we also derive predictions and interpretations concerning the effects of diet changes and heat-shock treatments on mortality patterns. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3596402','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3596402"><span>Sweet Puppies and Cute Babies: Perceptual Adaptation to Babyfacedness Transfers <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Golle, Jessika; Lisibach, Stephanie; Mast, Fred W.; Lobmaier, Janek S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Infant faces are very salient stimuli. The Kindchenschema describes specific features that characterize a cute infant face. In this study we used a visual adaptation paradigm to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the universality of the perceptual properties of the Kindchenschema. In Experiment 1, twenty-four participants adapted to cute and less cute human infant faces and in Experiment 2, twenty-four new participants adapted to cute and less cute faces of puppy dogs. In both experiments the task was to assess the cuteness of subsequently presented human infant faces. The results revealed cuteness after-effects for human infant faces in both adaptation conditions, suggesting a common mechanism coding cuteness in human and non-human faces. This study provides experimental evidence for the universality of the well-described concept of the Kindchenschema. PMID:23516453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23516453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23516453"><span>Sweet puppies and cute babies: perceptual adaptation to babyfacedness transfers <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Golle, Jessika; Lisibach, Stephanie; Mast, Fred W; Lobmaier, Janek S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Infant faces are very salient stimuli. The Kindchenschema describes specific features that characterize a cute infant face. In this study we used a visual adaptation paradigm to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the universality of the perceptual properties of the Kindchenschema. In Experiment 1, twenty-four participants adapted to cute and less cute human infant faces and in Experiment 2, twenty-four new participants adapted to cute and less cute faces of puppy dogs. In both experiments the task was to assess the cuteness of subsequently presented human infant faces. The results revealed cuteness after-effects for human infant faces in both adaptation conditions, suggesting a common mechanism coding cuteness in human and non-human faces. This study provides experimental evidence for the universality of the well-described concept of the Kindchenschema.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3090336','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3090336"><span>High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera. Results We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species. SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased. Conclusions This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥2%. The development of a much larger array of informative SNPs across</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492434"><span>High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grattapaglia, Dario; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Kirst, Matias; de Lima, Bruno Marco; Faria, Danielle A; Pappas, Georgios J</p> <p>2011-04-14</p> <p>High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera. We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species.SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased. This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥ 2%. The development of a much larger array of informative SNPs across multiple Eucalyptus species is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383564"><span>Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Corexit 9500A-Induced Respiratory Epithelial Injury <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oliva, Octavio M.; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R. Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J.; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173792','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173792"><span>Costs of fear: Behavioral and life-history responses to risk and their demographic consequences vary <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>LaManna, Joseph A.; Martin, Thomas E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Behavioural responses to reduce predation risk might cause demographic ‘costs of fear’. Costs differ among species, but a conceptual framework to understand this variation is lacking. We use a life-history framework to tie together diverse traits and life stages to better understand interspecific variation in responses and costs. We used natural and experimental variation in predation risk to test phenotypic responses and associated demographic costs for 10 songbird species. Responses such as increased parental attentiveness yielded reduced development time and created benefits such as reduced predation probability. Yet, responses to increased risk also created demographic costs by reducing offspring production in the absence of direct predation. This cost of fear varied widely <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, but predictably with the probability of repeat breeding. Use of a life-history framework can aid our understanding of potential demographic costs from predation, both from responses to perceived risk and from direct predation mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411482','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411482"><span>Similarity thresholds used in DNA sequence assembly from short reads can reduce the comparability of population histories <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Judy, Caroline Duffie; Seeholzer, Glenn F.; Maley, James M.; Graves, Gary R.; Brumfield, Robb T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Comparing inferences among datasets generated using short read sequencing may provide insight into the concerted impacts of divergence, gene flow and selection across organisms, but comparisons are complicated by biases introduced during dataset assembly. Sequence similarity thresholds allow the de novo assembly of short reads into clusters of alleles representing different loci, but the resulting datasets are sensitive to both the similarity threshold used and to the variation naturally present in the organism under study. Thresholds that require high sequence similarity among reads for assembly (stringent thresholds) as well as highly variable species may result in datasets in which divergent alleles are lost or divided into separate loci (‘over-splitting’), whereas liberal thresholds increase the risk of paralogous loci being combined into a single locus (‘under-splitting’). Comparisons among datasets or species are therefore potentially biased if different similarity thresholds are applied or if the species differ in levels of within-lineage genetic variation. We examine the impact of a range of similarity thresholds on assembly of empirical short read datasets from populations of four different non-model bird lineages (species or species pairs) with different levels of genetic divergence. We find that, in all species, stringent similarity thresholds result in fewer alleles per locus than more liberal thresholds, which appears to be the result of high levels of over-splitting. The frequency of putative under-splitting, conversely, is low at all thresholds. Inferred genetic distances between individuals, gene tree depths, and estimates of the ancestral mutation-scaled effective population size (θ) differ depending upon the similarity threshold applied. Relative differences in inferences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differ even when the same threshold is applied, but may be dramatically different when datasets assembled under different thresholds are compared. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23839787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23839787"><span>Plant microRNAs display differential 3' truncation and tailing modifications that are ARGONAUTE1 dependent and conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhai, Jixian; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Simon, Stacey A; Huang, Sheng; Petsch, Katherine; Arikit, Siwaret; Pillay, Manoj; Ji, Lijuan; Xie, Meng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yu, Bin; Timmermans, Marja; Yang, Bing; Chen, Xuemei; Meyers, Blake C</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Plant small RNAs are 3' methylated by the methyltransferase HUA1 ENHANCER1 (HEN1). In plant hen1 mutants, 3' modifications of small RNAs, including oligo-uridylation (tailing), are associated with accelerated degradation of microRNAs (miRNAs). By sequencing small RNAs of the wild type and hen1 mutants from Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa), and maize (Zea mays), we found 3' truncation prior to tailing is widespread in these mutants. Moreover, the patterns of miRNA truncation and tailing differ substantially among miRNA families but are conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The same patterns are also observable in wild-type libraries from a broad range of species, only at lower abundances. ARGONAUTE (AGO1), even with defective slicer activity, can bind these truncated and tailed variants of miRNAs. An ago1 mutation in hen1 suppressed such 3' modifications, indicating that they occur while miRNAs are in association with AGO1, either during or after RNA-induced silencing complex assembly. Our results showed AGO1-bound miRNAs are actively 3' truncated and tailed, possibly reflecting the activity of cofactors acting in conserved patterns in miRNA degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28132687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28132687"><span>Neurocalcin Delta Suppression Protects against Spinal Muscular Atrophy in Humans and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> by Restoring Impaired Endocytosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riessland, Markus; Kaczmarek, Anna; Schneider, Svenja; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Löhr, Heiko; Bradler, Cathleen; Grysko, Vanessa; Dimitriadi, Maria; Hosseinibarkooie, Seyyedmohsen; Torres-Benito, Laura; Peters, Miriam; Upadhyay, Aaradhita; Biglari, Nasim; Kröber, Sandra; Hölker, Irmgard; Garbes, Lutz; Gilissen, Christian; Hoischen, Alexander; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Walter, Michael; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C Frank; Kye, Min Jeong; Hart, Anne C; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Kloppenburg, Peter; Wirth, Brunhilde</p> <p>2017-02-02</p> <p>Homozygous SMN1 loss causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common lethal genetic childhood motor neuron disease. SMN1 encodes SMN, a ubiquitous housekeeping protein, which makes the primarily motor neuron-specific phenotype rather unexpected. SMA-affected individuals harbor low SMN expression from one to six SMN2 copies, which is insufficient to functionally compensate for SMN1 loss. However, rarely individuals with homozygous absence of SMN1 and only three to four SMN2 copies are fully asymptomatic, suggesting protection through genetic modifier(s). Previously, we identified plastin 3 (PLS3) overexpression as an SMA protective modifier in humans and showed that SMN deficit impairs endocytosis, which is rescued by elevated PLS3 levels. Here, we identify reduction of the neuronal calcium sensor Neurocalcin delta (NCALD) as a protective SMA modifier in five asymptomatic SMN1-deleted individuals carrying only four SMN2 copies. We demonstrate that NCALD is a Ca(2+)-dependent negative regulator of endocytosis, as NCALD knockdown improves endocytosis in SMA models and ameliorates pharmacologically induced endocytosis defects in zebrafish. Importantly, NCALD knockdown effectively ameliorates SMA-associated pathological defects <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, including worm, zebrafish, and mouse. In conclusion, our study identifies a previously unknown protective SMA modifier in humans, demonstrates modifier impact in three different SMA animal models, and suggests a potential combinatorial therapeutic strategy to efficiently treat SMA. Since both protective modifiers restore endocytosis, our results confirm that endocytosis is a major cellular mechanism perturbed in SMA and emphasize the power of protective modifiers for understanding disease mechanism and developing therapies. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3043931','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3043931"><span>Germination traits explain soil seed persistence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: the case of Mediterranean annual plants in cereal fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Seed persistence in the soil under field conditions is an important issue for the maintenance of local plant populations and the restoration of plant communities, increasingly so in the light of rapidly changing land use and climate change. Whereas processes important for dispersal in space are well known, knowledge of processes governing dispersal in time is still limited. Data for morphological seed traits such as size have given contradictory results for prediction of soil seed persistence or cover only a few species. There have been few experimental studies on the role of germination traits in determining soil seed persistence, while none has studied their predictive value consistently <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Delayed germination, as well as light requirements for germination, have been suggested to contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks. Moreover, diurnally fluctuating temperatures can influence the timing of germination and are therefore linked to seed bank persistence. Methods The role of germination speed measured by T50 (days to germination of 50 % of all germinated seeds), light requirement and reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures in determining seed persistence in the soil was evaluated using an experimental comparative data set of 25 annual cereal weed species. Key Results It is shown that light requirements and slow germination are important features to maintain seeds ungerminated just after entering the soil, and hence influence survival of seeds in the soil. However, the detection of low diurnally fluctuating temperatures enhances soil seed bank persistence by limiting germination. Our data further suggest that the effect of diurnally fluctuating temperatures, as measured on seeds after dispersal and dry storage, is increasingly important to prevent fatal germination after longer burial periods. Conclusions These results underline the functional role of delayed germination and light for survival of seeds in the soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365192"><span>Identification of major milk fat globule membrane proteins from pony mare milk highlights the molecular diversity of lactadherin <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cebo, C; Rebours, E; Henry, C; Makhzami, S; Cosette, P; Martin, P</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Although several studies have been devoted to the colloidal and soluble protein fractions of mare milk (caseins and whey proteins), to date little is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) protein fraction from mare milk. The objective of this study was thus to describe MFGM proteins from Equidae milk and to compare those proteins to already described MFGM proteins from cow and goat milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already described in cow or goat milk were identified in mare milk using mass spectrometry. However, species-specific peculiarities were observed for 2 MFGM proteins: butyrophilin and lactadherin. A highly glycosylated 70-kDa protein was characterized for equine butyrophilin, whereas proteins of 64 and 67 kDa were characterized for cow and goat butyrophilin, respectively. Prominent differences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were highlighted for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 1 or 2 polypeptide chains were identified, respectively, by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis for caprine and bovine lactadherin, 4 isoforms (60, 57, 48, and 45 kDa) for lactadherin from mare milk were identified by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Polymerase chain reaction experiments on lactadherin transcripts isolated from milk fat globules revealed the existence of 2 distinct lactadherin transcripts in the horse mammary gland. Cloning and sequencing of both transcripts encoding lactadherin showed an alternative use of a cryptic splice site located at the end of intron 5 of the equine lactadherin-encoding gene. This event results in the occurrence of an additional alanine (A) residue in the protein that disrupts a putative atypical N-glycosylation site (VNGC/VNAGC) described in human lactadherin. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the existence of both lactadherin variants in mare MFGM. We show here that lactadherin from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845756"><span>Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debecker, Sara; Sanmartín-Villar, Iago; de Guinea-Luengo, Miguel; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Stoks, Robby</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis integrates covariation of life-history traits along a fast-slow continuum and covariation of behavioural traits along a proactive-reactive personality continuum. Few studies have <span class="hlt">investigated</span> these predicted life-history/personality associations among species and between sexes. Furthermore, whether and how contaminants interfere with POLS patterns remains unexplored. We tested for covariation patterns in life history and in behaviour, and for life-history/personality covariation among species, among individuals within species and between sexes. Moreover, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> whether pesticide exposure affects covariation between life history and behaviour and whether species and sexes with a faster POLS strategy have a higher sensitivity to pesticides. We reared larvae of four species of Ischnura damselflies in a common garden experiment with an insecticide treatment (chlorpyrifos absent/present) in the final instar. We measured four life-history traits (larval growth rate during the pesticide treatment, larval development time, adult mass and life span) and two behavioural traits (larval feeding activity and boldness, each before and after the pesticide treatment). At the individual level, life-history traits and behavioural traits aligned along a fast-slow and a proactive-reactive continuum, respectively. Species-specific differences in life history, with fast-lived species having a faster larval growth and development, a lower mass at emergence and a shorter life span, suggested that time constraints in the larval stage were predictably driving life-history evolution both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, females were consistently more slow-lived than males, reflecting that a large body size and a long life span are generally more important for females. In contrast to the POLS hypothesis, there was only little evidence for the expected positive coupling between life</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=69654&keyword=Gardiner&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=69654&keyword=Gardiner&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSRAS) FOR ESTROGEN BINDING TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR: PREDICTIONS <span class="hlt">ACROSS</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span>. (R826133)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165818"><span>Modeling of the dorsal gradient <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> reveals interaction between embryo morphology and Toll signaling pathway during evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ambrosi, Priscilla; Chahda, Juan Sebastian; Koslen, Hannah R; Chiel, Hillel J; Mizutani, Claudia Mieko</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Morphogenetic gradients are essential to allocate cell fates in embryos of varying sizes within and across closely related species. We previously showed that the maternal NF-κB/Dorsal (Dl) gradient has acquired different shapes in Drosophila species, which result in unequally scaled germ layers along the dorso-ventral axis and the repositioning of the neuroectodermal borders. Here we combined experimentation and mathematical modeling to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> which factors might have contributed to the fast evolutionary changes of this gradient. To this end, we modified a previously developed model that employs differential equations of the main biochemical interactions of the Toll (Tl) signaling pathway, which regulates Dl nuclear transport. The original model simulations fit well the D. melanogaster wild type, but not mutant conditions. To broaden the applicability of this model and probe evolutionary changes in gradient distributions, we adjusted a set of 19 independent parameters to reproduce three quantified experimental conditions (i.e. Dl levels lowered, nuclear size and density increased or decreased). We next searched for the most relevant parameters that reproduce the species-specific Dl gradients. We show that adjusting parameters relative to morphological traits (i.e. embryo diameter, nuclear size and density) alone is not sufficient to reproduce the species Dl gradients. Since components of the Tl pathway simulated by the model are fast-evolving, we next asked which parameters related to Tl would most effectively reproduce these gradients and identified a particular subset. A sensitivity analysis reveals the existence of nonlinear interactions between the two fast-evolving traits tested above, namely the embryonic morphological changes and Tl pathway components. Our modeling further suggests that distinct Dl gradient shapes observed in closely related melanogaster sub-group lineages may be caused by similar sequence modifications in Tl pathway components, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3775314','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3775314"><span>The Role of Genetic Sex in Affect Regulation and Expression of GABA-Related Genes <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seney, Marianne L.; Chang, Lun-Ching; Oh, Hyunjung; Wang, Xingbin; Tseng, George C.; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N = 51 MDD subjects, 50 controls), we show that the previously reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST), a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N = 214; two frontal cortex regions) and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N = 170 subjects), we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model [Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice], in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N ≥ 12/group), we show that genetic sex (i.e., X/Y-chromosome) influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice) and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice). This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males < gonadal females). Collectively, these combined human and mouse studies provide mechanistic insight into sexual dimorphism in mood disorders, and specifically demonstrate an unexpected role of male-like factors (XY genetic sex) on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305086"><span>Transpiration rate relates to within- and <span class="hlt">across-species</span> variations in effective path length in a leaf water model of oxygen isotope enrichment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Xin; Barbour, Margaret M; Farquhar, Graham D; Vann, David R; Helliker, Brent R</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Stable oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water (δ(18)O(L)) yields valuable information on many aspects of plant-environment interactions. However, current understanding of the mechanistic controls on δ(18)O(L) does not provide complete characterization of effective path length (L) of the Péclet effect,--a key component of the leaf water model. In this study, we collected diurnal and seasonal series of leaf water enrichment and estimated L in six field-grown angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species. Our results suggest a pivotal role of leaf transpiration rate (E) in driving both within- and <span class="hlt">across-species</span> variations in L. Our observation of the common presence of an inverse scaling of L with E in the different species therefore cautions against (1) the conventional treatment of L as a species-specific constant in leaf water or cellulose isotope (δ(18)O(p)) modelling; and (2) the use of δ(18)O(p) as a proxy for gs or E under low E conditions. Further, we show that incorporation of a multi-species L-E scaling into the leaf water model has the potential to both improve the prediction accuracy and simplify parameterization of the model when compared with the conventional approach. This has important implications for future modelling of oxygen isotope ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16214377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16214377"><span>Evolution of Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae) in the Carpathian Basin: a history of repeated mt-DNA introgression <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vörös, Judit; Alcobendas, Marina; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; García-París, Mario</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>, possibly mediated by the invasion of B. bombina; and (iv) we have detected discordances between morphology and mt-DNA data in the Transdanubia region (Bakony Mountains, Mecsek Mountains, Orség area), suggesting mt-DNA introgression <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in this regions. These results are discussed with reference to previous biogeographic hypotheses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811536"><span>The function of orthologues of the human Parkinson's disease gene LRRK2 <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: implications for disease modelling in preclinical research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langston, Rebekah G; Rudenko, Iakov N; Cookson, Mark R</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In the period since LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) was identified as a causal gene for late-onset autosomal dominant parkinsonism, a great deal of work has been aimed at understanding whether the LRRK2 protein might be a druggable target for Parkinson's disease (PD). As part of this effort, animal models have been developed to explore both the normal and the pathophysiological roles of LRRK2. However, LRRK2 is part of a wider family of proteins whose functions in different organisms remain poorly understood. In this review, we compare the information available on biochemical properties of LRRK2 homologues and orthologues from different species from invertebrates (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) to mammals. We particularly discuss the mammalian LRRK2 homologue, LRRK1, and those species where there is only a single LRRK homologue, discussing examples where each of the LRRK family of proteins has distinct properties as well as those cases where there appear to be functional redundancy. We conclude that uncovering the function of LRRK2 orthologues will help to elucidate the key properties of human LRRK2 as well as to improve understanding of the suitability of different animal models for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of LRRK2-related PD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5165698','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5165698"><span>The function of orthologues of the human Parkinson’s disease gene LRRK2 <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: implications for disease modeling in preclinical research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Langston, Rebekah G.; Rudenko, Iakov N.; Cookson, Mark R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the period since LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) was identified as a causal gene for late-onset autosomal-dominant parkinsonism, a great deal of work has been aimed at understanding whether the LRRK2 protein might be a druggable target for Parkinson’s disease (PD). As part of this effort, animal models have been developed to explore both the normal and the pathophysiological roles of LRRK2. However, LRRK2 is part of a wider family of proteins whose functions in different organisms remain poorly understood. In this review, we compare the information available on biochemical properties of LRRK2 homologues and orthologues from different species from invertebrates (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) to mammals. We particularly discuss the mammalian LRRK2 homologue, LRRK1, and those species where there is only a single lrrk homologue, discussing examples where each of the LRRK family of proteins has distinct properties as well as those cases where there appear to be functional redundancy. We conclude that uncovering the function of LRRK2 orthologues will help elucidate the key properties of human LRRK2 as well as to improve understanding of the suitability of different animal models for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of LRRK2-related PD. PMID:26811536</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750525','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750525"><span>Lack of population genetic structure and host specificity in the bat fly, Cyclopodia horsfieldi, <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pteropus bats in Southeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> bat flies between the three Pteropus species in the region. We demonstrate the utility of parasite genetics as an additional layer of information to measure host movement and interspecific host contact. These approaches may have wide implications for understanding zoonotic, epizootic, and enzootic disease dynamics. Bat flies may play a role as vectors of disease in bats, and their competence as vectors of bacterial and/or viral pathogens is in need of further <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. PMID:23924629</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5218997','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5218997"><span>Neurocognitive Aging and the Hippocampus <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leal, Stephanie L; Yassa, Michael A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is extensive evidence that aging is associated with impairments in episodic memory. Many of these changes have been ascribed to neurobiological alterations to the hippocampal network and its input pathways. A cross-species consensus is beginning to emerge suggesting that subtle synaptic and functional changes within this network may underlie the majority of age-related memory impairments. In this review, we survey convergent data from animal and human studies that have contributed significantly to our understanding of the brain-behavior relationships in this network, particularly in the aging brain. We utilize a cognitive as well as a neurobiological perspective, and synthesize data across approaches and species to reach a more detailed understanding of age-related alterations in hippocampal memory function. PMID:26607684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679535"><span>A framework for studying emotions <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, David J; Adolphs, Ralph</p> <p>2014-03-27</p> <p>Since the 19th century, there has been disagreement over the fundamental question of whether "emotions" are cause or consequence of their associated behaviors. This question of causation is most directly addressable in genetically tractable model organisms, including invertebrates such as Drosophila. Yet there is ongoing debate about whether such species even have "emotions," as emotions are typically defined with reference to human behavior and neuroanatomy. Here, we argue that emotional behaviors are a class of behaviors that express internal emotion states. These emotion states exhibit certain general functional and adaptive properties that apply across any specific human emotions like fear or anger, as well as across phylogeny. These general properties, which can be thought of as "emotion primitives," can be modeled and studied in evolutionarily distant model organisms, allowing functional dissection of their mechanistic bases and tests of their causal relationships to behavior. More generally, our approach not only aims at better integration of such studies in model organisms with studies of emotion in humans, but also suggests a revision of how emotion should be operationalized within psychology and psychiatry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218085','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218085"><span>GENE SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY OF CHEMOKINES <span class="hlt">ACROSS</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The abundance of expressed gene and protein sequences available in the biological information databases facilitates comparison of protein homologies. A high degree of sequence similarity typically implies homology regarding structure and function and may provide clues to antibody cross-react...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185525"><span>Hepatocytes as in vitro test system to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed rainbow trout and common carp: Comparison between in vivo and in vitro and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bischof, Ina; Köster, Jessica; Segner, Helmut; Schlechtriem, Christian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In vitro tools using isolated primary fish hepatocytes have been proposed as a useful model to study the hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics in fish. In order to evaluate the potential of in vitro fish hepatocyte assays to provide information on in vivo metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish, the present study addressed the following questions: Are in vitro and in vivo metabolite patterns comparable? Are species specific differences of metabolite patterns in vivo reflected in vitro? Are metabolite patterns obtained from cryopreserved hepatocytes comparable to those from freshly isolated cells? Rainbow trout and common carp were dosed orally with feed containing the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) for 14days. In parallel, in vitro incubations using suspensions of freshly isolated or cryopreserved primary hepatocytes obtained from both species were performed. In vivo and in vitro samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with authentic standards supported by HPLC-MS. Comparable metabolite patterns from a qualitative perspective were observed in liver in vivo and in hepatocyte suspensions in vitro. Species specific differences of MXC metabolite patterns observed between rainbow trout and common carp in vivo were well reflected by experiments with hepatocytes in vitro. Finally, cryopreserved hepatocytes produced comparable metabolite patterns to freshly isolated cells. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro hepatocyte assay could be used to identify metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish and could thus serve as a valuable tool to support in vivo studies as required for pesticides approval according to the EU regulation 1107. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25646517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25646517"><span>Searching for the origins of musicality <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoeschele, Marisa; Merchant, Hugo; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hattori, Yuko; ten Cate, Carel</p> <p>2015-03-19</p> <p>In the introduction to this theme issue, Honing et al. suggest that the origins of musicality--the capacity that makes it possible for us to perceive, appreciate and produce music--can be pursued productively by searching for components of musicality in other species. Recent studies have highlighted that the behavioural relevance of stimuli to animals and the relation of experimental procedures to their natural behaviour can have a large impact on the type of results that can be obtained for a given species. Through reviewing laboratory findings on animal auditory perception and behaviour, as well as relevant findings on natural behaviour, we provide evidence that both traditional laboratory studies and studies relating to natural behaviour are needed to answer the problem of musicality. Traditional laboratory studies use synthetic stimuli that provide more control than more naturalistic studies, and are in many ways suitable to test the perceptual abilities of animals. However, naturalistic studies are essential to inform us as to what might constitute relevant stimuli and parameters to test with laboratory studies, or why we may or may not expect certain stimulus manipulations to be relevant. These two approaches are both vital in the comparative study of musicality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMR....68..253W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMR....68..253W"><span>Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and latitudes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21700836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21700836"><span>Targeted genome editing <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using ZFNs and TALENs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wood, Andrew J; Lo, Te-Wen; Zeitler, Bryan; Pickle, Catherine S; Ralston, Edward J; Lee, Andrew H; Amora, Rainier; Miller, Jeffrey C; Leung, Elo; Meng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Meyer, Barbara J</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>Evolutionary studies necessary to dissect diverse biological processes have been limited by the lack of reverse genetic approaches in most organisms with sequenced genomes. We established a broadly applicable strategy using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for targeted disruption of endogenous genes and cis-acting regulatory elements in diverged nematode species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA612875','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA612875"><span>MMB-4 Inhibition of Aceylcholinesterase Is Similar <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Chemical Defense 3100 Ricketts Point Road Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400 an element of the US ArmyMedical Research andMateriel Command The Nation’s...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) November 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2013 to July...Institute of Chemical Defense ATTN: MCMR-CDR-I 3100 Ricketts Point Road Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5400 USAMRICD-TR-14-06 9. SPONSORING</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3420976','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3420976"><span>Unifying Time to Contact Estimation and Collision Avoidance <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keil, Matthias S.; López-Moliner, Joan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The -function and the -function are phenomenological models that are widely used in the context of timing interceptive actions and collision avoidance, respectively. Both models were previously considered to be unrelated to each other: is a decreasing function that provides an estimation of time-to-contact (ttc) in the early phase of an object approach; in contrast, has a maximum before ttc. Furthermore, it is not clear how both functions could be implemented at the neuronal level in a biophysically plausible fashion. Here we propose a new framework – the corrected modified Tau function – capable of predicting both -type (“”) and -type (“”) responses. The outstanding property of our new framework is its resilience to noise. We show that can be derived from a firing rate equation, and, as , serves to describe the response curves of collision sensitive neurons. Furthermore, we show that predicts the psychophysical performance of subjects determining ttc. Our new framework is thus validated successfully against published and novel experimental data. Within the framework, links between -type and -type neurons are established. Therefore, it could possibly serve as a model for explaining the co-occurrence of such neurons in the brain. PMID:22915999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2694560','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2694560"><span>Meta Analysis of Gene Expression Data within and <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fierro, Ana C; Vandenbussche, Filip; Engelen, Kristof; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Since the second half of the 1990s, a large number of genome-wide analyses have been described that study gene expression at the transcript level. To this end, two major strategies have been adopted, a first one relying on hybridization techniques such as microarrays, and a second one based on sequencing techniques such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), cDNA-AFLP, and analysis based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Despite both types of profiling experiments becoming routine techniques in many research groups, their application remains costly and laborious. As a result, the number of conditions profiled in individual studies is still relatively small and usually varies from only two to few hundreds of samples for the largest experiments. More and more, scientific journals require the deposit of these high throughput experiments in public databases upon publication. Mining the information present in these databases offers molecular biologists the possibility to view their own small-scale analysis in the light of what is already available. However, so far, the richness of the public information remains largely unexploited. Several obstacles such as the correct association between ESTs and microarray probes with the corresponding gene transcript, the incompleteness and inconsistency in the annotation of experimental conditions, and the lack of standardized experimental protocols to generate gene expression data, all impede the successful mining of these data. Here, we review the potential and difficulties of combining publicly available expression data from respectively EST analyses and microarray experiments. With examples from literature, we show how meta-analysis of expression profiling experiments can be used to study expression behavior in a single organism or between organisms, across a wide range of experimental conditions. We also provide an overview of the methods and tools that can aid molecular biologists in exploiting these public data. PMID:19516959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28941046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28941046"><span>Pericytes and their potential in regenerative medicine <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esteves, C L; Donadeu, F X</p> <p>2017-09-20</p> <p>The discovery that pericytes are in vivo counterparts of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) has placed these perivascular cells in the research spotlight, bringing up hope for a well-characterized cell source for clinical applications, alternative to poorly defined, heterogeneous MSCs preparations currently in use. Native pericytes express typical MSC markers and, after isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, display an MSC phenotype in culture. These features have been demonstrated in different species, including humans and horses, the main targets of regenerative treatments. Significant clinical potential of pericytes has been shown by transplantation of human cells into rodent models of tissue injury, and it is hoped that future studies will demonstrate clinical potential in veterinary species. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on pericytes across different species including humans, companion and large animal models, in relation to their identification in different body tissues, methodology for prospective isolation, characterization, and potential for tissue regeneration. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25467987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25467987"><span>Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam</p> <p>2014-12-03</p> <p>Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321135','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321135"><span>Searching for the origins of musicality <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoeschele, Marisa; Merchant, Hugo; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hattori, Yuko; ten Cate, Carel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the introduction to this theme issue, Honing et al. suggest that the origins of musicality—the capacity that makes it possible for us to perceive, appreciate and produce music—can be pursued productively by searching for components of musicality in other species. Recent studies have highlighted that the behavioural relevance of stimuli to animals and the relation of experimental procedures to their natural behaviour can have a large impact on the type of results that can be obtained for a given species. Through reviewing laboratory findings on animal auditory perception and behaviour, as well as relevant findings on natural behaviour, we provide evidence that both traditional laboratory studies and studies relating to natural behaviour are needed to answer the problem of musicality. Traditional laboratory studies use synthetic stimuli that provide more control than more naturalistic studies, and are in many ways suitable to test the perceptual abilities of animals. However, naturalistic studies are essential to inform us as to what might constitute relevant stimuli and parameters to test with laboratory studies, or why we may or may not expect certain stimulus manipulations to be relevant. These two approaches are both vital in the comparative study of musicality. PMID:25646517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22681890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22681890"><span>Hierarchical modularity and the evolution of genetic interactomes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Colm J; Roguev, Assen; Patrick, Kristin; Xu, Jiewei; Jahari, Harlizawati; Tong, Zongtian; Beltrao, Pedro; Shales, Michael; Qu, Hong; Collins, Sean R; Kliegman, Joseph I; Jiang, Lingli; Kuo, Dwight; Tosti, Elena; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Edelmann, Winfried; Keogh, Michael-Christopher; Greene, Derek; Tang, Chao; Cunningham, Pádraig; Shokat, Kevan M; Cagney, Gerard; Svensson, J Peter; Guthrie, Christine; Espenshade, Peter J; Ideker, Trey; Krogan, Nevan J</p> <p>2012-06-08</p> <p>To date, cross-species comparisons of genetic interactomes have been restricted to small or functionally related gene sets, limiting our ability to infer evolutionary trends. To facilitate a more comprehensive analysis, we constructed a genome-scale epistasis map (E-MAP) for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, providing phenotypic signatures for ~60% of the nonessential genome. Using these signatures, we generated a catalog of 297 functional modules, and we assigned function to 144 previously uncharacterized genes, including mRNA splicing and DNA damage checkpoint factors. Comparison with an integrated genetic interactome from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a hierarchical model for the evolution of genetic interactions, with conservation highest within protein complexes, lower within biological processes, and lowest between distinct biological processes. Despite the large evolutionary distance and extensive rewiring of individual interactions, both networks retain conserved features and display similar levels of functional crosstalk between biological processes, suggesting general design principles of genetic interactomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3380824','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3380824"><span>Adaptive Introgression <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Boundaries in Heliconius Butterflies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Salazar, Camilo; Baxter, Simon W.; Merot, Claire; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies. PMID:22737081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22737081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22737081"><span>Adaptive introgression <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> boundaries in Heliconius butterflies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Salazar, Camilo; Baxter, Simon W; Merot, Claire; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=watershed&pg=3&id=EJ722371','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=watershed&pg=3&id=EJ722371"><span>Watershed <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> activities promote learning in an <span class="hlt">investigations</span> interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bodzin&pg=3&id=EJ722371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bodzin&pg=3&id=EJ722371"><span>Watershed <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> activities promote learning in an <span class="hlt">investigations</span> interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006378','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006378"><span>Accident <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brunstein, A. I.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Aircraft accident <span class="hlt">investigations</span> are discussed with emphasis on those accidents that involved weather as a contributing factor. The organization of the accident <span class="hlt">investigation</span> board for air carrier accidents is described along with the hearings, and formal report preparation. Statistical summaries of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of general aviation accidents are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982bri..meet...39G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982bri..meet...39G"><span>Fire <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomberg, A.</p> <p></p> <p>There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is the objective of efforts such as the Fire <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire <span class="hlt">investigation</span> as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire <span class="hlt">investigations</span> - in-depth <span class="hlt">investigations</span> concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040152154','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040152154"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Organizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Panontin, Tina; Carvalho, Robert; Keller, Richard</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Contents include the folloving:Overview of the Application; Input Data; Analytical Process; Tool's Output; and Application of the Results of the Analysis.The tool enables the first element through a Web-based application that can be accessed by distributed teams to store and retrieve any type of digital <span class="hlt">investigation</span> material in a secure environment. The second is accomplished by making the relationships between information explicit through the use of a semantic network-a structure that literally allows an <span class="hlt">investigator</span> or team to "connect -the-dots." The third element, the significance of the correlated information, is established through causality and consistency tests using a number of different methods embedded within the tool, including fault trees, event sequences, and other accident models. And finally, the evidence gathered and structured within the tool can be directly, electronically archived to preserve the evidence and <span class="hlt">investigative</span> reasoning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850005972&hterms=sub+mW&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsub%2BmW','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850005972&hterms=sub+mW&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsub%2BmW"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The primary objectives were to examine the site-specific physical, chemical, and biological factors that impact construction, durability and performance of the proposed 5-MW (sub e) solar pond system at the Salton Sea. The interactions of the water, salt, and soil of the site and on material compatibility were examined. Potential interactions of the water/brine and soil are particularly important because the pond will utilize the naturally occurring clays as a bottom seal. Although there is a considerable and growing solar pond literature, little written information deals with the important site-specific <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of water, salt, and soil. Therefore, technical effort was directed toward identifying the factors that should be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> and determining methods of <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. As a result, a by-product was the development of an approach for site-specific <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and some specific methodologies. This development should continue in order to establish a generic approach for evaluating the suitability of any site for the construction of large-scale solar ponds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brecht&pg=4&id=ED113750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brecht&pg=4&id=ED113750"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Drama.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pickering, Kenneth; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this book is to provide an opportunity for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> drama by a series of units, each of which examines an aspect of drama or theater. The 20 units discuss such topics as the definition of drama, dialogue in a poem by W. H. Auden, various aspects of the stage, improvisation, the visual impact of plays, "The Death of Grass" by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013354','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013354"><span><span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mendillo, Michael</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A detailed presentation is given in the form of viewgraphs on principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> requirements ranging from simple to complex payloads. It is stated that the program was very important to the US science community, and that there was already concern that its funding was under stress, impacting the number of missions flown, down from around 44 to 25 or so. It is also stated that the program needs more help at NASA HQ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13149.x','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13149.x"><span>Spatial-temporal population dynamics <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> range: from center to margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guo, Q.; Taper, M.L.; Schoenberger, M.; Brandl, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the boundaries of species' ranges and the variations in population dynamics from the centre to margin of a species' range is critical. This study simulated spatial-temporal patterns of birth and death rates and migration across a species' range in different seasons. Our results demonstrated the importance of dispersal and migration in altering birth and death rates, balancing source and sink habitats, and governing expansion or contraction of species' ranges in changing environments. We also showed that the multiple equilibria of metapopulations across a species' range could be easily broken following climatic changes or physical disturbances either or local or regional. Although we refer to our models as describing the population dynamics across whole species' range, they should also apply to small-scale habitats (metapopulations) in which species abundance follows a humped pattern or to any ecosystem or landscape where strong central-marginal (C-M) environmental gradients exist. Conservation of both central and marginal populations would therefore be equally important considerations in making management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21368','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21368"><span>Spatial-temporal population dynamics <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> range: from centre to margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Qinfeng Guo; Mark Taper; Michele Schoenberger; J. Brandle</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the boundaries of species'rangs and the variations in population dynamics from the centre to margin of a species' range is critical. This study simulated spatial-tamporal patterns of birth and death rates and migration across a species' range in different seasons. Our results demonstrated the importance of dispersal and migration in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029141','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029141"><span>Spatial-temporal population dynamics <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> range: From centre to margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guo, Q.; Taper, M.; Schoenberger, M.; Brandle, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the boundaries of species' ranges and the variations in population dynamics from the centre to margin of a species' range is critical. This study simulated spatial-temporal patterns of birth and death rates and migration across a species' range in different seasons. Our results demonstrated the importance of dispersal and migration in altering birth and death rates, balancing source and sink habitats, and governing expansion or contraction of species' ranges in changing environments. We also showed that the multiple equilibria of metapopulations across a species' range could be easily broken following climatic changes or physical disturbances either local or regional. Although we refer to our models as describing the population dynamics across whole species' range, they should also apply to small-scale habitats (metapopulations) in which species abundance follows a humped pattern or to any ecosystem or landscape where strong central-marginal (C-M) environmental gradients exist. Conservation of both central and marginal populations would therefore be equally important considerations in making management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=276372&keyword=put&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78687768&CFTOKEN=38953102','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=276372&keyword=put&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78687768&CFTOKEN=38953102"><span>SeqAPASS: Sequence alignment to predict <span class="hlt">across-species</span> susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Efforts to shift the toxicity testing paradigm from whole organism studies to those focused on the initiation of toxicity and relevant pathways have led to increased utilization of in vitro and in silico methods. Hence the emergence of high through-put screening (HTS) programs, s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322761','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322761"><span>The QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> via NF-YC interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua Quine Starch, At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4336672','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4336672"><span>Sensing viral RNAs by Dicer/RIG-I like ATPases <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paro, Simona; Imler, Jean-Luc; Meignin, Carine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Induction of antiviral immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates relies on members of the RIG-I-like receptor and Dicer families, respectively. Although these proteins have different size and domain composition, members of both families share a conserved DECH-box helicase domain. This helicase, also known as a duplex RNA activated ATPase, or DRA domain, plays an important role in viral RNA sensing. Crystallographic and electron microscopy studies of the RIG-I and Dicer DRA domains indicate a common structure and that similar conformational changes are induced by dsRNA binding. Genetic and biochemical studies on the function and regulation of DRAs reveal similarities, but also some differences, between viral RNA sensing mechanisms in nematodes, flies and mammals. PMID:25658360</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331621"><span>Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain <span class="hlt">Across-Species</span> Scaling of Adhesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilman, Casey A; Imburgia, Michael J; Bartlett, Michael D; King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J; Irschick, Duncan J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C) is the change in extension (Δ) relative to a change in force (F) while loading a gecko's adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF). Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2-100 g). We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis). We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic "model gecko" system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring) of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of adhesion in animals with dry adhesion systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980041"><span>Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phung, Tanya N.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only if more of the genome is under purifying selection than currently believed. Our work has implications for understanding the evolution of genomes and interpreting patterns of genetic variation. PMID:27508305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=276372&keyword=Mosquito&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=276372&keyword=Mosquito&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SeqAPASS: Sequence alignment to predict <span class="hlt">across-species</span> susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Efforts to shift the toxicity testing paradigm from whole organism studies to those focused on the initiation of toxicity and relevant pathways have led to increased utilization of in vitro and in silico methods. Hence the emergence of high through-put screening (HTS) programs, s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1204303','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1204303"><span>Mendelian Factors Underlying Quantitative Traits in Tomato: Comparison <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>, Generations, and Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paterson, A. H.; Damon, S.; Hewitt, J. D.; Zamir, D.; Rabinowitch, H. D.; Lincoln, S. E.; Lander, E. S.; Tanksley, S. D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>As part of ongoing studies regarding the genetic basis of quantitative variation in phenotype, we have determined the chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting fruit size, soluble solids concentration, and pH, in a cross between the domestic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and a closely-related wild species, L. cheesmanii. Using a RFLP map of the tomato genome, we compared the inheritance patterns of polymorphisms in 350 F(2) individuals with phenotypes scored in three different ways: (1) from the F(2) progeny themselves, grown near Davis, California; (2) from F(3) families obtained by selfing each F(2) individual, grown near Gilroy, California (F(3)-CA); and (3) from equivalent F(3) families grown near Rehovot, Israel (F(3)-IS). Maximum likelihood methods were used to estimate the approximate chromosomal locations, phenotypic effects (both additive effects and dominance deviations), and gene action of QTLs underlying phenotypic variation in each of these three environments. A total of 29 putative QTLs were detected in the three environments. These QTLs were distributed over 11 of the 12 chromosomes, accounted for 4.7-42.0% of the phenotypic variance in a trait, and showed different types of gene action. Among these 29 QTLs, 4 were detected in all three environments, 10 in two environments, and 15 only in a single environment. The two California environments were most similar, sharing 11/25 (44%) QTLs, while the Israel environment was quite different, sharing 7/20 (35%) and 5/26 (19%) QTLs with the respective California environments. One major goal of QTL mapping is to predict, with maximum accuracy, which individuals will produce progeny showing particular phenotypes. Traditionally, the phenotype of an individual alone has been used to predict the phenotype of its progeny. Our results suggested that, for a trait with low heritability (soluble solids), the phenotype of F(3) progeny could be predicted more accurately from the genotype of the F(2) parent at QTLs than from the phenotype of the F(2) individual. For a trait with intermediate heritability (fruit pH), QTL genotype and observed phenotype were about equally effective at predicting progeny phenotype. For a trait with high heritability (mass per fruit), knowing the QTL genotype of an individual added little if any predictive value, to simply knowing the phenotype. The QTLs mapped in the L. esculentum X L. cheesmanii F(2) appear to be at similar locations to many of those mapped in a previous cross with a different wild tomato (L. chmielewskii). One possible explanation of this similarity is that genetic factors at some of the same loci may affect the traits in the two distantly-related wild species. Potentially major implications of such similarity across broad genetic distances are discussed, in regard to plant and animal breeding, germplasm introgression, and cloning of QTLs. PMID:1673106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391099','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391099"><span>Placental transfer of Fc-containing biopharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, an industry survey analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowman, Christopher J; Breslin, William J; Connor, Anu V; Martin, Pauline L; Moffat, Graeme J; Sivaraman, Lakshmi; Tornesi, M Belen; Chivers, Simon</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Understanding species differences in placental transfer of Fc-containing biopharmaceuticals (particularly monoclonal antibodies) will improve human risk extrapolation from nonclinical embryo-fetal development toxicity data. Maternal and fetal concentration data from 10, 15, 8, and 34 Fc-containing biopharmaceuticals in the rabbit, rat, mouse, and cynomolgus monkey, respectively, from an industry survey were analyzed for trends in placental transfer. Embryonic (before the end of organogenesis) exposure was assessed in one molecule each in rabbit, rat, and mouse, but detectable levels were present only in rodents. In rodents, fetal levels remained relatively constant from gestation day (GD) 16 and 17 until the end of gestation, while maternal levels decreased or remained constant in rat and decreased in mice. In rabbits, following a last dose on GD 19, fetal levels increased markedly in late gestation while maternal levels decreased. In the cynomolgus monkey, fetal levels increased substantially from GD 50 to 100 and were maintained relatively constant through parturition (approximately GD 165). Based on available data of both the monkey and rabbit, IgG1 molecules appeared to transfer more readily than other isotypes in late gestation. Across all species, there was no differential transfer based on pharmacologic target being soluble or membrane bound. Within each species there was a correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, suggesting it may be possible to predict fetal exposures from maternal exposure data. These nonclinical data (both temporal and quantitative aspects) are discussed in a comparative context relative to our understanding of IgG placental transfer in humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644596"><span>Empathy as a driver of prosocial behaviour: highly conserved neurobehavioural mechanisms <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Decety, Jean; Bartal, Inbal Ben-Ami; Uzefovsky, Florina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Empathy reflects the natural ability to perceive and be sensitive to the emotional states of others, coupled with a motivation to care for their well-being. It has evolved in the context of parental care for offspring, as well as within kinship bonds, to help facilitate group living. In this paper, we integrate the perspectives of evolution, animal behaviour, developmental psychology, and social and clinical neuroscience to elucidate our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying empathy. We focus, in particular, on processing of signals of distress and need, and their relation to prosocial behaviour. The ability to empathize, both in animals and humans, mediates prosocial behaviour when sensitivity to others' distress is paired with a drive towards their welfare. Disruption or atypical development of the neural circuits that process distress cues and integrate them with decision value leads to callous disregard for others, as is the case in psychopathy. The realization that basic forms of empathy exist in non-human animals is crucial for gaining new insights into the underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of empathy, enabling translation towards therapeutic and pharmacological interventions. © 2015 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171949"><span>The amphibian skin-associated microbiome <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, space and life history stages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kueneman, Jordan G; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Woodhams, Douglas C; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Skin-associated bacteria of amphibians are increasingly recognized for their role in defence against pathogens, yet we have little understanding of their basic ecology. Here, we use high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the host and environmental influences on the skin microbiota of the cohabiting amphibian species Anaxyrus boreas, Pseudacris regilla, Taricha torosa and Lithobates catesbeianus from the Central Valley in California. We also studied populations of Rana cascadae over a large geographic range in the Klamath Mountain range of Northern California, and across developmental stages within a single site. Dominant bacterial phylotypes on amphibian skin included taxa from Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Sphingobacteria and Actinobacteria. Amphibian species identity was the strongest predictor of microbial community composition. Secondarily, within a given amphibian species, wetland site explained significant variation. Amphibian-associated microbiota differed systematically from microbial assemblages in their environments. Rana cascadae tadpoles have skin bacterial communities distinct from postmetamorphic conspecifics, indicating a strong developmental shift in the skin microbes following metamorphosis. Establishing patterns observed in the skin microbiota of wild amphibians and environmental factors that underlie them is necessary to understand skin symbiont community assembly, and ultimately, the role skin microbiota play in the extended host phenotype including disease resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318766"><span>Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms, and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e., hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 8269-8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e., the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) that lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e., hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g., insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g., roundworms and humans), the findings of Russell et al. highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection that could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309825','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309825"><span>Conserved changes in dynamics of metabolic processes during fruit development and ripening <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During these maturation processes, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organism...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16356269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16356269"><span>Ulysses - an application for the projection of molecular interactions <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kemmer, Danielle; Huang, Yong; Shah, Sohrab P; Lim, Jonathan; Brumm, Jochen; Yuen, Macaire M S; Ling, John; Xu, Tao; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Ouellette, B F Francis</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We developed Ulysses as a user-oriented system that uses a process called Interolog Analysis for the parallel analysis and display of protein interactions detected in various species. Ulysses was designed to perform such Interolog Analysis by the projection of model organism interaction data onto homologous human proteins, and thus serves as an accelerator for the analysis of uncharacterized human proteins. The relevance of projections was assessed and validated against published reference collections. All source code is freely available, and the Ulysses system can be accessed via a web interface http://www.cisreg.ca/ulysses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1414088','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1414088"><span>Ulysses - an application for the projection of molecular interactions <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kemmer, Danielle; Huang, Yong; Shah, Sohrab P; Lim, Jonathan; Brumm, Jochen; Yuen, Macaire MS; Ling, John; Xu, Tao; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Ouellette, BF Francis</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We developed Ulysses as a user-oriented system that uses a process called Interolog Analysis for the parallel analysis and display of protein interactions detected in various species. Ulysses was designed to perform such Interolog Analysis by the projection of model organism interaction data onto homologous human proteins, and thus serves as an accelerator for the analysis of uncharacterized human proteins. The relevance of projections was assessed and validated against published reference collections. All source code is freely available, and the Ulysses system can be accessed via a web interface . PMID:16356269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28296022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28296022"><span>Large but uneven reduction in fish size <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in relation to changing sea temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Rijn, Itai; Buba, Yehezkel; DeLong, John; Kiflawi, Moshe; Belmaker, Jonathan</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Ectotherms often attain smaller body sizes when they develop at higher temperatures. This phenomenon, known as the temperature-size rule, has important consequences for global fisheries, whereby ocean warming is predicted to result in smaller fish and reduced biomass. However, the generality of this phenomenon and the mechanisms that drive it in natural populations remain unresolved. In this study, we document the maximal size of 74 fish species along a steep temperature gradient in the Mediterranean Sea and find strong support for the temperature-size rule. Importantly, we additionally find that size reduction in active fish species is dramatically larger than for more sedentary species. As the temperature dependence of oxygen consumption depends on activity levels, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that oxygen is a limiting factor shaping the temperature-size rule in fishes. These results suggest that ocean warming will result in a sharp, but uneven, reduction in fish size that will cause major shifts in size-dependent interactions. Moreover, warming will have major implications for fisheries as the main species targeted for harvesting will show the most substantial declines in biomass. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666151"><span>United we stand: Adhesion and molecular mechanisms driving cell fusion <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zito, Francesca; Lampiasi, Nadia; Kireev, Igor; Russo, Roberta</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Cell-cell fusion is a physiological process playing an essential role for fertilization, shaping organs, tissue repair and immune defense in multicellular organisms. Recent research in the field aims to understand why two or more cells fuse each other and to decipher the general mechanisms regulating this process. Few basic and general steps can be identified, i.e. migration, adhesion and fusion, which are common to different types of cells. As pre-fused and fused cells undergo dramatic changes in their ultrastructure and behavior, the coordinated action of multiple factors is required, including adhesion molecules, cell surface receptors, intracellular kinases, transcription factors, and miRNAs. Although a number of reviews on cell-cell fusion have been published over the years, comprehensive reviews that broadly summarize this process including extracellular and intracellular cues are lacking. For example, a link between cell fusion and adhesive molecules and/or miRNAs has rarely been highlighted in the recent literature. In this review, we will summarize some molecular mechanisms controlling the process of somatic cell-cell fusion during embryonic development. We will specially focus on adhesive molecules, ECM components and miRNAs, providing a summary of important findings on their role in mediating this process in few model systems, in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103051"><span>An empirical strategy for characterizing bacterial proteomes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the absence of genomic sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turse, Joshua E; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, James K; Lipton, Mary S; Callister, Stephen J</p> <p>2010-11-12</p> <p>Global protein identification through current proteomics methods typically depends on the availability of sequenced genomes. In spite of increasingly high throughput sequencing technologies, this information is not available for every microorganism and rarely available for entire microbial communities. Nevertheless, the protein-level homology that exists between related bacteria makes it possible to extract biological information from the proteome of an organism or microbial community by using the genomic sequences of a near neighbor organism. Here, we demonstrate a trans-organism search strategy for determining the extent to which near-neighbor genome sequences can be applied to identify proteins in unsequenced environmental isolates. In proof of concept testing, we found that within a CLUSTAL W distance of 0.089, near-neighbor genomes successfully identified a high percentage of proteins within an organism. Application of this strategy to characterize environmental bacterial isolates lacking sequenced genomes, but having 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Shewanella resulted in the identification of 300-500 proteins in each strain. The majority of identified pathways mapped to core processes, as well as to processes unique to the Shewanellae, in particular to the presence of c-type cytochromes. Examples of core functional categories include energy metabolism, protein and nucleotide synthesis and cofactor biosynthesis, allowing classification of bacteria by observation of conserved processes. Additionally, within these core functionalities, we observed proteins involved in the alternative lactate utilization pathway, recently described in Shewanella.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhA..82..213S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhA..82..213S"><span>Variation in the material properties of spider dragline silk <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, B. O.; Blackledge, T. A.; Beltrán, J.; Hayashi, C. Y.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Spiders produce high performance fibers that compare favorably with the best manmade fibers in strength and toughness. The amino acid sequences of silk proteins have been determined for a number of silk types and species, revealing extensive variation. This variation in sequence is hypothesized to confer different material properties. However, the material properties of silk have been characterized from only a few ecologically similar species, even though spiders are extremely diverse. Using a Nano Bionix® tensile tester, we measured mechanical properties of one type of silk, the dragline, from a broad sample of spider species. These taxa included orb-weavers and representatives of other lineages of true spiders that do not spin aerial capture webs. We found that all of the species sampled produce high-performance dragline fibers, suggesting that the remarkable properties of dragline silk predate the origin of the aerial orb-web. However, we report significant variation in all of the material properties measured. Furthermore, material properties tend not to be correlated, implying that different properties may have been selected upon in different spider lineages. We suggest that the spectrum of dragline silk sequences and material properties that have been produced over evolutionary time provides a rich resource for the design of biomimetic silk fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28893979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28893979"><span>Exposure to unpredictable maternal sensory signals influences cognitive development <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davis, Elysia Poggi; Stout, Stephanie A; Molet, Jenny; Vegetabile, Brian; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Heins, Kevin; Stern, Hal; Baram, Tallie Z</p> <p>2017-09-26</p> <p>Maternal care is a critical determinant of child development. However, our understanding of processes and mechanisms by which maternal behavior influences the developing human brain remains limited. Animal research has illustrated that patterns of sensory information is important in shaping neural circuits during development. Here we examined the relation between degree of predictability of maternal sensory signals early in life and subsequent cognitive function in both humans (n = 128 mother/infant dyads) and rats (n = 12 dams; 28 adolescents). Behaviors of mothers interacting with their offspring were observed in both species, and an entropy rate was calculated as a quantitative measure of degree of predictability of transitions among maternal sensory signals (visual, auditory, and tactile). Human cognitive function was assessed at age 2 y with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and at age 6.5 y with a hippocampus-dependent delayed-recall task. Rat hippocampus-dependent spatial memory was evaluated on postnatal days 49-60. Early life exposure to unpredictable sensory signals portended poor cognitive performance in both species. The present study provides evidence that predictability of maternal sensory signals early in life impacts cognitive function in both rats and humans. The parallel between experimental animal and observational human data lends support to the argument that predictability of maternal sensory signals causally influences cognitive development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1470374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1470374"><span>Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for estrogen binding to the estrogen receptor: predictions <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tong, W; Perkins, R; Strelitz, R; Collantes, E R; Keenan, S; Welsh, W J; Branham, W S; Sheehan, D M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The recognition of adverse effects due to environmental endocrine disruptors in humans and wildlife has focused attention on the need for predictive tools to select the most likely estrogenic chemicals from a very large number of chemicals for subsequent screening and/or testing for potential environmental toxicity. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was constructed based on relative binding affinity (RBA) data from an estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay using calf uterine cytosol. The model demonstrated significant correlation of the calculated steric and electrostatic fields with RBA and yielded predictions that agreed well with experimental values over the entire range of RBA values. Analysis of the CoMFA three-dimensional contour plots revealed a consistent picture of the structural features that are largely responsible for the observed variations in RBA. Importantly, we established a correlation between the predicted RBA values for calf ER and their actual RBA values for human ER. These findings suggest a means to begin to construct a more comprehensive estrogen knowledge base by combining RBA assay data from multiple species in 3D-QSAR based predictive models, which could then be used to screen untested chemicals for their potential to bind to the ER. Another QSAR model was developed based on classical physicochemical descriptors generated using the CODESSA (Comprehensive Descriptors for Structural and Statistical Analysis) program. The predictive ability of the CoMFA model was superior to the corresponding CODESSA model. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9353176</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21960963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21960963"><span>A Flicker Change Detection Task Reveals Object-in-Scene Memory <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chau, Vivian L; Murphy, Emily F; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Ryan, Jennifer D; Hoffman, Kari L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Tests of recognition memory in macaques typically assay memory for objects or isolated images, over time spans of seconds to hours from stimulus presentation, and/or require extensive training. Here, we propose a new application of the flicker change detection task that could measure object-in-scene memory days after single-trial exposures. In three experiments, participants searched for a changing object - or "target" - embedded within a scene as their eye movements were tracked. For new targets-in-scenes, the change is difficult to detect and requires extensive search. Once the target is found, however, the change becomes obvious. We reasoned that the decreased times required to find a target in a repeated scene would indicate memory for the target. In humans, targets were found faster when the targets-and-scenes were explicitly remembered than when they were forgotten, or had never been seen before. This led to faster repeated-trial compared to novel-trial search times. Based solely on repeated-trial search times, we were able to select distributions comprised of predominantly remembered or predominantly forgotten trials. Macaques exhibited the same repetition effects as humans, suggesting that remembered trials could be dissociated from novel or forgotten trials using the same procedures we established in humans. Finally, an anterograde amnesic patient with damage that included the medial temporal lobe (MTL) showed no search time differences, suggesting that memory revealed through search times on this task requires MTL integrity. Together, these findings indicate that the time required to locate a changing object reveals object-in-scene memory over long retention intervals in humans and macaques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27508305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27508305"><span>Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phung, Tanya N; Huber, Christian D; Lohmueller, Kirk E</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only if more of the genome is under purifying selection than currently believed. Our work has implications for understanding the evolution of genomes and interpreting patterns of genetic variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694880','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694880"><span>Variation in Body Shape <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Populations in a Radiation of Diaptomid Copepods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hausch, Stephen; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Matthews, Blake</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Inter and intra-population variation in morphological traits, such as body size and shape, provides important insights into the ecological importance of individual natural populations. The radiation of Diaptomid species (~400 species) has apparently produced little morphological differentiation other than those in secondary sexual characteristics, suggesting sexual, rather than ecological, selection has driven speciation. This evolutionary history suggests that species, and conspecific populations, would be ecologically redundant but recent work found contrasting ecosystem effects among both species and populations. This study provides the first quantification of shape variation among species, populations, and/or sexes (beyond taxonomic illustrations and body size measurements) to gain insight into the ecological differentiation of Diaptomids. Here we quantify the shape of five Diaptomid species (family Diaptomidae) from four populations each, using morphometric landmarks on the prosome, urosome, and antennae. We partition morphological variation among species, populations, and sexes, and test for phenotype-by-environment correlations to reveal possible functional consequences of shape variation. We found that intraspecific variation was 18-35% as large as interspecific variation across all measured traits. Interspecific variation in body size and relative antennae length, the two traits showing significant sexual dimorphism, were correlated with lake size and geographic location suggesting some niche differentiation between species. Observed relationships between intraspecific morphological variation and the environment suggest that divergent selection in contrasting lakes might contribute to shape differences among local populations, but confirming this requires further analyses. Our results show that although Diaptomid species differ in their reproductive traits, they also differ in other morphological traits that might indicate ecological differences among species and populations. PMID:23826384</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176411','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176411"><span>A Flicker Change Detection Task Reveals Object-in-Scene Memory <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chau, Vivian L.; Murphy, Emily F.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Hoffman, Kari L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Tests of recognition memory in macaques typically assay memory for objects or isolated images, over time spans of seconds to hours from stimulus presentation, and/or require extensive training. Here, we propose a new application of the flicker change detection task that could measure object-in-scene memory days after single-trial exposures. In three experiments, participants searched for a changing object – or “target” – embedded within a scene as their eye movements were tracked. For new targets-in-scenes, the change is difficult to detect and requires extensive search. Once the target is found, however, the change becomes obvious. We reasoned that the decreased times required to find a target in a repeated scene would indicate memory for the target. In humans, targets were found faster when the targets-and-scenes were explicitly remembered than when they were forgotten, or had never been seen before. This led to faster repeated-trial compared to novel-trial search times. Based solely on repeated-trial search times, we were able to select distributions comprised of predominantly remembered or predominantly forgotten trials. Macaques exhibited the same repetition effects as humans, suggesting that remembered trials could be dissociated from novel or forgotten trials using the same procedures we established in humans. Finally, an anterograde amnesic patient with damage that included the medial temporal lobe (MTL) showed no search time differences, suggesting that memory revealed through search times on this task requires MTL integrity. Together, these findings indicate that the time required to locate a changing object reveals object-in-scene memory over long retention intervals in humans and macaques. PMID:21960963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685523"><span>Empathy as a driver of prosocial behaviour: highly conserved neurobehavioural mechanisms <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Decety, Jean; Bartal, Inbal Ben-Ami; Uzefovsky, Florina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Empathy reflects the natural ability to perceive and be sensitive to the emotional states of others, coupled with a motivation to care for their well-being. It has evolved in the context of parental care for offspring, as well as within kinship bonds, to help facilitate group living. In this paper, we integrate the perspectives of evolution, animal behaviour, developmental psychology, and social and clinical neuroscience to elucidate our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying empathy. We focus, in particular, on processing of signals of distress and need, and their relation to prosocial behaviour. The ability to empathize, both in animals and humans, mediates prosocial behaviour when sensitivity to others' distress is paired with a drive towards their welfare. Disruption or atypical development of the neural circuits that process distress cues and integrate them with decision value leads to callous disregard for others, as is the case in psychopathy. The realization that basic forms of empathy exist in non-human animals is crucial for gaining new insights into the underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of empathy, enabling translation towards therapeutic and pharmacological interventions. PMID:26644596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=154764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=154764"><span>Molecular Epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in Caprinae: Transmission <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Natural Outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Belloy, Luc; Janovsky, Martin; Vilei, Edy M.; Pilo, Paola; Giacometti, Marco; Frey, Joachim</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Mycoplasma conjunctivae is the etiological agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis, a highly contagious ocular infection that affects both domestic and wild Caprinae species in the European Alps. In order to study the transmission and spread of M. conjunctivae across domestic and wild Caprinae populations, we developed a molecular method for subtyping and identifying strains of M. conjunctivae. This method is based on DNA sequence determination of a variable domain within the gene lppS, a gene that encodes an antigenic lipoprotein of M. conjunctivae. This domain of lppS shows variations among different strains but remains constant upon generations of individual strains on growth medium and thus allows identification of individual strains and estimation of their phylogenetic intercorrelations. The variable domain of lppS is amplified by PCR using primers that match conserved sequences of lppS flanking it. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment enables fine subtyping of M. conjunctivae strains. The method is applicable both to isolated strains and to clinical samples directly without requiring the cultivation of the strain. Using this method, we show that M. conjunctivae was transmitted between domestic and wild animals that were grazing in proximate pastures. Certain animals also presented infections with two different strains simultaneously. PMID:12676664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000133"><span>An empirical strategy for characterizing bacterial proteomes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the absence of genomic sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turse, Joshua E.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Callister, Stephen J.</p> <p>2010-11-12</p> <p>Current methods in proteomics are dependent on the availability of sequenced genomes to identify proteins. However, genomic sequences are not always available for bacteria or microbial communities, even with high throughput sequencing technology becoming more readily available. Nevertheless, the homology that exists between related bacteria makes possible the extraction of meaningful biological information from an organism’s, or community’s proteome using the genomic sequence of a near neighbor. Here, a cross-organism search strategy was used to look at the amount of proteomics information obtainable with relative genetic distance from a near neighbor organism and to identify proteins in the proteome of minimally characterized environmental isolates. We conclude that closely related organisms with sequenced genomes, can be used to characterize proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes. In general, a cross-organism search strategy demonstrates the first step to use of sequences genomes to evaluate the proteomes of environmental bacteria and microbial communities that have no sequenced genome</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4533066','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4533066"><span>Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms, and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e., hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 8269–8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e., the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) that lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e., hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g., insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g., roundworms and humans), the findings of Russell et al. highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection that could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans. PMID:25318766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112772"><span>On the significance of an alternate pathway of melatonin synthesis via 5-methoxytryptamine: comparisons <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Back, Kyoungwhan; Manchester, Lucien C; Alatorre-Jimenez, Moises A; Reiter, Russel J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Melatonin is a phylogenetically ancient molecule. It is ubiquitously present in almost all organisms from primitive photosynthetic bacteria to humans. Its original primary function is presumable to be that of an antioxidant with other functions of this molecule having been acquired during evolution. The synthetic pathway of melatonin in vertebrates has been extensively studied. It is common knowledge that serotonin is acetylated to form N-acetylserotonin by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) or arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT or NAT) and N-acetylserotonin is, subsequently, methylated to melatonin by N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; also known as hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, HIOMT). This is referred to as a classic melatonin synthetic pathway. Based on new evidence, we feel that this classic melatonin pathway is not generally the prevailing route of melatonin production. An alternate pathway is known to exist, in which serotonin is first O-methylated to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) and, thereafter, 5-MT is N-acetylated to melatonin. Here, we hypothesize that the alternate melatonin synthetic pathway may be more important in certain organisms and under certain conditions. Evidence strongly supports that this alternate pathway prevails in some plants, bacteria, and, perhaps, yeast and may also occur in animals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19221685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19221685"><span>Regulatory evolution of a duplicated heterodimer <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and tissues of allopolyploid clawed frogs (Xenopus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Dave W; Evans, Ben J</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Changes in gene expression contribute to reproductive isolation of species, adaptation, and development and may impact the genetic fate of duplicated genes. African clawed frogs (genus Xenopus) offer a useful model for examining regulatory evolution, particularly after gene duplication, because species in this genus are polyploid. Additionally, these species can produce viable hybrids, and expression divergence between coexpressed species-specific alleles in hybrids can be attributed exclusively to cis-acting mechanisms. Here we have explored expression divergence of a duplicated heterodimer composed of the recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2). Previous work identified a phylogenetically biased pattern of pseudogenization of RAG1 wherein one duplicate--RAG1beta--was more likely to become a pseudogene than the other one--RAG1alpha. In this study we show that ancestral expression divergence between these duplicates could account for this. Using comparative data we demonstrate that regulatory divergence between species and between duplicated genes varies significantly across tissue types. These results have implications for understanding of variables that influence pseudogenization of duplicated genes generated by polyploidization, and for interpretation of the relative contributions of cis versus trans mechanisms to expression divergence at the cellular level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/45646','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/45646"><span>Predicting how altering propagule pressure changes establishment rates of biological invaders <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> pools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Andrew M. Liebhold; Robert A. Haack; Joseph F. Cavey</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biological invasions resulting from international trade can cause major environmental and economic impacts. Propagule pressure is perhaps the most important factor influencing establishment, although actual arrival rates of species are rarely recorded. Furthermore, the pool of potential invaders includes many species that vary in their arrival rate and establishment...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4467761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4467761"><span>Microsatellite markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) amplify <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prebble, Jessica M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Meudt, Heidi M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed as polymorphic markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) for use in species delimitation and population and conservation genetic studies. Methods and Results: Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed on genomic DNA from seedlings of M. drucei. From trimmed paired-end sequences >400 bp, 484 microsatellite loci were identified. Twelve of 48 microsatellite loci tested were found to be polymorphic and consistently scorable when screened on 53 individuals from four populations representing the geographic range of M. drucei. They also amplify in all other species in the M. pygmaea species group, i.e., M. antarctica, M. brevis, M. glauca, and M. pygmaea, as well as 18 other Myosotis species. Conclusions: These 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers establish an important resource for research and conservation of the M. pygmaea species group and potentially other Southern Hemisphere Myosotis. PMID:26082880</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3951321','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3951321"><span>The Voice of Emotion <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718956"><span>The effect of resveratrol on longevity <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: a meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hector, Katie L; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi</p> <p>2012-10-23</p> <p>Resveratrol has shown evidence of decreasing cancer incidence, heart disease, metabolic syndrome and neural degeneration in animal studies. However, the effects on longevity are mixed. We aimed to quantify the current knowledge of life extension from resveratrol. We used meta-analytic techniques to assess the effect resveratrol has on survival, using data from 19 published papers, including six species: yeast, nematodes, mice, fruitflies, Mexican fruitflies and turquoise killifish. Overall, our results indicate that resveratrol acts as a life-extending agent. The effect is most potent in yeast and nematodes, with diminished reliability in most higher-order species. Turquoise killifish were especially sensitive to life-extending effects of resveratrol but showed much variation. Much of the considerable heterogeneity in our analysis was owing to unexplained variation between studies. In summary, we can report that few species conclusively show life extension in response to resveratrol. As such, we question the practice of the substance being marketed as a life-extending health supplement for humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941167"><span>ArkMAP: integrating genomic maps <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and data sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paterson, Trevor; Law, Andy</p> <p>2013-08-13</p> <p>The visualisation of genetic and genomic maps aligned within and between species and across data sources can be used to inform studies of genome evolution, assist genome assembly projects and aid gene discovery and identification. Whilst annotation, integration and exploration of assembled genome sequences is well supported, there are fewer tools available which can display genetic maps for less well-characterized species, and integrate these maps with annotated reference genomes to support cross species comparisons. We have developed a desktop application to draw and align genetic and genomic maps, retrieved from remote data sources or loaded as local files. Maps can be retrieved from our public map database ArkDB or from any Ensembl data source (i.e. Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes). By using the JEnsembl API, maps can be drawn for any release version of any of the thousands of species present in Ensembl data sources, allowing not only inter-specific comparisons, but also comparisons between different versions/revisions of assembled genomes. Maps can be aligned by relating identical or synonymous markers across maps, or through the gene homology/orthology relationship data stored in the Ensembl Compara databases, allowing ready visualization of regions of conserved synteny between species. The map drawing canvas is highly configurable, supports interactive exploration of maps, markers and relationships and allows export of publication quality graphics. ArkMAP allows users to draw and interactively explore gene and variation maps for any version of any annotated genome curated in the Ensembl data sources, and to integrate local mapping data. The maps and inter-map relationships drawn are highly configurable and ArkMAP may be used to produce publication quality graphics. ArkMAP is freely available as an auto-updating Java 'Web Start' application, or as a standalone archived application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2980473','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2980473"><span>An Empirical Strategy for Characterizing Bacterial Proteomes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in the Absence of Genomic Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Turse, Joshua E.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Callister, Stephen J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Global protein identification through current proteomics methods typically depends on the availability of sequenced genomes. In spite of increasingly high throughput sequencing technologies, this information is not available for every microorganism and rarely available for entire microbial communities. Nevertheless, the protein-level homology that exists between related bacteria makes it possible to extract biological information from the proteome of an organism or microbial community by using the genomic sequences of a near neighbor organism. Here, we demonstrate a trans-organism search strategy for determining the extent to which near-neighbor genome sequences can be applied to identify proteins in unsequenced environmental isolates. In proof of concept testing, we found that within a CLUSTAL W distance of 0.089, near-neighbor genomes successfully identified a high percentage of proteins within an organism. Application of this strategy to characterize environmental bacterial isolates lacking sequenced genomes, but having 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Shewanella resulted in the identification of 300–500 proteins in each strain. The majority of identified pathways mapped to core processes, as well as to processes unique to the Shewanellae, in particular to the presence of c-type cytochromes. Examples of core functional categories include energy metabolism, protein and nucleotide synthesis and cofactor biosynthesis, allowing classification of bacteria by observation of conserved processes. Additionally, within these core functionalities, we observed proteins involved in the alternative lactate utilization pathway, recently described in Shewanella. PMID:21103051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28495866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28495866"><span>Sources of variance in immunological traits: evidence of congruent latitudinal trends <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meister, Hendrik; Tammaru, Toomas; Sandre, Siiri-Lii; Freitak, Dalial</p> <p>2017-07-15</p> <p>Among-population differences in immunological traits allow assessment of both evolutionary and plastic changes in organisms' resistance to pathogens. Such knowledge also provides information necessary to predict responses of such traits to environmental changes. Studies on latitudinal trends in insect immunity have so far yielded contradictory results, suggesting that multispecies approaches with highly standardised experimental conditions are needed. Here, we studied among-population differences of two parameters reflecting constitutive immunity-phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity, using common-garden design on three distantly related moth species represented by populations ranging from northern Finland to Georgia (Caucasus). The larvae were reared at different temperatures and on different host plants under a crossed factors experimental design. Haemolymph samples for measurement of immune status were taken from the larvae strictly synchronously. Clear among-population differences could be shown only for PO activity in one species (elevated activity in the northern populations). There was some indication that the cases of total absence of lytic activity were more common in southern populations. The effects of temperature, host and sex on the immunological traits studied remained highly species specific. Some evidence was found that lytic activity may be involved in mediating trade-offs between immunity and larval growth performance. In contrast, PO activity rarely covaried with fitness-related traits, and neither were the values of PO and lytic activity correlated with each other. The relatively inconsistent nature of the detected patterns suggests that studies on geographic differences in immunological traits should involve multiple species, and rely on several immunological indices if general trends are a point of interest. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=471549','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=471549"><span>Biologically meaningful expression profiling <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using heterologous hybridization to a cDNA microarray</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Renn, Susan CP; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Hofmann, Hans A</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Background Unravelling the path from genotype to phenotype, as it is influenced by an organism's environment, is one of the central goals in biology. Gene expression profiling by means of microarrays has become very prominent in this endeavour, although resources exist only for relatively few model systems. As genomics has matured into a comparative research program, expression profiling now also provides a powerful tool for non-traditional model systems to elucidate the molecular basis of complex traits. Results Here we present a microarray constructed with ~4500 features, derived from a brain-specific cDNA library for the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni (Perciformes). Heterologous hybridization, targeting RNA to an array constructed for a different species, is used for eight different fish species. We quantified the concordance in gene expression profiles across these species (number of genes and fold-changes). Although most robust when target RNA is derived from closely related species (<10 MA divergence time), our results showed consistent profiles for other closely related taxa (~65 MA divergence time) and, to a lesser extent, even very distantly related species (>200 MA divergence time). Conclusion This strategy overcomes some of the restrictions imposed on model systems that are of importance for evolutionary and ecological studies, but for which only limited sequence information is available. Our work validates the use of expression profiling for functional genomics within a comparative framework and provides a foundation for the molecular and cellular analysis of complex traits in a wide range of organisms. PMID:15238158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157257','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157257"><span>Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and elevations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an effective alternative to mosquito blood meal analysis for determining vector-host contacts when mosquito densities are low and collection of blood-fed mosquitoes is impractical. Our study supports the hypothesis that avian malaria has been a primary factor influencing the elevational distribution and abundance of these three species, and likely limits other native Hawaiian species that are susceptible to malaria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42290','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42290"><span>Incorporating latitudinal and central–marginal trends in assessing genetic variation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Qinfeng Guo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The genetic variation across a species’ range is an important factor in speciation and conservation, yet searching for general patterns and underlying causes remains challenging. While the majority of comparisons between central and marginal populations have revealed a general central–marginal (C-M) decline in genetic diversity, others show no clear pattern. Similarly...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17886485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17886485"><span><span class="hlt">Investigative</span> negotiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malhotra, Deepak; Bazerman, Max H</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Negotiators often fail to achieve results because they channel too much effort into selling their own position and too little into understanding the other party's perspective. To get the best deal -or, sometimes, any deal at al--egotiators need to think like detectives, digging for information about why the other side wants what it does. This <span class="hlt">investigative</span> approach entails a mind-set and a methodology, say Harvard Business School professors Malhotra and Bazerman. Inaccurate assumptions about the other side's motivations can lead negotiators to propose solutions to the wrong problems, needlessly give away value, or derail deals altogether. Consider, for example, the pharmaceutical company that deadlocked with a supplier over the issue of exclusivity in an ingredient purchase. Believing it was a ploy to raise the price, the drugmaker upped its offer--unsuccessfully. In fact, the supplier was balking because a relative's company needed a small amount of the ingredient to make a local product. Once the real motivation surfaced, a compromise quickly followed. Understanding the other side's motives and goals is the first principle of <span class="hlt">investigative</span> negotiation. The second is to figure out what constraints the other party faces. Often when your counterpart's behavior appears unreasonable, his hands are tied somehow, and you can reach agreement by helping overcome those limitations. The third is to view onerous demands as a window into what the other party prizes most--and use that information to create opportunities. The fourth is to look for common ground; even fierce competitors may have complementary interests that lead to creative agreements. Finally, if a deal appears lost, stay at the table and keep trying to learn more. Even if you don't win, you can gain insights into a customer's future needs, the interests of similar customers, or the strategies of competitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3366962','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3366962"><span>A Novel Task for the <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Action Acquisition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stafford, Tom; Thirkettle, Martin; Walton, Tom; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hetherington, Len; Port, Michael; Gurney, Kevin; Redgrave, Pete</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present a behavioural task designed for the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of how novel instrumental actions are discovered and learnt. The task consists of free movement with a manipulandum, during which the full range of possible movements can be explored by the participant and recorded. A subset of these movements, the ‘target’, is set to trigger a reinforcing signal. The task is to discover what movements of the manipulandum evoke the reinforcement signal. Targets can be defined in spatial, temporal, or kinematic terms, can be a combination of these aspects, or can represent the concatenation of actions into a larger gesture. The task allows the study of how the specific elements of behaviour which cause the reinforcing signal are identified, refined and stored by the participant. The task provides a paradigm where the exploratory motive drives learning and as such we view it as in the tradition of Thorndike [1]. Most importantly it allows for repeated measures, since when a novel action is acquired the criterion for triggering reinforcement can be changed requiring a new action to be discovered. Here, we present data using both humans and rats as subjects, showing that our task is easily scalable in difficulty, adaptable <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and produces a rich set of behavioural measures offering new and valuable insight into the action learning process. PMID:22675490</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670813','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670813"><span>Normal ranges and variability of novel urinary renal biomarkers in Sprague-Dawley Rats: comparison of constitutive values between males and females and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">assay</span> platforms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gautier, Jean-Charles; Gury, Thierry; Guffroy, Magali; Khan-Malek, Richard; Hoffman, David; Pettit, Syril; Harpur, Ernie</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Differences were examined between male and female Sprague-Dawley rats in basal levels of a wide range of urinary biomarkers, including 7 recently qualified biomarkers. The data were generated from urine samples collected on 3 occasions from untreated rats included in a study of the effect of gentamicin nephrotoxicity on urinary renal biomarkers, reported in a companion article in this journal (Gautier et al. 2014). The performance of multiple assays (9 singleplex assays and 2 multiplex platforms from Rules Based Medicine [RBM] and Meso Scale Discovery [MSD]) was evaluated, and normal ranges and variability estimates were derived. While variability was generally greater on the RBM platform than other assays, the more striking difference in the results from different assays was in magnitude. Where differences were observed between assays for an individual biomarker, they were seen in both sexes and consistent across samples collected at different time points. Differences of up to 15-fold were observed for some biomarker values between assays indicating that results generated using different assays should not be compared. For 8 biomarkers, there was compelling evidence for a sex difference. Baseline values in males were significantly higher than in females for total protein, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, cystatin-C, glutathione-S-transferase (GST-α), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); female values were significantly higher than that of males for albumin. The largest sex differences (male greater than female by 2- to 11-fold) were seen with β2-microglobulin, GST-α, and TIMP-1. These data add substantially to the limited body of knowledge in this area and provide a useful framework for evaluation of the potential relevance of sex differences in the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers. © 2014 by The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2873954','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2873954"><span>Using comparative genomic hybridization to survey genomic sequence divergence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: a proof-of-concept from Drosophila</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Genome-wide analysis of sequence divergence among species offers profound insights into the evolutionary processes that shape lineages. When full-genome sequencing is not feasible for a broad comparative study, we propose the use of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in order to identify orthologous genes with high sequence divergence. Here we discuss experimental design, statistical power, success rate, sources of variation and potential confounding factors. We used a spotted PCR product microarray platform from Drosophila melanogaster to assess sequence divergence on a gene-by-gene basis in three fully sequenced heterologous species (D. sechellia, D. simulans, and D. yakuba). Because complete genome assemblies are available for these species this study presents a powerful test for the use of aCGH as a tool to measure sequence divergence. Results We found a consistent and linear relationship between hybridization ratio and sequence divergence of the sample to the platform species. At higher levels of sequence divergence (< 92% sequence identity to D. melanogaster) ~84% of features had significantly less hybridization to the array in the heterologous species than the platform species, and thus could be identified as "diverged". At lower levels of divergence (≥ 97% identity), only 13% of genes were identified as diverged. While ~40% of the variation in hybridization ratio can be accounted for by variation in sequence identity of the heterologous sample relative to D. melanogaster, other individual characteristics of the DNA sequences, such as GC content, also contribute to variation in hybridization ratio, as does technical variation. Conclusions Here we demonstrate that aCGH can accurately be used as a proxy to estimate genome-wide divergence, thus providing an efficient way to evaluate how evolutionary processes and genomic architecture can shape species diversity in non-model systems. Given the increased number of species for which microarray platforms are available, comparative studies can be conducted for many interesting lineages in order to identify highly diverged genes that may be the target of natural selection. PMID:20429934</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309931&keyword=china+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90743642&CFTOKEN=20384186','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309931&keyword=china+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90743642&CFTOKEN=20384186"><span>Sequence alignment to predict <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> susceptibility (SeqAPASS): Cross species extrapolation in the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to develop innovative approaches and decision support tools for the safety assessment of current and emerging chemicals in relation to their impact on the environment. To support this goal, there is a compelling need for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27067302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27067302"><span>Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Worthen, Wade B; Hart, Thomas M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite's stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis(Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development ofA. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis(Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis(females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331390&keyword=endocrine+AND+system&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331390&keyword=endocrine+AND+system&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity information using the Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the United States, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) was established to identify chemicals that may lead to adverse effects via perturbation of the endocrine system (i.e., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone systems). In the mid-1990s the EDSP adopted a two ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2346469','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2346469"><span>ReXSpecies – a tool for the analysis of the evolution of gene regulation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Annotated phylogenetic trees that display the evolution of transcription factor binding in regulatory regions are useful for e.g. 1) narrowing down true positive predicted binding sites, providing predictions for binding sites that can be tested experimentally, and 2) giving insight into the evolution of gene regulation and regulatory networks. Results We describe ReXSpecies, a web-server that processes the sequence information of a regulatory region for multiple species and associated (predicted) transcription factor binding sites into two figures: a) An annotated alignment of sequence and binding sites, consolidated and filtered for ease of use, and b) an annotated tree labeled by the gain and loss of binding sites, where the tree can be calculated from the data or taken from a trusted taxonomy, and the labels are calculated based on standard or Dollo parsimony. For genes involved in mammalian pluripotency, ReXSpecies trees highlight useful patterns of transcription factor binding site gain and loss, e.g. for the Oct and Sox group of factors in the 3' untranslated region of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene, which closely match experimental data. Conclusion ReXSpecies post-processes the information provided by transcription factor binding site prediction tools, in order to compare data from many species. The tool eases visualization and successive interpretation of transcription factor binding data in an evolutionary context. The ReXSpecies URL can be found in the Availability and requirements section. PMID:18410675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310170&keyword=Wildlife+AND+Conservation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78678654&CFTOKEN=81390910','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310170&keyword=Wildlife+AND+Conservation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78678654&CFTOKEN=81390910"><span>Application of a framework for extrapolating chemical effects <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in pathways controlled by estrogen receptor-á</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053200"><span>Combined neuroimaging and gene expression analysis of the genetic basis of brain plasticity indicates <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> homology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dinai, Yonatan; Wolf, Lior; Assaf, Yaniv</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Brain plasticity and memory formation depend on the expression of a large number of genes. This relationship had been studied using several experimental approaches and researchers have identified genes regulating plasticity through a variety of mechanisms. Despite this effort, a great deal remains unknown regarding the role of different genes in brain plasticity. Previous studies usually focused on specific brain structures and many of the genes influencing plasticity have yet to be identified. In this work, we integrate results of in vivo neuroimaging studies of plasticity with whole-brain gene expression data for the study of neuroplasticity. Brain regions, found in the imaging study to be involved in plasticity, are first spatially mapped to the anatomical framework of the genetic database. Feature ranking methods are then applied to identify genes that are differentially expressed in these regions. We find that many of our highly ranked genes are involved in synaptic transmission and that some of these genes have been previously associated with learning and memory. We show these results to be consistent when applying our method to gene expression data from four human subjects. Finally, by performing similar experiments in mice, we reveal significant cross species correlation in the ranking of genes. In addition to the identification of plasticity related candidate genes, our results also demonstrate the potential of data integration approaches as a tool to link high level phenomena such as learning and memory to underlying molecular mechanisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4339032','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4339032"><span>Early life seizures: Evidence for chronic deficits linked to autism and intellectual disability <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bernard, Paul B.; Benke, Tim A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent work in Exp Neurol by Lugo et al. (2014b) demonstrated chronic alterations in sociability, learning and memory following multiple early life seizures (ELS) in a mouse model. This work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the detrimental nature of ELS on the developing brain to contribute to aspects of an autistic phenotype with intellectual disability. Review of the face validity of behavioral testing and the construct validity of the models used informs the predictive ability and thus the utility of these models to translate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms into future human studies. PMID:25284323</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345047"><span>BACE1 <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: a comparison of the in vivo consequences of BACE1 deletion in mice and rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weber, Martin; Wu, Tiffany; Meilandt, William J.; Dominguez, Sara L.; Solanoy, Hilda O.; Maloney, Janice A.; Ngu, Hai; Baca, Miriam; Kung, Chung; Lima, Lisa; Earr, Timothy K.; Fleck, Daniel; Shields, Shannon D.; Forrest, William F.; Foreman, Oded; Warming, Søren; Watts, Ryan J.; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Assessing BACE1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1) knockout mice for general health and neurological function may be useful in predicting risks associated with prolonged pharmacological BACE1 inhibition, a treatment approach currently being developed for Alzheimer’s disease. To determine whether BACE1 deletion-associated effects in mice generalize to another species, we developed a novel Bace1−/− rat line using zinc-finger nuclease technology and compared Bace1−/− mice and rats with their Bace1+/+ counterparts. Lack of BACE1 was confirmed in Bace1−/− animals from both species. Removal of BACE1 affected startle magnitude, balance beam performance, pain response, and nerve myelination in both species. While both mice and rats lacking BACE1 have shown increased mortality, the increase was smaller and restricted to early developmental stages for rats. Bace1−/− mice and rats further differed in body weight, spontaneous locomotor activity, and prepulse inhibition of startle. While the effects of species and genetic background on these phenotypes remain difficult to distinguish, our findings suggest that BACE1’s role in myelination and some sensorimotor functions is consistent between mice and rats and may be conserved in other species. Other phenotypes differ between these models, suggesting that some effects of BACE1 inhibition vary with the biological context (e.g. species or background strain). PMID:28281673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243481','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243481"><span>Plasma lipid profiling <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia[S</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G.; Mendoza, Vivienne H.; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S.; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N.; Eiermann, George J.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L. Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L.; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A.; Donnelly, Marcie J.; Voronin, Gregory O.; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J.; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Koblan, Ken S.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310170&keyword=analysis+AND+enzymes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310170&keyword=analysis+AND+enzymes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Application of a framework for extrapolating chemical effects <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in pathways controlled by estrogen receptor-á</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986769"><span>OntologicalDiscovery.org: A web resource for the empirical discovery of phenotypic relations <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and experimental systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, Erich J; Li, Zuopan; Jay, Jeremy J; Philip, Vivek M; Zhang, Yun; Langston, Michael A; Chesler, Elissa J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Ontological Discovery Environment ( http://ontologicaldiscovery.org ) is a free, public Internet resource for the storage, sharing, retrieval and analysis of phenotype-centered genomic data sets. The intent of this resource is to allow the creation of user-defined phenotype categories based on naturally and experimentally observed biological networks, pathways and systems rather than on externally manifested constructs and semantics such as disease names and processes. By extracting the relationships of complex processes from the technology that produces those relationships, this resource meets a growing demand for data integration and hypothesis discovery across multiple experimental contexts, including broad species and phenotype domains. At a highly processed level, analyses of set similarity, distance and hierarchical relations are performed through a modular suite of tools. The core pivot point of analysis is the creation of a bipartite network of gene-phenotype relations, a unique discrete graph approach to gene-set analysis which enables set-set matching of non-referential data. The central organizing metaphor of a gene set may be created, stored and curated by individual users, shared among virtual working groups, or made publicly available. Gene sets submission incorporates a variety of accession numbers, microarray feature IDs, and gene symbols from model organisms, allowing integration across experimental platforms, literature reviews and other genomic analyses. The sets themselves are annotated with several levels of metadata which may include an unstructured description, publication information and structured community ontologies for anatomy, process and function. Gene set translation to user chosen reference species through gene homology allows translational comparison of models regardless of the face validity of the experimental systems. In addition, computationally derived gene sets can be integrated into phenome interdependency and similarity hierarchy graphs, which are hierarchical trees of phenotypes based on the genes to which they are associated. This provides an empirical discovery of the natural phenotype ontology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864583','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864583"><span>Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Worthen, Wade B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite’s stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development of A. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis (females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis. We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species. PMID:27067302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331390&keyword=Invertebrates&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91067947&CFTOKEN=73174089','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331390&keyword=Invertebrates&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91067947&CFTOKEN=73174089"><span>Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity information using the Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the United States, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) was established to identify chemicals that may lead to adverse effects via perturbation of the endocrine system (i.e., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone systems). In the mid-1990s the EDSP adopted a two ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466725"><span>Uniform climate sensitivity in tree-ring stable isotopes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tree-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and tree-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in δ(13)C and δ(18)O across sites and species, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and species. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the δ(13)C and δ(18)O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r = -0.72 for δ(18)O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ∼3‰ for δ(13)C, indicating species-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of tree-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of tree species growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714823H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714823H"><span>Uniform climate sensitivity in tree-ring stable isotopes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Tree-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of δ13C, δ18O and tree-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in δ13C and δ18O across sites and species, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and species. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the δ13C and δ18O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r = -0.72 for δ18O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ˜3‰ for δ13C, indicating species-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of tree-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of tree species growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1093275.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1093275.pdf"><span>Purposeful Statistical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Day, Lorraine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lorraine Day provides us with a great range of statistical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> using various resources such as maths300 and TinkerPlots. Each of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> link mathematics to students' lives and provide engaging and meaningful contexts for mathematical inquiry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=protease&pg=2&id=EJ558752','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=protease&pg=2&id=EJ558752"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> with Protease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yip, Din Yan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents two simple and reliable ways for measuring protease activity that can be used for a variety of <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in a range of biology class levels. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> use protease from a variety of sources. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Protease&pg=2&id=EJ558752','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Protease&pg=2&id=EJ558752"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> with Protease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yip, Din Yan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents two simple and reliable ways for measuring protease activity that can be used for a variety of <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in a range of biology class levels. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> use protease from a variety of sources. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+activity&pg=3&id=EJ663525','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+activity&pg=3&id=EJ663525"><span>Success with <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chin, Christine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Describes strategies for facilitating student science <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and alleviating common weaknesses associated with student performance. Includes checklist criteria for performance on <span class="hlt">investigative</span> tasks and an example of an assessment rubric for the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. (Author/KHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature+AND+effect+AND+enzyme+AND+activity&id=EJ663525','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature+AND+effect+AND+enzyme+AND+activity&id=EJ663525"><span>Success with <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chin, Christine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Describes strategies for facilitating student science <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and alleviating common weaknesses associated with student performance. Includes checklist criteria for performance on <span class="hlt">investigative</span> tasks and an example of an assessment rubric for the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. (Author/KHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019277','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019277"><span>Magsat scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The Magsat spacecraft is providing the first global, vector magnetic survey. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> using the Magsat data are being carried out by scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, at the U.S. Geological Survey of the Department of the Interior and by 32 selected <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. Nineteen of the <span class="hlt">investigators</span> are from the United States and 13 are from various foreign nations. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> described fall into four categories; (1) geomagnetic field modeling; (2) crustal magnetic anomaly studies; (3) <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the inner Earth: the core, mantle and core-mantle interface; and (4) studies of external current systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841425"><span>Semisynthesis of SY-1 for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of breast cancer stem cell selectivity of C-ring-modified salinomycin analogues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Xiaoli; Borgström, Björn; Månsson, Linda; Persson, Lo; Oredsson, Stina; Hegardt, Cecilia; Strand, Daniel</p> <p>2014-07-18</p> <p>Salinomycin, a naturally occurring polyether ionophore was recently found to selectively reduce the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells, a phenotype associated with breast cancer stem cells. Subsequent studies from our group showed that chemical modification of the allylic C20 hydroxyl of salinomycin, located at the C-ring, can enhance the activity of derivatives against breast cancer cells over 5-fold compared to the native structure. Access to C-ring-modified salinomycin analogues is thus of interest from both a mechanistic and a synthetic perspective. Here, we report efficient strategies for gram scale synthesis of the natural product SY-1 (20-deoxy salinomycin), and a saturated analogue, 18,19-dihydro SY-1, for a comparative in vitro <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the biological profiles of these compounds with that of salinomycin. Across several assays, the deoxygenated structures required higher concentrations to elicit similar cellular responses to that of salinomycin. Similarly to salinomycin, SY-1 or 18,19-dihydro SY-1 treatment was found to reduce the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells with essentially complete selectivity up to ∼IC25. Importantly, the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells showed a pronounced U-shaped dose response curve for salinomycin and its derivatives, but not for paclitaxel. The concentration for maximum response in this assay followed differences in IC50 for salinomycin and its analogues, which emphasizes the importance of taking concentration dependence into account when comparing effects on the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype. Small differences in the global conformation within the triad of compounds <span class="hlt">investigated</span> together with differences in activity <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">assays</span> emphasize the importance of substitution at C20 for the activity of salinomycin and its derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642921"><span>Infant death scene <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene <span class="hlt">investigation</span> by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene <span class="hlt">investigations</span> as well as train others to properly conduct death scene <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ftim.book...29M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ftim.book...29M"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Encrypted Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe</p> <p></p> <p>When encrypted material is discovered during a digital <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and the <span class="hlt">investigator</span> cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital <span class="hlt">investigator</span> must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital <span class="hlt">investigation</span> can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-KSC-03pd0404.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-KSC-03pd0404.html"><span>Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Board</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-02-13</p> <p>Members of the Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Board examine pieces of Columbia debris in the RLV Hangar. The debris was shipped from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing <span class="hlt">investigation</span> into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the RLV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=crab&pg=5&id=EJ273250','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=crab&pg=5&id=EJ273250"><span>Sea Anemone: <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hunt, John D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">investigations</span> can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810032087&hterms=Scientific+investigations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DScientific%2Binvestigations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810032087&hterms=Scientific+investigations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DScientific%2Binvestigations"><span>Magsat scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The nature of the geomagnetic field and of presatellite and early satellite measurements is described. The objectives of each <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in the areas of geomagnetic modeling, crustal magnetic anomaly studies, <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the inner earth, and studies of external current systems are presented, along with some early results from Magsat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018427','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018427"><span>Vamistor resistor <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Results are presented of the failure <span class="hlt">investigation</span> conducted on resistors produced by the Vamistor Divison, Wagner Electric Corporation. This failure <span class="hlt">investigation</span> included; failure analyses, chemical and metallurgical analyses, failure mechanism studies, seal leak analyses, and nondestructive stress tests. The data, information, conclusions, and recommendation can be helpful in assessing current usage of these resistors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=biology+AND+concepts+AND+investigations&pg=4&id=EJ679759','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=biology+AND+concepts+AND+investigations&pg=4&id=EJ679759"><span>Assessment of Biology <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roberts, Ros; Gott, Richard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Makes a case for the assessment of <span class="hlt">investigations</span> against the Concept of Evidence in written tests as a potentially more reliable and valid way of assessing the ideas used in all types of biology <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, thus reducing the distorting effect of assessment on the curriculum. (Author/SOE)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=watergate+AND+scandal&id=EJ572683','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=watergate+AND+scandal&id=EJ572683"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Watergate Scandal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ritchie, Donald A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes the events leading up to and the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> that followed the Watergate break-in. Presents a lesson plan using primary documents that allows students to explore the workings of congressional <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, the key figures in the scandal, and the arguments of the different participants. Includes copies of the documents. (DSK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000002826','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000002826"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Martian Sedimentology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Jeffrey M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this report is to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> and discuss the Martian surface. This report was done in specific tasks. The tasks were: characterization of Martian fluids and chemical sediments; mass wasting and ground collapse in terrains of volatile-rich deposits; Mars Rover terrestrial field <span class="hlt">investigations</span>; Mars Pathfinder operations support; and Martian subsurface water instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022760','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022760"><span>Microgravity silicon zoning <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> and methods for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535652','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535652"><span>Translational Rodent Paradigms to <span class="hlt">Investigate</span> Neuromechanisms Underlying Behaviors Relevant to Amotivation and Altered Reward Processing in Schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Jared W.; Markou, Athina</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Amotivation and reward-processing deficits have long been described in patients with schizophrenia and considered large contributors to patients’ inability to integrate well in society. No effective treatments exist for these symptoms, partly because the neuromechanisms mediating such symptoms are poorly understood. Here, we propose a translational neuroscientific approach that can be used to assess reward/motivational deficits related to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia using behavioral paradigms that can also be conducted in experimental animals. By designing and using objective laboratory behavioral tools that are parallel in their parameters in rodents and humans, the neuromechanisms underlying behaviors with relevance to these symptoms of schizophrenia can be <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. We describe tasks that measure the motivation of rodents to expend physical and cognitive effort to gain rewards, as well as probabilistic learning tasks that assess both reward learning and feedback-based decision making. The latter tasks are relevant because of demonstrated links of performance deficits correlating with negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. These tasks utilize operant techniques in order to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> neural circuits targeting a specific domain <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. These tasks therefore enable the development of insights into altered mechanisms leading to negative symptom-relevant behaviors in patients with schizophrenia. Such findings will then enable the development of targeted treatments for these altered neuromechanisms and behaviors seen in schizophrenia. PMID:26194891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15646144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15646144"><span>[Biomedical <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in Mexico].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Biomedical research as a professional specialty developed in the Western World in the following four stages: 1) primitive medicine based on magico-religious concepts; 2) hippocratic medicine (500 AD), which renounced supernatural ideas on disease; 3) scientific medicine (1543), which eschewed tradition and authority, and 4) finally in 1813, the first full-time professional biomedical <span class="hlt">investigator</span> Claude Bernard was appointed in France. Notheless, the first full-time professional biomedical <span class="hlt">investigator</span> in Mexico did not appear until 1939, and the number is still growing despite present restrictions to <span class="hlt">investigator</span> growth and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/investigational-drug-access-fact-sheet','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/investigational-drug-access-fact-sheet"><span>Access to <span class="hlt">Investigational</span> Drugs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... access to <span class="hlt">investigational</span> drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? Are there specific criteria used to determine whether ... laboratory. If the results are promising, the drug company or sponsor must apply for FDA approval to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009108','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009108"><span>Skylab EREP <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierson, W. J. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The problems in the areas of agriculture, range and forestry; land use and cartography; geology and hydrology; oceans atmosphere, and data analysis techniques were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> and summarized using Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0004399&hterms=Dendrite+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDendrite%2Bgrowth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0004399&hterms=Dendrite+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDendrite%2Bgrowth"><span>Dendritic Growth <span class="hlt">Investigators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Representatives of NASA materials science experiments supported the NASA exhibit at the Rernselaer Polytechnic Institute's Space Week activities, April 5 through 11, 1999. From left to right are: Angie Jackman, project manager at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for dendritic growth experiments; Dr. Martin Glicksman of Rennselaer Polytechnic Instutute, Troy, NY, principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> on the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) that flew three times on the Space Shuttle; and Dr. Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA, a co-<span class="hlt">investigator</span> on the IDGE and now principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> on the Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment being developed for the International Space Station (ISS). The image at far left is a dendrite grown in Glicksman's IDGE tests aboard the Shuttle. Glicksman is also principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> for the Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening Clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Amino+AND+acids&pg=6&id=EJ016640','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Amino+AND+acids&pg=6&id=EJ016640"><span>Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Using Chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Witters, Weldon L.; Bush, Kenneth</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Three different problems are given for student <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in determining amino acid compositions, floral pigments, and water soluble amino acids by using the techniques of Roll Chromotography, DISC Chromotography, Thin Layer, and Paper Chromotography. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Amino+AND+acids&pg=6&id=EJ016640','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Amino+AND+acids&pg=6&id=EJ016640"><span>Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Using Chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Witters, Weldon L.; Bush, Kenneth</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Three different problems are given for student <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in determining amino acid compositions, floral pigments, and water soluble amino acids by using the techniques of Roll Chromotography, DISC Chromotography, Thin Layer, and Paper Chromotography. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/office-inspector-general/notification-background-investigation-services-0','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/office-inspector-general/notification-background-investigation-services-0"><span>Notification: Background <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Project #OA-FY15-0029, February 26, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work for our audit of background <span class="hlt">investigation</span> services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/outbreaks/index.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/outbreaks/index.html"><span>Outbreaks and <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... 2013; 34:638-641. Mucormycosis associated with hospital linens Number of cases : 5 Pathogen : Rhizopus delemar Type ... Cutaneous Setting : Pediatric hospital in Louisiana Source : Hospital linens Outbreak <span class="hlt">investigation</span> partners : Louisiana Department of Health and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920008509','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920008509"><span>Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An interim report concerning the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented by a Boeing Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group (SIG). The SIG activities were divided into five engineering disciplines: electrical, mechanical, optics, thermal, and batteries/solar cells. The responsibilities of the SIG included the following areas: support de-integration at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); testing of hardware at Boeing; review of principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> (PI) test plans and test results; support of test activities at PI labs; and collation of all test results into the SIG database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Glaciers&id=EJ809662','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Glaciers&id=EJ809662"><span>Ice Core <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=insulation&pg=3&id=EJ758279','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=insulation&pg=3&id=EJ758279"><span>The Polar Insulation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Urban-Rich, Juanita</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author developed an activity called "The Polar Insulation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>." This activity builds on students' natural interest in "things polar" and introduces them to animal adaptations in a unique way. The aim of the exploration is to determine the role of animal coverings (e.g., blubber, fur, and feathers) and to see which is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darwin%2c+AND+Charles&id=EJ884165','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darwin%2c+AND+Charles&id=EJ884165"><span>Charles Darwin's Botanical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harley, Suzanne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant <span class="hlt">investigations</span> to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=insulation&pg=2&id=EJ758279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=insulation&pg=2&id=EJ758279"><span>The Polar Insulation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Urban-Rich, Juanita</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author developed an activity called "The Polar Insulation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>." This activity builds on students' natural interest in "things polar" and introduces them to animal adaptations in a unique way. The aim of the exploration is to determine the role of animal coverings (e.g., blubber, fur, and feathers) and to see which is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acid+AND+rain&pg=5&id=EJ471604','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acid+AND+rain&pg=5&id=EJ471604"><span>Acid Rain <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hugo, John C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents an activity in which students <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cellular+AND+automata&id=EJ939738','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cellular+AND+automata&id=EJ939738"><span>Sequences for Student <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ116356.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ116356.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Human Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ducote, Richard L.; Peterson, Robert E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A project entitled "<span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Human Experience," which was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, enables the College of DuPage to conduct a series of free films in various off-campus facilities. Documentaries and recent TV specials are shown, followed by a group discussion moderated by an instructor from the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=solidaridad&id=ED234182','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=solidaridad&id=ED234182"><span>Spanish Literacy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia</p> <p></p> <p>The Spanish Literacy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103250.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103250.pdf"><span>Soil, An Environmental <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. This particular unit <span class="hlt">investigates</span> soil in relation to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ642063','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ642063"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> into Character Enhancement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hartoonian, H. Michael</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents six different <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of character enhancement that attempts to answer three questions: (1) who are you; (2) what is your destination; and (3) who is your captain? Intends to build relationships among ideas such as perspective taking, seeing and making connections with the other, and understanding more about ethical development.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solidaridad&id=ED234182','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solidaridad&id=ED234182"><span>Spanish Literacy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia</p> <p></p> <p>The Spanish Literacy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=drilling&pg=2&id=EJ809662','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=drilling&pg=2&id=EJ809662"><span>Ice Core <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+prosecutor&pg=2&id=ED121989','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+prosecutor&pg=2&id=ED121989"><span>Managing Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bloch, Peter B.; Weidman, Donald R.</p> <p></p> <p>The report discusses many ways for police managers to improve the success of their departments' criminal <span class="hlt">investigation</span> efforts. Management issues addressed include budgeting and allocating resources; improving relationships with the prosecutor; interacting with the public, especially victims and witnesses; improving relationships between…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marble&pg=7&id=EJ333531','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marble&pg=7&id=EJ333531"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Ramps and Sliders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malone, Mark R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of <span class="hlt">investigative</span> skills. (ML)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23448272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23448272"><span>Biosurveillance in outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and reduce the burden on health department staff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED403111.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED403111.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Your Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of this interdisciplinary curriculum is to enable students to make informed and responsible decisions about natural resources management by promoting an understanding of natural, social, and economic environments and the student's role in affecting all three. The included <span class="hlt">investigations</span> utilize processes and techniques that help people…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acid+AND+rain&pg=5&id=EJ471604','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acid+AND+rain&pg=5&id=EJ471604"><span>Acid Rain <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hugo, John C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents an activity in which students <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ642063','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ642063"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> into Character Enhancement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hartoonian, H. Michael</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents six different <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of character enhancement that attempts to answer three questions: (1) who are you; (2) what is your destination; and (3) who is your captain? Intends to build relationships among ideas such as perspective taking, seeing and making connections with the other, and understanding more about ethical development.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ848825.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ848825.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Tallgrass Prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burns, Marcia V.; Chi, Sojin Y.; Hertzog, Nancy B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article describes an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of a tallgrass prairie undertaken by 3- through 7-year-old children in a preschool and a combined kindergarten/first-grade classroom at a Midwestern university. The teaching teams were curious about how these two age groups would explore their questions about the prairie--how their questions would differ by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-KSC-03pd3115.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-KSC-03pd3115.html"><span>Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-11-06</p> <p>Bill White, in the Mail Room at KSC, stacks copies of the Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report, which are being distributed to all employees. The delivery is a prelude to NASA Safety and Mission Success Week Nov. 17-21, during which all employees are being encouraged to consider ways they can support and enhance recommendations for improvement stated in the report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-KSC-03pd3116.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-KSC-03pd3116.html"><span>Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-11-06</p> <p>Richard Alonzo, in the Mail Room at KSC, prepares stacks of the Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report, which are being distributed to all employees. The delivery is a prelude to NASA Safety and Mission Success Week Nov. 17-21, during which all employees are being encouraged to consider ways they can support and enhance recommendations for improvement stated in the report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013916','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013916"><span>Magsat <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. [Canadian shield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cause+AND+effect&pg=6&id=EJ817945','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cause+AND+effect&pg=6&id=EJ817945"><span>Seasonal Change <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Wendy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The author describes how the yearlong <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=victims+AND+witnesses&pg=5&id=ED121989','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=victims+AND+witnesses&pg=5&id=ED121989"><span>Managing Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bloch, Peter B.; Weidman, Donald R.</p> <p></p> <p>The report discusses many ways for police managers to improve the success of their departments' criminal <span class="hlt">investigation</span> efforts. Management issues addressed include budgeting and allocating resources; improving relationships with the prosecutor; interacting with the public, especially victims and witnesses; improving relationships between…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=asa&pg=5&id=EJ728191','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=asa&pg=5&id=EJ728191"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span>, Proofs and Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holton, Derek; Oldknow, Adrian; Porkess, Roger; Stripp, Charlie</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Here we give an example of a problem that could be beneficially <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by AS/A level students. It is a geometry problem that they can profitably tackle by geometric (especially geometry software) and algebraic means. Such problems naturally lead students to the need for proof--an essential part of mathematics that is often lacking in current…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sunlight&pg=2&id=EJ817945','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sunlight&pg=2&id=EJ817945"><span>Seasonal Change <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Wendy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The author describes how the yearlong <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darwin&pg=2&id=EJ884165','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darwin&pg=2&id=EJ884165"><span>Charles Darwin's Botanical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harley, Suzanne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant <span class="hlt">investigations</span> to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plastic+AND+pollution&id=EJ582582','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plastic+AND+pollution&id=EJ582582"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Ocean Pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>LeBeau, Sue</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes a fifth-grade class project to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22oil+spill%22&pg=4&id=EJ582582','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22oil+spill%22&pg=4&id=EJ582582"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Ocean Pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>LeBeau, Sue</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes a fifth-grade class project to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marble&pg=7&id=EJ333531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marble&pg=7&id=EJ333531"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Ramps and Sliders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malone, Mark R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of <span class="hlt">investigative</span> skills. (ML)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Wittgenstein&pg=6&id=EJ983465','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Wittgenstein&pg=6&id=EJ983465"><span>The "Philosophical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>'" Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In her book on Wittgenstein's "Philosophical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>", Beth Savickey points out that few critics pay explicit attention to Wittgenstein's references to the child and childhood, particularly in his later work. She argues (paraphrasing Wittgenstein) that "the figure of the child is the figure that draws together the concepts of teaching and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fbi.gov/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.fbi.gov/"><span>Federal Bureau of <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... part of the Bureau’s Endangered Child Alert Program. Cyber Security: Our Shared Responsibility Director’s Installation Ceremony Most Wanted/ ... FBI’s top criminal <span class="hlt">investigative</span> priority, poses a fundamental threat to our national… Cyber Crime The FBI is the lead federal agency ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031909','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031909"><span>FCS Technology <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Budinger, James; Gilbert, Tricia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This working paper provides an overview of the Future Communication Study (FCS) technology <span class="hlt">investigation</span> progress. It includes a description of the methodology applied to technology evaluation; evaluation criteria; and technology screening (down select) results. A comparison of screening results with other similar technology screening activities is provided. Additional information included in this working paper is a description of in-depth studies (including characterization of the L-band aeronautical channel; L-band deployment cost assessment; and performance assessments of candidate technologies in the applicable aeronautical channel) that have been conducted to support technology evaluations. The paper concludes with a description on-going activities leading to conclusion of the technology <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and the development of technology recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993173','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993173"><span>Best Practice -- Subsurface <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark Scott</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>These best practices for Subsurface Survey processes were developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and later shared and formalized by a sub-committee, under the Electrical Safety Committee of EFCOG. The developed best practice is best characterized as a Tier II (enhanced) survey process for subsurface <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. A result of this process has been an increase in the safety and lowering of overall cost, when utility hits and their related costs are factored in. The process involves improving the methodology and thoroughness of the survey and reporting processes; or improvement in tool use rather than in the tools themselves. It is hoped that the process described here can be implemented at other sites seeking to improve their Subsurface <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> results with little upheaval to their existing system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930013805','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930013805"><span>OTV bearing deflection <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reimer, B. L.; Diepenbrock, R. T.; Millis, M. G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The primary goal of the Bearing Deflectometer <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> was to gain experience in the use of fiber optic displacement probe technology for bearing health monitoring in a liquid hydrogen turbo pump. The work specified in this Task Order was conducted in conjunction with Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Contract F04611-86-C-0010. APD conducted the analysis and design coordination to provide a displacement probe design compatible with the XLR-134 liquid hydrogen turbo pump assembly (TPA). Specifications and requirements of the bearing deflectometer were established working with Mechanical Technology Instruments, Inc. (MTI). The TPA design accommodated positioning of the probe to measure outer race cyclic deflections of the pump inlet bearing. The fiber optic sensor was installed as required in the TPA and sensor output was recorded during the TPA testing. Data review indicated that no bearing deflection signature could be differentiated from the inherent system noise. Alternate sensor installations were not <span class="hlt">investigated</span>, but might yield different results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020776','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020776"><span>The gravimetric geodesy <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siry, J. W.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>The Gravimetric Geodesy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> which will utilize altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data from GEOS-C, ATS-F, and other spacecraft as appropriate to improve our knowledge of the earth's gravitational field is discussed. This <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is interrelated with the study of oceanographic phenomena such as those associated with tides and currents, hence the latter are considered together with gravitational effects in the analysis of the data. The oceanographic effects, each of the order of a meter or two in amplitude and with still smaller uncertainties does not seriously hamper the altimeter gravimetric studies at the five meter level. Laser and satellite-to-satellite tracking data, when combined with the altimeter results, should provide the basis for such studies over wide areas of the ocean surface. Laser and conventional geodetic tracking data from ISAGEX and succeeding campaigns will provide a valuable framework for these analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016195','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016195"><span>Geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Jordan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A number of geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5482560','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5482560"><span>Site <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for Magnus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Semple, R.M.; Rigden, W.J.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>In April 1982, BP's Magnus structure was installed about 150 km northeast of the Shetland Islands. The most northerly, deepest water platform in the North Sea, the steel tower is supported on groups of 2 m diameter piles that were driven, in good accordance with predictions, to an average penetration of 85 m in strong cohesive soils. The paper describes <span class="hlt">investigations</span> performed at the platform site, and documents soil characteristics for conventional and state of the art pile analyses. Reference is made to several innovative techniques first used at the Magnus site that have since been incorporated into the larger North Sea <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Information is given about the geological history of the site. Test results are presented on soil strength and stiffness, including critical state soil mechanics parameters, on residual pore pressures after sampling, and on the effect of sample size on strength characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA104542','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA104542"><span>Flight Trajectory Control <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>control algorithms for four-dimensional guidance of a transport air- craft were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> for feasibility. Cost function constraints on the ptimal...21 3.1.6 Solution Constraints .... ............. ... 25 3.1.7 Trajectory Generator Review .. ......... .. 25 3.2 OPTIMAl CONTROLLER ALGORITHM...value formulation to a six-degree-of-freedom point mass aircraft with all the structural, maneuver, and mission constraints accounted for by using pelalty</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014458','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014458"><span>JAGMAN <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>XI-29 Firearm Incidents ....................................................................................................... XI-33 Pollution ...33 POLLUTION INCIDENTS ………………………………………… ……………..…… 34 Naval Justice School Publication 03/16 X1-2 explanation shall cover...firearm handler. Naval Justice School Publication 03/16 XI-34 JAGMAN <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Handbook POLLUTION INCIDENTS CHECKLIST (JAGMAN A-2-z</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA084358','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA084358"><span>Clinical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-09-30</p> <p>78/18 (FY78,T) Evaluation of a Simple Device fur Measuring Pulmonary Transit Tim and Its Value as a Predictor c Congestive Heart Failure in 58 Acute...Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Origin ................................................................ 83 Work Unit No. 79/30 (FY79,O) Continuous 5- Drug Induction...<span class="hlt">Investigational</span> Drugs in Humans and the Use of Schedule I controlled Drug Substances (AR 40-7). Research is conducted under protocols approved by the Research</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021013','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021013"><span>Rocket Motor Microphone <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010aidp.book..201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010aidp.book..201B"><span>Ball Lightning <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitin, A. I.; Dijkhuis, G. C.</p> <p></p> <p>Ball lightning (BL) researches' review and theoretical models of three different authors are presented. The general review covers <span class="hlt">investigations</span> from 1838 until the present day, and includes a discussion on observation data, experimental modeling, and theoretical approaches. Section 6.1 is written by Bychkov and Nikitin; authors of the sections 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 are, respectively, Bychkov, Nikitin and Dijkhuis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA192106','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA192106"><span>Clinical <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-09-30</p> <p>Houston Gerald B. Merenstein, MD, Univ. of Colo. Health Sciences Center (9) Dept of Pediatri -cs" . . . (10) Associate <span class="hlt">Investigators</span> (11) Key Words...Patsology (10) Assoc’f ef Js1gators Willis Rieker, CPT, MC (11) Key Words: Rick E. Martinez , DAC blood component removal Judy Barber, DAC Patricia...89 Markowski, J.------------------------- 174 Martinez , R.-------------------------- 273 McCubbin, J.A.------------------------ 143 McCullen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0607975','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0607975"><span>DISK PUMP FEASIBILITY <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span>,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The disk pump was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> at the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) to determine the feasibility of using a novel viscous pumping... pump primarily for application as an inducer. The disk pump differs drastically from conventional pumps because of the following major factors: (1) The...The pump inlet relative velocity is equal only to the through flow velocity between the disks. Therefore, there is good indication that the disk pump will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060008607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060008607"><span>Genesis Failure <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klein, John</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The-Genesis mission to collect solar-wind samples and return them to Earth for detailed analysis proceeded successfully for 3.5 years. During reentry on September 8, 2004, a failure in the entry, descent and landing sequence resulted in a crash landing of the Genesis sample return capsule. This document describes the findings of the avionics sub-team that supported the accident <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the JPL Failure Review Board.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6886263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6886263"><span>Health food stores <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gourdine, S P; Traiger, W W; Cohen, D S</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>In accordance with the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs' mandate to educate consumers and to prevent fraud and deception in the marketplace, the agency conducted a three-month <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of city health food stores. Twenty-three health food businesses located throughout the five boroughs were visited from September through November 1982 in order to ascertain what those stores sold and how their merchandise compared, in quality and price, with items sold by other businesses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA038154','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA038154"><span>Combustion Noise <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-02-01</p> <p>from aircraft engines arm de- velc. ped and experimentally evaluated by conducting rig experiments and by comparing with data from se’.,_ full scale ...engines. Comparison of predictions with full scale engine data indicate that direct combus- tior noise is the dominant source for the P&WA engines...<span class="hlt">investigated</span>. The dlirect combustion noise prediction system includes expressions for acoustic pow.,r level, peak frequency and full- scale engine acoustic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDH11009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDH11009S"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Boiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sagan, Michael; Tanguy, Sebastien; Colin, Catherine</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In this work, boiling is numerically <span class="hlt">investigated</span>, using two phase flow direct numerical simulation based on a level set / Ghost Fluid method. Nucleate boiling implies both thermal issue and multiphase dynamics issues at different scales and at different stages of bubble growth. As a result, the different phenomena are <span class="hlt">investigated</span> separately, considering their nature and the scale at which they occur. First, boiling of a static bubble immersed in an overheated liquid is analysed. Numerical simulations have been performed at different Jakob numbers in the case of strong density discontinuity through the interface. The results show a good agreement on bubble radius evolution between the theoretical evolution and numerical simulation. After the validation of the code for the Scriven test case, interaction of a bubble with a wall is studied. A numerical method taking into account contact angle is evaluated by comparing simulations of the spreading of a liquid droplet impacting on a plate, with experimental data. Then the heat transfer near the contact line is <span class="hlt">investigated</span>, and simulations of nucleate boiling are performed considering different contact angles values. Finally, the relevance of including a model to take into account the evaporation of the micro layer is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014281','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014281"><span>STS <span class="hlt">investigators</span>' guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The capability of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle, to support crew tended and free flyer research in low Earth orbit has opened new possibilities for science in space. For the first time, research equipment can be put into orbit routinely, operated in either a shirtsleeve environment or exposed to space, and then returned to the <span class="hlt">investigator</span>. NASA, operator of the Shuttle, has implemented a variety of programs to ensure that anyone with a worthy research idea can take advantage of this opportunity. <span class="hlt">Investigators</span> ranging from high school students to renowned space scientists have already used the Shuttle as a platform for making Earth, atmospheric, and astronomical observations; for performing space plasma physics measurements; and for exploring the effects of microgravity on living organisms and physical processes. For <span class="hlt">investigators</span> considering a flight experiment for the first time, this guide explains what the Shuttle has to offer, how to arrange to fly an experiment, and what to expect once preparations for the flight are under way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3364459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3364459"><span><span class="hlt">Investigational</span> Approaches for Mesothelioma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Surmont, Veerle F.; van Thiel, Eric R. E.; Vermaelen, Karim; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new <span class="hlt">investigational</span> approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, <span class="hlt">investigational</span>, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009032"><span>Radar <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostro, S. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Radar <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011671','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011671"><span>VAB Sway <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Youngquist, Robert c.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Lane, John E.; Starr, Stanley O.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) was constructed in the mid-1960s to house the Saturn V moon rocket while it was being assembled. Designed to withstand hurricanes and tropical storms, the V AB has a foundation consisting of 30,000 cubic yards of concrete strengthened by 4,225 steel rods driven 160 feet into limestone bedrock. The goal of the VAB Sway <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, which began collecting data in April 201 0 and ended in November 2012, was to quantify the displacement or sway of the VAB as a function of wind loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA210678','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA210678"><span>LABCEDE Fluorescence <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>S ) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) PSI TR-756 AFGL-TR-88-0186 6a NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING...Include Security Classification) LABCEDE Fluorescence <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (U) 2 PZRSONAL AUTHOR( S ) B.D. ureen, B.L. Upschulte, W.J. Marinelli, L.G. Piper...production rates. 32 2. N2 (a 1l -X3 E 1) Einstein coefficients, Av,v,, ( s - 1) and transifion frequency (cm-i). 53 3. N2 (a,v)/N 2(C,2) population ratios. 56</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyEd..52e5008S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyEd..52e5008S"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> wireless power transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>St John, Stuart A.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and <span class="hlt">investigate</span> this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA266249','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA266249"><span>New <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Award</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-11-30</p> <p>NG AGENCT NAME S AND ADDRESS ES %~N~ % .r ’Kzum b o i SuPPý EMEN ART N07ESI 3- N AVAILABL.TY STA EMtNI I., N Z t Or Dur rI I. 1his one :tear new i’v t...structural gene (the Ah-locus). Research Accomplishments Under AFOSR New <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Grant, 1990. On July 1, 1990, the AFOSR granted $54.000 in direct...developed a purification scheme which can generate mg quantities of recombinant Ah- receptor in a few days time. Specific Aims 1 & 4 : Develop an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272411','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272411"><span>Does size matter? An <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of habitat use across a carnivore assemblage in the Serengeti, Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Durant, Sarah M.; Craft, Meggan E.; Foley, Charles; Hampson, Katie; Lobora, Alex L.; Msuha, Maurus; Eblate, Ernest; Bukombe, John; Mchetto, John; Pettorelli, Nathalie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary This study utilizes a unique data set covering over 19 000 georeferenced records of species presence collected between 1993 and 2008, to explore the distribution and habitat selectivity of an assemblage of 26 carnivore species in the Serengeti–Ngorongoro landscape in northern Tanzania. Two species, the large-spotted genet and the bushy-tailed mongoose, were documented for the first time within this landscape. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) was used to examine habitat selectivity for 18 of the 26 carnivore species for which there is sufficient data. Eleven ecogeographical variables (EGVs), such as altitude and habitat type, were used for these analyses. The ENFA demonstrated that species differed in their habitat selectivity, and supported the limited ecological information already available for these species, such as the golden jackals’ preference for grassland and the leopards’ preference for river valleys. Two aggregate scores, marginality and tolerance, are generated by the ENFA, and describe each species’ habitat selectivity in relation to the suite of EGVs. These scores were used to test the hypothesis that smaller species are expected to be more selective than larger species [Science, 1989, 243, 1145]. Two predictions were tested: Marginality should decrease with body mass; and tolerance should increase with body mass. Our study provided no evidence for either prediction. Our results not only support previous analyses of carnivore diet breadth, but also represent a novel approach to the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of habitat selection <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblages. Our method provides a powerful tool to explore similar questions in other systems and for other taxa. PMID:20646121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27651229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27651229"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> functional redundancy versus complementarity in Hawaiian herbivorous coral reef fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Emily L A; Eynaud, Yoan; Clements, Samantha M; Gleason, Molly; Sparks, Russell T; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Jennifer E</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Patterns of species resource use provide insight into the functional roles of species and thus their ecological significance within a community. The functional role of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs has been defined through a variety of methods, but from a grazing perspective, less is known about the species-specific preferences of herbivores on different groups of reef algae and the extent of dietary overlap across an herbivore community. Here, we quantified patterns of redundancy and complementarity in a highly diverse community of herbivores at a reef on Maui, Hawaii, USA. First, we tracked fish foraging behavior in situ to record bite rate and type of substrate bitten. Second, we examined gut contents of select herbivorous fishes to determine consumption at a finer scale. Finally, we placed foraging behavior in the context of resource availability to determine how fish selected substrate type. All species predominantly (73-100 %) foraged on turf algae, though there were differences among the types of macroalgae and other substrates bitten. Increased resolution via gut content analysis showed the composition of turf algae consumed by fishes differed across herbivore species. Consideration of foraging behavior by substrate availability revealed 50 % of herbivores selected for turf as opposed to other substrate types, but overall, there were variable foraging portfolios across all species. Through these three methods of <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, we found higher complementarity among herbivorous fishes than would be revealed using a single metric. These results suggest differences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the herbivore "rain of bites" that graze and shape benthic community composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14517001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14517001S"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of EAS cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaulov, S. B.; Beyl, P. F.; Beysembaev, R. U.; Beysembaeva, E. A.; Bezshapov, S. P.; Borisov, A. S.; Cherdyntceva, K. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Chubenko, A. P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Denisova, V. G.; Erlykin, A. D.; Kabanova, N. V.; Kanevskaya, E. A.; Kotelnikov, K. A.; Morozov, A. E.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Nam, R. A.; Nesterova, N. M.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Pavluchenko, V. P.; Piskal, V. V.; Puchkov, V. S.; Pyatovsky, S. E.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Schepetov, A. L.; Smirnova, M. D.; Stepanov, A. V.; Uryson, A. V.; Vavilov, Yu. N.; Vildanov, N. G.; Vildanova, L. I.; Zayarnaya, I. S.; Zhanceitova, J. K.; Zhukov, V. V.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS). These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such <span class="hlt">investigations</span> obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC) as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons) in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015-1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum `knee' range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981weso.rept.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981weso.rept.....H"><span>Geokinetic environment <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartnett, E. B.; Carleen, E. D.; Blaney, J. I.</p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>This report covers the development and implementation of special concepts, techniques and instrumentation for the collection, analysis and application of geokinetic data. The Geokinetic Data Acquisition System (GDAS) was modified, maintained and operationally deployed to various sites designated by AFGL. Tests were conducted at the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) CASINO Facility in Maryland; Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (CIGTF), Holloman AFB, N.M.; Space Transportation System (STS) Launch Complex, Vandenberg AFB, Ca. and the SAC Wing V Minuteman Complex at Cheyenne, Wy. The CASINO data contributed to SAMSO's MX/TGG Advanced Development Bridge II Program for radiation hardening of third generation hardware. The CIGTF <span class="hlt">investigation</span> supported USAF requirements for highly precise azimuth reference. The Hill AFB the performance of a minuteman III missile guidance system in an engineering silo. The STS program at Vandenberg AFB was to assist in determining the nature of a Titan III-D pressure load. The SAC Wing V deployment was to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> plateau/valley basin geologic characteristics in respect to motion response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830009609','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830009609"><span>Bearing fatigue <span class="hlt">investigation</span> 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9579632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9579632"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of hypercoagulability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Francis, J L</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>For many years, the laboratory <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of patients with thrombophilia has lagged behind that of patients with bleeding diathesis. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control and regulate coagulation, and the resultant recognition of new defects, have greatly stimulated clinical laboratory interest in this area. Assays to detect resistance to activated protein C; deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S; and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies are widely available and should form part of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of patients that present with idiopathic thrombosis. Such a work-up will likely provide an explanation for thrombosis in 40 to 60% of patients. Abnormalities of fibrinogen and fibrinolysis may explain still more, although such defects are currently considered rare. In addition, presently unrecognized defects almost certainly exist, and the identification of such individuals will undoubtedly improve our understanding of the hemostatic mechanism. Laboratory tests to define the hypercoagulable state are continually being developed. They include whole blood coagulation and platelet function tests and novel activation markers. However, acceptance of these approaches by clinical laboratories has been slow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950016538','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950016538"><span>Magnetospheric space plasma <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Topics and <span class="hlt">investigations</span> covering this period of this semiannual report period (August 1994 - January 1995) are as follows: (1) Generalized SemiKinetic (GSK) modeling of the synergistic interaction of transverse heating of ionospheric ions and magnetospheric plasma-driven electric potentials on the auroral plasma transport. Also, presentations of GSK modeling of auroral electron precipitation effects on ionospheric plasma outflows, of ExB effects on such outflow, and on warm plasma thermalization and other effects during refilling with pre-existing warm plasmas; (2) Referees' reports received on the statistical study of the latitudinal distributions of core plasmas along the L = 4.6 field line using DE-1/RIMS data. Other work is concerned in the same field, field-aligned flows and trapped ion distributions; and (3) A short study has been carried out on heating processes in low density flux tubes in the outer plasmasphere. The purpose was to determine whether the high ion temperatures observed in these flux tubes were due to heat sources operating through the thermal electrons or directly to the ions. Other <span class="hlt">investigations</span> center along the same area of plasmasphere-ionosphere coupling. The empirical techniques and model, the listing of hardware calibrated, and/or tested, and a description of notable meetings attended is included in this report, along with a list of all present publication in submission or accepted and those reference papers that have resulted from this work thus far.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001046','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001046"><span>Dynamics Explorer guest <span class="hlt">investigator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sojka, J. J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The research has focused on using the SAI auroral images as a high resolution auroral precipitation input to the USU global scale ionospheric model. From the global scale modeling viewpoint, these images offer unique spatial and temporal resolution since all prior studies have used empirical auroral models. These latter models are devoid of storm, substorm, or discrete oval features. The research focused on the problems in converting images to energy flux; using LAPU data to calibrate these energy fluxes; using the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to look at the ionospheric consequences of this structure; and then using DE-2 in-situ observations to compare with the TDIM ionospheric parameters. In carrying out these studies, several additional <span class="hlt">investigations</span> cropped up which were pursued to help meet the overall goals. The foremost difficulty in carrying out the TDIM modeling in conjunction with the high resolution DE auroral model was that of defining an appropriate ionospheric convection pattern. Under northward conditions this pattern is very complex. In order to study Theta aurora or in general northward IMF conditions, a new model was required. Hence, a study was completed to supply this new model to drive the TDIM as a function of the IMF. With the DE auroral model having adequate resolution to show structure on the 100's of km and all model electric fields being devoid of such structure, an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was pursued to find out the effects of structures in the electric field on the F-region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720013145','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720013145"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of lunar materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8128025O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIN...8128025O"><span>Radar <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ostro, S. J.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>Radar <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019487"><span>Radar <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostro, S. J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Radar <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020090903','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020090903"><span>Vitamin D <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The solar dosimeter, a spinoff from NASA solar cell technology, measures the amount of solar radiation to which its wearer is exposed. It was used in a University of Cincinnati Medical Center <span class="hlt">investigation</span> into the effect of sunlight exposure on maintaining vitamin D status in infants. The infants were exposed to sunlight and records were kept by mothers. Each baby wore a solar dosimeter. The two circular "eyes" in the instrument are silicon photovoltaic detectors which collect solar energy, convert it to electric signals and transmit the charge to E-cells that record the charge by plating silver ions onto an electrode. The time required to plate the silver measures the radiation received. The University found the solar dosimeter to be very effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960016681','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960016681"><span>High lift wake <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sullivan, J. P.; Schneider, S. P.; Hoffenberg, R.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The behavior of wakes in adverse pressure gradients is critical to the performance of high-lift systems for transport aircraft. Wake deceleration is known to lead to sudden thickening and the onset of reversed flow; this 'wake bursting' phenomenon can occur while surface flows remain attached. Although known to be important for high-lift systems, few studies of such decelerated wakes exist. In this study, the wake of a flat plate has been subjected to an adverse pressure gradient in a two-dimensional diffuser, whose panels were forced to remain attached by use of slot blowing. Pitot probe surveys, L.D.V. measurements, and flow visualization have been used to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the physics of this decelerated wake, through the onset of reversed flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp...66K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp...66K"><span>The Juno Waves <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kirchner, D. L.; Mokrzycki, B. T.; Averkamp, T. F.; Robison, W. T.; Piker, C. W.; Sampl, M.; Zarka, P.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Jupiter is the source of the strongest planetary radio emissions in the solar system. Variations in these emissions are symptomatic of the dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere and some have been directly associated with Jupiter's auroras. The strongest radio emissions are associated with Io's interaction with Jupiter's magnetic field. In addition, plasma waves are thought to play important roles in the acceleration of energetic particles in the magnetosphere, some of which impact Jupiter's upper atmosphere generating the auroras. Since the exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere is a major objective of the Juno mission, it is appropriate that a radio and plasma wave <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is included in Juno's payload. This paper describes the Waves instrument and the science it is to pursue as part of the Juno mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2079..120B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2079..120B"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> on laser thermokeratoplasty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brinkmann, Ralf; Koop, Norbert; Droege, Gerit; Grotehusmann, Ulf; Huber, Andrea; Birngruber, Reginald</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>Homogeneous deep intrastromal coagulations are thought to be optical for effective laser thermokeratoplasty. We therefore <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the thermal effects created by two different flashlamp-pumped IR lasers (Er:glass and Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG) as well as two different application modalities (direct fiber contact and intrastromal focusing). The physical and thermal parameters of corneal tissue and the threshold temperatures for corneal collagen denaturation in different time domains were determined using a water bath and IR laser radiation. The temperature required to coagulate corneal tissue in the millisecond time regime was found to be above 100 degrees C. Based on these results a thermal model was developed to calculate temperature profiles and coagulation zones in space and time for different exposures situations. Model calculations show the possibility to induce deep stromal effects with a spatially nearly homogeneous temperature distribution within the application volume while minimizing adverse effects in the corneal endothelium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039346&hterms=make+pop+rocks&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmake%2Bpop%2Brocks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039346&hterms=make+pop+rocks&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmake%2Bpop%2Brocks"><span>MESUR Pathfinder Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golombek, M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The MESUR (Mars Environmental Survey) Pathfinder mission is the first Discovery mission planned for launch in 1996. MESUR Pathfinder is designed as an engineering demonstration of the entry, descent and landing approach to be employed by the follow-on MESUR Network mission, which will land of order 10 small stations on the surface of Mars to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> interior, atmospheric and surface properties. Pathfinder is a small Mars lander, equipped with a microrover to deploy instruments and explore the local landing site. Instruments selected for Pathfinder include a surface imager on a 1 m pop-up mast (stereo with spectral filters), an atmospheric structure instrument/surface meteorology package, and an alpha proton x-ray spectrometer. The microrover will carry the alpha proton x-ray spectrometer to a number of different rocks and surface materials and provide close-up imaging...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23118101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23118101"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of erectile dysfunction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, D V; Halls, J; Patel, U</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a common and debilitating condition with a wide range of organic and non-organic causes. Physical aetiologies can be divided into disorders affecting arterial inflow, the venous occlusion mechanism or the penile structure itself. Various imaging modalities can be utilised to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the physical causes of ED, but penile Doppler sonography (PDS) is the most informative technique, indicated in those patients with ED who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g. phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). This review will examine the anatomical and physiological basis of penile erection, the method for performing PDS and features of specific causes of ED, and will also consider the alternative imaging modalities available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.727E..42A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.727E..42A"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Microvibration Sources Modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Addari, Daniele; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Remedia, Marcello</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>One of the challenges related to microvibration is <span class="hlt">investigating</span> the characterisation of the microvibration sources (here emphasis is given to reaction wheel assemblies) on board satellites. This usually involves series of experiments to characterise the hardware and produce representative models. Here we present a methodology that gives good estimates covering a wide frequency range and reduce the complexity of the test campaign.In addition, a practical example of coupling between a reaction wheel assembly and a structural panel where the coupled loads have been estimated using the mathematical model and compared with experimental test results (retrieved using an interface load transducer) will be presented, giving indications of the level of accuracy that can be expected from this type of analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018264','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018264"><span>Dynamic airfoil stall <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Platzer, M. F.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Carr, L. W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Experimental and computational <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the dynamic stall phenomenon continue to attract the attention of various research groups in the major aeronautical research laboratories. There are two reasons for this continued research interest. First, the occurrence of dynamic stall on the retreating blade of helicopters imposes a severe performance limitation and thus suggests to search for ways to delay the onset of dynamic stall. Second, the lift enhancement prior to dynamic stall presents an opportunity to achieve enhanced maneuverability of fighter aircraft. A description of the major parameters affecting dynamic stall and lift and an evaluation of research efforts prior to 1988 has been given by Carr. In this paper the authors' recent progress in the development of experimental and computational methods to analyze the dynamic stall phenomena occurring on NACA 0112 airfoils is reviewed. First, the major experimental and computational approaches and results are summarized. This is followed by an assessment of our results and an outlook toward the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036832&hterms=Neubauer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNeubauer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036832&hterms=Neubauer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNeubauer"><span>Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patzold, M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Wennmacher, A.; Aksnes, K.; Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Tinto, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Yeomans, D. K.; Barriot, J. -P.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20060036832'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20060036832_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20060036832_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20060036832_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20060036832_hide"></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI) experiment was selected by the European Space Agency to be included in the International Rosetta Mission to comet P/Wirtanen (launch in 2003, arrival and operational phase at the comet 2011-2013). The RSI science objectives address fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, the gravity field, non-gravitational forces, the size and shape, the internal structure, the composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains and the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux on the orbiter. RSI will make use of the radio system of the Rosetta spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456836"><span>Genotoxicity <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on nanomaterials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oesch, Franz; Landsiedel, Robert</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This review is based on the lecture presented at the April 2010 nanomaterials safety assessment Postsatellite to the 2009 EUROTOX Meeting and summarizes genotoxicity <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on nanomaterials published in the open scientific literature (up to 2008). Special attention is paid to the relationship between particle size and positive versus negative outcome, as well as the dependence of the outcome on the test used. Salient conclusions and outstanding recommendations emerging from the information summarized in this review are as follows: recognize that nanomaterials are not all the same; therefore know and document what nanomaterial has been tested and in what form; take nanomaterials specific properties into account; in order to make your results comparable with those of others and on other nanomaterials: use or at least include in your studies standardized methods; use in vivo studies to put in vitro results into perspective; take uptake and distribution of the nanomaterial into account; and in order to become able to make extrapolations to risk for human: learn about the mechanism of nanomaterials genotoxic effects. Past experience with standard non-nanosubstances already had shown that mechanisms of genotoxic effects can be complex and their elucidation can be demanding, while there often is an immediate need to assess the genotoxic hazard. Thus, a practical and pragmatic approach to genotoxicity <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of novel nanomaterials is the use of a battery of standard genotoxicity testing methods covering a wide range of mechanisms. Application of these standard methods to nanomaterials demands, however, adaptations, and the interpretation of results from the genotoxicity testing of nanomaterials needs additional considerations exceeding those used for standard size materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170453','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170453"><span>Gear Crack Propagation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSRv...60...79F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSRv...60...79F"><span>Energetic Particles <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> (EPI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, H. M.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Wibberenz, G.; Rinnert, K.; Gliem, F. O.; Bach, J.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The EPI instrument operates during the pre-entry phase of the Galileo Probe. The main objective is the study of the energetic particle population in the inner Jovian magnetosphere and in the upper atmosphere. This will be achieved through omnidirectional measurements of electrons, protons, alpha-particles and heavy ions (Z greater than 2) and recording intensity profiles with a spatial resolution of about 0.02 Jupiter radii. Sectored data will also be obtained for electrons, protons, and alpha-particles to determine directional anisotropies and particle pitch angle distributions. The detector assembly is a two-element telescope using totally depleted circular silicon surface-barrier detectors surrounded by cylindrical tungsten shielding. The lower energy threshold of the particle species <span class="hlt">investigated</span> during the Probe's pre-entry phase is determined by the material thickness of the Probe's rear heat shield which is required for heat protection of the scientific payload during entry into the Jovian atmosphere. The EPI instrument is combined with the Lightning and Radio Emission Detector and both instruments share one interface of the Probe's power, command, and data unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960012180','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960012180"><span>Gear crack propagation <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Analytical and experimental studies were performed to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492331"><span>Kapton HN <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, M.K.; Huelskamp, M.A.; Armstrong, K.P.; Brandon, J.L.; Lavoie, J.M. ); Smith, A.E. )</p> <p>1990-09-28</p> <p>Kapton HN properties and the properties of the slip additive calcium phosphate dibasic (CaHPO{sub 4}) were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Impurity analyses were performed on the compound by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and ion chromatography (IC). Other analyses on the slip additive included: processing solution -- dissolution analysis, high-explosive compatibility studies, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and particle size distribution. Testing and analyses were also performed on Kapton HN film and other polyimide films that could serve as possible replacements for Kapton HN. The polyimide films that were tested are: Upilex-R, Upilex-S, Upilex-SGA, and Apical. The analyses performed were: infrared (IR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM/EDS, high-potential breakdown testing, (PVD) physical vapor deposition adhesion tests, and peel tests. Upilex-S flyer cables were also fabricated and successfully test fired. In addition to these raw material tests, production cables were chemically treated and destructively (high potential) tested. A long-term aging environment for production cables was also selected, and aging tests were begun. 9 figs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960025599','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960025599"><span>Tape recorder failure <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Higgins, M. D.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Carnahan, C. C.; Snyder, G. L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Two end-item tape recorders lost 4:1 mode data recording mode capability at less than half of their 1 6,000-cycle, 4-year operating life. Subsequent life tests on two spare recorders also experienced 4:1 mode data loss at 8,000 and 11,700 cycles. Tear down inspection after completion of the life tests showed that the tape had worn through the alfesil record and reproduce heads. An <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was initiated to understand the cause of excessive tape head wear and the reasons why the 4:1 mode data rate, low-speed mode is more damaging than the 1:1 mode data rate, high-speed recording mode. The objective was to establish how operating conditions (tape speed, humidity, temperature, stop/start cycles) affects head life with the goal of extending head life on the remaining in-service tape recorders. Another interest was to explain why an earlier vendor life test showed capability beyond 16,000 cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002591','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002591"><span>Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845"><span>The Dawn Topography <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the Dawn topography <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/125044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/125044"><span>Ship Creek bioassessment <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8657166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8657166"><span>Cross-cultural <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okamoto, Y; Case, R; Bleiker, C; Henderson, B</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>In Piaget's system, the development of children's cognitive structures is seen as progressing through a universal sequence from sensorimotor, to concrete, to formal logical thought. The data that have been obtained on his measures are problematic in their support for this view, however, because they indicate that adults in traditional societies often fail his formal tasks. Piaget's (1972) interpretation of such findings was that they indicated a problem with his measures, not his theory - if appropriate measures were available, he believed that formal logical operations would be found in all cultures and social groups. Our own interpretation differs. While we acknowledge that adults in all cultures are capable of thinking in a fashion that is more sophisticated, subtle, and complex than that of young children, we see the highest forms of thought as being dependent on the mastery of systems that are cultural creations and not universal human attainments - and we see Piaget's system of formal operations as being just one example of the sort of system that can be created by a culture and passed on from one generation to the next. In a previous <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, Fiati (1992) studied children who were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages in the Volta region of West Africa. In these communities, life was still a traditional one, and children's experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were considerably different from those of children who were attending schools in the nearby towns. Under these conditions, Fiati found that village children's skill in using numbers or in thinking about quantitative variables did not develop to a very high level as compared to that of their peers in the towns or as compared to their own thinking about social issues. In the terms used in the present Monograph, it appeared as though children's central conceptual structures for number - in contrast to their central conceptual structures for narrative - did not advance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT.......124P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT.......124P"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> on the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Min-Hsueh</p> <p></p> <p>Systematic studies on the chemistry and superconductivity of (Tl,Pb,Bi)rm Sr_2CuO_5 and rm Ba_{2-x}K_ {x}PbO_4 oxides have been carried out using solid state reactions, powder x-ray diffraction, DC-resistivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility studies, thermal analysis, x-ray photoemission spectroscopies, etc. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were focused on synthetic methods, solid solution formation, oxygen content, physical and structural properties of high temperature superconducting oxides and their related compounds. Single phase samples of rm Tl_ {1-x}Pb_{x}Sr_2CuO_5 with rm 0.4<= x<=0.5 were prepared with tetragonal P4/mmm symmetry. Samples of rm Tl_{0.5}Pb_ {0.5}Sr_2CuO_5 quenched from 850^circC to room temperature are superconducting with rm T_{c }~ 60 K. Samples of rm Tl_{0.5}Pb_{0.5}Sr_2CuO _5 quenched from 900^circ C into liquid nitrogen are semiconducting, and transform to metallic phases upon annealing in air at 500 ^circC. In the rm Tl_{1-x}Bi _{x}Sr_{2}CuO_5 system, single phase samples were prepared for rm 0.2<= x<= 0.5. Superconductivity with a rm T_{c}~ 45 K were demonstrated for the first time in samples with rm 0.2<= x<= 0.3 quenched from 850^circC into liquid nitrogen and then annealed at 400^ circC for 1 hour in air or oxygen atmosphere. In the range rm 0.2<= x<= 0.5, both semiconducting and metallic phases can be prepared. In general, samples quenched from 850^circ C to liquid nitrogen temperature are semiconducting; semiconducting samples annealed in air or oxygen at higher temperatures (from 850^circ to 500^circC) and for longer time (from 1.5 to 3.5 hours) yield metallic phases. Further <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were carried out on the (Tl,Pb,Bi)rm Sr_2CuO_5 system. Single phase samples of rm Tl_ {0.5}Pb_{0.5-x}Bi_{x }Sr_2CuO_5 for rm 0.1<= x<= 0.4 and rm Tl_{0.7}Bi_{0.3-y}Pb _{y}Sr_2CuO_5 for 0.1<= rm y<= 0.2 can be prepared. The correlations between the composition, oxygen content, structural and electronic transport properties of these compounds are</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6017690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6017690"><span>Aquifer stability <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>The study of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous rock reservoirs is carried out within the Reservoir Stability Studies Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the study is to establish criteria for long-term stability of aquifer CAES reservoirs. These criteria are intended to be guidelines and check lists that utilities and architect-engineering firms may use to evaluate reservoir stability at candidate CAES sites. These criteria will be quantitative where possible, qualitative where necessary, and will provide a focal point for CAES relevant geotechnical knowledge, whether developed within this study or available from petroleum, mining or other geotechnical practices using rock materials. The Reservoir Stability Studies Program had four major activities: a state-of-the-art survey to establish preliminary stability criteria and identify areas requiring research and development; numerical modeling; laboratory testing to provide data for use in numerical models and to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> fundamental rock mechanics, thermal, fluid, and geochemical response of aquifer materials; and field studies to verify the feasibility of air injection and recovery under CAES conditions in an aquifer, to validate and refine the stability criteria, and to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical and experimental methodologies developed in previous work. Three phases of study, including preliminary criteria formulation, numerical model development, and experimental assessment of CAES reservoir materials have been completed. Present activity consists of construction and operation of the aquifer field test, and associated numerical and experimental work in support of that activity. Work is presently planned to be complete by 1983 at the end of the field test. At that time the final stability criteria for aquifers will be issued. Attached here also are preliminary criteria for aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980193194','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980193194"><span>CGRO Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Begelman, Mitchell C.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The following are highlights from the research supported by this grant: (1) Theory of gamma-ray blazars: We studied the theory of gamma-ray blazars, being among the first <span class="hlt">investigators</span> to propose that the GeV emission arises from Comptonization of diffuse radiation surrounding the jet, rather than from the synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism. In related work, we uncovered possible connections between the mechanisms of gamma-ray blazars and those of intraday radio variability, and have conducted a general study of the role of Compton radiation drag on the dynamics of relativistic jets. (2) A Nonlinear Monte Carlo code for gamma-ray spectrum formation: We developed, tested, and applied the first Nonlinear Monte Carlo (NLMC) code for simulating gamma-ray production and transfer under much more general (and realistic) conditions than are accessible with other techniques. The present version of the code is designed to simulate conditions thought to be present in active galactic nuclei and certain types of X-ray binaries, and includes the physics needed to model thermal and nonthermal electron-positron pair cascades. Unlike traditional Monte-Carlo techniques, our method can accurately handle highly non-linear systems in which the radiation and particle backgrounds must be determined self-consistently and in which the particle energies span many orders of magnitude. Unlike models based on kinetic equations, our code can handle arbitrary source geometries and relativistic kinematic effects In its first important application following testing, we showed that popular semi-analytic accretion disk corona models for Seyfert spectra are seriously in error, and demonstrated how the spectra can be simulated if the disk is sparsely covered by localized 'flares'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721533"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paglieri, Fabio; Parisi, Domenico; Patacchiola, Massimiliano; Petrosino, Giancarlo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In intertemporal choices, subjects face a trade-off between value and delay: achieving the most valuable outcome requires a longer time, whereas the immediately available option is objectively poorer. Intertemporal choices are ubiquitous, and comparative studies reveal commonalities and differences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: all species devalue future rewards as a function of delay (delay aversion), yet there is a lot of inter-specific variance in how rapidly such devaluation occurs. These differences are often interpreted in terms of ecological rationality, as depending on environmental factors (e.g., feeding ecology) and the physiological and morphological constraints of different species (e.g., metabolic rate). Evolutionary hypotheses, however, are hard to verify in vivo, since it is difficult to observe precisely enough real environments, not to mention ancestral ones. In this paper, we discuss the viability of an approach based on evolutionary robotics: in Study 1, we evolve robots without a metabolism in five different ecologies; in Study 2, we evolve metabolic robots (i.e., robots that consume energy over time) in three different ecologies. The intertemporal choices of the robots are analyzed both in their ecology and under laboratory conditions. Results confirm the generality of delay aversion and the usefulness of studying intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SSRv..114....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SSRv..114....1Y"><span>Cassini Plasma Spectrometer <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, D. T.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blanc, M.; Burch, J. L.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Grande, M.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Kelha, V.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Svenes, K. R.; Szegö, K.; Tanskanen, P.; Ahola, K.; Anderson, D.; Bakshi, S.; Baragiola, R. A.; Barraclough, B. L.; Black, R. K.; Bolton, S.; Booker, T.; Bowman, R.; Casey, P.; Crary, F. J.; Delapp, D.; Dirks, G.; Eaker, N.; Funsten, H.; Furman, J. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Hannula, H.; Holmlund, C.; Huomo, H.; Illiano, J. M.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Linder, D. R.; Luntama, T.; Maurice, S.; McCabe, K. P.; Mursula, K.; Narheim, B. T.; Nordholt, J. E.; Preece, A.; Rudzki, J.; Ruitberg, A.; Smith, K.; Szalai, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Viherkanto, K.; Vilppola, J.; Vollmer, T.; Wahl, T. E.; Wüest, M.; Ylikorpi, T.; Zinsmeyer, C.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS <span class="hlt">investigation</span> will contribute to understanding Saturn’s magnetosphere and its complex interactions with Titan, the icy satellites and rings, Saturn’s ionosphere and aurora, and the solar wind. Our design approach meets these goals by emphasizing two complementary types of measurements: high-time resolution velocity distributions of electrons and all major ion species; and lower-time resolution, high-mass resolution spectra of all ion species. The CAPS instrument is made up of three sensors: the Electron Spectrometer (ELS), the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS), and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). The ELS measures the velocity distribution of electrons from 0.6 eV to 28,250 keV, a range that permits coverage of thermal electrons found at Titan and near the ring plane as well as more energetic trapped electrons and auroral particles. The IBS measures ion velocity distributions with very high angular and energy resolution from 1 eV to 49,800 keV. It is specially designed to measure sharply defined ion beams expected in the solar wind at 9.5 AU, highly directional rammed ion fluxes encountered in Titan’s ionosphere, and anticipated field-aligned auroral fluxes. The IMS is designed to measure the composition of hot, diffuse magnetospheric plasmas and low-concentration ion species 1 eV to 50,280 eV with an atomic resolution M/ΔM ˜70 and, for certain molecules, (such asN 2 + and CO+), effective resolution as high as ˜2500. The three sensors are mounted on a motor-driven actuator that rotates the entire instrument over approximately one-half of the sky every 3 min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=peroxide&pg=5&id=ED260930','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=peroxide&pg=5&id=ED260930"><span>Chemistry. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 19 chemistry <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> focus on concepts related to: interactions with water; salt and calcium;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Homeostasis&pg=7&id=ED260928','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Homeostasis&pg=7&id=ED260928"><span>Biology. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 18 biology <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> focus on concepts related to: organisms; classification; populations;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=peroxides&pg=5&id=ED260930','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=peroxides&pg=5&id=ED260930"><span>Chemistry. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 19 chemistry <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> focus on concepts related to: interactions with water; salt and calcium;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cells+AND+classification&pg=3&id=ED260928','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cells+AND+classification&pg=3&id=ED260928"><span>Biology. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 18 biology <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> focus on concepts related to: organisms; classification; populations;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18810615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18810615"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> <span class="hlt">investigators</span>: how presentation order influences participant-<span class="hlt">investigators</span>' interpretations of eyewitness identification and alibi evidence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahl, Leora C; Brimacombe, C A Elizabeth; Lindsay, D Stephen</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Presentation order of ID and Alibi evidence was manipulated for undergraduate participants who conducted a simulated police <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. Experiment 1 found a recency effect when an eyewitness rejected the <span class="hlt">investigator</span>'s suspect. Experiment 2 also examined order effects, exploring how participant-<span class="hlt">investigators</span> evaluated alibi information in addition to eyewitness ID information. When <span class="hlt">investigators</span> saw the witness identify the suspect but also received a strong alibi for that suspect a recency effect occurred, such that whichever piece of information occurred at the end of the procedure had the strongest impact on <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. Thus, type of evidence and evidence order both had a dramatic influence on participant-<span class="hlt">investigators</span>' decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Inclined+AND+plane&pg=6&id=ED260932','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Inclined+AND+plane&pg=6&id=ED260932"><span>Physics. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 36 physics <span class="hlt">investigations</span> which focus on concepts related to: movement; vectors; falling objects; force and acceleration; a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=law+AND+attraction&pg=2&id=ED260932','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=law+AND+attraction&pg=2&id=ED260932"><span>Physics. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 36 physics <span class="hlt">investigations</span> which focus on concepts related to: movement; vectors; falling objects; force and acceleration; a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002230"><span>Accident/Mishap <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigation</span>Organizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap <span class="hlt">investigation</span> teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support <span class="hlt">investigators</span> by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2783790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2783790"><span>Visual expertise does not predict the composite effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: A comparison between spider (Ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as “different” when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We adapted a behavioural task that measures the composite illusion to examine the perception of faces in two nonhuman species. Specifically we had spider (Ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perform a two-forced choice, match-to-sample task where only the top half of sample was relevant to the task. The results of Experiment 1 show that spider monkeys (N = 2) process the faces of familiar species (conspecifics and humans, but not chimpanzees, sheep, or sticks), holistically. The second experiment tested rhesus monkeys (N = 7) with the faces of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, sheep and sticks. Contrary to prediction, there was no evidence of a composite effect in the human (or familiar primate) condition. Instead, we present evidence of a composite illusion in the chimpanzee condition (an unfamiliar primate). Together, these experiments show that visual expertise does not predict the composite effect across the primate order. PMID:19815323</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654418','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654418"><span>Importance of leaf anatomy in determining mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: quantitative limitations and scaling up by models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tomás, Magdalena; Flexas, Jaume; Copolovici, Lucian; Galmés, Jeroni; Hallik, Lea; Medrano, Hipólito; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Tosens, Tiina; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Foliage photosynthetic and structural traits were studied in 15 species with a wide range of foliage anatomies to gain insight into the importance of key anatomical traits in the limitation of diffusion of CO2 from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts. The relative importance of different anatomical traits in constraining CO2 diffusion was evaluated using a quantitative model. Mesophyll conductance (g m) was most strongly correlated with chloroplast exposed surface to leaf area ratio (S c/S) and cell wall thickness (T cw), but, depending on foliage structure, the overall importance of g m in constraining photosynthesis and the importance of different anatomical traits in the restriction of CO2 diffusion varied. In species with mesophytic leaves, membrane permeabilities and cytosol and stromal conductance dominated the variation in g m. However, in species with sclerophytic leaves, g m was mostly limited by T cw. These results demonstrate the major role of anatomy in constraining mesophyll diffusion conductance and, consequently, in determining the variability in photosynthetic capacity among species. PMID:23564954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1628904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1628904"><span>Molecular cloning, reconstruction and expression of the gene encoding the alpha-chain of the bovine CD8--definition of three peptide regions conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lalor, P; Bucci, C; Fornaro, M; Rattazzi, M C; Nakauchi, H; Herzenberg, L A; Alberti, S</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding the alpha-chain of the bovine CD8 (BoCD8 alpha). A bovine thymus cDNA library was hybridized at low stringency with a human CD8 alpha cDNA clone. The first round of screening of 5 x 10(4) independent colonies yielded 12 clones containing incomplete BoCD8 alpha genes. Two further rounds of colony hybridization were conducted, each using as a probe the 5' fragment from the longest BoCD8 alpha clone previously isolated. The final screening yielded a clone containing a 2 kilobase (kb) insert. We mapped and sequenced the 2 kb BoCD8 alpha clone and compared it with the published sequences of the genes encoding the human, mouse and rat CD8 alpha. Sequence analysis confirmed that the clone under study encoded the BoCD8 alpha. The overall similarity of the BoCD8 alpha coding region with the human CD8 alpha coding sequence is 74.7% at the nucleotide level and 62.1% at the protein level. Lower levels of similarity are found with the mouse and rat CD8 alpha. Interestingly, three separate highly homologous regions are clearly defined at the peptide level in bovine versus human and mouse versus rat comparisons. Two of the regions are highly conserved among all species analysed, while the most 5' region is not. We speculate that the latter region may contain the binding site of CD8 alpha to the alpha 3 domain of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Sequence analysis showed that the 2 kb BoCD8 alpha clone contains an incomplete coding region, i.e. lacks six bases corresponding to the first two amino acids of the leader region. To allow efficient translation and processing of the BoCD8 alpha gene, we constructed a chimeric gene containing the coding sequence of the BoCD8 alpha clone and synthetic sequences corresponding to the first two amino acids of the human CD8 alpha leader sequence. The chimeric gene was subcloned in the pKSV10 expression vector. The pKSV10-BoCD8 alpha construct is efficiently expressed both transiently in COS cells and stably in L cells, as determined by Northern blot and by FACS analysis, using the ILA-51 monoclonal antibody to BoCD8 alpha. The latter result formally proves that the ILA-51 antibody does indeed recognize the product of the BoCD8 alpha gene, as previously suggested on serological grounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310169&keyword=pig&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310169&keyword=pig&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Cross-species extrapolation of mammalian-based ToxCast Data using Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) and in silico technologies have emerged as 21st century tools for chemical hazard identification. In 2007 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the ToxCast Program, which has screened thousands of chemicals in hundreds of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3216339','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3216339"><span>Tinman/Nkx2-5 acts via miR-1 and upstream of Cdc42 to regulate heart function <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wythe, Joshua D.; Liu, Jiandong; Cartry, Jerome; Vogler, Georg; Mohapatra, Bhagyalaxmi; Otway, Robyn T.; Huang, Yu; King, Isabelle N.; Maillet, Marjorie; Zheng, Yi; Crawley, Timothy; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Semsarian, Christopher; Dunwoodie, Sally; Winlaw, David; Harvey, Richard P.; Fatkin, Diane; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Srivastava, Deepak; Ocorr, Karen; Bruneau, Benoit G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Unraveling the gene regulatory networks that govern development and function of the mammalian heart is critical for the rational design of therapeutic interventions in human heart disease. Using the Drosophila heart as a platform for identifying novel gene interactions leading to heart disease, we found that the Rho-GTPase Cdc42 cooperates with the cardiac transcription factor Tinman/Nkx2-5. Compound Cdc42, tinman heterozygous mutant flies exhibited impaired cardiac output and altered myofibrillar architecture, and adult heart–specific interference with Cdc42 function is sufficient to cause these same defects. We also identified K+ channels, encoded by dSUR and slowpoke, as potential effectors of the Cdc42–Tinman interaction. To determine whether a Cdc42–Nkx2-5 interaction is conserved in the mammalian heart, we examined compound heterozygous mutant mice and found conduction system and cardiac output defects. In exploring the mechanism of Nkx2-5 interaction with Cdc42, we demonstrated that mouse Cdc42 was a target of, and negatively regulated by miR-1, which itself was negatively regulated by Nkx2-5 in the mouse heart and by Tinman in the fly heart. We conclude that Cdc42 plays a conserved role in regulating heart function and is an indirect target of Tinman/Nkx2-5 via miR-1. PMID:21690310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310169&keyword=Sheep&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78800454&CFTOKEN=55821034','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310169&keyword=Sheep&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78800454&CFTOKEN=55821034"><span>Cross-species extrapolation of mammalian-based ToxCast Data using Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) and in silico technologies have emerged as 21st century tools for chemical hazard identification. In 2007 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the ToxCast Program, which has screened thousands of chemicals in hundreds of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390852"><span>Systems Genetic Analyses Highlight a TGFβ-FOXO3 Dependent Striatal Astrocyte Network Conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Associated with Stress, Sleep, and Huntington's Disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scarpa, Joseph R; Jiang, Peng; Losic, Bojan; Readhead, Ben; Gao, Vance D; Dudley, Joel T; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recent systems-based analyses have demonstrated that sleep and stress traits emerge from shared genetic and transcriptional networks, and clinical work has elucidated the emergence of sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility as early symptoms of Huntington's disease. Understanding the biological bases of these early non-motor symptoms may reveal therapeutic targets that prevent disease onset or slow disease progression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex clinical presentation remain largely unknown. In the present work, we specifically examine the relationship between these psychiatric traits and Huntington's disease (HD) by identifying striatal transcriptional networks shared by HD, stress, and sleep phenotypes. First, we utilize a systems-based approach to examine a large publicly available human transcriptomic dataset for HD (GSE3790 from GEO) in a novel way. We use weighted gene coexpression network analysis and differential connectivity analyses to identify transcriptional networks dysregulated in HD, and we use an unbiased ranking scheme that leverages both gene- and network-level information to identify a novel astrocyte-specific network as most relevant to HD caudate. We validate this result in an independent HD cohort. Next, we computationally predict FOXO3 as a regulator of this network, and use multiple publicly available in vitro and in vivo experimental datasets to validate that this astrocyte HD network is downstream of a signaling pathway important in adult neurogenesis (TGFβ-FOXO3). We also map this HD-relevant caudate subnetwork to striatal transcriptional networks in a large (n = 100) chronically stressed (B6xA/J)F2 mouse population that has been extensively phenotyped (328 stress- and sleep-related measurements), and we show that this striatal astrocyte network is correlated to sleep and stress traits, many of which are known to be altered in HD cohorts. We identify causal regulators of this network through Bayesian network analysis, and we highlight their relevance to motor, mood, and sleep traits through multiple in silico approaches, including an examination of their protein binding partners. Finally, we show that these causal regulators may be therapeutically viable for HD because their downstream network was partially modulated by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a medical intervention thought to confer some therapeutic benefit to HD patients. In conclusion, we show that an astrocyte transcriptional network is primarily associated to HD in the caudate and provide evidence for its relationship to molecular mechanisms of neural stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, we present a unified systems-based framework for identifying gene networks that are associated with complex non-motor traits that manifest in the earliest phases of HD. By analyzing and integrating multiple independent datasets, we identify a point of molecular convergence between sleep, stress, and HD that reflects their phenotypic comorbidity and reveals a molecular pathway involved in HD progression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=primates&pg=2&id=EJ860862','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=primates&pg=2&id=EJ860862"><span>Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4493114','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4493114"><span>Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Adam C.; Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Downes, Constance M.; Francis, Charles M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI) are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations) or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species’ breeding habitat). A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC) were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN) across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s) with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines. PMID:26147572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiders&pg=3&id=EJ860862','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiders&pg=3&id=EJ860862"><span>Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058828"><span><span class="hlt">Across-Species</span> Transfer of Protection by Remote Ischemic Preconditioning With Species-Specific Myocardial Signal Transduction by Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase and Survival Activating Factor Enhancement Pathways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skyschally, Andreas; Gent, Sabine; Amanakis, Georgios; Schulte, Christiane; Kleinbongard, Petra; Heusch, Gerd</p> <p>2015-07-17</p> <p>Reduction of myocardial infarct size by remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), that is, cycles of ischemia/reperfusion in an organ remote from the heart before sustained myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, was confirmed in all species so far, including humans. To identify myocardial signal transduction of cardioprotection by RIPC. Anesthetized pigs were subjected to RIPC (4×5/5 minutes hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion) or placebo (PLA) before 60/180 minutes coronary occlusion/reperfusion. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (reperfusion injury salvage kinase [RISK] pathway), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (survival activating factor enhancement [SAFE] pathway) in the area at risk was determined by Western blot. Wortmannin/U0126 or AG490 was used for pharmacological RISK or SAFE blockade, respectively. Plasma sampled after RIPC or PLA, respectively, was transferred to isolated bioassay rat hearts subjected to 30/120 minutes global ischemia/reperfusion. RIPC reduced infarct size in pigs to 16±11% versus 43±11% in PLA (% area at risk; mean±SD; P<0.05). RIPC increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 at early reperfusion, and AG490 abolished the protection, whereas RISK blockade did not. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation was decreased at early reperfusion in both RIPC and PLA. In isolated rat hearts, pig plasma taken after RIPC reduced infarct size (25±5% of ventricular mass versus 38±5% in PLA; P<0.05) and activated both RISK and SAFE. RISK or SAFE blockade abrogated this protection. Cardioprotection by RIPC in pigs causally involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 but not of RISK. Protection can be transferred with plasma from pigs to isolated rat hearts where activation of both RISK and SAFE is causally involved. The myocardial signal transduction of RIPC is the same as that of ischemic postconditioning. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331147&keyword=policy+AND+analysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331147&keyword=policy+AND+analysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Assessing cross species conservation of ToxCast Assay targets using Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US EPA’s ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals in hundreds of mammalian-based HTS assays for biological activity suggestive of potential toxic effects. These data are being used to prioritize toxicity testing to focus on chemicals likely to lead to adverse health ef...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4938493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4938493"><span>Systems Genetic Analyses Highlight a TGFβ-FOXO3 Dependent Striatal Astrocyte Network Conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Associated with Stress, Sleep, and Huntington’s Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scarpa, Joseph R.; Jiang, Peng; Losic, Bojan; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent systems-based analyses have demonstrated that sleep and stress traits emerge from shared genetic and transcriptional networks, and clinical work has elucidated the emergence of sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility as early symptoms of Huntington's disease. Understanding the biological bases of these early non-motor symptoms may reveal therapeutic targets that prevent disease onset or slow disease progression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex clinical presentation remain largely unknown. In the present work, we specifically examine the relationship between these psychiatric traits and Huntington's disease (HD) by identifying striatal transcriptional networks shared by HD, stress, and sleep phenotypes. First, we utilize a systems-based approach to examine a large publicly available human transcriptomic dataset for HD (GSE3790 from GEO) in a novel way. We use weighted gene coexpression network analysis and differential connectivity analyses to identify transcriptional networks dysregulated in HD, and we use an unbiased ranking scheme that leverages both gene- and network-level information to identify a novel astrocyte-specific network as most relevant to HD caudate. We validate this result in an independent HD cohort. Next, we computationally predict FOXO3 as a regulator of this network, and use multiple publicly available in vitro and in vivo experimental datasets to validate that this astrocyte HD network is downstream of a signaling pathway important in adult neurogenesis (TGFβ-FOXO3). We also map this HD-relevant caudate subnetwork to striatal transcriptional networks in a large (n = 100) chronically stressed (B6xA/J)F2 mouse population that has been extensively phenotyped (328 stress- and sleep-related measurements), and we show that this striatal astrocyte network is correlated to sleep and stress traits, many of which are known to be altered in HD cohorts. We identify causal regulators of this network through Bayesian network analysis, and we highlight their relevance to motor, mood, and sleep traits through multiple in silico approaches, including an examination of their protein binding partners. Finally, we show that these causal regulators may be therapeutically viable for HD because their downstream network was partially modulated by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a medical intervention thought to confer some therapeutic benefit to HD patients. In conclusion, we show that an astrocyte transcriptional network is primarily associated to HD in the caudate and provide evidence for its relationship to molecular mechanisms of neural stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, we present a unified systems-based framework for identifying gene networks that are associated with complex non-motor traits that manifest in the earliest phases of HD. By analyzing and integrating multiple independent datasets, we identify a point of molecular convergence between sleep, stress, and HD that reflects their phenotypic comorbidity and reveals a molecular pathway involved in HD progression. PMID:27390852</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28247452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28247452"><span>River network architecture, genetic effective size and distributional patterns predict differences in genetic structure <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a dryland stream fish community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pilger, Tyler J; Gido, Keith B; Propst, David L; Whitney, James E; Turner, Thomas F</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Dendritic ecological network (DEN) architecture can be a strong predictor of spatial genetic patterns in theoretical and simulation studies. Yet, interspecific differences in dispersal capabilities and distribution within the network may equally affect species' genetic structuring. We characterized patterns of genetic variation from up to ten microsatellite loci for nine numerically dominant members of the upper Gila River fish community, New Mexico, USA. Using comparative landscape genetics, we evaluated the role of network architecture for structuring populations within species (pairwise FST ) while explicitly accounting for intraspecific demographic influences on effective population size (Ne ). Five species exhibited patterns of connectivity and/or genetic diversity gradients that were predicted by network structure. These species were generally considered to be small-bodied or habitat specialists. Spatial variation of Ne was a strong predictor of pairwise FST for two species, suggesting patterns of connectivity may also be influenced by genetic drift independent of network properties. Finally, two study species exhibited genetic patterns that were unexplained by network properties and appeared to be related to nonequilibrium processes. Properties of DENs shape community-wide genetic structure but effects are modified by intrinsic traits and nonequilibrium processes. Further theoretical development of the DEN framework should account for such cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331147&keyword=rabbit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88584980&CFTOKEN=33531050','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331147&keyword=rabbit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88584980&CFTOKEN=33531050"><span>Assessing cross species conservation of ToxCast Assay targets using Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US EPA’s ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals in hundreds of mammalian-based HTS assays for biological activity suggestive of potential toxic effects. These data are being used to prioritize toxicity testing to focus on chemicals likely to lead to adverse hea...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614044','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614044"><span>Evaluation of Military Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigative</span> Organizations Child Death <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-22</p> <p>industrial, or legal). http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/toxicology 28 CPS responds to reports of child abuse and neglect by conducting family...No. DODIG-2015-055 D E C E M B E R 2 2 , 2 0 1 4 Evaluation of Military Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigative</span> Organizations’ Child Death <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Report... Child Death <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400763.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400763.pdf"><span>Title IX Athletics <span class="hlt">Investigator</span>'s Manual.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bonnette, Valerie M.; Daniel, Lamar</p> <p></p> <p>This guide is designed for use in <span class="hlt">investigating</span> college athletics program compliance with Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, prohibiting sex discrimination in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance. It is organized to assist <span class="hlt">investigators</span> from the time a complaint is received or compliance review scheduled to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031800.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031800.pdf"><span>Rules of Procedure for <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.</p> <p></p> <p>Among the functions of the Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities of the NEA is the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of cases of alleged unethical conduct by members of the teaching profession. The rules of procedure for <span class="hlt">investigations</span> presented in this document are intended to assure all parties in a conflict of their individual rights of procedural…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65939&keyword=happen&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65939&keyword=happen&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS: WATERBORNE DISEASE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a disease outbreak <span class="hlt">investigation</span> involving drinking water, an engineering <span class="hlt">investigation</span> may be necessary to determine how or why the pathogen of concern was able to get to the consumer. In many of the US outbreaks, the survival of the pathogen was dependent on multiple...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bird+AND+behavior&pg=7&id=EJ549762','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bird+AND+behavior&pg=7&id=EJ549762"><span>Four <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Animal Behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheverton, John</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes four techniques for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> animal behavior in situations where it is relatively easy to obtain meaningful data. Presents <span class="hlt">investigations</span> for attention responses and habituation of domestic animals to sound stimuli, interaction of lambs and ewes, behavior of lambs in a simple T-maze, and vigilance in birds at a feeder. (JRH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24986727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24986727"><span>Diving fatality <span class="hlt">investigations</span>: recent changes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Modifications to the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. The most germane proposal for <span class="hlt">investigators</span> assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382080"><span>Haematuria: classification, causes and <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagnall, Pauline</p> <p></p> <p>The majority of patients who attend haematuria clinics for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of blood in their urine will be found to have either no cause or a benign cause. Between 20% and 25% of people with visible blood in their urine and 5-10% of people with non-visible blood in their urine will be diagnosed with a urological malignancy, i.e. bladder, kidney or prostate cancer. Haematuria is therefore a significant symptom that should be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> promptly and thoroughly to exclude cancer as quickly as possible. This article gives an overview of the causes of haematuria and the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> that patients will undergo when referred to a haematuria clinic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15646149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15646149"><span>[The general physician in <span class="hlt">investigation</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamayo-Pérez, Rubén</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The general physician needs the medical specialist to train him/her to initiate clinical <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The National Academy of Medicine of Mexico and other institutions should collaborate in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22globalization+AND+terrorism%22%5D%7D&r=96','SCIGOV-CON-113'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22globalization+AND+terrorism%22%5D%7D&r=96"><span>Financial Crisis Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=113">THOMAS, 113th Congress </a></p> <p>Rep. Kaptur, Marcy [D-OH-9</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>House - 01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730015116','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730015116"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of ultraviolet interstellar extinction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Payne-Gaposchkin, C.; Haramundanis, K. L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The progress made during the past six months in utilizing Celescope OAO-2 data in a study of extinction is reported along with conclusions drawn from each inquiry. Areas recommended for further <span class="hlt">investigation</span> are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24004391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24004391"><span>Muscle disorders: the latest <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghaoui, R; Clarke, N; Hollingworth, P; Needham, M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Patients with muscle disorders can present a diagnostic challenge to physicians because of the different ways they can present and the large number of different underlying causes. Recognition of the 'myopathic phenotype' coupled with <span class="hlt">investigations</span> usually including electrodiagnostic and histological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have been essential for diagnosing the underlying cause of a myopathy. Despite these standard <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, some patients can remain undiagnosed. New tests including more specific antibody tests for immune-mediated myopathies and the introduction of next-generation sequencing promise to revolutionise diagnostic approaches for immune and inherited myopathies, but clinical expertise remains essential to choose the most appropriate tests and interpret the results. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different presentations to the neuromuscular clinic and the latest <span class="hlt">investigations</span> that can be helpful in the diagnosis of muscle disorders. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22crime%22%5D%7D&r=82','SCIGOV-CON-113'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22crime%22%5D%7D&r=82"><span>Financial Crisis Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=113">THOMAS, 113th Congress </a></p> <p>Rep. Kaptur, Marcy [D-OH-9</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA14069.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA14069.html"><span>Aquarius Principal <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> with Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-19</p> <p>NASA Aquarius Principal <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Gary Lagerloef photographed in front of the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite observatory as it is being readied for transportation from Brazil to Vandenberg Air Force Base in California for a June 2011 launch.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%221980-01-01%22%5D%7D&r=9','SCIGOV-CON-113'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%221980-01-01%22%5D%7D&r=9"><span>Financial Crisis Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=113">THOMAS, 113th Congress </a></p> <p>Rep. Kaptur, Marcy [D-OH-9</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19062.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19062.html"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Subtle Colors on Iapetus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-06</p> <p>NASA Cassini spacecraft stared toward Saturn two-toned moon Iapetus for about a week in early 2015, in a campaign motivated in part to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> subtle color differences within the moon bright terrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zoom&pg=7&id=EJ608760','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zoom&pg=7&id=EJ608760"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of the Zoom Lens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Auty, Geoff</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes an open-ended <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in which students have to look into a feature of lens performance that is not commonly found in textbook materials on optics. Presents explanations and sample results. (WRM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870006601','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870006601"><span>COFS 1 Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fontana, Anthony; Wright, Robert L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The process for selecting guest <span class="hlt">investigators</span> for participation in the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS)-1 program is described. Contracts and grants will be awarded in late CY87. A straw-man list of types of experiments and a distribution of the experiments has been defined to initiate definition of an experiments package which supports development and validation of control structures interaction technology. A schedule of guest <span class="hlt">investigator</span> participation has been developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754002"><span>Cognitive fallacies and criminal <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ditrich, Hans</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The human mind is susceptible to inherent fallacies that often hamper fully rational action. Many such misconceptions have an evolutionary background and are thus difficult to avert. Deficits in the reliability of eye-witnesses are well known to legal professionals; however, less attention has been paid to such effects in crime <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. In order to obtain an "inside view" on the role of cognitive misconceptions in criminalistic work, a list of fallacies from the literature was adapted to criminalistic settings. The statements on this list were rated by highly experienced crime scene <span class="hlt">investigators</span> according to the assumed likelihood of these errors to appear and their severity of effect. Among others, selective perception, expectation and confirmation bias, anchoring/"pars per toto" errors and "onus probandi"--shifting the burden of proof from the <span class="hlt">investigator</span> to the suspect--were frequently considered to negatively affect criminal <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. As a consequence, the following measures are proposed: alerting <span class="hlt">investigating</span> officers in their training to cognitive fallacies and promoting the exchange of experiences in peer circles of <span class="hlt">investigators</span> on a regular basis. Furthermore, the improvement of the organizational error culture and the establishment of a failure analysis system in order to identify and alleviate error prone processes are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977942"><span>Los Alamos Laser Eye <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Odom, C. R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle <span class="hlt">investigator</span> was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle <span class="hlt">investigator</span>'s unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004LNES..104..792V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004LNES..104..792V"><span>Smart Site <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Save Money!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Staveren, Martin Th; van Seters, Adriaan J.</p> <p></p> <p>More appropriate and well-timed site <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have a major positive impact in order to reduce the risk of failure. Design and construction of any infrastructure project can be optimised within the project specifications by smart site <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, in order to save money and time. In this paper this statement is supported by three recent Dutch infrastruc- ture projects, in which smart site <span class="hlt">investigations</span> resulted in major cost and or time savings. A number of generic key success factors are derived from the presented case histories. These success factors are a risk driven approach of the project, challenging existing codes of practice by state of the art techniques, true consideration of the impact of geological heterogeneity on the project and last but not least, application of hard and soft experience data. These aspects can be defined as the characteristics of smart site <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. They flourish in particular when applied in combination. In conclusion, more attention towards the strategy and quality of site <span class="hlt">investigations</span> pays off. It is therefore considered as the responsibility of the European engineering geological and geotechnical communities to send this message with clear examples to the owners, designers and constructors of infra- structure projects. Finally all stake holders of these projects, owners, contractors, engineers, insurance parties and the European societies as a whole, will benefit from the strength of smart site <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940243','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940243"><span>Hurricane Katrina Wind <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Desjarlais, A. O.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed <span class="hlt">investigations</span> by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these <span class="hlt">investigations</span> will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned <span class="hlt">investigative</span> effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan <span class="hlt">investigations</span>: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+social+AND+responsibilities&pg=7&id=EJ663750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+social+AND+responsibilities&pg=7&id=EJ663750"><span>Responsibility-Based Youth Programs Evaluation: <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hellison, Don; Walsh, David</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Reviews 26 studies that have <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the impact of the personal-social responsibility model (RM), a physical activity program model, on underserved and/or at-risk youth since its inception. Results indicate that field research encompasses a wide range of approaches. However, the 26 studies enhance the theoretical and practical potential of RM…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cape+AND+town+AND+south+AND+africa&pg=6&id=EJ573744','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cape+AND+town+AND+south+AND+africa&pg=6&id=EJ573744"><span>An <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Students' Ability To Communicate Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaunda, L.; Allie, S.; Buffler, A.; Campbell, B.; Lubben, F.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A study <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the ability of educationally disadvantaged and limited-English-proficient University of Cape Town (South Africa) students to write about science research projects. Analysis of students' reports showed a strong relationship between task presentation methods, specific task-completion guidelines, and quality of writing. Poor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28776465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28776465"><span>DNA testing in homicide <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prahlow, Joseph A; Cameron, Thomas; Arendt, Alexander; Cornelis, Kenneth; Bontrager, Anthony; Suth, Michael S; Black, Lisa; Tobey, Rebbecca; Pollock, Sharon; Stur, Shawn; Cotter, Kenneth; Gabrielse, Joel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objectives With the widespread use of DNA testing, police, death <span class="hlt">investigators</span>, and attorneys need to be aware of the capabilities of this technology. This review provides an overview of scenarios where DNA evidence has played a major role in homicide <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in order to highlight important educational issues for police, death <span class="hlt">investigators</span>, forensic pathologists, and attorneys. Methods This was a nonrandom, observational, retrospective study. Data were obtained from the collective files of the authors from casework during a 15-year period, from 2000 through 2014. Results A series of nine scenarios, encompassing 11 deaths, is presented from the standpoint of the police and death <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, the forensic pathology autopsy performance, the subsequent DNA testing of evidence, and, ultimately, the final adjudication of cases. Details of each case are presented, along with a discussion that focuses on important aspects of sample collection for potential DNA testing, especially at the crime scene and the autopsy. The presentation highlights the diversity of case and evidence types in which DNA testing played a valuable role in the successful prosecution of the case. Conclusions By highlighting homicides where DNA testing contributed to the successful adjudication of cases, police, death <span class="hlt">investigators</span>, forensic pathologists, and attorneys will be better informed regarding the types of evidence and situations where such testing is of potential value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184749"><span>100 Areas CERCLA ecological <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001481','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001481"><span>Ground vortex flow field <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Flow field <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9145E..0QY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9145E..0QY"><span>SOFIA general <span class="hlt">investigator</span> science program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Erick T.; Andersson, B.-G.; Becklin, Eric E.; Reach, William T.; Sankrit, Ravi; Zinnecker, Hans; Krabbe, Alfred</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and DLR, the German Aerospace Center, to provide the worldwide astronomical community with an observatory that offers unique capabilities from visible to far-infrared wavelengths. SOFIA consists of a 2.7-m telescope mounted in a highly modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft, a suite of instruments, and the scientific and operational infrastructure to support the observing program. This paper describes the current status of the observatory and details the General <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> program. The observatory has recently completed major development activities, and it has transitioned into full operational status. Under the General <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> program, astronomers submit proposals that are peer reviewed for observation on the facility. We describe the results from the first two cycles of the General <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> program. We also describe some of the new observational capabilities that will be available for Cycle 3, which will begin in 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870002391&hterms=challenger&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dchallenger','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870002391&hterms=challenger&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dchallenger"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of the Challenger Accident</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The work of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (hereafter referred to as the Rogers Commission) and the work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in <span class="hlt">investigating</span> the causes of the accident were reviewed. In addition to reviewing the five volumes of the Rogers Commission, the entire direct on-line Rogers Commission data base, which included full-text and document retrieval capability was also reviewed. The findings and recommendations contained also include materials submitted for the record, staff <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, interviews, and trips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0100142&hterms=Viscosity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DViscosity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0100142&hterms=Viscosity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DViscosity"><span>Critical Viscosity of Xenon <span class="hlt">investigators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-<span class="hlt">investigator</span>, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA581038','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA581038"><span>Evaluation of the Military Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigative</span> Organizations Sexual Assault <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-09</p> <p>Physical Evidence to Serology Division, U.S. Army Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Laboratory (USACIL) for DNA Examination/Analysis.” This policy memorandum stated...Information for Victims and Witnesses of Crime,” provides recipients with an understanding of the military criminal justice process, actions to take in...collect all items of physical evidence (for example, clothing, deoxyribonucleic acid [ DNA ] samples, phone records, text records) identified by subjects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mineral&pg=3&id=EJ775124','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mineral&pg=3&id=EJ775124"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Minerals: Promoting Integrated Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, Rudi; Carmack, Elizabeth</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>"Mineral Detectives!" is one of eighteen lessons in the "Private Whys?" integrated science unit, which uses a guided inquiry <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to teach students in grades three through five about the role of minerals in our lives. The University of North Texas developed "Private Whys?" with funding from the Copper…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64739&keyword=SURVEILLANCE+AND+EPIDEMIOLOGICAL&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64739&keyword=SURVEILLANCE+AND+EPIDEMIOLOGICAL&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860020392','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860020392"><span>An <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of empennage buffeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lan, C. E.; Lee, I. G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Progress in the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of empennage buffeting in reviewed. In summary, the following tasks were accomplished: relevant literatures was reviewed; equations for calculating structural response were formulated; root-mean-square values of root bending moment for a 65-degree rigid delta wing were calculated and compared with data; and a water-tunnel test program for an F-18 model was completed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ubiquity&id=EJ1010641','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ubiquity&id=EJ1010641"><span>Mobilising Ethnographers <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Technologised Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Landri, Paolo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper intends to problematise understandings of the ethnographer's presence in <span class="hlt">investigating</span> contemporary forms of technologised learning. The ubiquity of new educational technologies raises questions concerning the spaces of education and learning, and challenges, at the same time, the sense of "being there" in terms of the face-to-face…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Physical+AND+chemistry+AND+chemical+AND+biological+AND+sciences&pg=3&id=ED401139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Physical+AND+chemistry+AND+chemical+AND+biological+AND+sciences&pg=3&id=ED401139"><span>Visualizing Chemistry: <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> for Teachers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ealy, Julie B.; Ealy, James L., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains 101 <span class="hlt">investigations</span> for chemistry classrooms. Topics include: (1) Physical Properties; (2) Reactions of Some Elements; (3) Reactions Involving Gases; (4) Energy Changes; (5) Solutions and Solubility; (6) Transition Metals and Complex Ions; (7) Kinetics and Equilibrium; (8) Acids and Bases; (9) Oxidation-Reduction; (10)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyW...25i...8L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyW...25i...8L"><span>Police close unsolved 'climategate' <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavender, Gemma</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA015076','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA015076"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of E. coli Enterotoxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the course of <span class="hlt">investigating</span> E . coli enterotoxins, it was discovered that trypsin treatment of partially purified enterotoxin from strain H197 (078...loops) did exhibit elevated PF titers compared with uninoculated controls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that E . coli enterotoxins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+hemispheres+AND+learning+AND+styles&pg=2&id=EJ888706','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+hemispheres+AND+learning+AND+styles&pg=2&id=EJ888706"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Gender Differences in Reading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=minerals&pg=3&id=EJ775124','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=minerals&pg=3&id=EJ775124"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Minerals: Promoting Integrated Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, Rudi; Carmack, Elizabeth</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>"Mineral Detectives!" is one of eighteen lessons in the "Private Whys?" integrated science unit, which uses a guided inquiry <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to teach students in grades three through five about the role of minerals in our lives. The University of North Texas developed "Private Whys?" with funding from the Copper…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollination&pg=4&id=EJ556087','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollination&pg=4&id=EJ556087"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Evolution with Living Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schlessman, Mark A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes two <span class="hlt">investigative</span> labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Best+AND+taylor&pg=4&id=ED529528','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Best+AND+taylor&pg=4&id=ED529528"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> University-School Partnerships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nath, Janice, Ed.; Guadarrama, Irma N., Ed.; Ramsey, John, Ed.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> University-School Partnerships: A Volume in Professional Development School Research, the fourth book in the PDS Research Series developed by the same editors, includes a collection of organized papers that represent the best and latest examples of practitioner thinking, research, and program design and evaluation in the field at the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64739&keyword=frost&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89780426&CFTOKEN=29234568','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64739&keyword=frost&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89780426&CFTOKEN=29234568"><span>IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA421848','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA421848"><span>Tactical Vehicle Engine Emissions <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>diesel fuel (DF-2) were examined and tabulated (2). 3. Groupings for Army wheeled and tracked vehicles were made to which a single emission...<span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Possible Test Cycles for Determining Army Diesel Engine Emission Factors...4 2. High Density Army Diesel Equipment .................................................................... 6 3. Information on on the Steady</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=color+AND+energy&pg=5&id=ED401139','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=color+AND+energy&pg=5&id=ED401139"><span>Visualizing Chemistry: <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> for Teachers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ealy, Julie B.; Ealy, James L., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains 101 <span class="hlt">investigations</span> for chemistry classrooms. Topics include: (1) Physical Properties; (2) Reactions of Some Elements; (3) Reactions Involving Gases; (4) Energy Changes; (5) Solutions and Solubility; (6) Transition Metals and Complex Ions; (7) Kinetics and Equilibrium; (8) Acids and Bases; (9) Oxidation-Reduction; (10)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollination&pg=4&id=EJ556087','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollination&pg=4&id=EJ556087"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Evolution with Living Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schlessman, Mark A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes two <span class="hlt">investigative</span> labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26647506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26647506"><span>Incident reporting: the bureau <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mains, Paul</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Bureau <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> (BI) is a type of report that lends itself to the internal complaints often generated within a bureaucracy, the author reports, and ranges from discourtesy complaints on a single shift or a single officer to the more complex, sensitive inquiries called for by the senior administration. In this article he explores the many facets of the BI which must be mastered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ898702.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ898702.pdf"><span>Why Are Mathematical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Important?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Quinnell, Lorna</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>"Research studies show that when students discover mathematical ideas and invent mathematical procedures, they have a stronger conceptual understanding of connections between mathematical ideas." Flewelling and Higginson state that inquiry, <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, and problem solving "give students the opportunity to use their imagination…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lactose&id=EJ364126','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lactose&id=EJ364126"><span>An <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Milk Sugar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Christopher A.; Dawson, Maureen M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Describes an experiment to identify lactose and estimate the concentration of lactose in a sample of milk. Gives a background of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. Details the experimental method, results and calculations. Discusses the implications of the experiment to students. Suggests further experiments using the same technique used in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26096088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26096088"><span>How to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> multisystem disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watts, Richard A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the patient with possible systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease is potentially one of the most challenging areas of rheumatology as the differential diagnosis is potentially very broad. The <span class="hlt">investigative</span> approach should not only be directed at confirming the diagnosis of an autoimmune rheumatic disease but also at excluding as best as possible the major alternative diagnoses of malignancy and infection. A systematic approach should yield a positive diagnosis in the majority of cases based on excluding infection by appropriate cultures and serology, malignancy using imaging including 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT). The most important part of the assessment is the history, in particular covering systems that may not previously been assessed such as ears, nose, throat or eyes. The clue to the diagnosis of an autoimmune rheumatic disease often lies in detecting the multisystem nature of the condition and the cumulative effects of multiorgan involvement. <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> may therefore need to cover different systems. Although stratified approaches have been described, they have not been subjected to a detailed <span class="hlt">investigation</span> as to their effectiveness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-A-26150.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-A-26150.html"><span>Collins Aerodyne VTOL aircraft <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1960-01-11</p> <p>Collins Aerodyne vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Ground plane support system. 3/4 front view. Dave Koening (from Collins Aerodyne) in photo. Mounted on variable height struts, ground board system, zero degree angle of attack. 01/11/1960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sobel&pg=4&id=ED529528','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sobel&pg=4&id=ED529528"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> University-School Partnerships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nath, Janice, Ed.; Guadarrama, Irma N., Ed.; Ramsey, John, Ed.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> University-School Partnerships: A Volume in Professional Development School Research, the fourth book in the PDS Research Series developed by the same editors, includes a collection of organized papers that represent the best and latest examples of practitioner thinking, research, and program design and evaluation in the field at the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070034812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070034812"><span>The GLAST Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Band, David L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We provide an overview of the GLAST Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> (GI) program, which will support basic research relevant to the GLAST mission in yearly cycles beginning approximately two months after launch. Current details about the GLAST GI program will always be posted on the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC) website: http://glast.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060598"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> following resuscitated cardiac arrest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skinner, Jonathan R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Roughly two thirds of resuscitated cardiac arrests in children and youth are due to inherited heart diseases. The most commonly implicated are the cardiac ion channelopathies long QT syndrome, CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and Brugada syndrome. Diagnosis is pivotal to further management of the child if he/she survives, and also to other family members who may be at risk. Thorough <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the cardiac arrest survivor is essential to either identify or exclude inherited heart disease. If standard cardiac <span class="hlt">investigation</span> does not reveal a diagnosis, pharmacological provocation tests are needed to unmask electrocardiographic signs of disease, even if, due to severe brain injury, it is planned ultimately to allow a natural death. Examples are the ajmaline/flecainide challenge for Brugada syndrome and epinephrine for CPVT. A supportive, informative and sympathetic approach to the family is essential. An arrhythmia specialist and a cardiac genetic service should be involved early, with storage of DNA and cardiac/genetic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the family. This review proposes a diagnostic algorithm-based approach to the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of this increasingly common clinical scenario.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1955/0036/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1955/0036/report.pdf"><span>Ground water <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Davis, Leon V.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p>Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards.Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program.The first cooperative <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water <span class="hlt">investigations</span> during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water <span class="hlt">investigations</span> since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3195B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3195B"><span>Scientific <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> with the SJCSI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berbey, E.; Delpeyroux, G.; Douay, E.; Juchereau, C.; Garavet, O.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Scientific <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> with the SJCSI (Saint Jean* Crime Scene <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>) Our work, which we have been teaching for 3 years, consists of a scientific <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. We create a case from A to Z and then our students (15 to 16 years old) are meant to collect samples and clues from a reconstituted crime scene and then have to catch the culprit thanks to laboratory tests crossing four subjects: Physics and Chemistry, Biology, Math and English. I'm a biology teacher and I work with 3 other teachers in my school. The objectives of these activities are: • Make sciences more attractive by putting them into a context of crime <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. • Use science techniques to find a culprit or to clear a suspect. • To acquire scientific knowledge. • Realize that the different scientific subjects complement each other to carry out a survey. • Use English language and improve it. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> consists of doing experiments after collecting different samples and clues on the crime scene. Examples of Biology experimentation: • Detecting the origin of the blood samples found on the crime scene. Students observe blood samples with a microscope and compare the characteristics to those of human blood found on the web. They discover that blood samples found aren't human blood because the red cells have a nucleus. By using the information given in the scenario, they discover that blood sample belongs to the parrot of a suspect. Students, also take a photo of their microscopic preparations, add title and caption and so they learn the cell's structure and the characteristics of blood cells. • In another case, students have to study the blood sample found under the victims fingernails. They observe blood preparation and compare it to the blood of a suspect who has a genetic disease: drepanocytosis. So, they discover the characteristics of blood cells by comparing them to sickle cells. • DNA electrophoresis to identify DNA found, for example, on the gun. • Blood type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016397','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016397"><span>ATMOS Spacelab 1 science <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, J. H.; Smith, M. A. H.; Twitty, J. T.; Russell, J. M., III</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Existing infrared spectra from high speed interferometer balloon flights were analyzed and experimental analysis techniques applicable to similar data from the ATMOS experiment (Spacelab 3) were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Specific techniques under <span class="hlt">investigation</span> included line-by-line simulation of the spectra to aid in the identification of absorbing gases, simultaneous retrieval of pressure and temperature profiles using carefully chosen pairs of CO2 absorption lines, and the use of these pressures and temperatures in the retrieval of gas concentration profiles for many absorbing species. A search for a new absorption features was also carried out, and special attention was given to identification of absorbing gases in spectral bandpass regions to be measured by the halogen occultation experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20076000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20076000"><span>Microstructural <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on aerated concrete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Narayanan, N.; Ramamurthy, K.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Aerated concrete is characterized by the presence of large voids deliberately included in its matrix to reduce the density. This study reports the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> conducted on the structure of cement-based autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and non-AAC with sand or fly ash as the filler. The reasons for changes in compressive strength and drying shrinkage are explained with reference to the changes in the microstructure. Compositional analysis was carried out using XRD. It was observed that fly ash responds poorly to autoclaving. The process of pore refinement in fly ash mixes is discussed with reference to the formation of Hadley grains as well as fly ash hydration. The paste-void interface in aerated concrete <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in relation to the paste-aggregate interface in normal concrete revealed the existence of an interfacial transition zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....11870P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....11870P"><span>Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pätzold, M.; Hagermann, A.; Rsi Team</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The Rosetta spacecraft, to be launched sometime in the near future, will be equipped with the Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI) experiment. This experiment addresses fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, its gravity field as well as nongravitational forces, nucleus size and shape, internal structure, composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains, the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux. RSI does not have a dedicated instrument on the Rosetta spacecraft. Instead, it uses the onboard radio subsystem responsible for communication between the spacecraftand the ground stations on Earth. The Rosetta radio subsystem is specially equipped with an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) which significantly improves the sensitivity and accuracy of the measurements. The spacecraft is capable of receiving two uplink signals at S-band via the Low Gain Antennas (LGAs), or non-simultaneously receiving at either X-band (7100 MHz) or S-band via the HGA. The downlink transmission via the High Gain Antenna (HGA) can occur simultaneously at S-band and X-band or at S-band only via the LGAs. RSI is interested in the nondispersive frequency shifts (classical Doppler) anddispersive frequency shifts (due to the ionized propagation medium), the signal power and the polarization of the radio carrier waves.Variations in these parameters will yield information on the motion of the spacecraft, theperturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the propagation medium. The primary and secondary science objectives of RSI at the comet, the asteroid flybys (planned in the original mission scenario) and during cruise are divided into categories begin{itemize} cometary gravity field <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, comet nucleus <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, cometary coma <span class="hlt">investigations</span> asteroid mass and bulk density as the prime science objectives, and begin{itemize} solar corona sounding as secondary science</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7963M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7963M"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> heating dynamics in sparks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markosyan, Aram; Zhang, Jin; van Heesch, Bert; Ebert, Ute</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>After the first streamer discharge front in a spark, heating and gas expansion sets in.This effect underlies the streamer to leader transition in air, and becomes strongerwith increasing density of the medium. We model and solve heat generation by the discharge,the thermal shock and the induced pressure wave. In particular, we <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the electric breakdown of supercritical nitrogen and the subsequent recovery of insulation, motivated by a possible applicationas a high voltage switch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141971','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141971"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Implementation of Robotics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>igating the Implementation of Robotics j Linda Argote and Paul S. Goodman I CML-RI-TRS84-9I <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Implementation of Robotics #Linda...Argote and Paul S. Goodman CMU-RI-TR-84-9 The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Fecbruary 1984 JUN~jg 4...Copyright ®1984 Carnegie-Mellon UniversityA UA Support for this research was provided by the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, thc Robotics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770008726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770008726"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of selected disk systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The large disk systems offered by IBM, UNIVAC, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Data General were examined. In particular, these disk systems were analyzed in terms of how well available operating systems take advantage of the respective disk controller's transfer rates, and to what degree all available data for optimizing disk usage is effectively employed. In the course of this analysis, generic functions and components of disk systems were defined and the capabilities of the surveyed disk system were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2374P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2374P"><span>Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paetzold, M.</p> <p></p> <p>The Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI) experiment addresses fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, its gravity field, nucleus size and shape, internal structure, composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains, the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux. RSI does not have a dedicated instrument on the Rosetta spacecraft but makes use of the onboard radio subsystem which is responsible for communication between the spacecraft and the ground stations on Earth. The Rosetta radio subsystem is specially equipped with an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) which significantly improves the sensitivity and accuracy of the measurements. The spacecraft is capable of receiving two uplink signals non-simultaneously at either X-band (7100 MHz) or S-band via the High Gain Antenna (HGA). The downlink transmission via the HGA can occur simultaneously at S-band and X-band. RSI is interested in the nondispersive frequency shifts (classical Doppler) and dispersive frequency shifts (due to the ionized propagation medium), the signal power and the polarization of the radio carrier waves. Variations in these parameters will yield information on the motion of the spacecraft, the perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the propagation medium. The RSI science objectives are divided into the primary science objectives (a) cometary gravity field <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, (b) comet nucleus <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, (c) cometary coma <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, (d) asteroid mass and bulk density and the secondary science objectives (e) solar corona sounding, (f) a search for gravitational waves at the comet, the asteroids flybys and during cruise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA224943','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA224943"><span>Market <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> for Automated Warehousing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-06-28</p> <p>support supply units can take full advantage of available space and material handling equipment (MHE). These supplies are grouped for warehousing...provides maximum product accessibility with minimum floor space use. On-board machine controls interface with the PC end-of-aisle controllers for...enough to explort the adaptation of AGV 0 4-15 MARKET <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span> FOR AUTOMATED WAREHOUSING * technology to the field environment. Control</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020092019','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020092019"><span>Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nesman, Tomas E.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This presentation provides an overview of material covered during 'Space Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> MSFC Fluids Workshop' held November 19-21, 2002. Topics covered include: cracks on fuel feed lines of Orbiter space shuttles, fluid driven cracking analysis, liner structural modes, structural motion in a fluid, fluid borne drivers, three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, fluid borne drivers from pumps, amplification mechanisms, flow parameter mapping, and flight engine flow map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA114402','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA114402"><span>Geophysical <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> at Gathright Dam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-03-01</p> <p>anomalies created in the ambient elec- trical field by water flowing through porous zones in the subsurface materials. Both static and injection- induced ...by several sinkholes occurring at various points along the top of the hill. Their location and configuration indicate that the sink- holes probably...springs in the area was traced from a sinkhole on Morris Hill using fluorescein dye. Phase II of the study <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the reservoir rim upstream of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27128319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27128319"><span>The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851331','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851331"><span>The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H.; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A.; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L.; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A.; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Taylor, Chris F.; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A.; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Zheng, Jie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520054','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520054"><span>Releasing the Results of <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>allow for lessons to be learned. RELEASING THE RESULTS OF <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> On December 21, 2009, Gilbert Arenas – star basketball player for the...National Basketball Association’s Washington Wizards – brought four guns into the locker room at Verizon Center for what he alleged was a practical...joke.1 Earlier in the month Mr. Arenas and teammate Javaris Crittenton – with only two years of NBA experience – “got into an argument over a card</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860016360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860016360"><span>Stress concentration <span class="hlt">investigations</span> using NASTRAN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gillcrist, M. C.; Parnell, L. A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Parametic <span class="hlt">investigations</span> are performed using several two dimensional finite element formulations to determine their suitability for use in predicting extremum stresses in marine propellers. Comparisons are made of two NASTRAN elements (CTRIM6 and CTRAIA2) wherein elasticity properties have been modified to yield plane strain results. The accuracy of the elements is <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by comparing finite element stress predictions with experimentally determined stresses in two classical cases: (1) tension in a flat plate with a circular hole; and (2) a filleted flat bar subjected to in-plane bending. The CTRIA2 element is found to provide good results. The displacement field from a three dimensional finite element model of a representative marine propeller is used as the boundary condition for the two dimensional plane strain <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of stresses in the propeller blade and fillet. Stress predictions from the three dimensional analysis are compared with those from the two dimensional models. The validity of the plane strain modifications to the NASTRAN element is checked by comparing the modified CTRIA2 element stress predictions with those of the ABAQUS plane strain element, CPE4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782985"><span>Bubble detector <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Shi-Lun</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> on bubble detectors started in China in 1989. Five types of bubble detectors have been developed, with LET thresholds ranging from 0.05 to 6.04 MeV mg(-1) cm(2) at 25 degrees C. The neutron response of bubble detectors made with freon-12 has been <span class="hlt">investigated</span> with mono-energetic neutrons from 20 keV to 19 MeV. Its effective threshold energy for neutron detection is approximately 100 keV at 28 degrees C. The response above this threshold is approximately 1.5 x 10(-4) (bubble cm(-2))/(n cm(-2)). Bubble detectors are unique not only for neutron dosimetry but also for monitoring and identifying high-energy heavy ions such as cosmic radiation in the space. High-energy heavy ion tracks in large size bubble detectors have been <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in cooperation with scientists in Japan. The key parameter behind the thresholds of bubble detectors for track registration is the critical rate of energy loss. Three approaches to identify high-energy heavy ions with bubble detectors are suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015770&hterms=Group+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGroup%2Bwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015770&hterms=Group+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGroup%2Bwork"><span>Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (SIG) has undertaken <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the four major engineering disciplines represented in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. To date, testing was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment have yet been detected. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Mechanical galling was observed unexpectedly, but no evidence of cold welding was identified yet. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. The LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The System SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017841&hterms=Group+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGroup%2Bwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017841&hterms=Group+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGroup%2Bwork"><span>Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (SIG) has undertaken <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the four major engineering disciplines represented by LDEF hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. Testing to date was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment were detected by the Systems SIG. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Extensive mechanical galling was observed, but no evidence of coldwelding was identified. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF facility systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The Systems SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017841&hterms=sig&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsig','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017841&hterms=sig&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsig"><span>Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (SIG) has undertaken <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the four major engineering disciplines represented by LDEF hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. Testing to date was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment were detected by the Systems SIG. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Extensive mechanical galling was observed, but no evidence of coldwelding was identified. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF facility systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The Systems SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015770&hterms=sig&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsig','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015770&hterms=sig&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsig"><span>Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (SIG) has undertaken <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the four major engineering disciplines represented in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. To date, testing was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment have yet been detected. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Mechanical galling was observed unexpectedly, but no evidence of cold welding was identified yet. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. The LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The System SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262729"><span><span class="hlt">Investigational</span> Drugs for Visceral Leishmaniasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The armamentarium of antileishmanials is small. It is further being threatened by development of resistance and decreasing sensitivity to the available drugs. Development of newer drugs are sorely needed. Areas covered Literature search on <span class="hlt">investigational</span> drugs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was done on PubMed. Those candidates with at least in vitro and in vivo activity against leishmania species causing VL were reviewed. Among the <span class="hlt">investigational</span> drugs the nitroimidazole compound fexinidazole is the one of the few drugs which has reached phase II trials. Although the (S)-PA-824 is in phase II trials for the treatment of tuberculosis its R enantiomer has shown good antileishmanial activity. Development of sitamaquin, which has completed phase II studies has been stopped for VL due to its low efficacy. Many novel delivery system and oral formulations of Amphotericin B which are cheap and less toxic are in <span class="hlt">investigational</span> stages, and will go a long way in improving the treatment of VL. Expert opinion Very few new drugs have reached the clinical stage in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for support from public private partnerships to ensure that drug candidates are promptly taken forward into development. PMID:25409760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec140-203.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec140-203.pdf"><span>33 CFR 140.203 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> procedures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">investigation</span>; (2) Making recommendations concerning the scope of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>; (3) Calling and examing witnesses; and (4) Submitting or requesting additional evidence. (c) Reports of <span class="hlt">investigations</span> conducted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec140-203.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec140-203.pdf"><span>33 CFR 140.203 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> procedures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">investigation</span>; (2) Making recommendations concerning the scope of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>; (3) Calling and examing witnesses; and (4) Submitting or requesting additional evidence. (c) Reports of <span class="hlt">investigations</span> conducted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SSRv..128..599P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SSRv..128..599P"><span>Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Aksnes, Kaare; Anderson, John D.; Asmar, Sami W.; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Bird, Michael K.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Eidel, Werner; Grün, Eberhardt; Ip, Wing H.; Marouf, Essam; Morley, Trevor; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Rickman, Hans; Thomas, Nicolas; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Wallis, Max K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Mysen, Eirik; Olson, Oystein; Remus, Stefan; Tellmann, Silvia; Andert, Thomas; Carone, Ludmila; Fels, Markus; Stanzel, Christina; Audenrieth-Kersten, Iris; Gahr, Alexander; Müller, Anna-Liane; Stupar, Dusan; Walter, Christina</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The Rosetta spacecraft has been successfully launched on 2nd March 2004 to its new target comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The science objectives of the Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI) experiment address fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, its gravity field, its interplanetary orbit perturbed by nongravitational forces, its size and shape, its internal structure, the composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains, the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux. The masses of two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia, shall be determined during flybys in 2008 and 2010, respectively. Secondary objectives are the radio sounding of the solar corona during the superior conjunctions of the spacecraft with the Sun during the cruise phase. The radio carrier links of the spacecraft Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) subsystem between the orbiter and the Earth will be used for these <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. An Ultrastable oscillator (USO) connected to both transponders of the radio subsystem serves as a stable frequency reference source for both radio downlinks at X-band (8.4 GHz) and S-band (2.3 GHz) in the one-way mode. The simultaneous and coherent dual-frequency downlinks via the High Gain Antenna (HGA) permit separation of contributions from the classical Doppler shift and the dispersive media effects caused by the motion of the spacecraft with respect to the Earth and the propagation of the signals through the dispersive media, respectively. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> relies on the observation of the phase, amplitude, polarization and propagation times of radio signals transmitted from the spacecraft and received with ground station antennas on Earth. The radio signals are affected by the medium through which the signals propagate (atmospheres, ionospheres, interplanetary medium, solar corona), by the gravitational influence of the planet on the spacecraft and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6809951','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6809951"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of wood pyrolysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.</p> <p>1980-06-01</p> <p>The objective of this <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441999"><span>Migraine: Does aura require <span class="hlt">investigation</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vijiaratnam, Nirosen; Barber, Daniel; Lim, Kai Zheong; Paul, Eldho; Jiang, Matthew; Chosich, Benjamin; Wijeratne, Tissa</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Migraine is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 15% of the general population. It represents a huge proportion of presentations to the emergency department and a significant number of neurology admissions. Patients are often <span class="hlt">investigated</span> with imaging. This is particularly the case with migraine with aura (MA). The yield of imaging is however low. There is limited information on Australian hospital presentations and utility of imaging. We aimed to analyse the demographics of migraine presentations to our hospital and the yield of imaging in our centre to help guide future approaches to these patients. We retrospectively looked at medical records of patients presenting to the western health from January 2012 to June 2013. Patients were classified as either having migraine with aura or without. Baseline demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and imaging studies (CT brain, MRI brain and carotid Doppler studies) in each group were evaluated. Patients found to have white matter hyperintensities on MRI were further evaluated. We found patients with aura were more likely to have hypercholesterolemia (12% vs 7%, p=0.05). Patients with aura were more likely to be evaluated with imaging (CT brain (70% vs 41% p<0.0001) and MRI brain (44% vs 17% p<0.0001)). The patients <span class="hlt">investigated</span> with imaging had no clinically significant findings. 21% of patients with aura were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> with carotid Doppler studies. Only 1 patient had an abnormal result. Patients with white matter hyperintensities were older (51 vs 39 years; p<0.0001) and were more likely to have Hypertension (29% vs 14% p=0.019), Hypercholesterolemia (29% vs 11% p=0.003) and T2DM (16% vs 4% p=0.011). We found patients with MA and without aura to be largely similar. We also found imaging in either group to be of almost no clinical value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17335842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17335842"><span>Electrokinetic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of surfactant adsorption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellmann, C; Synytska, A; Caspari, A; Drechsler, A; Grundke, K</p> <p>2007-05-15</p> <p>Fuerstenau [D.W. Fuerstenau, in: M.L. Hair (Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1971, p. 143] has already discussed the role of hydrocarbon chain of surfactants, the effect of alkyl chain length, chain structure and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process of surfactants. Later Kosmulski [M. Kosmulski, Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 102, Dekker, New York, Basel, 2001] included the effect of surfactant concentration, equilibration time, temperature and electrolyte in his approaches. Certainly, the character of the head groups of the surfactant and the properties of the adsorbent surface are the basis for the adsorption process. Different surfactants and adsorbents cause different adsorption mechanisms described firstly by Rosen [M.J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1989]. These adsorption mechanisms and their influencing factors were studied by electrokinetic <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Here only changes of the charges at the surfaces could be detected. To control the results of electrokinetic <span class="hlt">investigations</span> they were compared with results from ellipsometric measurements. In the case of surfactant adsorption the chain length was vitally important. It could be shown by the adsorption of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides onto polymer films spin coated at wafer surfaces. The influence of the chain length depending on surface properties of the polymer film was studied. Streaming potential measurements were applied for these <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. The obtained results enabled us to calculate the molar cohesive free energy per mol of CH2-group in the alkaline chain of the surfactant if all other specific adsorption effects were neglected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24036130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24036130"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of musicality in birdsong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rothenberg, David; Roeske, Tina C; Voss, Henning U; Naguib, Marc; Tchernichovski, Ofer</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches-and the transitions between acoustic states-affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> how birdsong, like human music, employs the above "musical" features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to music's effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners' emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function - to affect behavioral state in listeners - could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930020494','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930020494"><span>Overview of the Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) carried a remarkable variety of electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components. Nineteen of the fifty-seven experiments flown on LDEF contained functional systems that were active on-orbit. Almost all of the other experiments possessed at least a few specific components of interest to the Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (Systems SIG), such as adhesives, seals, fasteners, optical components, and thermal blankets. Almost all top level functional testing of the active LDEF and experiment systems has been completed. Failure analysis of both LDEF hardware and individual experiments that failed to perform as designed has also been completed. Testing of system components and experimenter hardware of interest to the Systems SIG is ongoing. All available testing and analysis results were collected and integrated by the Systems SIG. An overview of our findings is provided. An LDEF Optical Experiment Database containing information for all 29 optical related experiments is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815150"><span>[DNA examination for criminal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Masanori</p> <p>2008-11-30</p> <p>The main purpose of DNA examination in a criminal <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is identification from biological specimen material (sample). Occasionally, DNA genotyping of the sample in which decomposition, pollution, mixture, degeneration, etc., have progressed is requested for identification. In addition, in cases of a small amount of sample, it is not possible to conduct checks many times. The Police Agency in Japan introduced the multiplex PCR system that can detect 15 kinds of STR genotyping and perform sex determination simultaneously using only a small amount of DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780027510&hterms=cain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcain','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780027510&hterms=cain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcain"><span>The Viking Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Michael, W. H., Jr.; Tolson, R. H.; Brenkle, J. P.; Cain, D. L.; Fjeldbo, G.; Stelzried, C. T.; Grossi, M. D.; Shapiro, I. I.; Tyler, G. L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The Viking radio science <span class="hlt">investigations</span> utilize data from the radio tracking and communications systems of the orbiters and landers. The primary areas of research are: (1) dynamical, surface, and internal properties of Mars, (2) atmospheric and ionospheric properties of Mars, and (3) solar system properties. The instrumentation and facilities used are those required for trajectory and orbit determination, spacecraft control, and data transmission. The X-band downlink on the orbiters is also used for communications experiments and for the improvement of radio science capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905144"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> gender violence in Jamaica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spiring, Fred</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>As Jamaica moves through implementation of their National Policy on Gender Equality and develops harassment legislation, this article attempts to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> current levels and trends of gender-based violence in Jamaica. All analyses make use of existing data and data formats in developing performance indicators that illustrate the current state of gender violence in Jamaica. The analyses provide a baseline for the future assessment and comparison with internationally accepted gender-based violence indicators. All source data has been included to facilitate comparisons and discussions regarding related levels and trends of violence as well as addressing performance indicator effectiveness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870019997','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870019997"><span>Experimental <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of hypersonic aerodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heinemann, K.; Intrieri, Peter F.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An extensive series of ballistic range tests are currently being conducted at the Ames Research Center. These tests are intended to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of two basic configurations, which are: the blunt-cone Galileo probe which is scheduled to be launched in late 1989 and will enter the atmosphere of Jupiter in 1994, and a generic slender cone configuration to provide experimental aerodynamic data including good flow-field definition which computational aerodynamicists could use to validate their computer codes. Some of the results obtained thus far are presented and work for the near future is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhA..74S.490T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhA..74S.490T"><span>QENS <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of filled rubbers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.</p> <p></p> <p>The polymer segmental dynamics is <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhA..74S1430L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhA..74S1430L"><span>Structural <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of hybrid nanocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lo Celso, F.; Triolo, A.; Negroni, F.; Hainbuchner, M.; Baron, M.; Strunz, P.; Rauch, H.; Triolo, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Ultra small (USANS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques were employed to study an elastomer styrene-butadiene, where two kinds of silica fillers have been added in different amounts. Small silica-particle fillers are expected to modify morphological and mechanical properties when dispersed in the copolymer matrix. The USANS and SANS techniques can span a wide range of momentum transfer, <span class="hlt">investigating</span> morphological properties of the filled elastomer over a number of decades in length scale. Surface and mass fractal behavior has been observed over different length scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940021701','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940021701"><span>Dynamics explorer interdisciplinary scientist <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kozyra, Janet U.; Nagy, A. F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This document is a final report on research activities and accomplishments that occurred during the funding period of 10-1-90 through 1-30-94. The focus of our interdisciplinary <span class="hlt">investigation</span> during the Dynamics Explorer Mission was on the complex coupling processes that tap the magnetic-storm energy, stored in the ring current particle reservoir, and transport this energy into the subauroral, midlatitude and even equatorial ionospheric regions. The transport of energy through the inner magnetosphere and into the underlying ionospheric regions is a critical element in our understanding of the impact of solar and magnetic disturbances on upper atmospheric and ionospheric regions equatorward of the auroral zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017883','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017883"><span>Alkaline fuel cell performance <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA403259','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA403259"><span>Medical Services: Clinical <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>epidemiological surveys that involve tests or procedures of no more than minimal risk. (See the glossary for the definition of an epidemiological survey... definite criteria.) b. Who will be notified. G–10. Adverse reactions Include— a. Definition of subject reactions. b. Immediate reporting. c. Routine...some laser and hemodialysis systems. Subinvestigator See associate <span class="hlt">investigator</span>. Test A p r o c e s s b y w h i c h d a t a a c c u m u l a t e d t o</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916618"><span>Integrated systems for exosome <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peterson, Maureen F; Otoc, Nicole; Sethi, Jasmine K; Gupta, Archana; Antes, Travis J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are currently being <span class="hlt">investigated</span> to better understand their biogenesis and biological functions. There is also a rapidly growing interest in utilizing exosomes present in patient biofluids for molecular diagnostics in the clinic. Exosomes are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. Here, we describe the methods for using the latest tools and technologies to study exosomes to better understand their roles in cell-to-cell communication, for discovery of clinical biomarkers and to engineer exosomes for therapeutic applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890027887&hterms=alkaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dalkaline','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890027887&hterms=alkaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dalkaline"><span>Alkaline fuel cell performance <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910338F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910338F"><span>Home brewery as science <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flander, Renata</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Part of the compulsory program in primary school is to promote the cross-curricular links among different subjects, days of science in particular make this possible. We organize these days like science <span class="hlt">investigations</span> for 9th graders. They do some research on the first day and present the results on the second day. Because some experiments with living beings last for a long time, we have at least a two week long break. In the meantime children are encouraged to work on their project, they search for better solutions, do some extra measurement, etc. Students are also stimulated to upgrade their knowledge, be innovative, to come up with individual contributions in the presentations and actively participate in the debate at the plenary presentation at the end of the second day. We offer different workshops to children (catalysts, smart cars, electronics in the hen house, plants in the universe, solar panel and home brewery) but we follow the same objectives like being able to plan a simple scientific <span class="hlt">investigation</span> (form the question, hypothesis, variables, etc.), being able to use tools and technology for experimenting, collecting and presenting data with critical evaluation, being able to share and present new information. Pupils that choose home brewery are invited to come up with a statement like "Brewer agency has prepared a contract to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the influence of different ingredients in beer production with a purpose of preparing beer with the highest amount of alcohol." They start <span class="hlt">investigating</span> at home by looking into how beer is made and according to the statement they also form questions, hypotheses, variables and make a plan. At school they form groups, present their plans and discuss best options to make a beer. They join their forces and each group prepares beer in the same way, changing only one variable (for example: added sugar, type of cereal). During making beer students also acquire other skills through the following activities: - Measuring sugar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3183870','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3183870"><span>Effect of balancing selection on spatial genetic structure within populations: theoretical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on the self-incompatibility locus and empirical studies in Arabidopsis halleri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leducq, J-B; Llaurens, V; Castric, V; Saumitou-Laprade, P; Hardy, O J; Vekemans, X</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The effect of selection on patterns of genetic structure within and between populations may be studied by contrasting observed patterns at the genes targeted by selection with those of unlinked neutral marker loci. Local directional selection on target genes will produce stronger population genetic structure than at neutral loci, whereas the reverse is expected for balancing selection. However, theoretical predictions on the intensity of this signal under precise models of balancing selection are still lacking. Using negative frequency-dependent selection acting on self-incompatibility systems in plants as a model of balancing selection, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the effect of such selection on patterns of spatial genetic structure within a continuous population. Using numerical simulations, we tested the effect of the type of self-incompatibility system, the number of alleles at the self-incompatibility locus and the dominance interactions among them, the extent of gene dispersal, and the immigration rate on spatial genetic structure at the selected locus and at unlinked neutral loci. We confirm that frequency-dependent selection is expected to reduce the extent of spatial genetic structure as compared to neutral loci, particularly in situations with low number of alleles at the self-incompatibility locus, high frequency of codominant interactions among alleles, restricted gene dispersal and restricted immigration from outside populations. Hence the signature of selection on spatial genetic structure is expected to vary <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and populations, and we show that empirical data from the literature as well as data reported here on three natural populations of the herb Arabidopsis halleri confirm these theoretical results. PMID:20531450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fwspubs.org/toc/nafa//42','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.fwspubs.org/toc/nafa//42"><span>Life zone <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cary, Merritt</p> <p>1917-01-01</p> <p>Wyoming is among the foremost of our States in its wealth of natural scenery, culminating in the grandeur of Yellowstone National Park, one of the wonders of the world. In addition to this distinction it posseses vast open plains and lofty mountains whence flow the headwaters of mighty river systems emptying far away to the west into the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast into the Gulf of Mexico, and to the southwest into the Gulf of California. The various slope exposures of its mountain ranges, the fertility of its intervening valleys or basins, and the aridity of its desert spaces present a study of geographic and vertical distribution of wild life that is in many particulars unique.The study of geographic and vertical distribution of life with the governing factors and attendant problems is valuable as a matter of scientific research and in the attainment of practical knowledge. The Biological Survey has been making detailed <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the transcontinental life belts, or zones, of North America for some years, and this work has been carried on with special reference to their practical value. It has become increasingly evident that life zones furnish a fairly accurate index to average climatic conditions and, therefore, are useful as marking the limits of agricultural possibilities, so far as these are dependent upon climate. The knowledge thus gained has been published and made available as the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have progressed and the life zones have been mapped.1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1296918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1296918"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of SPS Orbit Drifts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drøsdal, Lene; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Wenninger, Jorg; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810068705','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810068705"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Heat Transfer From</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, James P.; Ruggeri, Robert S.</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>The convective heat transfer from the surface of an ellipsoidal forebody of fineness ratio 3 and 20-inch maximum diameter was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in clear air for both stationary and rotating operation over a range of conditions including air speeds up to 240 knots, rotational speeds up to 1200 rpm, and angles of attack of 0 deg, 3 deg, and 6 deg. The results are presented in the form of heat-transfer coefficients and the correlation of Nusselt and Reynolds numbers. Both a uniform surface temperature and a uniform input heater density distribution were used. The experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions for uniform surface temperature distribution. Complete agreement was not obtained with uniform input heat density in the laminar-flow region because of conduction effects. No significant effects of rotation were obtained over the range of airstream and rotational speeds <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Operation at angle of attack had only minor effects on the local heat transfer. Transition from laminar to turbulent heat transfer occurred over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The location of transition depended primarily on surface roughness and pressure and temperature gradients. Limited transient heating data indicate that the variation of surface temperature with time followed closely an exponential relation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022683&hterms=Energie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DEnergie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022683&hterms=Energie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DEnergie"><span>Microgravity Science Glovebox <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> SUBSA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostrogorsky, A.; Marin, C.; Vogel, M.; Volz, M. P.; Luz, P.; Jeter, L.; Spivey, Reggie; Duffar, Thierry; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) is a Microgravity Science Glovebox <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> manifested for the UF2 flight, on the U.S. Orbiter 111, to the International Space Station (ISS). SUBSA complements the "parent" flight <span class="hlt">investigation</span> CG13 (Space-and Groundbased Crystal Growth Using a Baffle). During directional solidification, the disk-shaped baffle acts as a partition, creating a small melt zone at the solid-liquid interface. As a result, the level of buoyancy-driven convection at the interface is significantly reduced. In space, the baffle will reduce convection driven by residual micro acceleration. The baffle reduces the Rayleigh number (Ra) of the melt by a factor of 103. The combined effect of the baffle and microgravity will yield a reduction in Ra by a factor of 107 to 109 approaching effectively the acceleration conditions in "nanogravity". The results of ground based tests and numerical modeling will be presented. The furnace for directional solidification (flight hardware and the ground unit) was developed by Tec-Masters Inc. The flight ampoules were produced jointly at Rensselaer, Tec-Masters Inc. and Crystallod Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21679025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21679025"><span>Bioanalysis young <span class="hlt">investigator</span>: Bhagwat Prasad.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Bhagwat; Singh, Saranjit</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>It gives me immense pleasure to nominate Bhagwat Prasad for the Bioanalysis Young <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Award 2011. He was my direct student since he joined the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research in July 2004 until February 2011. I had been his teacher and later his guide during his Masters and PhD programs. Since March 2011 Bhagwat has been affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle (WA, USA) as a post-doctoral fellow. His research projects include bioanalysis of transporter proteins in human tissues using modern LC-MS platforms and clinical studies for understanding drug-drug interactions. Under my direct supervision Bhagwat completed his MS (Pharm) and PhD. Bhagwat has used modern qualitative and quantitative LC-MS approaches during his research. He has first-hand experience of using multiple mass spectrometers. He has published several excellent research and review papers in journals such as, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis and Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies. In a nutshell, Bhagwat Prasad is an outstanding bioanalytical researcher. I am deeply impressed by his drive and determination and, therefore, strongly nominate him for the Bioanalysis Young <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Award 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040090482','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040090482"><span>Fundamental <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Airframe Noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Macaraeg, M. G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>An extensive numerical and experimental study of airframe noise mechanisms associated with a subsonic high-lift system has been performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> involving both steady and unsteady computations and experiments on a small-scale, part-span flap model are presented. Both surface (steady and unsteady pressure measurements, hot films, oil flows, pressure sensitive paint) and off surface (5 hole-probe, particle-imaged velocimetry, laser velocimetry, laser light sheet measurements) were taken in the LaRC Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) and several hard-wall tunnels up to flight Reynolds number. Successful microphone array measurements were also taken providing both acoustic source maps on the model, and quantitative spectra. Critical directivity measurements were obtained in the QFF. NASA Langley unstructured and structured Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes codes modeled the flap geometries excellent comparisons with surface and offsurface experimental data were obtained. Subsequently, these meanflow calculations were utilized in both linear stability and direct numerical simulations of the flap-edge flow field to calculate unsteady surface pressures and farfield acoustic spectra. Accurate calculations were critical in obtaining not only noise source characteristics, but shear layer correction data as well. Techniques utilized in these <span class="hlt">investigations</span> as well as brief overviews of results will be given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5165580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5165580"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of wood pyrolysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thurner, F.; Mann, U.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The kinetics of wood pyrolysis into gas, tar, and char was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in the range of 300 to 400 degrees Celcius at atmospheric pressure. An experimental system which facilitates the monitoring of the actual sample temperature, collection of gas and tar, and measurement of the sample weight loss as a function of time was developed. It has been found that, in the range <span class="hlt">investigated</span>, wood decomposition into gas, tar, and char can be described by three parallel first-order reactions as suggested by Shafizadeh and Chin (1977). The activation energies for these reactions are 88.6, 112.7 and 106.5 kJ/mol, respectively, and their frequency factors defined on a mass basis are 8.61 x 10 to the power of 5, 2.47 x 10 to the power of 8, and 4.43 x 10 to the power of 7 min-1. The composition of the pyrolysis products was also analyzed. It was found that the gas consists mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C3 + compounds with trace amounts of methane, ethylene, and acetylene. The tar consists of seven compounds with levoglucosan accounting for more than half. The char was analyzed by elemental analysis and it was found that its carbon content increases with increasing reactor temperature. (Refs. 12).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015REDS..170..696C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015REDS..170..696C"><span>Microchemical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of historical coins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caridi, F.; Fazio, E.; Scibilia, S.; Sabatino, G.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Neri, F.; Castrizio, D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Microchemical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were carried out on ancient silver coins originated from the same country but of different historical periods between the fifth and the second centuries B.C. Energy-Dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDX) was employed to obtain qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of these coins. SEM-EDX analyses employ an electron beam of 20 keV, which interacts with the sample leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays, to determine elements present in the surface patina, closely related to the sample preservation. In the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis a monochromatic Al Kα radiation (1486.6 eV) interacts with the sample and photoelectrons are detected as secondary radiation, to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> about coins elemental composition. Moreover a beam of Ar+ ions with an energy of 3 keV was used for the sputtering procedure in order to perform depth profile measurements, from the surface (patina composition) down to deeper layers. Useful information about production, chronological period and utilization places of coins are obtained to support a correct dating of these samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691132','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691132"><span>Proteomic <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> into Hemodialysis Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bonomini, Mario; Sirolli, Vittorio; Pieroni, Luisa; Felaco, Paolo; Amoroso, Luigi; Urbani, Andrea</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane’s bio(in)compatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research. PMID:26690416</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24939517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24939517"><span>Measles <span class="hlt">investigation</span>: a moving target.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helmecke, Megan R; Elmendorf, Sarah L; Kent, Donna L; Pauze, Daniel K; Pauze, Denis R</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Measles is a highly contagious respiratory infection with significant transmission risk once thought to be on the verge of elimination. Outbreaks in Europe have resulted in resurgence; however, experience with measles is limited in the United States. We describe the impact of 2 measles cases presenting to our emergency department in May 2011. Exposure criteria were defined and revised. Guidance documents were developed and distributed. Suspect cases were masked and escorted to negative pressure. Lack of prompt IgM and polymerase chain reaction testing resulted in delayed disease confirmation. Computerized flagging systems were established. Exposed individuals were screened to determine the need for prophylaxis. <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> costs were calculated. A total of 171 patients and visitors and 94 employees met exposure criteria. Employees had proof of immunity to measles. Of these, 43 patients and visitors returned for prophylaxis. No subsequent transmission occurred. The conservative cost for these <span class="hlt">investigations</span> was $63,176.39. Multiple challenges were identified. Inexperience with measles can result in significant outbreaks. Although transmission did occur at another facility, it was prevented at our facility because of rapid case recognition, isolation, health care worker immunity, and multidisciplinary response. Discordance between the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and public health guidelines for measles control created unnecessary challenges. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113985S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113985S"><span>Glaciological <span class="hlt">investigation</span> on Midtdalsbreen, Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorteberg, H. K.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Parameters as thermal regimes, velocity, snow variation and melting of the glacier have an impact on the moraine formation in the front of glaciers. The purpose of this exploration was to study how important the glaciological parameters is for the moraine formation in front of Midtdalsbreen in Norway (60˚ 33'N, 7˚ 25'E). To <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the formation, glaciological parameter as temperature and velocity was surveyed. All <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was accomplished in the ablation area, from the front and 500m inwards. Observations show that the moraine forms in the front was formed with transportation of sediments, wich are freezed under the base of the glacier sole. The transportation take places through the natural flow of the glaciers. Glacier velocity mesurments show that the velocity in the frontal part was approximately 7cm pr. day. Further inwards the velocity was approximately 12cm. Measurements of the thermal regime indicated that the glacier has a cold layer, approximately 15m tick, and had a beneath temperate layer. In the front, where the glacier thickness is lower than 15m thick, the glacier is cold-based. The further indicates that the sediments freeze to the glacier sole, where the glacier thickness is 15 meters or less.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23079364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23079364"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> legal aspects of cyberbullying.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are <span class="hlt">investigated</span>; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947120','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947120"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of musicality in birdsong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rothenberg, David; Roeske, Tina C.; Voss, Henning U.; Naguib, Marc; Tchernichovski, Ofer</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches —and the transitions between acoustic states—affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> how birdsong, like human music, employs the above “musical” features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to music’s effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners’ emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function – to affect behavioral state in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22942512G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22942512G"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Exoplanets Within Stellar Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaser, Joseph Paul; Reisinger, Tyler; Thornton, Jonathan; McMillan, Stephen L. W.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Recent surveys exploring nearby open clusters have yielded noticeable differences in the planetary population from that seen in the Field. This is surprising, as it is widely accepted that a majority of stars form within clustered environments before dispersing throughout the galaxy. Though dynamical arguments have been used to explain this discrepancy in the past, previous surveys' observational statistics and detection biases can also be used to argue that the open cluster planet population is indistinguishable from the Field.Our group aims to explore the role of stellar close encounters and interplanetary interactions in producing the observed exoplanet populations for both open cluster stars and Field stars. We employ a variety of different computational techniques to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> these effects, ranging from traditional Monte Carlo scattering experiments to multi-scale n-body simulations. We are interested in: the effects of stellar binaries; Hot Jupiter migrations; long-period ice giants; and the habitability history of terrestrial planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1013006','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1013006"><span>Favism: Current Problems and <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bottini, E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Haemolytic favism is a severe, acute anaemia which occurs in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, usually following the ingestion of Vicia faba seeds. Current interest is focused on the nature of the active substances of Vicia faba and on the causes of the varying susceptibility among G6PD-deficient individuals to episodes of severe haemolysis. The results of experiments in vitro favour the hypothesis that Vicia faba contains several active substances which may act in a synergistic way. Red cell acid phosphatase and thalassaemia genes appear to play a remarkable role in conditioning the susceptibility to severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient subjects. In addition to erythrocyte enzymes and to enzymes which intervene in the absorption and metabolism of the active substances of Vicia faba, another field for future <span class="hlt">investigations</span> may be that of plasma factors which influence the stability of reduced glutathione in the red cells. PMID:4714581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28809797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28809797"><span>Optogenetic <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Arousal Circuits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tyree, Susan M; de Lecea, Luis</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p>Modulation between sleep and wake states is controlled by a number of heterogeneous neuron populations. Due to the topological proximity and genetic co-localization of the neurons underlying sleep-wake state modulation optogenetic methods offer a significant improvement in the ability to benefit from both the precision of genetic targeting and millisecond temporal control. Beginning with an overview of the neuron populations mediating arousal, this review outlines the progress that has been made in the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application of optogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This overview is followed by a discussion of the future progress that can be made by incorporating more recent technological developments into the research of neural circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5578162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5578162"><span>Optogenetic <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Arousal Circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Lecea, Luis</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Modulation between sleep and wake states is controlled by a number of heterogeneous neuron populations. Due to the topological proximity and genetic co-localization of the neurons underlying sleep-wake state modulation optogenetic methods offer a significant improvement in the ability to benefit from both the precision of genetic targeting and millisecond temporal control. Beginning with an overview of the neuron populations mediating arousal, this review outlines the progress that has been made in the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application of optogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This overview is followed by a discussion of the future progress that can be made by incorporating more recent technological developments into the research of neural circuits. PMID:28809797</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986450"><span>Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250804"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of stall flutter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ekaterinaris, J.A.; Platzer, M.F.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>Unsteady, separated, high Reynolds number flow over an airfoil undergoing oscillatory motion is <span class="hlt">investigated</span> numerically. The compressible form of the Reynolds-averaged governing equations is solved using a high-order, upwind biased numerical scheme. The turbulent flow region is computed using a one-equation turbulence model. The computed results show that the key to the accurate prediction of the unsteady loads at stall flutter conditions is the modeling of the transitional flow region at the leading edge. A simplified criterion for the transition onset is used. The transitional flow region is computed with a modified form of the turbulence model. The computed solution, where the transitional flow region is included, shows that the small laminar/transitional separation bubble forming during the pitch-up motion has a decisive effect on the near-wall flow and the development of the unsteady loads. Detailed comparisons of computed fully turbulent and transitional flow solutions with experimental data are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Ap.....45..313K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Ap.....45..313K"><span>Polarimetric <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Stellar Associations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachikian, E. Ye.; Eritsian, M. A.; Hovhannessian, R. Kh.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>The degree of polarization of light from stars in 44 O B associations as a function of interstellar absorption is <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. It is shown that the character of the dependence of P on A V for stars in associations and stars not in associations depends on the value of A V: for A V 2 m .5 it has a linear character and is the same for both groups of stars. For A V > 2 m .5 the dependence of P on A V for stars in and not in associations departs from linearity and for A V = 4 m .5 it reaches P ass = 1.8% and P nonass = 1%, respectively. Such a difference is explained by the additional depolarization in stellar associations. Such strong depolarization in associations may be due to the overall magnetic field of the Galaxy and to physical peculiarities in the association itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1752d0016K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1752d0016K"><span>Thermoanalytical <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of ancient pottery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotryová, Barbora; Ondruška, Ján; Štubňa, Igor; Bačík, Peter</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Ceramic potsherds excavated in Biskupice (Bánovce County, Slovakia) dated to the Hallstatt culture (8th to 6th centuries BC) were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by TGA, thermodilatometry (TDA) and XRD analysis. It was found that the samples consisted of illite/muscovite, feldspar and quartz. Their thermal behavior was typical for ceramics buried in soil for a long time: the mass loss (˜3 mass%) due to escaping the physically bound water (from room temperature to 300 °C) was followed by a gradual mass loss from dehydroxylation (˜3 mass%) as a consequence of the former rehydroxylation. Above the temperature 800 °C a rapid shrinkage of samples was observed in TDA curves. As follows from these results, maximal firing temperatures did not exceed 800 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11371071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11371071"><span>Topochemical <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of ancient manuscripts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, B; Bulska, E; Hulanicki, A; Heck, M; Ortner, H M</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Various modern instrumental techniques for surface analysis were applied for the non-destructive physicochemical examination of works of art. As samples, pieces of ancient manuscripts endangered by iron-gall ink corrosion were used. Surface characterisation of the morphology of the cellulose fibres within corroded and non-corroded parts of the manuscript performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed seriously damaged cellulose fibres in the written parts. The elemental composition of selected parts of the manuscript was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDX). A more detailed study of the paper surface was then performed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). This technique yields the morphological characteristics of the surface as well as element distribution maps over the written area of the <span class="hlt">investigated</span> manuscript.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730023021','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730023021"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of ultraviolet interstellar extinction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Payne, C.; Haramundanis, K. L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Results concerning interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet are reported. These results were initially obtained by using data from main-sequence stars and were extended to include supergiants and emission stars. The principal finding of the analysis of ultraviolet extinction is not only that it is wavelength dependent, but that if changes with galactic longitude in the U3 passband (lambda sub eff = 1621 A); it does not change significantly in the U2 passband (lambda sub eff = 2308 A). Where data are available in the U4 passband (lambda sub eff = 1537 A), they confirm the rapid rise of extinction in the ultraviolet found by other <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. However, in all cases, emission stars must be used with great caution. It is important to realize that while extinction continues to rise toward shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet, including the shortest ultraviolet wavelengths measured (1100 A), it no longer plays an important role in the X-ray region (50 A).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/61111371&referer=brief_results','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/61111371&referer=brief_results"><span>Wildlife health and disease <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Roffe, T.J.; Work, T.M.; Braun, C.E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Wildlife population management requires knowledge of factors that affect population sustainability. Mortality is one of the most important of those factors. Without a clear understanding of the causes of mortality, decisions by managers of whether or how to intercede may be inappropriate. Wildlife biologists are usually the first to discover, assess, and respond to wildlife mortality. Biologists who make accurate, complete and timely field <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, and proper collection and shipment of samples to a diagnostic facility are essential for an accurate diagnosis. In combination with wildlife disease specialists, biologists can identify causes of wildlife mortality, detect long-term patterns in factors that affect the survival of populations, and take appropriate corrective action to minimize the impact of some mortality factors on wildlife populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840064988&hterms=Neubauer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNeubauer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840064988&hterms=Neubauer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNeubauer"><span>The Giotto magnetic field <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......146C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......146C"><span>Spectroscopic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of protein corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choudhary, Poonam</p> <p></p> <p>Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mss..confEWH04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mss..confEWH04C"><span>Rotational <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Tropane Alkaloids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cocinero, Emilio J.; Lesarri, Alberto; Ecija, Patricia; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Fernández, Jose A.; Castano, Fernando</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We report an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the rotational spectrum of several tropane alkaloids using the new Balle-Flygare-type FT-MW spectrometer built at the University of the Basque Country. The initial work focused on the azabicycles of tropinone, scopine and scopoline, vaporized using heating methods. For tropinone the spectrum confirmed the presence of equatorial and axial conformers originated by the inversion of the N-methyl group, with the tropane motif adopting a distorted chair configuration. The determination of substitution and effective structures for the two conformers included the 13C, 15N and 18O isotopomers observed in natural abundance. The structures revealed the flexibility and structural changes associated to the N-methyl inversion, mostly a flattening at the nitrogen atom and a simultaneous rising of the carbonyl group in the axial form. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of scopine gave an intense spectrum, but it was inconsistent with the structural models expected for this molecule. The carrier of the new spectrum was later identified as scopoline, generated in situ by an intramolecular reaction at the moderate temperatures of the nozzle. A single conformation was detected for scopoline, with an ether bridge seriously distorting the tropane motif. E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, in publication, 2010 E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.,in press, 2010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030066243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030066243"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Celestial Solid Analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sievers, A. J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Our far infrared studies of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic aerogel grains have demonstrated that the mm and sub-mm wave absorption produced by the fundamental two level systems (TLS) mechanism represents a more significant contribution for these open grain structures than for bulk amorphous silicate grains. We found that the region with the anomalous temperature dependence of the spectral index due to the TLS excitations can extend in a fluffy material up to 80 per cm, which is well beyond its typical upper limit for bulk glasses. Currently there is no theoretical explanation for this surprising result. The effects of reduced dimensionality on the optical properties of carbonaceous grains have been studied with a systematic <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of carbon aerogels. This spectroscopic approach has permitted a more reliable determination of the single grain mass normalized absorption coefficient based on the experimentally determined characteristics of the fluffy material rather than on first principles calculations involving the bulk properties of the substance. Our finding is that the electrical connectivity of the material is the main factor affecting its far infrared absorption coefficient. Another one of the main constituents of the interstellar dust, amorphous ice, has been <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in the mm-wave region both in the high (HDA) and low (LDA) density amorphous phases and as a function of impurities. We found that doping either phase with ionic (LiCl) or molecular (methanol) impurities decreases the difference in the mm-wave absorption coefficient between the HDA and LDA ice phases so that the HDA spectrum can be used as an analog for impure ice absorption in the far infrared spectral region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850020840','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850020840"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of superlattice device structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gergis, I. S.; Manasevit, H. M.; Lin, A. L.; Jones, A. B.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of growth properties, and the structure of epitaxial multilayer Si(Si(1x)Ge(x)) films grown on bulk Silicon Substrates. It also describes the fabrication and characterization of MOSFET and MESFET devices made on these epitaxial films. Films were grown in a CVD reactor using hydrides of Si and Ge with H2 and He as carrier gases. Growth temperatures were between 900 C and 1050 C with most films grown at 1000 C. Layer thickness was between 300A and 2000A and total film thickness was between 0.25 micro m and 7 micro m. The Ge content (X) in the alloy layers was between .05 and 0.2. N-type multilayer films grown on (100) p-type Si showed Hall mobility in the range 1000 to 1500 sq cm/v for an average carrier concentration of approx. 10 to the 16th power/cu cm. This is up to 50% higher than the Hall mobility observed in epitaxial Si films grown under the same conditions and with the same average carrier concentration. The mobility enhancement occurred in films with average carrier concentration (n) from 0.7 x 10 to the 16th power to 2 x 10 to the 17th power/cu cm, and total film thickness greater than 1.0 micro m. No mobility enhancement was seen in n-type multilayer films grown on (111) Si or in p-type multilayer films. The structure of the films was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> was using SEM, TEM, AES, SIMS, and X-ray double crystal diffraction techniques. The film composition profile (AES, SIMS) showed that the transition region between layers is of the order of about 100A. The TEM examination revealed a well defined layered structure with fairly sharp interfaces and good crystalline quality. It also showed that the first few layers of the film (closest to the substrate) are uneven, most probably due to the initial growth pattern of the epitaxial film where growth occurs first in isolated islands that eventually growth and coalesce. The X-ray diffraction measurement determined the elastic strain and strain relief in the alloy layers of the film</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14577876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14577876"><span>Exobiological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on Russian spacecrafts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuzicheva, Evgenia A; Gontareva, Natalia B</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>To <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C(145) was more effective than UVC(254) in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10(-7) as compared with 10(-6) for UVC(145)). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AsBio...3..253K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AsBio...3..253K"><span>Exobiological <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> on Russian Spacecrafts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Gontareva, Natalia B.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>To <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C145 was more effective than UVC254 in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10-7 as compared with 10-6 for UVC145). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85...45J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85...45J"><span>Mission <span class="hlt">Investigates</span> Tropical Cirrus Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenson, Eric; Starr, David; Toon, Owen B.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>It has been a year since NASA conducted the highly successful Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment Study (CRYSTAL-FACE). The measurement campaign was designed to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the physical properties and formation processes of tropical cirrus clouds. CRYSTAL-FACE was sponsored by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise as an integral component of its Earth observation research strategy, and included substantial collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Naval Research Laboratory. During July 2002, the mission's six aircraft (NASA ER-2, NASA WB-57, Scaled Composites Proteus, University of North Dakota Citation, NSF-supported NRL P-3, and NRL Twin Otter) operated from the Key West Naval Air Facility. In addition, ground sites were located at the Tamiami airport on the east coast of Florida and near Everglades City on the west coast of Florida. Aircraft and ground site measurements are listed in Table 1. Data archiving is complete, and the data are now available to the general scientific community. Detailed instrument descriptions as well as the final data can be found on the CRYSTAL-FACE Web site (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/crystalface/).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10871248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10871248"><span>Neurophysiological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in multiple sclerosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leocani, L; Comi, G</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>The advent of magnetic resonance imaging techniques has greatly reduced the diagnostic value of neurophysiological tests, particularly evoked potentials, in multiple sclerosis patients, because of the higher sensitivity in revealing subclinical involvement of the central nervous system. Technical progress and new methods of <span class="hlt">investigating</span> afferent and efferent nervous pathways would seem to increase the sensitivity in detecting neural dysfunction, but the 'clinical gain' is modest at best. More promising is the utilization of neurophysiological tests to quantify the severity of white matter involvement. Transversal and longitudinal studies have demonstrated good correlations between neurophysiological parameters and disability measures, indicating that a battery of neurophysiological tests could be useful in monitoring the disease evolution in single patients and as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. Further studies are needed for a better definition of the applications of evoked potentials and other neurophysiological techniques. Finally, event-related potentials and advanced electroencephalogram techniques, such as coherence analysis, could provide useful information on the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, so common in multiple sclerosis patients, and with a strong impact on the quality of life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749338"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> cerebral oedema using poroelasticity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=156048','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=156048"><span><span class="hlt">INVESTIGATING</span> ENVIRONMENTAL SINKS OF MACROLIDE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Possible environmental sinks (wastewater effluents, biosolids, sediments) of macrolide antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin)are <span class="hlt">investigated</span> using state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6635946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6635946"><span>Supercritical waste oxidation pump <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>This report <span class="hlt">investigates</span> the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930015269','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930015269"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of serendipitious WFC sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, Edward L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The serendipitious WFC sources under <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, i.e., those which just happened to lie in the field of view while another object was being studied, were disappointing. The integration times were chosen to suit the primary target not the serendipitous targets. UX UMa, CZ Ori, BI Ori, WX Cet and AR And were not detected. A long (approximately 17 ksec) pointed observation of UX Uma (PI Wood) has since been carried out (February 1993) and the data is expected shortly. The other observations were much more successful. V471 Tau was observed with the WFC for 6.5 hrs with the S1 filter and 1.1 hrs with the S2b filter. It was easily detected with a count rate of 0.03 cps in the S1 filter and 0.15 cps in the S2b filter. The oscillations were seen, even before the data was folded, as was expected from preliminary results from the survey (Barstow et al. 1992). The pointed observations provide a much better phase coverage of the oscillations than did the survey data where the coverage was sparse. These data will be presented in a paper with the PSPC data (PI's Robinson and Shipman) and the pulse profiles in the different wavelengths will be compared.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARU33011K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARU33011K"><span>Cold Fusion, A Journalistic <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivit, Steven B.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times <span class="hlt">investigation</span> into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980227770','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980227770"><span>Preliminary <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of a Paraglider</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.</p> <p>1960-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/409705','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/409705"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> into nitrided spur gears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yilbas, B.S.; Coban, A.; Nickel, J.; Sunar, M.; Sami, M.; Abdul Aleem, B.J.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>The cold forging method has been widely used in industry to produce machine parts. In general, gears are produced by shaping or hobbing. One of the shaping techniques is precision forging, which has several advantages over hobbing. In the present study, cold forging of spur gears from Ti-6Al-4V material is introduced. To improve the surface properties of the resulting gears, plasma nitriding was carried out. Nuclear reaction analysis was carried out to obtain the nitrogen concentration, while the micro-PIXE technique was used to determine the elemental distribution in the matrix after forging and nitriding processes. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction were used to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the metallurgical changes and formation of nitride components in the surface region. Microhardness and friction tests were carried out to measure the hardness depth profile and friction coefficient at the surface. Finally, scoring failure tests were conducted to determine the rotational speed at which the gears failed. Three distinct regions were obtained in the nitride region, and at the initial stages of the scoring tests, failure in surface roughness was observed in the vicinity of the tip of the gear tooth. This occurred at a particular rotational speed and work input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87..121L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87..121L"><span>Scientists <span class="hlt">Investigate</span> Recent Philippine Landslide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A.; Ong, John Burtkenley T.; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D.; Lapus, Mark R.; Rodolfo, Raymond S.; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P.; Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Baliatan, Eden G.; Quimba, Zareth L.; Uichanco, Christopher L.; Paguican, Engielle Mae R.; Remedio, Armelle Reca C.; Lorenzo, Genevieve Rose H.; Avila, Francia B.; Valdivia, Waldemar</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>A massive landslide devastated the community of Barangay Guinsaugon, Municipality of St. Bernard, Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, at about 10:30 local time on 17 February. The landslide occurred along the steep fault scarp of the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ) (Figure 1a), a large and active tectonic structure that traverses the entire length of the Philippines [Allen, 1962]. Barangay Guinsaugon is located at the foot of the scarp, directly in the path of the downward moving mass of earth. As of 24 February, the landslide caused 122 confirmed deaths; 1,328 people still are missing. To assist in the search and rescue operations that followed the landside, a team of geologists and physicists from the University of Philippines (UP-Diliman, Quezon City) and Ateneo de Manila University conducted an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of this area on 21-25 February. The UP-Ateneo team provided technical advice on the geology, which included the identification of the type and characteristics of the landslide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020052446&hterms=thermochemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthermochemistry','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020052446&hterms=thermochemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthermochemistry"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Arcjet Flow Thermochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fletcher, Douglas G.; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An experimental and numerical <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the thermochemical state of arcjet flows is currently being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. The experimental approach relies on the use of laser- and emission-spectroscopic diagnostic techniques in three regions of the flow. A fiber optic sensor is used to record spectrally resolved emission signals from the electrode package region, where the flow is most likely to be in thermochemical equilibrium. A second emission diagnostic measurement is made in the shock layer formed over a blunt-body test article placed in the stream, and a CCD camera is used to simultaneously record spectral emission from several measurement locations along the stagnation streamline. Downstream of the nozzle exit, but upstream of the test article, Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) of atomic nitrogen is used to assess the nonequilibrium distribution of flow enthalpy in the free stream. Results from the measurements are compared with predictions from a two-temperature, axisymmetric flow model that solves the nozzle and shock-layer flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15641564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15641564"><span>[Misconduct in clinical scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Broe, M E</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The most important ways of misconduct in clinical scientific research are falsifying results, plagiarize and over-interpretation. Motives are prestige, money, pressure of time and conflict of interests. The "publish or perish" phenomenon and the sometimes difficult attainable deadline play an important role. Furthermore, there is a "gray-zone" in which clinical scientific researchers are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry, leading to the writing of tendentious publications. Few data are available concerning the frequency of misconduct. In general, one may say that the phenomenon is underestimated. The number of professional organizations for the detection of misconduct and to start a balanced <span class="hlt">investigation</span> procedure of this phenomenon is limited. An exception is "Office of Research Integrity" in the US that does pioneering work in the field. Some of the better journals in the profession are making serious efforts to detect misconduct (e.g. New England Journal of Medicine, British Medical Journal). To prevent misconduct the following measures can be considered: education concerning the topic in the faculties of medicine, biomedical sciences and pharmaceutics sciences; extension of the competences of the ethical committees; realistic financing of research and the establishing of a "clinical scientific fund", without any relation with the pharmaceutical industry, for the support of self-generated clinical project after 'peer review'. Finally, the questions can be raised if the Royal Academy of Medicine (Belgium) could not play a role in this important matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EOSTr..63.1178A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EOSTr..63.1178A"><span>Groundwater Resources: <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> and Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Mary P.</p> <p></p> <p>A glance through the table of contents of this volume might suggest that it is yet another introductory text on principles of groundwater hydrology. All of the usual basic topics are covered including definitions of terms and concepts, aquifer types, drilling methods, and pumping tests. But partly because this book is intended for practicing groundwater consultants rather than students, other less elementary topics such as environmental isotope techniques, geochemical methods, interpretation and utilization of spring flow, geophysical methods, and groundwater balances are also included.According to the preface, ‘practical applicability’ is stressed ‘to show how groundwater <span class="hlt">investigations</span> should be conducted using a systematic, well-directed effort’ and to describe ‘… what to do, what to avoid, and what kind of results one can reasonably expect …’ While this book was published as part of a series of monographs on water pollution, it is more in the nature of a handbook than a true monograph. That is, it is not an in-depth treatment of a single topic but presents a broad introduction to the ways in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......210S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......210S"><span>Gelled MMH hypergolic droplet <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solomon, Yair</p> <p></p> <p>Gelled propellants are promising candidates for certain future rocket applications, offering potential improvements in performance and/or safety over conventional liquid and solid systems. In particular, gelled hypergolic propellants can eliminate some handling difficulties by reducing leakage hazard. Before such systems can be developed, however, a fundamental understanding of combustion of the gel droplet is required. This study addresses the combustion behavior of monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) droplet gelled with both hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and fumed silica in an environment of gaseous nitrogen dioxide. All MMH/HPC gel droplets displayed swelling and jetting that are typical to hydrocarbon gels with an organic gelling agent. Burning rates were measured for droplet diameters from 1.8 to 3.2 mm at three ambient pressures of 1.72, 2.06 and 2.89 bar. It was found that the droplet burning rate is dependent on the droplet diameter similarly to liquid MMH. Over the <span class="hlt">investigated</span> pressure range, no dependence of burning rate on pressure was found. The combustion of MMH/HPC gel was compared to MMH/tetraglyme to examine the influence the type of gelling agent. Droplets of MMH and liquid tetraglyme showed increasing swelling frequencies and volume fluctuations during combustion while the MMH and HPC droplets exhibited a more constant burning history. The MMH/Silica gels showed a different combustion mechanism with the formation of a rigid silica structure, micro-explosions, and up to a 50% reduction in droplet volume during combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115454"><span>Tribological <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of oriented HDPE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoseini, Mohammed; Lausmaa, Jukka; Boldizar, Antal</p> <p>2002-09-15</p> <p>The possibility to control the wear properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material at an early processing stage is explored. Wear measurements of cold roll-drawn HDPE with two different draw ratios were carried out for three sliding planes, each in two directions. The dependence of the wear properties on the degree and direction of orientation was <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. The experiments were performed in a pin-on-disc machine in a dry environment. The tribo-couple consisted of HDPE plates versus a standardised diamond coated steel disc. The results show that the wear resistance of cold roll-drawn HDPE differ widely, by a factor up to 6, depending on the sliding direction relative to the drawing direction. The material has a significantly better wear resistance when the sliding direction was perpendicular to the processing direction. The best wear resistance was in the end plane and it was improved by a factor up to 3.6 when the draw ratio was increased from 2 to 4. These results indicate that molecular orientation by polymer processing is a promising method to improve the wear properties and decrease the wear debris production of HDPE. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021440','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021440"><span>Experimental <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of elastohydrodynamic lubrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Various experimental studies of elastohydrodynamic lubrication have been reviewed. The various types of machines used in these <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, such as the disc, two and four ball, crossed-cylinders, and crossed-axes rolling disc machine, are described. The measurement of the most important parameters, such as film shape, film thickness, pressure, temperature, and traction, is considered. Determination of the film thickness is generally the most important of these effects since it dictates the extent to which the asperities on opposing surfaces can come into contact and thus has a direct bearing on wear and fatigue failure of the contacting surfaces. Several different techniques for measuring film thickness have been described, including electrical resistance, capacitance, X-ray, optical interferometry, laser beam diffraction, strain gage, and spring dynamometer methods. An attempt has been made to describe the basic concepts and limitations of each of these techniques. These various methods have been used by individual researchers, but there is no universally acceptable technique for measuring elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Capacitance methods have provided most of the reliable data for nominal line or rectangular conjunctions, but optical interferometry has proved to be the most effective procedure for elliptical contacts. Optical interferometry has the great advantage that it reveals not only the film thickness, but also details of the film shape over the complete area of the conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1063..276R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1063..276R"><span><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> on Flexible Multiferroic Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roy, Subhasis; Biswas, Bulbul; Majumder, S. B.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Multiferroic ceramics are one of the most attractive materials for the next generation computer memories, smart sensors, and high frequency microelectronic devices. As compared to single phase multiferroic, piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite materials exhibit larger magnetoelectric coefficients and therefore better suited for practical applications. In the present paper, we have provided a brief introduction on the multiferroic electro-ceramics followed by the outline of recent research trends on these materials. The potentials of flexible polymer-magnetostrictive composite materials, synthesized by economic chemical based processing routes, has been outlined. To make flexible multiferroic composites, cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4) (CFO) spinel powders were synthesized by a polymer assisted decomposition route. The cation mixing in as prepared as well as calcined CFO powders were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by XRD Rietveld refinement. Guided by the structural refinement results the processing conditions of the powder synthesis were optimized to yield spinal CFO powder with improved magnetic properties. These powders were dispersed into ferroelectric polyvinyledene (PVDF) matrix and the polymer-spinal composite was cast using different weight fractions of the spinel component. The composites were characterized in terms of its structure and microstructure. Preliminary dielectric and magnetic properties of these CFO-polymer composites is reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6869317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6869317"><span>Hells Canyon Environmental <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, 1984.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>CH2M Hill, Inc.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The results of an environmental <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the nonpower impacts on the Hells Canyon Complex resulting from water budget participation are presented. The water budget plan would increase flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve survival of migrating salmon and steelhead. The study was conducted using existing data and consultation with agencies with responsibilities in the project area. Three scenarios, drawdown of Brownlee Reservoir to 3 elevations (2036, 2050 and 2065) were evaluated. The models used to develop the scenarios drafted Brownlee Reservoir only during May, and reduced outflows to the minimum permitted during June and July to accommodate refilling the reservoir. The scenarios showed that only May, June and July would be affected. A flow duration approach was used to compare each scenario with the existing conditions. A total of nine discipline areas were studied. These include natural features (geology); water use; water quality; fish, botanical, and wildlife resources; air quality; land use; historical and archaeological resources; recreational resources; and aesthetic resources. Within each discipline, the report presents the existing conditions, the potential impacts associated with each scenario, information deficiencies and needed studies. 171 references, 18 figures, 45 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JMEP....5..728Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JMEP....5..728Y"><span><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> into nitrided spur gears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yilbas, B. S.; Coban, A.; Nickel, J.; Sunar, M.; Sami, M.; Aleem, B. J. Abdul</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>The cold forging method has been widely used in industry to produce machine parts. In general, gears are produced by shaping or hobbing. One of the shaping techniques is precision forging, which has several advantages over hobbing. In the present study, cold forging of spur gears from Ti-6A1-4V material is introduced. To improve the surface properties of the resulting gears, plasma nitriding was carried out. Nuclear reaction analysis was carried out to obtain the nitrogen concentration, while the micro-PIXE technique was used to determine the elemental distribution in the matrix after forging and nitriding processes. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction were used to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the metallurgical changes and formation of nitride components in the surface region. Microhardness and friction tests were carried out to measure the hardness depth profile and friction coefficient at the surface. Finally, scoring failure tests were conducted to determine the rotational speed at which the gears failed. Three distinct regions were obtained in the nitride region, and at the initial stages of the scoring tests, failure in surface roughness was observed in the vicinity of the tip of the gear tooth. This occurred at a particular rotational speed and work input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692416','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692416"><span><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the biology of consciousness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Damasio, A R</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The fact that consciousness is a private, first-person phenomenon makes it more difficult to study than other cognitive phenomena that, although being equally private, also have characteristic behavioural signatures. Nonetheless, by combining cognitive and neurobiological methods, it is possible to approach consciousness, to describe its cognitive nature, its behavioural correlates, its possible evolutionary origin and functional role; last but not least, it is possible to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> its neuroanatomical and neurophysiological underpinnings. In this brief essay I distinguish between two kinds of consciousness: core consciousness and extended consciousness. Core consciousness corresponds to the transient process that is incessantly generated relative to any object with which an organism interacts, and during which a transient core self and transient sense of knowing are automatically generated. Core consciousness requires neither language nor working memory, and needs only a brief short-term memory. Extended consciousness is a more complex process. It depends on the gradual build-up of an autobiographical self, a set of conceptual memories pertaining to both past and anticipated experiences of an individual, and it requires conventional memory. Extended consciousness is enhanced by language. PMID:9854259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061968&hterms=radio+wave+uses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradio%2Bwave%2Buses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061968&hterms=radio+wave+uses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradio%2Bwave%2Buses"><span>The Galileo plasma wave <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Roux, A.; Gendrin, R.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Shawhan, S. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the Galileo plasma wave <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is to study plasma waves and radio emissions in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. The frequency range covered is 5 Hz to 5.6 MHz for electric fields and 5 Hz to 160 kHz for magnetic fields. Low time-resolution survey spectrums are provided by three on-board spectrum analyzers. In the normal mode of operation the frequency resolution is about 10 percent, and the time resolution for a complete set of electric and magnetic field measurements is 37.33 s. High time-resolution spectrums are provided by a wideband receiver. The wideband receiver provides waveform measurements over bandwidths of 1, 10, and 80 kHz. Compared to previous measurements at Jupiter this instrument has several new capabilities. These new capabilities include (1) both electric and magnetic field measurements to distinguish electrostatic and electromagnetic waves, (2) direction finding measurements to determine source locations, and (3) increased bandwidth for the wideband measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED53F..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED53F..07R"><span>Interactive <span class="hlt">investigations</span> into planetary interiors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rose, I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for <span class="hlt">investigations</span> into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf"><span>32 CFR 637.6 - Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... CRIMINAL <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> MILITARY POLICE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span> <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> § 637.6 Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. (a... to the military police and <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by CID or the military police, as appropriate. (b) Military police will receipt for all seized or confiscated U.S. Government property and contraband shipped by U.S...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf"><span>32 CFR 637.6 - Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... CRIMINAL <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> MILITARY POLICE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span> <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> § 637.6 Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. (a... to the military police and <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by CID or the military police, as appropriate. (b) Military police will receipt for all seized or confiscated U.S. Government property and contraband shipped by U.S...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf"><span>32 CFR 637.6 - Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... CRIMINAL <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> MILITARY POLICE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span> <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> § 637.6 Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. (a... to the military police and <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by CID or the military police, as appropriate. (b) Military police will receipt for all seized or confiscated U.S. Government property and contraband shipped by U.S...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf"><span>32 CFR 637.6 - Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... CRIMINAL <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> MILITARY POLICE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span> <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> § 637.6 Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. (a... to the military police and <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by CID or the military police, as appropriate. (b) Military police will receipt for all seized or confiscated U.S. Government property and contraband shipped by U.S...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec776-84.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec776-84.pdf"><span>32 CFR 776.84 - Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. 776.84 Section 776.84... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.84 Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (a) Whenever an ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is... ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>: (1) To request a hearing before the <span class="hlt">investigating</span> officer (IO); (2) To inspect all...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec776-84.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec776-84.pdf"><span>32 CFR 776.84 - Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. 776.84 Section 776.84... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.84 Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (a) Whenever an ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is... ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>: (1) To request a hearing before the <span class="hlt">investigating</span> officer (IO); (2) To inspect all...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec776-84.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec776-84.pdf"><span>32 CFR 776.84 - Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. 776.84 Section 776.84... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.84 Ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (a) Whenever an ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is... ethics <span class="hlt">investigation</span>: (1) To request a hearing before the <span class="hlt">investigating</span> officer (IO); (2) To inspect all...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol1-sec35-33.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol1-sec35-33.pdf"><span>29 CFR 35.33 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 35.33 Section 35.33 Labor Office of the... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 35.33 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (a) Initial <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. CRC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 218.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 218.34 Section 218.34 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 218.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title45-vol1-sec91-44.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title45-vol1-sec91-44.pdf"><span>45 CFR 91.44 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 91.44 Section 91.44 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.44 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) HHS will <span class="hlt">investigate</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol1-sec143-34.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol1-sec143-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 143.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 143.34 Section 143.34 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 143.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title45-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title45-vol3-sec1172-34.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title45-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title45-vol3-sec1172-34.pdf"><span>45 CFR 1172.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 1172.34 Section 1172.34 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1172.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Initial <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NEH will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved after mediation or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 218.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 218.34 Section 218.34 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 218.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol1-sec16-4.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol1-sec16-4.pdf"><span>31 CFR 16.4 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 16.4 Section 16.4... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.4 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) If an <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official concludes that a... <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official shall report the findings and conclusions of such <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to the reviewing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf"><span>38 CFR 18.544 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 18.544... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.544 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) VA will <span class="hlt">investigate</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title6-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title6-vol1-sec13-4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title6-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title6-vol1-sec13-4.pdf"><span>6 CFR 13.4 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 13.4 Section 13.4 Domestic... <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) If an <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the Authority conferred by... <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Official will submit a report containing the findings and conclusions of such <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf"><span>10 CFR 4.334 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 4.334 Section 4.334 Energy NUCLEAR... Amended <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.334 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NRC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf"><span>10 CFR 4.334 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 4.334 Section 4.334 Energy NUCLEAR... Amended <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.334 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NRC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title15-vol1-sec20-13.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title15-vol1-sec20-13.pdf"><span>15 CFR 20.13 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 20.13 Section 20.13... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 20.13 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>: (1) DOC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf"><span>38 CFR 18.544 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 18.544... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.544 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) VA will <span class="hlt">investigate</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf"><span>38 CFR 18.544 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 18.544... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.544 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) VA will <span class="hlt">investigate</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title15-vol1-sec20-13.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title15-vol1-sec20-13.pdf"><span>15 CFR 20.13 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 20.13 Section 20.13... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 20.13 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>: (1) DOC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol1-sec146-37.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol1-sec146-37.pdf"><span>24 CFR 146.37 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 146.37 Section 146... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Settlement, and Enforcement Procedures § 146.37 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> and settlement following mediation. (1) HUD shall <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 218.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 218.34 Section 218.34 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 218.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol1-sec218-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 218.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 218.34 Section 218.34 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 218.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol1-sec22-4.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol1-sec22-4.pdf"><span>29 CFR 22.4 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 22.4 Section 22.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.4 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) If an <span class="hlt">investigating</span>... <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official shall submit a report containing the findings and conclusions of such <span class="hlt">investigation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec143-34.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec143-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 143.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 143.34 Section 143.34 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 143.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec16-29.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec16-29.pdf"><span>14 CFR 16.29 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 16.29 Section 16.29....29 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (a) If, based on the pleadings, there appears to be a reasonable basis for further <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, the FAA <span class="hlt">investigates</span> the subject matter of the complaint. (b) The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> may include...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title45-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title45-vol3-sec617-11.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title45-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title45-vol3-sec617-11.pdf"><span>45 CFR 617.11 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 617.11 Section 617.11 Public....11 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NSF will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved... initial <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, NSF will use informal fact finding methods, including joint or separate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf"><span>10 CFR 4.334 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 4.334 Section 4.334 Energy NUCLEAR... Amended <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.334 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NRC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol1-sec143-34.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol1-sec143-34.pdf"><span>22 CFR 143.34 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 143.34 Section 143.34 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 143.34 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) The agency will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol3-sec222-406-8.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol3-sec222-406-8.pdf"><span>48 CFR 222.406-8 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 222.406-8... Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.406-8 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (a) Before beginning an <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, the <span class="hlt">investigator</span> shall inform the contractor of the general scope of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title44-vol1-sec7-943.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title44-vol1-sec7-943.pdf"><span>44 CFR 7.943 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 7.943 Section... <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.943 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1... violation of a mediation agreement. (2) As part of the initial <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, FEMA will use informal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol3-sec204-2.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol3-sec204-2.pdf"><span>19 CFR 204.2 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 204.2 Section 204.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> OF EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.2 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. The Commission will make an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol1-sec146-37.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol1-sec146-37.pdf"><span>24 CFR 146.37 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 146.37 Section 146... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Settlement, and Enforcement Procedures § 146.37 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> and settlement following mediation. (1) HUD shall <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol1-sec16-4.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol1-sec16-4.pdf"><span>31 CFR 16.4 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 16.4 Section 16.4... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.4 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) If an <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official concludes that a... <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official shall report the findings and conclusions of such <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to the reviewing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol1-sec35-33.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol1-sec35-33.pdf"><span>29 CFR 35.33 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 35.33 Section 35.33 Labor Office of the... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 35.33 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (a) Initial <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. CRC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol3-sec204-2.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol3-sec204-2.pdf"><span>19 CFR 204.2 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 204.2 Section 204.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> OF EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.2 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. The Commission will make an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol3-sec204-2.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol3-sec204-2.pdf"><span>19 CFR 204.2 - <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. 204.2 Section 204.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> OF EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.2 <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. The Commission will make an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol5-sec1264-103.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol5-sec1264-103.pdf"><span>14 CFR § 1264.103 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. § 1264.103 Section § 1264... FRAUD CIVIL PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.103 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) If an <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official concludes... <span class="hlt">investigating</span> official shall submit a report containing the findings and conclusions of such <span class="hlt">investigation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title6-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title6-vol1-sec13-4.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title6-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title6-vol1-sec13-4.pdf"><span>6 CFR 13.4 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 13.4 Section 13.4 Domestic... <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) If an <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the Authority conferred by... <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Official will submit a report containing the findings and conclusions of such <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec4-334.pdf"><span>10 CFR 4.334 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 4.334 Section 4.334 Energy NUCLEAR... Amended <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.334 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NRC will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title38-vol2-sec18-544.pdf"><span>38 CFR 18.544 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 18.544... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.544 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) VA will <span class="hlt">investigate</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title45-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title45-vol3-sec617-11.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title45-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title45-vol3-sec617-11.pdf"><span>45 CFR 617.11 - <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. 617.11 Section 617.11 Public....11 <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>. (a) Informal <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. (1) NSF will <span class="hlt">investigate</span> complaints that are unresolved... initial <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, NSF will use informal fact finding methods, including joint or separate...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>