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Sample records for acrylate methyl methacrylate

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic.../methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers...

  7. Ab initio study of acrylate polymerization reactions: methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate propagation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinrui; Pfaendtner, Jim; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2008-07-24

    The kinetic parameters of the free radical propagation of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate have been calculated using quantum chemistry and transition state theory. Multiple density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to calculate the activation energy, and it was found that MPWB1K/6-31G(d,p) yields results that are in very good agreement with experimental data. To obtain values of the kinetic parameters that were in the best agreement with experimental data, low frequencies were treated using a one-dimensional internal rotor model. Chain length effects were also explored by examining addition reactions of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric radicals to monomer for both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate. The results show that the values for the addition of the trimeric radical to monomer are closest to experimental data. The kinetic parameters that were calculated using a continuum description of the monomer as a solvent were not significantly different from the vacuum results.

  8. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  9. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  12. Inhibition of the polymerization of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate by mixtures of chloranil with phenothiazine

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.A; Lysenko, G.M.; Zholina, I.N.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the kinetic peculiarities of inhibited polymerization of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate in the presence of mixtures of chloranil with phenothiazine. It is shown that depending on the structure of the monomer and the concentrations of the electron donor and electron acceptor, the radicals of propagation may form complexes with chloranil or with phenothiazine at the first step of the inhibition reaction or may interact with the complex (phenothiazine to chloranil).

  13. Characterization of new acrylic bone cement based on methyl methacrylate/1-hydroxypropyl methacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Pascual, B; Goñi, I; Gurruchaga, M

    1999-01-01

    New formulations of acrylic bone cement based on methyl methacrylate/1-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (MMA/HPMA) monomers were developed with the purpose of obtaining more ductile materials with reduced polymerization shrinkage. In this way, the ductility of such materials increased, but the introduction of high percentages of the hydrophilic component produced an important decrease in Young's modulus and strength. To ascertain the reason for the deterioration of the tensile parameters, an analysis by scanning electron microscopy of these formulations was carried out; it revealed poor adhesion between the matrix and poly(MMA) beads. We also observed that the polymerization shrinkage increased as the amount of hydrophilic monomer in the formulation decreased, and the 50% (v/v) HPMA modified bone cement compensated for this volume reduction with its water uptake swelling. Measurements taken on the setting time and polymerization exotherm showed a decrease in the former and an increase in the latter, because of the introduction of a more reactive monomer in the bone cement formulation.

  14. Molecularly imprinted films of acrylonitrile/methyl methacrylate/acrylic acid terpolymers: influence of methyl methacrylate in the binding performance of L-ephedrine imprinted films.

    PubMed

    Brisbane, Carrie; McCluskey, Adam; Bowyer, Michael; Holdsworth, Clovia I

    2013-05-07

    Molecularly imprinted polymeric films (MIPFs) highly selective to 1R,2S(-)ephedrine (L-ephedrine, EPD) were produced by phase inversion post-polymerization imprinting on poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PAMA) terpolymers. The inclusion of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to the polymer formulation resulted in enhanced EPD selectivity which appears to be dictated by polymer composition to achieve the necessary balance between polymer rigidity and porosity. Substitution of MMA with methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate and n-butyl acrylate resulted in a loss of EPD selectivity and EPD entrapment within the polymer matrix not observed in PAMA MIPFs. MMA, by virtue of its methyl group, is able to provide the scaffolding and rigidity necessary for stability and preservation of imprinted cavities within the PAMA MIPF leading to high EPD selectivity.

  15. Reactive compatibilization of PBT/ABS blends by methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate terpolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Wesley Raymond

    The impact resistance of poly(butylene terephthalate), PBT, has been improved by blending with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymers, ABS, as a minor dispersed phase; however, extensive coarsening of the dispersed phase in the blends occurs under certain heat fabrication conditions. The incorporation of certain reactive polymers (compatibilizers) that are miscible with the styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) matrix of ABS should result in more stable morphologies. Terpolymers of methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), ethyl acrylate, MGE, are effective as reactive compatibilizers for blends of PBT with SAN and ABS materials. The epoxide groups of MGE react with the carboxyl endgroups of PBT to form a MGE-g-PBT graft copolymer at the PBT/SAN interface to provide improved SAN or ABS dispersion, morphological stability, and a broadening of the melt processing window. Additionally, compatibilization produces large improvements in the low temperature fracture toughness of PBT/ABS blends; however, the toughness depends on the order of mixing blend components due to crosslinking reactions involving the epoxide groups of MGE catalyzed by residual acids present in some emulsion-made ABS materials. The PBT, ABS, and MGE type, content, and composition have been examined to evaluate their effects on the mechanical and morphological properties of PBT/ABS blends. Additionally, the effects of different processing conditions have been examined. High PBT melt viscosity is desirable for improving ABS dispersion and low temperature toughness of the blends. Generally, ABS materials with a high rubber content and low melt viscosity are desirable for toughening PBT. Moderate amounts of GMA in the blend were found to significantly improve blend properties. Melt blending can be performed using a variety of equipment; however, a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder is the most effective for producing blends with excellent properties. The fracture properties of PBT

  16. 75 FR 770 - Acrylic acid-benzyl methacrylate-1-propanesulfonic acid, 2-methyl-2-[(1-oxo-2-propenyl)amino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Acrylic acid-benzyl methacrylate-1-propanesulfonic acid, 2- methyl-2... residues of acrylic acid-benzyl methacrylate-1- propanesulfonic acid, 2-methyl-2- -, monosodium salt... to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of acrylic acid-benzyl...

  17. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Dong; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Da Hye; Lim, Gyun-Taek; Choi, Ki-Choon

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cisplatin is extensively used in the clinical field, its intrinsic toxicity limits its clinical use. We investigated nanoparticle formations of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (PAA-MMA) incorporating cisplatin and their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared through the ion-complex formation between acrylic acid and cisplatin. The anticancer activity of cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles was assessed with CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of less than 200 nm with spherical shapes. Drug content was increased according to the increase of the feeding amount of cisplatin and acrylic acid content in the copolymer. The higher acrylic acid content in the copolymer induced increase of particle size and decrease of zeta potential. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect against CT26 tumor cells in vitro. However, cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed improved antitumor activity against an animal tumor xenograft model. Conclusion We suggest that PAA-MMA nanoparticles incorporating cisplatin are promising carriers for an antitumor drug-delivery system. PMID:23966778

  18. Methyl methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of METHYL METHACRYLATE ( CAS No . 80 - 62 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) January 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  19. [Study on photoluminescence of 8-hydroxyquinaldine gallium acrylate and methyl methacrylate copolymer].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zun-hong

    2006-03-01

    A new copolymer of 8-hydroxyquinaldine gallium acrylate and methyl methacrylate was prepared. The composition and properties of the copolymer were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, DSC, TG and fluorescence spectra. A strong blue-green photoluminescence, with the peak at 496 nm, was observed for the copolymer/CHCl3 solution. Effect of monomer ratio and concentration on the photoluminescence property of the copolymer was investigated. The results showed that the maximum fluorescence intensity was attained when Ga(Mq)2A: MMA was 1:20, the maximum excitation wavelength is approximately 263 nm when the concentration of the copolymer is under 2 g x L(-1), but the maximum excitation wavelength exceeds 365 nm when the concentration is above 4 g x L(-1). The copolymer was soluble in chloroform, acetone, and DMF at 25 degrees C, so it could be easier to prepare electroluminescent device by spin-coat technology.

  20. Crosslinked superhydrophobic films fabricated by simply casting poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiufang; Ye, Chao; Cai, Zhiqi; Xu, Shouping; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Qian, Yu

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic films by crosslinkable polymer material-Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-Poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) (P (MMA-BA-HEMA)-b-PFMA) with a simple one-step casting process. Nanoscale micelle particles with core-shell structure was obtained by dissolving the polymer and curing agent in the mixture of acetone and 1H, 1H, 5H octafluoropentyl-1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethyl ether (FHT). Superhydrophobic films were fabricated by casting the micelle solution on the glass slides. By controlling the polymer concentration and acetone/FHT volume ratio, superhydrophobic polymer film with water contact angle of 153.2 ± 2.1° and sliding angle of 4° was obtained. By introducing a curing agent into the micelle solution, mechanical properties of the films can be improved. The adhension grade and hardness of the crosslinked superhydrophobic films reached 2 grade and 3H, respectively. The hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness by nanoscale micelle particles and low surface energy of fluoropolymer. This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  1. 1D and 2D NMR studies of isobornyl acrylate - Methyl methacrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Deepika; Hooda, Sunita; Brar, A. S.; Shankar, Ravi

    2011-10-01

    Isobornyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate (B/M) copolymers of different compositions were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using methyl-2-bromopropionate as an initiator and PMDETA copper complex as catalyst under nitrogen atmosphere at 70 °C. 1H NMR spectrum was used to determine the compositions of copolymer. The copolymer compositions were then used to determine the reactivity ratios of monomers. Reactivity ratios of co-monomers in B/M copolymer, determined from linear Kelen-Tudos method (KT) and non linear Error-in-Variable Method (EVM), are rB = 0.41 ± 0.11, rM = 1.11 ± 0.33 and rB = 0.52, rM = 1.31 respectively. The complete resonance assignments of 1H and 13C{ 1H} NMR spectra were carried out with the help of Distortion less Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT), two-dimensional Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC). 2D HSQC assignments were further confirmed by 2D Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY). The carbonyl carbon of B and M units and methyl carbon of M unit were assigned up to triad compositional and configurational sequences whereas β-methylene carbons were assigned up to tetrad compositional and configurational sequences. Similarly the methine carbon of B unit was assigned up to pentad level. 1,3 and 1,4 bond order couplings of carbonyl carbon and quaternary carbon resonances with methine, methylene and methyl protons were studied in detail using 2D Hetero Nuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) spectra.

  2. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Influence of the volumes of bis-acryl and poly(methyl methacrylate) resins on their exothermic behavior during polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the volumes of a bis-acryl resin (Luxatemp) and a poly(methyl methacrylate) resin (Jet) on their exothermic behaviors during polymerization based on vinyl group conversion. The number of vinyl groups reacted and exotherm were determined based on weight percent of methacrylate groups using FTIR spectroscopy. Temperature changes during polymerization at 23°C were recorded for 20 minutes using a multiple cavity mold overlying a thermocouple. The number of vinyl groups reacted and exotherm of Luxatemp were consistently lower than those of Jet at each resin volume. Mean peak temperature rises of Luxatemp and Jet were in the range of 2.0-6.6°C and 4.2-11.6°C respectively, with Luxatemp and Jet taking 2 and 10 minutes respectively to reach their peak temperatures. As their resin volumes increased, their peak temperatures and total peak areas were also observed to increase significantly (p<0.01).

  4. Acrylates and Methacrylates,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-15

    of ethylene and hydrocyanic acid through ethylene cyanohydrin. In the presence of basic catalysts ethylene oxide easily adds hydrocyanic acid with the...of synthesis of methacrylates. At present methacrylates are obtained in the industry by continuous method from acetone and hydrocyanic acid through...acetone cyanohydrin. The addition/connection to it of hydrocyanic acid with the formation of acetone cyanohydrin is one of the most important reactions

  5. Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive and antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes blended with poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Qihua

    2014-11-15

    Functional terpolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-HEMA-AA)) was synthesized via a radical polymerization method. The terpolymer could be directly blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to prepare the microfiltration (MF) membranes via phase separate process. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the nuclear magnetic resonance proton spectra ((1)H NMR). The membrane had the typical asymmetric structure and the hydrophilic side chains tended to aggregate on the membrane surface. The surface enrichment of amphiphilic copolymer and morphology of MF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle (CA) and water uptake were also tested to assess the hydrophilicity and wetting characteristics of the polymer surface. The water filtration properties were measured. It was found the modified membranes showed excellent pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility behavior. Furthermore, the hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased, and the membranes showed good protein antifouling property.

  6. 78 FR 55644 - Styrene, Copolymers with Acrylic Acid and/or Methacrylic Acid; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate, and its...

  7. Acrylic AB and ABA block copolymers based on poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Haloi, Dhruba J; Ata, Souvik; Singha, Nikhil K; Jehnichen, Dieter; Voit, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Acrylic block copolymers have several advantages over conventional styrenic block copolymers, because of the presence of a saturated backbone and polar pendant groups. This investigation reports the preparation and characterization of di- and triblock copolymers (AB and ABA types) of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A series of block copolymers, PEHA-block-PMMA(AB diblock) and PMMA-block-PEHA-block-PMMA(ABA triblock) were prepared via ATRP at 90 °C using CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyl diethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and acetone as additive. The chemical structure of the macroinitiators and molar composition of block copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR analysis, and molecular weights of the polymers were analyzed by GPC analysis. DSC analysis showed two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), indicating formation of two domains, which was corroborated by AFM analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of AB and ABA block copolymers showed scattering behavior inside the measuring limits indicating nanophase separation. However, SAXS pattern of AB diblock copolymers indicated general phase separation only, whereas for ABA triblock copolymer an ordered or mixed morphology could be deduced, which is assumed to be the reason for the better mechanical properties achieved with ABA block copolymers than with the AB analogues.

  8. Antimicrobial properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins incorporated with silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sodagar, Ahmad; Khalil, Soufia; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Pourakbari, Babak; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effects of adding nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) and their mixture to poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to induce antimicrobial activity in acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: Acrylic specimens in size of 20 mm × 20 mm × 1 mm of 0.5% and 1% of nano-TiO2 (21 nm) and nano-SiO2 (20 nm) and their mixture (TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles) (1:1 w/w) were prepared from the mixture of acrylic liquid containing nanoparticles and acrylic powder. To obtain 0.5% and 1% concentration, 0.02 g and 0.04 g of the nanoparticles was added to each milliliter of the acrylic monomer, respectively. Antimicrobial properties of six specimens of these preparations, as prepared, were assessed against planktonic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min follow-up by broth dilution assay. The specimens of each group were divided into three subgroups: Dark, daylight, or ultraviolet A (UVA). The percent of bacterial reduction is found out from the counts taken at each time point. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis. Results: Exposure to PMMA containing the nanoparticles reduced the bacterial count by 3.2–99%, depending on the nanoparticles, bacterial types, and light conditions. Planktonic cultures of S. mutans and L. acidophilus exposed to PMMA containing 1% of TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001) (98% and 99%, respectively) in a time-dependent manner under UVA. The S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts did not significantly decrease in PMMA containing 0.5% nano-TiO2 and PMMA containing 0.5% nano-SiO2 in the dark. No statistically significant reduction (P > 0.05) was observed in the counts of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in PMMA without the nanoparticles exposed to UVA. Conclusions: PMMA resins incorporated with TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic

  9. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  14. Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) latex particles with poly(ethylene glycol) grafts: structure and film formation.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Staffan; Carlsson, Hans T; Andersson, Thomas; Erkselius, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Karlsson, Ola J

    2007-03-27

    Water-based copolymer dispersions were prepared using methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl acrylate (EA) (MMA/EA = 1:2), and a series of nonionic polymerizable surfactants, i.e., "surfmers" based on poly(ethylene glycol)-(meth)acrylates. The latexes were compared with the behavior of a conventionally stabilized (nonionic nonylphenol ethoxylate, NP100 with 84 ethylene oxide units) dispersion with the same MMA-EA composition (PMMAEA). A number of techniques were employed in order to characterize structure, dynamics, and film formation properties: solution/solid-state NMR, dynamic/static light scattering (DLS/SLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile/shear mode dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surfmers were found to be miscible with the MMA-EA copolymer at room temperature, with 46-85 mol % of the reacted surfmer detected at the particle surfaces, and the remaining part buried in the particle bulk. In contrast, the NP100 surfactant formed a separate interphase between the copolymer particles with no mixing detected at room temperature or at 90 degrees C. For a 4.0% dry weight concentration, NP100 phase separated and further crystallized at room temperature over a period of several months. Composition fluctuations related to a limited blockiness on a length scale above approximately 2 nm were detected for PMMAEA particles, whereas the surfmer particles were found to be homogeneous also below this limit. On a particle-particle level, the dispersions tended to form colloidal crystals unless hindered by a broadened particle size distribution or, in the case of PMMAEA, by the action of NP100. Finally, a surface roughness (Rq) master plot was constructed for data above the glass transition temperature (Tg) from Tg + 11 degrees C to Tg + 57 degrees C and compared with the complex shear modulus over 11 frequency decades. Shift factors from the 2 methods obeyed the same Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) temperature

  15. Computational study of cyclohexanone-monomer co-initiation mechanism in thermal homo-polymerization of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Srinivasan, Sriraj; Grady, Michael C; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M

    2012-06-07

    This paper presents a systematic computational study of the mechanism of cyclohexanone-monomer co-initiation in high-temperature homopolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Previous experimental studies of spontaneous thermal homopolymerization of MA and MMA showed higher monomer conversion in the presence of cyclohexanone than xylene. However, these studies did not reveal the initiation mechanism(s) or the initiating species. To identify the initiation mechanism and the initiating species, we explore four different mechanisms, (1) Kaim, (2) Flory, (3) α-position hydrogen transfer, and (4) Mayo, using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations. Transition-state geometries for each mechanism are determined using B3LYP/6-31G* and assessed with MP2/6-31G*. Activation energies and rate constants are calculated using transition-state theory. The harmonic oscillator approximation and tunneling corrections are applied to compute the reaction rate constants. This study indicates that α-position hydrogen transfer and Mayo mechanisms have comparable barriers and are capable of generating monoradicals for initiating polymerization of MA and MMA; these two mechanisms can cause cyclohexanone-monomer co-initiation in thermal polymerization of MA and MMA.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Co-polymers Based on Methyl Methacrylate and 2-Hexyl Acrylate Containing Naphthopyrans for a Light-Sensitive Contact Lens.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Cláudia R J O D; Heron, B Mark; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Gil, Maria H; Sobral, Abílio J F N

    2011-01-01

    Three different naphthopyrans were incorporated in co-polymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), with and without cross-linking with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), by a free radical polymerization method. The obtained materials were characterised in terms of some of their chemical and physical properties that could be important for the final functional properties of the envisaged application. Despite other important functional properties that should be evaluated in the near future, the system based in the physical entrapment of 3,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-3H-naphtho [2,1-b]pyran presented a good potential for its application as novel light-sensitive contact lenses.

  17. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  18. Influence of polymerization method, curing process, and length of time of storage in water on the residual methyl methacrylate content in dental acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Gulsen; Guvener, Bora; Bural, Canan; Uresin, Yagiz

    2006-02-01

    This study compared the influence of different polymerization methods (heat, auto-, and microwave energy), different curing processes (in the case of heat- and autopolymerized specimens), and length of storage of the polymerized specimens in distilled water at 37 degrees C on the residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) content in dental acrylic resin specimens. Residual MMA of 120 resin specimens were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. For the heat-polymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were given a long-term terminal boil and then stored in the distilled water for at least 1 day. For the autopolymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were additionally cured in water at 60 degrees C and then stored in the distilled water at least 1 day. For the microwave-polymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were stored in the distilled water at least 1 month. The lowest overall residual MMA content was obtained from heat-polymerized specimens that were given a long-term terminal boil cure and then stored in the distilled water at least 1 day. Different polymerization methods and curing processes have different effects on residual MMA content. It is thus shown that storing a dental acrylic resin specimen in distilled water at 37 degrees C is a simple but effective method of reducing its residual MMA content.

  19. 76 FR 69659 - Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Methacrylate Graft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether... residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate- polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate graft... permissible level for residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol monomethyl...

  20. Influence of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol on polymer diffusion in poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) latex films.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Walter F; Liu, Yuanqin; Tomba, J Pablo; Soleimani, Mohsen; Lau, Willie; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2010-03-11

    We describe fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments carried out to examine the effect of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol on the early stages of polymer diffusion in poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) latex films. In our approach, we temporarily arrest the drying process of a wet latex film by sealing the film in a previously cooled airtight sample chamber. This arrests propagation of the drying front and suppresses polymer diffusion during the measurements. We then measure donor fluorescence decays from 0.5 mm diameter spots at various locations on the film. From our analysis, we obtain information about the earliest stages of polymer diffusion as the film is still drying. We also investigate the effect of these glycols on polymer diffusion at longer aging times on predried latex films. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol retard polymer diffusion at early times immediately after the passing of the drying front but enhance the rate of polymer diffusion at later aging times. This behavior is described quantitatively in terms of free-volume theory and the partitioning of the glycols between the aqueous and polymer phases in the film.

  1. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles

    PubMed Central

    BURAL, Canan; AKTAŞ, Esin; DENIZ, Günnur; ÜNLÜÇERÇI, Yeşim; BAYRAKTAR, Gülsen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r) on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. Material and Methods A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1) at 74ºC for 9 h, (2) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC) for 30 min, (3) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4) at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzenesulphonic acid) assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05). Results [MMA]r was significantly (p≤0.001) higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01) lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05) for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. Conclusion Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in the

  2. Molecular recognition at methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate (MMA/nBA) monomer unit boundaries of phospholipids at p-MMA/nBA copolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Urban, Marek W; Sheng, Yinghong; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2008-09-16

    Lipid structural features and their interactions with proteins provide a useful vehicle for further advances in membrane proteins research. To mimic one of potential lipid-protein interactions we synthesized poly(methyl methacrylate/ n-butyl acrylate) (p-MMA/nBA) colloidal particles that were stabilized by phospholipid (PLs). Upon the particle coalescence, PL stratification resulted in the formation of surface localized ionic clusters (SLICs). These entities are capable of recognizing MMA/nBA monomer interfaces along the p-MMA/nBA copolymer backbone and form crystalline SLICs at the monomer interface. By utilizing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) combined with ab initio calculations, studies were conducted that identified the origin of SLICs as well as their structural features formed on the surface of p-MMA/nBA copolymer films stabilized by 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) PL. Specific entities responsible for SLIC formation are selective noncovalent bonds of anionic phosphate and cationic quaternary ammonium segments of DLPC that interact with two neighboring carbonyl groups of nBA and MMA monomers of the p-MMA/nBA polymer backbone. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of molecular recognition facilitated by coalescence of copolymer colloidal particles and the ability of PLs to form SLICs at the boundaries of the neighboring MMA and nBA monomer units of the p-MMA/nBA chain. The dominating noncovalent bonds responsible for the molecular recognition is a combination of H-bonding and electrostatic interactions.

  3. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  4. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  5. Occupational asthma due to methyl methacrylate and cyanoacrylates.

    PubMed Central

    Lozewicz, S; Davison, A G; Hopkirk, A; Burge, P S; Boldy, D A; Riordan, J F; McGivern, D V; Platts, B W; Davies, D; Newman Taylor, A J

    1985-01-01

    Five patients had asthma provoked by cyanoacrylates and one by methyl methacrylate, possibly because of the development of a specific hypersensitivity response. Acrylates have wide domestic as well as industrial uses, and inhalation of vapour emitted during their use can cause asthma. PMID:4071461

  6. Cytotoxic effects of acrylates and methacrylates: relationships of monomer structures and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, E

    1997-12-15

    Thirty-nine acrylates and methacrylates that had been used in dental resin materials were evaluated by a cytotoxicity test, and the relationships between their structures and cytotoxicity were studied to predict cytotoxic levels of dental resin materials in order to develop new low-toxic resin materials. All the acrylates evaluated were more toxic than corresponding methacrylates. In both the acrylates and methacrylates, a hydroxyl group seemed to enhance cytotoxicity. Dimethacrylates with 14 or fewer oxyethylene chains showed similar cytotoxicity while dimethacrylates with 23 oxyethylene chains showed lower cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity ranking of monomers widely used in dental resin materials was bisphenol A bis 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (bisGMA) > urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) > triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (3G) > 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) > methyl methacrylate (MMA). In acrylates, methacrylates, and ethylmethacrylates with either substituents, the lipophilicity of substituents affected their cytotoxicity, and an inverse correlation between IC50 and logP was observed. These results will be useful in developing new resin materials with low toxic monomer compositions.

  7. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with butyl 2...-styrene polymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation....

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and morphology study of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) "raspberry"-shape like structure microgels by pre-emulsified semi-batch emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Ros Azlinawati; Hashim, Shahrir; Laftah, Waham Ashaier

    2013-02-01

    A novel microgels were polymerized using styrene (St), methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylamide (AAm), and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) cross-linker. Pre-emulsified monomer was first prepared followed by polymerizing monomers using semi-batch emulsion polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to determine the chemical structure and to indentify the related functional group. Grafting and cross-linking of poly(acrylamide-co-acrilic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA)] microgels are approved by the disappearance of band at 1300 cm(-1), 1200 cm(-1) and 1163 cm(-1) of FTIR spectrum and the appearance of CH peaks at 5.5-5.7 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that poly(St-co-MMA) particle was lobed morphology coated by cross-linked poly(AAm-co-AAc) shell. Furthermore, SEM results revealed that poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA) is composite particle that consist of "raspberry"-shape like structure core. Internal structures of the microgels showed homogeneous network of pores, an extensive interconnection among pores, thicker pore walls, and open network structures. Water absorbency test indicated that the sample with particle size 0.43 μm had lower equilibrium water content, % than the sample with particle size 7.39 μm.

  9. Antibacterial Adhesion of Polymethyl Methacrylate Modified by Borneol Acrylate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueli; Qian, Zhiyong; Luo, Lingqiong; Yuan, Qipeng; Guo, Ximin; Tao, Lei; Wei, Yen; Wang, Xing

    2016-10-07

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a widely used biomaterial. But there is still a challenge facing its unwanted bacterial adhesion, because the subsequent biofilm formation usually leads to failure of related implants. Herein, we present a borneol-modified PMMA based on a facile and effective stereochemical strategy, generating antibacterial copolymer named as P(MMA-co-BA). It was synthesized by free radical polymerization and studied with different ratio between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and borneol acrylate (BA) monomers. NMR, GPC and EA etc. were used to confirm their chemical features. Their films were challenged with Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), showing a BA content-dependent antibacterial performance. The minimum effective dose should be 10%. Then in vivo subcutaneous implantations in mice demonstrated their biocompatibilities through routine histotomy and HE staining. Therefore, P(MMA-co-BA)s not only exhibited their unique antibacterial character, but also suggested a potential for the safe usage of borneol-modified PMMA frame and devices for further implantation.

  10. Double-bond-containing polyallene-based triblock copolymers via phenoxyallene and (meth)acrylate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Aishun; Lu, Guolin; Guo, Hao; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-02

    A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances.

  11. Double-bond-containing polyallene-based triblock copolymers via phenoxyallene and (meth)acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aishun; Lu, Guolin; Guo, Hao; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-01

    A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances.

  12. Double-bond-containing polyallene-based triblock copolymers via phenoxyallene and (meth)acrylate

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Aishun; Lu, Guolin; Guo, Hao; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances. PMID:28252049

  13. Solid-state dye lasers based on copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate doped with rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; Florido, F.; Garcia-Moreno, I.; Duchowicz, R.; Amat-Guerri, F.; Figuera, J. M.; Sastre, R.

    1995-04-01

    Rhodamine 6G has been dissolved in copolymers of 2-HydroxyEthyl MethAcrylate (HEMA) and Methyl MethAcrylate (MMA) and the resulting solid-state solutions have been pumped at 337 nm and 532 nm. Lasing efficiencies similar to those found in ethanol solution have been obtained with a 1:1 vol/vol HEMA: MMA copolymer matrix, and lifetimes of ca. 10 000 (337 nm pumping) and ca. 75 000 (532 nm pumping) pulses at repetition rates up to 15 Hz and 10 Hz, respectively, have been demonstrated.

  14. Preparation of thermoresponsive Fe3O4/P(acrylic acid-methyl methacrylate-N-isopropylacrylamide) magnetic composite microspheres with controlled shell thickness and its releasing property for phenolphthalein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Hepeng; Fan, Xinlong; Li, Xiangjie; Yin, Dezhong; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2013-05-15

    In this work, Fe3O4/P(acrylic acid-methyl methacrylate-N-isopropylacrylamide) (Fe3O4/P(AA-MMA-NIPAm)) thermoresponsive magnetic composite microspheres have been prepared by controlled radical polymerization in the presence of 1,1-diphenylethene (DPE). The shell thickness of thermosensitive polymer (PNIPAm), which was on the surface of the microspheres, can be controlled by using DPE method. The morphology and thermosensitive properties of the composite microspheres, polymerization mechanism of the shell were characterized by TEM, FTIR, VSM, Laser Particle Sizer, TGA, NMR, and GPC. The microspheres with narrow particle size distribution show high saturation magnetization and superparamagnetism. The thermosensitive properties of the composite microspheres can be adjusted indirectly via controlling the addition amount of monomer (NIPAm) in the second step during controlled radical polymerization. Phenolphthalein was chosen as a model drug to investigate drug release behavior of the thermoresponsive magnetic composite microspheres with different shell thickness. Controlled drug release testing reveals that the release behavior depends on the thickness of polymer on the surface of the microspheres.

  15. Enhancement of light harvesting efficiency of silicon solar cell utilizing arrays of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres and nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chee-Leong; Goh, Wee-Sheng; Chee, Swee-Yong; Yik, Lai-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    An array of uniformly distributed monolayer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres were deposited onto an amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell utilizing dip coating technique. The electrical characteristics of the coated photovoltaic cell reveal that the nano-spheres with an average diameter size of 101 nm exhibits excellent light harvesting characteristics if compared to the nano-spheres of other sizes. The power conversion efficiency from such integration of the nano-structures (i.e. 3.14% per PV cell) indicates that at least 1.6 times of improvement (or relative enhancement of 57%) can be achieved comparatively to the uncoated photovoltaic cell (i.e. 2% per PV cell). Further increment of the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has been attained with the incorporation of the silver nano-particles into the nano-spheres of similar average size. With the inclusion of the silver nano-particles into such nano-spheres, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has attained 5.57% per PV cell, which is about 2.8 times (or relative enhancement of 179%) if compared to the uncoated samples. Hence, this novel and controllable technique of fabricating omnidirectional light-harvesting nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles will indubitably be beneficial to various types of optoelectronic devices.

  16. Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) terpolymer based gel electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ping; Liao, Youhao; Xie, Huili; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    A novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), based on poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) (P(MMA-AN-EA)) terpolymer, is designed to match LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of 5 V lithium ion battery. The performances of the synthesized P(MMA-AN-EA) terpolymer and the corresponding membrane and GPE are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the pore structure of P(MMA-AN-EA) membrane is affected by the dose of pore forming agent, polyethylene glycol (PEG400). The membrane with 3 wt% PEG400 presents the best pore structure, in which pores are dispersed uniformly and interconnected, and exhibits the largest electrolyte uptake, resulting in the highest ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10-3 S cm-1 for the corresponding GPE at room temperature. The GPE has improved compatibility with lithium anode and is electrochemically stable up to 5.2 V (vs. Li/Li+). The high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode using the resulting GPE exhibits excellent cyclic stability, maintaining 97.9% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles compared to that of 79.7% for the liquid electrolyte at 0.5 C.

  17. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) .

  18. Well-defined iron complexes as efficient catalysts for "green" atom-transfer radical polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate, and butyl acrylate with low catalyst loadings and catalyst recycling.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, So-Ichiro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Kai, Hidetomo; Jin, Ren-Hua; Sunada, Yusuke; Nagashima, Hideo

    2014-05-05

    Environmentally friendly iron(II) catalysts for atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) were synthesized by careful selection of the nitrogen substituents of N,N,N-trialkylated-1,4,9-triazacyclononane (R3 TACN) ligands. Two types of structures were confirmed by crystallography: "[(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]" complexes with relatively small R groups have ionic and dinuclear structures including a [(R3 TACN)Fe(μ-X)3 Fe(R3 TACN)](+) moiety, whereas those with more bulky R groups are neutral and mononuclear. The twelve [(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]n complexes that were synthesized were subjected to bulk ATRP of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and butyl acrylate (BA). Among the iron complexes examined, [{(cyclopentyl)3 TACN}FeBr2 ] (4 b) was the best catalyst for the well-controlled ATRP of all three monomers. This species allowed easy catalyst separation and recycling, a lowering of the catalyst concentration needed for the reaction, and the absence of additional reducing reagents. The lowest catalyst loading was accomplished in the ATRP of MMA with 4 b (59 ppm of Fe based on the charged monomer). Catalyst recycling in ATRP with low catalyst loadings was also successful. The ATRP of styrene with 4 b (117 ppm Fe atom) was followed by precipitation from methanol to give polystyrene that contained residual iron below the calculated detection limit (0.28 ppm). Mechanisms that involve equilibria between the multinuclear and mononuclear species were also examined.

  19. Reactivity of Monovinyl (Meth)Acrylates Containing Cyclic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, Kathryn A; Nie, Jun; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2008-12-09

    The tremendous diversity of materials properties available with polymers is due in large part to the ability to design structures from the monomeric state. The ease of use of comonomer mixtures only expands this versatility. While final polymer properties are obviously important in the selection or development of a material for a given purpose, for a number of applications, such as optical fiber coatings, photolithography and microelectronics, the additional requirement of a very rapid polymerization process may be equally critical. A class of unusually reactive mono-(meth)acrylate monomers bearing secondary functionality that includes carbonates, carbamates and oxazolidones, has been demonstrated but not fully explained. Here, the influence of an integral cyclic carbonate functional group on (meth)acrylate photopolymerization kinetics is examined in detail with respect to monomers with a wide variety of alternative secondary functionality structure as well as in comparison to conventional mono- and di-(meth)acrylates. The kinetic results from full cure studies of several cyclic carbonate-containing monomers clearly highlight specific structural variations that effectively promote monomer reactivity. Copolymerizations with tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate reflect similar dramatic kinetic effects associated with the novel monomers while partial cure homopolymerization studies reveal exceptional dark cure behavior linked to observations of uncommonly low ratios of termination to propagation rates throughout the conversion profile. Temperature effects on reaction kinetics, including both reaction rate and the individual kinetic parameters, as well as the temperature dependence of hydrogen bonding interactions specifically involving the secondary functional groups are probed as a means to understand better the fundamentally interesting and practically important behavior of these monomers.

  20. Effect of methacrylic acid:methyl methacrylate monomer ratios on polymerization rates and properties of polymethyl methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Kusy, R P

    1997-08-01

    Five binary formulations were prepared from methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) monomers, and six ternary formulations were prepared from polysols of 30% wt polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/MMA and MAA. Using thermal analyses (DSC and TGA) the polymerization kinetics, condition of postcuring, relative amount of residual monomers, and glass transition temperature (Tg) were determined. From bar-shaped samples, 25 x 5 x 0.9 mm in dimensions, mechanical properties [flexural moduli (E) and maximum strengths (sigma)] were measured in three-point bending. Polymerization kinetics of binary formulations improved over pure PMMA (from 15 to 4 min) as a result of over a 60-fold increase in propagation-to-termination constants (Kp/Kt) of MAA/MMA. The further addition of PMMA increased the viscosity, slowed down termination, and, consequently, improved the polymerization kinetics twofold. These enhancements occurred without a substantive change in the Tg of the ternary system (ca. 107 degrees C) over pure PMMA (ca. 112 degrees C). Moreover, the Es of the four ternary formulations averaged 2.94 GPa, which was comparable with many values reported in the literature. In contrast the sigma s of these same formulations averaged 97 MPa, which was about 25% better than earlier investigations of pure acrylic. When a thermoplastic material is required for pultruding profiles that cure fast and have good thermal-mechanical properties, ternaries of PMMA/MMA/MAA should be considered.

  1. A pre-formed methyl methacrylate cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P R; Schechter, B; Jacobs, G B; Rubin, R C; Wille, R L

    1977-09-01

    The use of a pre-formed methyl methacrylate cranioplasty prosthesis reinforced with stainless steel wire is described. The prosthesis is non-reactive, virtually unbreakable, and undentable. Pre-forming of the prosthesis in the dental laboratory using a mold of the patient's bony defect as a model saves considerable operating time, and when employed for a large cranial defect the three dimensional cosmetic effect is superior to intra-operatively fashioned prostheses.

  2. Disabling disturbance of olfaction in a dental technician following exposure to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Braun, D; Wagner, W; Zenner, H-P; Schmahl, F W

    2002-10-01

    It is often difficult to diagnose dysosmia due to occupational olfactotoxic substances. The authors present a case of disabling disturbance of olfaction in a dental technician. This is very likely to have been caused by exposure to methyl methacrylate. From 1988-1992, the dental technician had very extensive and sustained contact with a self-polymerizing acrylic resin based on methyl methacrylate. Her perception of smell was still normal in 1988, but it deteriorated up to 1992. The olfactory disorders have persisted and impede social life and occupational rehabilitation.

  3. Dendrimer/methyl methacrylate co-polymers: residual methyl methacrylate and degree of conversion.

    PubMed

    Viljanen, Eeva K; Skrifvars, Mikael; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2005-01-01

    Dendrimer/methyl methacrylate co-polymers were studied for use in dental composites. The aim was to determine the effects of methyl methacrylate concentration in the resin mixture and polymerization method on the degree of conversion and residual monomer content of the copolymers. Two dendrimers were studied, D12 with 12 reactive methacrylate groups and D24 with 24 reactive groups. The concentration of methyl methacrylate varied from 20 wt% to 50 wt% of monomers. Camphorquinone (CQ) was used as the light-activation initiator and 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) as the activator, both in the quantity of 3.0 wt%. Three polymerization methods were used: photo-polymerization, photo-polymerized immediately followed by post-polymerization at 120 degrees C for 15 min, and photo-polymerization followed by postpolymerization after 7 days. The degree of conversion was determined using FT-IR. Residual monomers were extracted with tetrahydrofuran and methanol and analyzed with HPLC. The highest degrees of conversion were 65 and 62%, and the lowest residual monomer contents 1.0 and 1.5% for D12 and D24, respectively. These were measured after heat-induced post-polymerization. For D12, increasing the proportion of methyl methacrylate decreased the degree of conversion and increased the residual monomer content after photo-polymerization. Post-polymerization enhanced the polymerization of the dendrimer co-polymers in respect of degree of conversion and residual monomer content. The present study suggested that the tested dendrimer/methyl methacrylate copolymers require heat-induced polymerization to reach the generally accepted levels of degree of conversion and residual monomers.

  4. Modified acrylic bone cement with high amounts of ethoxytriethyleneglycol methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Pascual, B; Gurruchaga, M; Ginebra, M P; Gil, F J; Planell, J A; Vázquez, B; San Román, J; Goñi, I

    1999-03-01

    One cause of arthroplasty failure is the brittle mechanical behavior of bone cements. However, the improvement of cement formulations must also be accompanied by the maintenance of a wide variety of characteristics. New bone cements were obtained by the substitution of high percentages, up to 60% (v/v), of methyl methacrylate (MMA) by a higher molecular weight and more hydrophilic monomer, ethoxytriethyleneglycol methacrylate (TEG). The essential advantages of these materials were the decrease of maximum temperature together with a decrease in the residual monomer content with respect to conventional cement formulations. The water absorption process obeyed diffusion laws and the equilibrium water content increased by the introduction of higher percentages of the hydrophilic component. This characteristic had an appreciable effect on the viscoelastic behavior analyzed by DMTA. These modified bone cements had reduced polymerization shrinkage and similar levels of porosity. Tensile test revealed that the introduction of TEGMA gave rise to an important modification of the mechanical behavior, with a noticeable increase in the fracture strain. This fact was also confirmed by means of the analysis of the fracture surfaces by SEM.

  5. DEGRADATION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) IN SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated in the liquid phase with toluene as the solvent. The degradation experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor at 1000 psig (6.8 MPa) and at four different temperat...

  6. Iron-catalyzed AGET ATRP of methyl methacrylate using an alcohol as a reducing agent in a polar solvent.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhigang; Zhou, Jun; He, Dan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Danfeng; Ye, Yun Sheng; Liao, Yonggui; Zhou, Xingping; Xie, Xiaolin

    2014-11-21

    The alcohols, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG), and glycerol, were used as reducing agents for iron(III)-catalyzed activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerizations (AGET ATRPs) of methyl methacrylate in polar solvents (N,N-dimethylformamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, or acetonitrile). The effects of the iron catalyst, initiator and alcohol on polymerization were investigated, and most of the systems showed the typical features of controlled radical polymerization. In studies of the ATRP behavior, polymerizations were well controlled with a linear increase in the molecular weight (Mn) versus conversion in agreement with the theoretical one, and low molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn) were observed throughout the reactions. To gain a deeper understanding of the iron(III)/polar solvent-mediated ATRP, the polymerizations of various monomers (methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, and n-butyl methacrylate) were also investigated.

  7. Identification and Quantitation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Kitchen Utensils by Headspace Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    A headspace GC/MS method was developed for identification and quantitation of residual volatile organic compounds in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) kitchen utensils. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide was added in a headspace vial and sealed. After storing for more than 1 day at room temperature, the vial was incubated for 1 h at 90°C, and the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS. In 24 PMMA kitchen utensils, 16 volatile organic compounds including methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, toluene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 2-methylpropanal, methyl propionate, methyl isobutyrate, trans-3-heptene, heptane, cis-3-heptene, trans-2-heptene, cis-2-heptene, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene, and 1-octene were identified and quantitated. These 15 volatile compounds except methyl methacrylate were found for the first time in PMMA kitchen utensils. Recovery rates from spiked samples were 97.4-104.0% with CV values of 2.8-9.6%. Samples contained 190-7900 μg/g of methyl methacrylate, 26-810 μg/g of methyl acrylate, and 2-1300 μg/g of toluene; other compounds were at levels less than 100 μg/g. Methyl methacrylate was the main monomer of PMMA and methyl acrylate was a comonomer; toluene should be used as a solvent.

  8. Synthesis of acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-12

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees} C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. Eastman and Bechtel have also compared the RTI- Eastman-Bechtel three-step methanol route to five other process routes to MMA. The results show that the product MMA can be produced at 520/lb, for a 250 Mlb/year MMA plant, and this product cost is competitive to all other process routes to MMA, except propyne carbonylation. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P tertiary metal oxide catalysts, Nb/Si0{sub 2}, and Ta/Si0{sub 2} catalysts for condensation of propionic anhydride or propionic acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst performance. Eastman and Bechtel have used the RTI experimental results of a 20 percent Nb/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, in terms of reactant conversions, MAA selectivities, and MAA yield, for their economic analysis. Recent research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, a better understanding of the acid-base property correlation and enhancing the catalyst lifetime.

  9. Review of Polymerization and Properties of Aminoalkyl Acrylates and Aminoalkyl Methacrylates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    to Russian investigators Korshunov, Bodnaryuk, and Kut’in, in 1975.2 The patent concerned the synthesis of methacrylate monomers containing an amino...group through transesterification. These researchers used alkyl methacrylates , mainly methyl methacrylate (MMA), as precursors for the synthesis. For...Ratios (rl, r2) of Aminoalkyl Methacrylates and Other Vinyl Monomers Monomer1 Moromer2 rl r2 DMAEMA MMA 0.717 0.676 DMAEMA BMA 0.705 0.66 BDIMA MMA 0.612

  10. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of dental polymers. I. Heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate)-based materials.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R L

    1989-09-01

    The visco-elastic characteristics of homogeneous, heterogeneous and fibre-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) for use as denture base resins were measured by a dynamic mechanical thermal analyser in the frequency range 0.033-90 Hz. Dynamic Young's modulus of both polyethylene woven yarn and the polyaramid plain fabric-reinforced acrylics showed considerable improvement over the conventional denture base, whereas the carbon fibre-reinforced acrylic produced results lower than expected. From the loss tangent curves of the homogeneous and heterogeneous methacrylates their transition temperatures were recorded and the reciprocals of both the alpha and beta absorption temperatures were plotted against frequency to obtain their respective activation energies.

  12. Synthesis of Acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas.

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.

    1997-10-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, RTI carried out activity tests on a pure (99 percent) Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst, received from Alfa Aesar, under the following experimental conditions: T=300 C; P=4 atm, 72:38:16:4:220 mmol/h, PA:H{sub 2}0:HCHO:CH{sub 3}0H:N{sub 2}; 5-g catalyst charge. For the pure material, the MAA yields (based on HCHO and PA) were at 8.8 and 1.5 percent, clearly inferior compared to those for a 10-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst (20.1 and 4.5 percent). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 20-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} that while pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is very highly crystalline, Si0{sub 2} support for an amorphous nature of the 20 percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst the last quarter, RTI also began research on the use of dimethyl ether (DME), product of methanol dehydrocondensation, as an alternate feedstock in MMA synthesis. As a result, formaldehyde is generated either externally or in situ, from DME, in the process envisaged in the contract extension. The initial work on the DME extension of the contract focuses on a tradeoff analysis that will include a preliminary economic analysis of the DME and formaldehyde routes and catalyst synthesis and testing for DME partial oxidation and condensation reactions. Literature guides exist for DME partial oxidation catalysts; however, there are no precedent studies on catalyst development for DME-methyl propionate (MP) condensation reactions, thereby making DME-MP reaction studies a

  13. INFLUENCE OF INCORPORATION OF FLUOROALKYL METHACRYLATES ON ROUGHNESS AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF A DENTURE BASE ACRYLIC RESIN

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Tatiana Ramirez; Regis, Romulo Rocha; Bonatti, Marília Rodrigues; de Souza, Raphael Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Fluorinated denture base acrylic resins can present more stable physical properties when compared with conventional polymers. This study evaluated the incorporation of a fluoroalkyl methacrylate (FMA) mixture in a denture base material and its effect on roughness and flexural strength. A swelling behavior assessment of acrylic resin specimens (n=3, per substance) after 12 h of FMA or methyl methacrylate (MMA) immersion was conducted to determine the solvent properties. Rectangular specimens (n=30) were allocated to three groups, according to the concentration of FMA substituted into the monomer component of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone 550), as follows: 0% (control), 10% and 20% (v/v). Acrylic resin mixed with concentrations of 25% or more did not reach the dough stage and was not viable. The surface roughness and flexural strength of the specimens were tested. Variables were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Immersion in FMA produced negligible swelling, and MMA produced obvious swelling and dissolution of the specimens. Surface roughness at concentrations of 0%, 10% and 20% were: 0.25 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.22 ± 0.03 μm (F=1.78; p=0.189, not significant). Significant differences were found for flexural strength (F=15.92; p<0.001) and modulus of elasticity (F=7.67; p=0.002), with the following results: 96 ± 6, 82 ± 5, 84 ± 6 MPa, and 2,717 ± 79, 2,558 ± 128, 2574 ± 87 MPa, respectively. The solvent properties of FMA against acrylic resin are weak, which would explain why concentrations over 20% were not viable. Surface changes were not detected after the incorporation of FMA in the denture base acrylic resin tested. The addition of FMA into denture base resin may lower the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, regardless of the tested concentration. PMID:19274394

  14. Influence of incorporation of fluoroalkyl methacrylates on roughness and flexural strength of a denture base acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Tatiana Ramirez; Regis, Romulo Rocha; Bonatti, Marília Rodrigues; de Souza, Raphael Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Fluorinated denture base acrylic resins can present more stable physical properties when compared with conventional polymers. This study evaluated the incorporation of a fluoroalkyl methacrylate (FMA) mixture in a denture base material and its effect on roughness and flexural strength. A swelling behavior assessment of acrylic resin specimens (n=3, per substance) after 12 h of FMA or methyl methacrylate (MMA) immersion was conducted to determine the solvent properties. Rectangular specimens (n=30) were allocated to three groups, according to the concentration of FMA substituted into the monomer component of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone 550), as follows: 0% (control), 10% and 20% (v/v). Acrylic resin mixed with concentrations of 25% or more did not reach the dough stage and was not viable. The surface roughness and flexural strength of the specimens were tested. Variables were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Immersion in FMA produced negligible swelling, and MMA produced obvious swelling and dissolution of the specimens. Surface roughness at concentrations of 0%, 10% and 20% were: 0.25+/-0.04, 0.24+/-0.04, 0.22+/-0.03 microm (F=1.78; p=0.189, not significant). Significant differences were found for flexural strength (F=15.92; p<0.001) and modulus of elasticity (F=7.67; p=0.002), with the following results: 96+/-6, 82+/-5, 84+/-6 MPa, and 2,717+/-79, 2,558+/-128, 2574+/-87 MPa, respectively. The solvent properties of FMA against acrylic resin are weak, which would explain why concentrations over 20% were not viable. Surface changes were not detected after the incorporation of FMA in the denture base acrylic resin tested. The addition of FMA into denture base resin may lower the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, regardless of the tested concentration.

  15. Preparation and application of sol-gel acrylate and methacrylate solid-phase microextraction fibres for gas chromatographic analysis of organoarsenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-21

    Novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres containing methyl, ethyl, butyl acrylate and methacrylate were first prepared by a sol-gel technique and investigated for determination of selected organoarsenic compounds (lewisite, methyldichloroarsine, phenyldichloroarsine, diphenylchloroarsine and triphenylarsine) from water samples. The influence of sorption and desorption temperature and time for extraction efficiency were examined. The best new fibre coatings (methyl acrylate (MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and combination of methyl acrylate and methacrylate (MA/MMA)) for analysis of organoarsenic compounds were selected and compared with commercial fibres. The distribution coefficients Kfs were determined for the best novel fibres and for absorption commercial fibres. The highest Kfs value were obtained for MA/MMA and MMA fibres and were respectively 9458 and 6561 for lewisite and 6458 and 5884 for triphenylarsine. The limit of detection and quantification were determined for the three laboratory obtained fibres (MA, MMA and MA/MMA). LODs for tested fibres, at a signal-to-noise of 3, were 0.03-0.3 ng mL(-1). LOQs for selected coatings, at signal-to-noise of 10, were 0.1-0.8 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for all measurements were 4.3-6.5% (n=9) and relative errors were 2.5-5%. The laboratory obtained fibres were used for environmental analysis of pore water samples from the Baltic Sea.

  16. Flexural properties of ethyl or methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymers.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Kadokawa, Akihiko; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2010-10-01

    Light-curing polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA)-urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-UDMA resins were prepared by two processes. For first step, PEMA or PMMA powders were fully dissolved in ethyl methacrylate (EMA) or methyl methacrylate (MMA) and then the PEMA-EMA/PMMA-MMA mixtures were mixed with UDMA. The flexural properties of cured PEMA-UDMA and PMMA-UDMA polymers were measured using two PEMA (Mw: 300,000-400,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) and three PMMA (Mw: 30,000-60,000, 350,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) powders with different molecular weight, four mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA, and three mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA mixture and UDMA oligomer. Polymers with PMMA(Mw: 350,000) MMA=25/50, and with PMMA(Mw: 350,000)-MMA/UDMA=1/2 and =1/1, showed no-fracture in a flexural test at 1 mm/min and flexural strength and flexural modulus showed no significant difference compared with those of commercially available heat- and self-curing acrylic resins (p>0.01). Within limitation of this investigation, methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymer of this composition is available for denture base resin.

  17. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-titania hybrid materials by sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Luo, S.; Gui, L.; Tang, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Sol-gel derived Poly(methyl methacrylate)-titania hybrid materials were synthesized by using acrylic acid or allyl acetylacetone (3-allyl-2,4-pentanedione) as coupling agents. Titanium butoxide modified with acrylic acid (or titanium isopropoxide modified with allyl acetylacetone) was hydrolyzed to produce a titania network, and then poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains formed in situ through a radical polymerization were chemically bonded to the forming titania network to synthesize a hybrid material. Transparent hybrid materials with different contents of titania were achieved. With the increase of the titania content, the colors of the products changed form yellow to dark red. The synthesis process was investigated step by step by using FTIR spectroscopy, and the experimental results demonstrated that acrylate or acetylacetonato groups bound to titanium remain in the final hybrid materials. The thermal stability of the hybrid materials was considerably improved relative to pure PMMA. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analyses showed the hybrid materials are porous and pore diameters vary from 10nm to 100nm. The hybrid materials using allyl acetylacetone as the coupling agent exhibited thermochromic effects that both pure PMMA and titania do not have.

  18. Solute solvent interaction in methyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate monomers solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-ghamdi, Attieh A.; Bahattab, M. A.; Farhoud, M.; Al-Dossary, Mishal; Al-Enizi, Abdullah; Al-Deyab, S. S.

    2006-11-01

    Solute-solvent interactions are studied using induced birefringence measurements in monomers solutions of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), dissolved in ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran and dimethyl sulfoxide, over a broad range of concentrations. The data are combined with refractive index and density to calculate the electric, optical and molar Kerr constants. All related microscopic parameters concerning the molecular structure such as nonlinear Kerr constants, anisotropic factors, and optical anisotropy have been calculated.

  19. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  20. Novel (meth)acrylate monomers for ultrarapid polymerization and enhanced polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beckel, E. R.; Berchtold, K. A.; Nie, J.; Lu, H.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is known to be one of the most efficient methods to initiatc polymeric reactions in the presence of a photonitiator. Photopolymerizations are advantageous because the chemistry of the materials can be tailored to design liquid monomers for ultrarapid polymerization into a solid polymer material. One way to achieve rapid photopolymerizations is to utilize multifunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. which form highly crosslinked polymers; however, these monomers typically do not achieve complete functional group conversion. Recently, Decker et al. developed novel monovinyl acrylate monomers that display polyriicrization kinetics that rival those of multifunctional acrylate monomers. These novel acrylate monomers incorporate secondary functionalities and end groups such as carbonates, carbamates, cyclic carbonates and oxazolidone which promote the increased polymerization kinetics of these monomers. In addition to thc polynierization kinetics, these novel monovinyl monomers form crosslinked polymers, which are characterized by having high strength and high flexibility. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the polymerization kinetics and crosslinking are not well understood.

  1. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  2. Generalized peripheral neuropathy in a dental technician exposed to methyl methacrylate monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Donaghy, M.; Rushworth, G.; Jacobs, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    A 58-year-old dental prosthetic technician developed generalized sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiologic studies showed a generalized sensorimotor neuropathy of axonal degeneration type. Examination of a sural nerve biopsy showed a moderately severe axonal neuropathy with loss of large myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. There was evidence of slow ongoing degeneration and considerable fiber regeneration. Electron microscopy showed increased numbers of filaments in a few fibers. These findings show resemblances to the nerve changes caused by another acrylic resin, acrylamide. They suggest that the neuropathy may have been caused by 30 years of occupational cutaneous and inhalational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer since they excluded other recognized causes of neuropathy.

  3. Fracture resistance of Kevlar-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) resin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Berrong, J M; Weed, R M; Young, J M

    1990-01-01

    The reinforcing effect of Kevlar fibers incorporated in processed poly(methyl methacrylate) resin samples was studied using 0% (controls), 0.5%, 1%, and 2% by weight of the added fibers. The samples were subjected to impact testing to determine fracture resistance, and sample groups were statistically compared using an ANOVA. Each reinforced sample had significantly greater fracture resistance (P less than 0.05) than the control, and no difference was found either within or between control groups. The use of reinforcing Kevlar fibers appears to enhance the fracture resistance of acrylic resin denture base materials.

  4. Amphiphilic copolymers of sucrose methacrylate and acrylic monomers: bio-based materials from renewable resource.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Heitor F N; Felisberti, Maria Isabel

    2013-04-15

    Regioselective sucrose 1'-O-methacrylate obtained by transesterification catalyzed by Proteinase-N was copolymerized with hydrophilic N-isopropylacrylamide and hydrophobic methyl methacrylate in different molar ratios by free radical polymerization. The copolymers were characterized by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Solubility and phase behavior of aqueous solutions were also investigated. The glass transition of the copolymers presents a positive deviation from the values of the homopolymers due to the high density of inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Their solubility is strongly dependent on the composition. Copolymers poor in methyl methacrylate are water soluble, while copolymers richer in methyl methacrylate behaves as hydrogel. These hydrogels are not chemically crosslinked and their form can be design prior swelling by the conventional processing methods, such as solvent casting and extrusion for instance. Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide are water soluble and their aqueous solutions present a lower critical solution temperature behavior forming thermoreversible hydrogels.

  5. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers. I. Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Badran, B.M.; Sherif, S.; Abu-Sedira, A.A.

    1981-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers were prepared in the form of rods and sheets by bulk polymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Suspension polymerization did not succeed in preparing poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers, especially when cellulose nitrate of 11.4% nitrogen content was used. The parameters such as cellulose nitrate concentration, nitrogen content of cellulose nitrate, the amount of initiator and the reaction time, and the temperature are discussed. The prepared copolymers were irradiated for specified periods of up to 11.83 Mrad. It was found that poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers did not dissolve in any conventional solvent, but they swelled. Swelling decreases with increasing cellulose nitrate concentrations, nitrogen content of cellulose nitrate, and irradiation dose, indicating the crosslinked structure of the prepared copolymers.

  6. Methylation of acidic moieties in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers for end-group characterization by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Rémi; Viel, Stéphane; Hidalgo, Manuel; Allard-Breton, Béatrice; Thévand, André; Charles, Laurence

    2010-07-30

    The complete structural characterization of a copolymer composed of methacrylic acid (MAA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) units was achieved using tandem mass spectrometry. In a first step, collision-induced dissociation (CID) of sodiated MAA-MMA co-oligomers allowed us to determine the co-monomeric composition, the random nature of the copolymer and the sum of the end-group masses. However, dissociation reactions of MAA-based molecules mainly involve the acidic pendant groups, precluding individual characterization of the end groups. Therefore, methylation of all the acrylic acid moieties was performed to transform the MAA-MMA copolymer into a PMMA homopolymer, for which CID mainly proceeds via backbone cleavages. Using trimethylsilyldiazomethane as a derivatization agent, this methylation reaction was shown to be complete without affecting the end groups. Using fragmentation rules established for PMMA polymers together with accurate mass measurements of the product ions and knowledge of reagents used for the studied copolymer synthesis, a structure could be proposed for both end groups and it was found to be consistent with signals obtained in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

  7. Properties of Ultra-Violet Cured Poly(diemthylsiloxane)-Urea Acrylates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    polycaprolactone) and polyol molecular weight on physical properties were evaluated. TDI/ hydroxyethyl methacrylate ( HEMA ) based samples were also...diluents. The reactive diluents or crosslinkers I. chosen were: ethyl methacrylate (EMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate ( HEMA ), butyl acrylate (BA...butylacrylate (BA), acrylic acid (AA), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), B- hydroxyethyl ’metthacrylate ( HEMA ), m~ethyl trethacrylate (MMA), and 4-vinylpyridine (4

  8. Methyl methacrylate from iso-butylene via a vapor phase catalytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, N.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, G.; Abe, T.

    1987-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a useful chemical intermediate having many applications, particularly in polymers, by virtue of their excellent properties with regard to transparency and weatherability. The main current production route to MMA is the acetone cyanohydrin (ACn) process in which acetone and hydrogen cyanide are used as raw materials. This is the only process that was used for commercial production until recently. The annual production capacity in the world is estimated to be about one million metric tons. Annual growth rate will be expected to be more or less 4% in the near future. MMA is used in various products among which are acrylic sheets (casting and extrusion), acrylic moldings (molding and extrusion), surface coatings etc. The further application to high-technology products such as optical fiber and optical memory disk is being developed. The conventional ACH process has several drawbacks, in particular, (1) insufficient supply of by-product hydrogen cyanide, and (2) troublesome treatment of waste ammonium bisulfate.

  9. Effect of Nanoclay on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Polymethyl Methacrylate Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Barzegar, Ali; Hamedi Rad, Fahimeh; Moslehifard, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin should be improved to counterweigh its structural deficiencies. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of conventional acrylic resin and acrylic resin loaded with nanoclay. Materials and Method The methacrylate monomer containing the 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of nanoclay was placed in an ultrasonic probe and mixed with the PMMA powder. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. Twenty-four 20×20×200-mm cubic samples were prepared for flexural strength test; 18 samples containing nanoclay and 6 samples for the control group. Another 24 cylindrical samples of 38×25 mm were prepared for thermal conductivity test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple-comparison test (Scheffé’s test). Statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results Increasing the concentration of nanoclay incorporated into the acrylic resin samples increased thermal conductivity but decreased flexural strength (p< 0.05). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, adding nanoclay particles to PMMA improved its thermal conductivity, while it had a negative effect on the flexural strength. PMID:27284557

  10. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl... section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  11. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  13. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  14. Self-initiation of UV photopolymerization reactions using tetrahalogenated bisphenol A (meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Pelras, Théophile; Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Heymann, Katja; Daikos, Olesya; Scherzer, Tom

    2017-02-17

    The potential of tetrachlorinated and tetrabrominated bisphenol A diacrylates and dimethacrylates for self-initiation of a radical photopolymerization was investigated. The kinetics of the photopolymerization of an acrylic model varnish containing halogenated monomers was studied by real-time FTIR spectroscopy, whereas the formation of reactive species and secondary products was elucidated by laser flash photolysis and product analysis by GC-MS after steady-state photolysis. The interpretation of the experimental data and the analysis of possible reaction pathways were assisted by quantum chemical calculations. It was shown that all halogenated monomers lead to a significant acceleration of the photopolymerization kinetics at a minimum concentration of 5 wt%. Steady-state and laser flash photolysis measurements as well as quantum chemical calculations showed that brominated and chlorinated samples do not follow the same pathway to generate radical species. Whereas chlorinated (meth)acrylates may cleave only at the C-O bonds of the carboxyl groups resulting in acrolein and oxyl radicals for initiation, brominated monomers may cleave either at the C-O bonds or at the C-Br bonds delivering aryl and bromine radicals. The quantum yields for the photolysis of the halogenated monomers were found to be in the order of 0.1 for acrylates and 0.2 for methacrylates (with an estimated error of 25%), independently of the attached Br and Cl halogens. Finally, the trihalogenated bisphenol A di(meth)acrylate radicals and the acrolein radicals were found to show the highest efficiencies for the reaction with another acrylic double bond leading to the formation of a polymer network.

  15. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  20. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dodecyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid): synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and nafcillin carrier.

    PubMed

    Zecheru, Teodora; Rotariu, Traian; Rusen, Edina; Mărculescu, Bogdan; Miculescu, Florin; Alexandrescu, Laura; Antoniac, Iulian; Stancu, Izabela-Cristina

    2010-10-01

    In the present study polymeric microbeads of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dodecyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) or p(HEMA-co-dDMA-co-AA) were synthesised and characterized through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); their swelling behavior against saline solution was explored and their in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated. Further, in order to elucidate kinetic aspects regarding the ternary system p(HEMA-co-dDMA-co-AA), a mathematical model of the reactivity ratios of the comonomers in the terpolymer has been conceived and analyzed. An intensified tendency of AA units accumulation in the copolymer has been noticed, in spite of HEMA units, while dDMA conserves in the copolymer the fraction from the feed. Three compositions have been selected for nafcillin-loading and their in vitro release capacity was evaluated. The compositions of 80:10:10 and 75:10:15 M ratios appear suitable for further in vivo testing, in order to be used as drug delivery systems in the treatment of different osseous diseases.

  1. Humidity-responsive starch-poly (methyl acrylate) films.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blown films prepared from starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers plasticized with urea and water display shrinkage at relative humidities greater than 50%. Shrinkage at relative humidities below approximately 75% is strongly correlated with the urea/starch weight ratio, which controls the eq...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  4. Solid coatings deposited from liquid methyl methacrylate via Plasma Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurlitzer, Lisa; Maus-Friedrichs, Wolfgang; Dahle, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    The polymerization of methyl methacrylate via plasma discharges is well known today. Usually, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is used to deposit polymer coatings. Solid coatings are formed out of the liquid phase from methyl methacrylate via dielectric barrier discharge. The formation of the coating proceeds in the gas and the liquid phase. To learn more about the reactions in the two phases, the coatings from MMA monomer will be compared to those from MMA resin. Finally, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are employed to characterize the solid coatings. In conclusion, the plasma enhanced chemical solution deposition is compared to the classical thermal polymerization of MMA.

  5. [Chest granuloma secondary to methyl methacrylate. Case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bistrain, Ricardo; Robles García, Verónica; Cornejo-Morales, Ivonne

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with a history of a massive left hemithorax crushing injury in 1985; the exact management of the lesion is unknown. Twenty years later he had a thoracic fistula with a culture that was reported as positive for Enteroccocus faecalis and Staphyloccocus epidermidis. The patient was referred by the chest surgery service with the diagnosis of rib osteomyelitis once complementary imaging tests were performed (plain X-rays, CAT scan and MRI). The patient underwent surgery at our service; a granulomatous reaction secondary to a foreign body (methyl methacrylate and Ethibon) was reported. Chest reconstruction for massive lesions is possible with methyl methacrylate. Imaging studies involve the well-known difficulty to identify this material, given that it may produce signals and densities that are difficult to interpret by specialized physicians.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

    1999-04-21

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

  7. Positron annihilation investigations on poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Hamdy F. M.; Abd-Elsadek, Gomaa G.

    2000-06-01

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadened annihilation radiation were measured for seven different samples of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature in vacuum. The polymerisation of methyl methacrylate was carried out as a bulk polymerisation in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effect of the amount of the initiator on the viscosity-average molecular weight was studied. It was found that the viscosity-average molecular weight decreased with increasing amount of the initiator. The average lifetime and intensity of ortho-positronium ( o-Ps) increased with increasing viscosity-average molecular weight up to 6.85 × 10 4 and remained constant after that. The S-parameter showed a similar behaviour as that of the o-Ps intensity.

  8. Synthesis of interpenetrating network hydrogel from poly(acrylic acid-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and sodium alginate: modeling and kinetics study for removal of synthetic dyes from water.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2013-10-15

    Several interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were made by free radical in situ crosslink copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxy ethyl methacrylate in aqueous solution of sodium alginate. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as comonomer crosslinker for making these crosslink hydrogels. All of these hydrogels were characterized by carboxylic content, FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA and mechanical properties. Swelling, diffusion and network parameters of the hydrogels were studied. These hydrogels were used for adsorption of two important synthetic dyes, i.e. Congo red and methyl violet from water. Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of dye adsorption by these hydrogels were also studied.

  9. Mechanism of plasma polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Denes, F.; Sarmadi, A.M.; Hop, C.E.C.A.; Young, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    Molecular fragments from radio-frequency plasma polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) were cold-trapped and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The gas phase and the liquid phase products from the cold trap were analyzed separately. The gas phase contained a predominance of the saturated aliphatic compounds butane, pentane, and isopentane and unsaturated l-butene, in addition to saturated MMA monomer (methyl isobutyrate); the liquid phase contained mainly isopropenyl alcohol, saturated MMA and a methylated form of the saturated MMA. Calculations of the predominant plasma-generated molecular clusters using the CG/MS data for both the gas and liquid phases indicated that saturated and unsaturated propyl radicals (molecular weight 41-43) were by far the predominant radical species in the plasma reactions and would lead to a hydrocarbon-type polymer with considerable unsaturation and crosslinking. The occurrence of other radical species containing methyl ester and hydroxyl groups accounts for the presence of these functional groups in the final polymer. Infrared and ultraviolet spectra confirmed the participation of the predominant aliphatic radicals in the formation of PPMMA. Clearly PPMA is a distinctly different polymer when compared to conventional PMMA.

  10. Improvement of holographic thermal stability in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Wang, Heng; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Yongyuan; Sun, Xiudong

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies of holographic thermal stability in phenanthrenequinone (PQ)-doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) [P(MMA-co-MAA)] photopolymers are presented. A possibility to improve the thermal stability of holograms is demonstrated by doping methacrylic acid (MAA) into the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer matrix. MAA as a copolymerization monomer can form a more stable polymer matrix with methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and increase average molecular weight of photoproducts, which finally depress the diffusion of photoproduct. The optimized MAA concentration copolymerized into P(MMA-co-MAA) polymer matrix can bring nearly a month's lifetime of gratings, which is obviously an improvement over the usual PQ-PMMA material under thermal treatment.

  11. On permeability of methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate through protective gloves in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Harriet; Boman, Anders; Johnsson, Stina; Karlsson, Stig; Barregård, Lars

    2003-12-01

    Continuous glove use is more common in dentistry than in most other occupations, and the glove should offer protection against blood-borne infections, skin irritants and contact allergens. Methacrylate monomers are potent contact allergens, and it is known that these substances may penetrate the glove materials commonly used. The aim of this study was to assess the permeability of various types of gloves to methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with special reference to combinations with ethanol or acetone. The permeation rate and time lag breakthrough (lag-BT) for MMA (neat, or diluted to 30% in ethanol or acetone), HEMA (30% in water, ethanol, or acetone) and TEGDMA (30% in ethanol or acetone) were investigated for different protective gloves. Nine different types of gloves were tested for one or several of these methacrylates. The lag-BT for neat MMA was

  12. The synthesis, properties, and applications of hydrophilic polymers and copolymers of hydroxyalkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadov, Z. G.; Aliev, V. S.

    1992-05-01

    The scientific-technical and patent literature on the synthesis of hydroxyalkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids by their catalytic reaction with epoxyalkanes, by the radical copolymerisation and polymerisation of presynthesised monomeric esters, and also by the chemical modification of polymerisation and copolymerisation products is surveyed. A wide variety of physicochemical properties of the polymers and copolymers based on the hydroxyalkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids are described. The principal trends and prospects in the application of the high-molecular-weight products obtained in various branches of the national economy are indicated. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  13. Uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products, but the lack of kinetics data significantly limited the evaluation of this process in the atmosphere. Here we report the first measurement of the uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Isoprene cannot readily partition into the solution because of its high volatility and low solubility, which hinders its further liquid-phase oxidation. Both methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate can enter the solutions and be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and steady-state uptake was observed with the acidity of solution above 30 wt.% and 70 wt.%, respectively. The steady-state uptake coefficient of methacrylic acid is much larger than that of methyl methacrylate for a solution with same acidity. These observations can be explained by the different reactivity of these two compounds caused by the different electron-withdrawing conjugation between carboxyl and ester groups. The atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on the calculated steady-state uptake coefficients. These results demonstrate that the multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation of methacrylic acid plays a role in secondary organic aerosol formation, but for isoprene and methyl methacrylate, this process is not important in the troposphere.

  14. Photopolymerized multifunctional (meth)acrylates as model polymers for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Bland, M H; Peppas, N A

    1996-06-01

    Polymer networks that can serve as model systems for dental applications were prepared by photopolymerizations of 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate, 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, 1,1,1-trimethylolethane trimethacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, Photomer 2028 and Photomer 3015. The UV polymerizations were initiated by 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone. Volume shrinkage was followed over the course of polymerization using a dilatometric technique. Incident light intensities ranged from 1 mW cm-2 to 20 mW cm-2. The effects of monomer structure on % volume shrinkage, including pendant group size, molecular weight between reactive double bonds, and acrylate versus methacrylate monomers were investigated. In addition, the effect of incident light intensity on % volume shrinkage was studied. Typical volume shrinkage varied from 3.5% to 13.5%. The volume shrinkage decreased with increasing monomer rank and increased pendant group size; the shrinkage for methacrylates was less than that for acrylates. Increased incident light intensity resulted in increased shrinkage rate, but not in statistically significant increases of the volume shrinkage. Conversion was calculated from shrinkage data and compared to data from monomer extraction experiments. Results indicate that although double bond conversion is low, conversion of monomer units is significantly higher.

  15. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) and calcium silicate/poly(methyl methacrylate) interpenetrating hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Monvisade, Pathavuth; Siriphannon, Punnama; Jermsungnern, Rapee; Rattanabodee, Sirirat

    2007-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) (HAp/PMMA) and calcium silicate/poly(methyl methacrylate) (CS/PMMA) composites were prepared by interpenetrating bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer in porous structures of HAp and CS. The porous HAp and CS templates were prepared by mixing their calcined powders with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution, shaping by uniaxial pressing and then firing at 1,100 degrees C for HAp and 900 degrees C for CS. The templates were soaked in the solution mixture of MMA monomer and 0.1 mol% of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) for 24 h. The pre-composites were then bulk polymerized at 85 degrees C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The microstructures of the composites showed the interpenetrating of PMMA into the porous HAp and CS structures. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the PMMA content in the HAp/PMMA and CS/PMMA composites were 13 and 26 wt%, respectively. Weight average molecular weights (M(w)) of PMMA were about 491,000 for HAp/PMMA composites and about 348,000 for CS/PMMA composites. Compressive strengths of these composites were about 90-131 MPa in which they were significantly higher than their starting porous templates.

  16. Studies on novel radiopaque methyl methacrylate: glycidyl methacrylate based polymer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dawlee, S; Jayakrishnan, A; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    A new class of radiopaque copolymer using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers was synthesized and characterized. The copolymer was made radiopaque by the epoxide ring opening of GMA using the catalyst o-phenylenediamine and the subsequent covalent attachment of elemental iodine. The copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, energy dispersive X-ray analysis using environmental scanning electron microscope (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray visibility of the copolymer was checked by X-radiography. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity of the newly synthesized copolymer were also evaluated. The iodinated copolymer was thermally stable, blood compatible, non-cytotoxic, and highly radiopaque. The presence of bulky iodine group created a new copolymer with modified properties for potential use in biomedical applications.

  17. Solid state dye lasers based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Shirin M.; McKinnie, Iain T.; Wadsworth, William J.; Woolhouse, Anthony D.; Smith, Gerald J.; Haskell, Tim G.

    1999-03-01

    The laser performance of a range of solid state dye lasers based on rhodamine 590-doped co-polymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been investigated. The optimisation of preparation conditions, including polymerisation initiator and solvent for dye delivery is discussed in detail. Laser efficiency is compared for different polymeric hosts and dye concentrations with a range of output couplers, cavity lengths and repetition rates. Passive and dynamic loss have been determined for each host medium. Laser efficiencies of optimised polymers are among the highest reported for rhodamine 590-doped solid state dye lasers under these operating conditions. Highest slope efficiency of 35% and lowest threshold fluence of 0.06 J cm -2 were obtained with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) additive in MPMMA at 10 Hz repetition rate.

  18. Evaluation of alternate routes for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1998-12-31

    The use of coal-derived syngas to produce high value chemicals is an important means of upgrading this resource. One example of a chemical that can be produced from coal-derived syngas is methyl methacrylate (MMA). Poly-methyl methacrylate is widely used in coatings and in various industrial molded products. The most widely practiced commercial technology for the synthesis of MMA is the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. This process requires handling of large quantities of toxic hydrogen cyanide and generates one mole of ammonium bisulfate waste per mole of MMA. This bisulfate must either be regenerated or discarded, either of which substantially increases the cost. The ACH technology is thus environmentally and economically untenable for any new MMA plant expansions that would be needed to meet increasing demand. The RTI-Eastman-Bechtel research team is developing an alternative, environmentally benign route to MMA consisting of three steps; (step 1) synthesis of a propionate from ethylene, carbon monoxide, and steam, (step 2) condensation of this propionate with formaldehyde, and (step 3) esterification of resulting methacrylic acid with methanol to form MMA. This paper describes the preliminary economics of the overall process compared to other emerging processes, and focuses on step 2, including long term testing of catalysts for the condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde to form MAA.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hugoniot Relations for Poly[methyl methacrylate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hugoniot Relations for Poly[ methyl methacrylate ] by Tanya L. Chantawansri, Edward F. C. Byrd, Betsy M. Rice...Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-5819 November 2011 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hugoniot Relations for Poly[ methyl methacrylate ...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hugoniot Relations for Poly[ methyl methacrylate ] 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. Plasma graft of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) on RGP lens surface for reducing protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiheng, Yin; Li, Ren; Yingjun, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted on fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permissible contact lens surface by means of argon plasma induced polymerization to improve surface hydrophilicity and reduce protein adsorption. The surface properties were characterized by contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy respectively. The surface protein adsorption was evaluated by lysozyme solution immersion and XPS analysis. The results indicated that a thin layer of PEGMA was successfully grafted. The surface hydrophilicity was bettered and surface free energy increased. The lysozyme adsorption on the lens surface was reduced greatly. The study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51273072).

  1. Hardness of irradiated poly(methyl methacrylate) at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, K.-P.; Lee, Sanboh; Cheng, Cheu Pyeng

    2001-08-15

    The decrease in hardness induced by gamma irradiation in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been investigated. The hardness is assumed to decrease linearly with the concentration of radiation-induced defects. Annealing at high temperatures induces defect annihilation as tracked by an increase in hardness. The annihilation follows first-order kinetics during isothermal annealing. The dependence of hardness on the reciprocal of the time constant satisfies the Arrhenius equation, and the corresponding activation energy of the kinetic process decreases with increasing dose. The hardness of postannealed PMMA decreases linearly with increasing dose. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Methyl methacrylate permeability of dental and industrial gloves.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sebastian; Padmanabhan, T V

    2009-01-01

    Our study was undertaken to measure the amount and time it took for methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) to permeate latex, vinyl and industrial neoprene gloves and to compare the results to obtain a rating of the permeability of each of the gloves studied to MMA. The monomer, permeated under static conditions, was measured using a spectrophotometer. Latex and vinyl clinical gloves became permeable to MMA in a very short amount of time. Neoprene industrial gloves remained impervious for 25 minutes. Dentists and dental technicians should be aware of the toxic effects of MMA and understand that clinical gloves do not afford protection from MMA.

  3. Degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Madras, G.; Smith, J.M.; McCoy, B.J.

    1996-06-01

    The rate of degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated in the liquid phase with toluene as the solvent. The degradation experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor at 1,000 psig (6.8 MPa) and at four different temperatures (200, 225, 275, and 300 C). The polymer concentration was varied by 1 to 4 g/L. A discrete model for the first-order rate of polymer degradation was derived and compared to the continuous kinetics approach. Both models lead to the same expression for monomer concentration increasing linearly with time. Rate constants were evaluated using the moments of the molecular weight distributions of the reacted and unreacted polymer. The rate was first order in polymer concentration, and the activation energy was 8.4 kcal/mol (34 kJ/mol). This activation energy suggests that the rate controlling step for the thermal degradation of PMMA is the depropagation process.

  4. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, B.S.; Doty, R.L.; Frye, R. ); Monroe, C.; Barker, S. )

    1989-05-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufactures acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-section analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores - semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible.

  5. Mechanisms of action of (meth)acrylates in hemolytic activity, in vivo toxicity and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes determined using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the quantitative structure-activity relationships between hemolytic activity (log 1/H(50)) or in vivo mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD(50) using reported data for α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as (meth)acrylate monomers and their (13)C-NMR β-carbon chemical shift (δ). The log 1/H(50) value for methacrylates was linearly correlated with the δC(β) value. That for (meth)acrylates was linearly correlated with log P, an index of lipophilicity. The ipLD(50) for (meth)acrylates was linearly correlated with δC(β) but not with log P. For (meth)acrylates, the δC(β) value, which is dependent on the π-electron density on the β-carbon, was linearly correlated with PM3-based theoretical parameters (chemical hardness, η; electronegativity, χ; electrophilicity, ω), whereas log P was linearly correlated with heat of formation (HF). Also, the interaction between (meth)acrylates and DPPC liposomes in cell membrane molecular models was investigated using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The log 1/H(50) value was related to the difference in chemical shift (ΔδHa) (Ha: H (trans) attached to the β-carbon) between the free monomer and the DPPC liposome-bound monomer. Monomer-induced DSC phase transition properties were related to HF for monomers. NMR chemical shifts may represent a valuable parameter for investigating the biological mechanisms of action of (meth)acrylates.

  6. Identification of covalent binding sites of ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, methyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in human hemoglobin using LC/MS/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, Marina C; Mörtstedt, Harriet; Ferrari, Giovanni; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2010-10-01

    Acrylates are used in vast quantities, for instance in paints, adhesive glues, molding. They are potent contact allergens and known to cause respiratory hypersensitivity and asthma. Here we study ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (ECA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). There are only limited possibilities to measure the exposure to acrylates, especially for biological monitoring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical structures of adducts formed after reaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with ECA, MMA, and HEMA. This information may be used to identify adducted Hb peptides for biological monitoring of exposure to acrylates. Hb-conjugates with ECA, MMA, and HEMA were synthesized in vitro. The conjugates were digested by trypsin and pronase E. Adducted peptides were characterized and analyzed by liquid chromatography and nano electro spray/hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) as well as tandem quadrupole MS. The search for the adducted peptides was facilitated by visualizing the MS data by different computer programs. The results showed that ECA binds covalently to cysteines at the 104 position in the α and the position 112 in the β-chains in Hb. MMA and HEMA bound to all the cysteines in both chains, Cys(104) in the α-chain and Cys(93) and 112 in the β-chain. The full-length spectra of in un-digested Hb confirmed this binding pattern. There was no reaction with N-acetyl-L-lysine at physiological pH. The adducted peptides were possible to measure using LC/MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. These peptides may be used for biological monitoring of exposure to ECA, MMA and HEMA.

  7. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-04-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

  8. Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.; Tischer, R.E.; Srivastava, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

  9. Methyl Methacrylate Polymerization in Nanoporous Matrix: Reactivity and Molecular Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haoyu; Simon, Sindee

    2011-03-01

    The influence of nanoconfinement on the free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate is investigated. Nanoporous controlled pore glass (CPG) is used as a nanoconfining matrix for the polymerization. The reaction is followed by measuring heat flow as a function of reaction time during isothermal polymerization using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Preliminary results indicate several interesting effects for polymerization in 110 nm diameter pores: the induction time increases under nanoconfinement, the effective reaction rate constant increases, the effective activation energy is unchanged, and the gel effect or autoaccleration occurs at earlier times after induction. The latter result concerning the gel effect is presumably due to the decrease in diffusivity under nanoconfinement which results in a decrease in the termination rate of free radicals. The cause of the longer induction times and accelerated reaction rates just after induction are under investigation. The influence of nanoconfinement on molecular weight will also be examined.

  10. Interaction between N-vinylpyrrolidone and methyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, V. V.; Shtonda, A. V.; Tyurina, T. G.; Bagdasarova, A. R.; Zaitsev, S. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    It is established that the interaction of the isomers of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) leads to the formation of molecular π-H- and H-complexes with energies within the limits of 10.2-13.6 (AM1) or 18.2-24.0 (B3LYP/6-311++G( d)) kJ/mol. The structures of complex-bound molecules are examined with respect to changes in the charges on terminal -C1=C2- groups, the distance between them and atoms in an H-bond, and the presence of combined overlapping molecular orbitals (MOs). The presence of an averaged complex that includes presumably all possible structures and allows us to perform the copolymerization of specified monomers in the absence of an initiator is confirmed by means of UV and NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Porous conductive polyblends of polyaniline in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron D.; Naguib, Hani E.

    2008-03-01

    The conductive polymer polyaniline is typically blended with conventional industrial thermoplastics in order to obtain an electrically conductive polymer blend with adequate mechanical properties. Processing these polyblends into foams yields a porous conductive material that exhibits immense application potential such as dynamic separation media and low-density electrostatic discharge protection. In the current study, the morphology of a thermally-processable blend consisting of an electrically conductive polyaniline-dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid complex and poly(methyl methacrylate) is explored using a two-phase batch foaming setup. The effect of blend composition and processing parameters on the resulting cellular morphology is investigated. Finally, the impact of the underlying microstructure on the frequency dependent electrical conductivity is elucidated.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG.

    1999-01-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(Oct.-Dec./98), we have investigated the condensation between methyl propionate and formaldehyde (MP/HCHO=4.5/1) at various reaction temperatures(280-360EC) over 5%, 10%, and 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts. The conversion of HCHO increases with reaction 2 5 2 temperature and niobium loading. MMA+MAA selectivity goes through a maximum with the temperature over both 10% and 20% Nb O /SiO . The selectivities to MMA+MAA are 67.2%, 2 5 2 72.3%and 58.1% at 320EC over 5%, 10%, 20% Nb O /SiO , respectively. However, the 2 5 2 conversion of formaldehyde decreases rapidly with time on stream. The results suggest that silica supported niobium catalysts are active and selective for condensation of MP with HCHO, but deactivation needs to be minimized for the consideration of commercial application. We have preliminarily investigated the partial oxidation of dimethyl ether(DME) over 5% Nb O /SiO catalyst. Reactant gas mixture of 0.1% DME, 0.1% O and balance nitrogen is 2 5 2 2 studied with temperature ranging from 200C to 500C. The conversion of DME first increases with temperature reaching an maximum at 400C then decreases. The selectivity to HCHO also increases with reaction temperature first. But the selectivity to HCHO decreases at temperature above 350C accompanied by

  13. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1999-01-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(Oct.-Dec./98), we have investigated the condensation between methyl propionate and formaldehyde (MP/HCHO=4.5/1) at various reaction temperatures(280-360EC) over 5%, 10%, and 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts. The conversion of HCHO increases with reaction 2 5 2 temperature and niobium loading. MMA+MAA selectivity goes through a maximum with the temperature over both 10% and 20% Nb O /SiO . The selectivities to MMA+MAA are 67.2%, 2 5 2 72.3%and 58.1% at 320EC over 5%, 10%, 20% Nb O /SiO , respectively. However, the 2 5 2 conversion of formaldehyde decreases rapidly with time on stream. The results suggest that silica supported niobium catalysts are active and selective for condensation of MP with HCHO, but deactivation needs to be minimized for the consideration of commercial application. We have preliminarily investigated the partial oxidation of dimethyl ether(DME) over 5% Nb O /SiO catalyst. Reactant gas mixture of 0.1% DME, 0.1% O and balance nitrogen is 2 5 2 2 studied with temperature ranging from 200°C to 500°C. The conversion of DME first increases with temperature reaching an maximum at 400°C then decreases. The selectivity to HCHO also increases with reaction temperature first. But the selectivity to HCHO decreases at temperature above 350

  14. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. Photochemically Induced ATRP of (Meth)Acrylates in the Presence of Air: The Effect of Light Intensity, Ligand, and Oxygen Concentration.

    PubMed

    Borská, Katarína; Moravčíková, Daniela; Mosnáček, Jaroslav

    2016-12-22

    Well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) are prepared via photochemically induced atom transfer radical polymerization (photoATRP) using ppm amounts of CuBr2 /tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and CuBr2 /tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine catalyst complexes, respectively, without degassing of polymerization mixture and with no need to introduce an external reducing agent to the system. The effect of ligand to CuBr2 ratio on kinetic and induction period during the polymerization of MMA and MA is investigated. The induction period is influenced also by the amount of oxygen in the polymerization system. Both the kinetics of MA polymerization and the induction period are affected by light intensity. Finally, the high livingness and initiation efficiency of the photoATRP system in the presence of air are proved by chain extension polymerizations. The presented system is valuable from an industrial point of view, since after optimization, well-defined and high-molar-mass poly(meth)acrylates can be prepared without the necessity of degassing the system, while the polymerization can be proceeded quickly and without an induction period.

  20. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr–O–P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia.

  1. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr–O–P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia. PMID:28000765

  2. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-02

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. the resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-Si-P ternary metal oxide catalysts Nb/SiO{sub 2} and Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalysts for the condensation of propionic anhydride and acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields by better understanding of the acid-base property correlation, in situ condensation in a high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

  3. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-07-27

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi

    1999-07-19

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. During the April-June quarter(04-06/99) the first in-situ formaldehyde generation from DME and condensation with methyl propionate is demonstrated and the results are summarized. The supported niobium catalyst shows better condensation activity, but supported tungsten catalyst has higher formaldehyde selectivity. The project team has also completed a 200-hour long term test of PA-HCHO condensation over 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. Three activity cycles and two regeneration cycles were carried out. 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} showed similar MAA yields as 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. However, the deactivation appears to be slower with 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} than 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. An detailed economic analysis of PA-HCHO condensation process for a 250 million lb/yr MMA plant is currently studied by Bechtel. Using the Amoco data-based azeotropic distillation model as the basis, an ASPEN flow sheet model was constructed to simulate the formaldehyde and propionic acid condensation processing section based on RTI's design data. The RTI MAA effluent azeotropic distillation column was found to be much more difficult to converge. The presence of non-condensible gases along with the byproduct DEK (both of which were not presented in

  5. Radical Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate and Methyl Methacrylate Using Organochromium Initiators Complexed with Macrocyclic Polyamines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    METHYL METHACRYLATE USING ORGANOCHROMIUM REA NTS COMPLEXED WITH MACROCYCLIC A• by Daniela Mardare, Scott Gaynor, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski DTIC Published... Daniela Mardare, Scott Gaynor, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) a. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Carnegie Mellon

  6. Mössbauer studies of solid state decomposition of methyl methacrylate-ethyl methacrylate copolymers containing ferric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, G. S.; Brar, A. S.

    1990-07-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA)-ethyl methacrylate (EMA) copolymers of different monomer concentrations containing anhydrous ferric chloride were prepared by bulk polymerization at 70°C. TGA studies showed that inclusion of iron salt increases the thermal stability of copolymers by 50°C. Mössbauer spectra of copolymers heated at different temperatures showed the presence of Fe3+ species only, in different environments. The mechanism of thermal stabilization of copolymer has been proposed on the basis of IR, TGA and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies.

  7. Effects of nystatin, fluconazole and propolis on poly(methyl methacrylate) resin surface.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Wander José; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes; Rosalen, Pedro Luis; Del bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of candidosis in denture wearers is as well established as its treatment with antifungal agents (AAs). However, little research has been done regarding the effects of AAs on denture base surfaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluconazole (FLU), nystatin (NYS) and propolis orabase gel (PRO) on poly (methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces. Deionized water and orabase gel without any active component were used as control groups. Conventional heat-polymerized (Clássico) and microwave-polymerized (Onda Cryl) acrylic resins were used. After polymerization, the specimens were polished and had their surfaces evaluated for roughness, free energy and Knoop hardness. Subsequently, specimens were immersed in AAs and controls for 14 days at 35+/-2 degrees C and all variables were measured again. Data were analyzed statistically by 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Roughness results showed similar behavior for both PMMA resins, with PRO reaching the highest values and differing significantly from the other AAs (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the two PMMA resins or between NYS and FLU as regards surface free energy. In conclusion, PRO was able to induce changes in PMMA surface properties, such as roughness, which could be related to microbial adhesion.

  8. Methyl methacrylate and respiratory sensitization: A Critical review

    PubMed Central

    Borak, Jonathan; Fields, Cheryl; Andrews, Larry S; Pemberton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer that has been associated with occupational asthma in a small number of case reports. Those reports have raised concern that it might be a respiratory sensitizer. To better understand that possibility, we reviewed the in silico, in chemico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology literature, and also epidemiologic and occupational medicine reports related to the respiratory effects of MMA. Numerous in silico and in chemico studies indicate that MMA is unlikely to be a respiratory sensitizer. The few in vitro studies suggest that MMA has generally weak effects. In vivo studies have documented contact skin sensitization, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and weakly positive responses on local lymph node assay; guinea pig and mouse inhalation sensitization tests have not been performed. Cohort and cross-sectional worker studies reported irritation of eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract associated with short-term peaks exposures, but little evidence for respiratory sensitization or asthma. Nineteen case reports described asthma, laryngitis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis in MMA-exposed workers; however, exposures were either not well described or involved mixtures containing more reactive respiratory sensitizers and irritants.The weight of evidence, both experimental and observational, argues that MMA is not a respiratory sensitizer. PMID:21401327

  9. Methyl Methacrylate Polymerization in Nanoporous Matrix: Reactivity and Resulting Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haoyu; Begum, Fatema; Simon, Sindee

    2012-02-01

    Nanoconfinement is well known to affect the properties of polymers, including changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg). In this work, the focus is on the influence of nanoconfinement on free radical polymerization reaction kinetics and the properties of the polymer produced. Controlled pore glass (CPG) is used as a nanoconfining matrix for methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization with pore diameters of 13 nm, 50 nm, and 110 nm. The reaction is followed by measuring heat flow as a function of reaction time during isothermal polymerization at temperatures ranging from 60 C to 95 C using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After reaction, the properties of the polymer are measured, including Tg, molecular weight, and tacticity. Nanoconfiment is found to result in earlier onset of autoacceleration, presumablely due to a decrease in the rate of termination arising from decreases in chain diffusivity in the confined state. In addition, Tg and molecular weight of the resulting PMMA are found to increase. A model of the nanoconfined reaction is able to quantitatively capture these effects by accounting for changes in chain diffusivity, and in native pores, also accounting for changes in intrinsic reaction rates.

  10. Wettability interpretation of oxygen plasma modified poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Chai, Jinan; Lu, Fuzhi; Li, Baoming; Kwok, Daniel Y

    2004-12-07

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been modified via a dc pulsed oxygen plasma for different treatment times. The modified surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical profilometer, zeta potential, and advancing contact angle measurements. The measured advancing contact angles of water decreased considerably as a function of discharge. Several oxygen-based functionalities (carbonyl, carboxyl, carbonate, etc.) were detected by XPS, while zeta potential measurements confirmed an increase in negative charge for the treated PMMA surface. Evaluating the correlation between the concentration of polar chemical species and zeta potential, we found that increase in surface hydrophilicity results from the coeffect due to incorporation of oxygen functional groups and creation of charge states. The electrical double layer (EDL) effect was also considered in contact angle interpretation by introducing an additional surface tension term into Young's equation. We also found that EDL contribution to the solid-liquid interfacial tension is negligible and can be safely ignored for the systems considered here.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1998-10-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The

  12. Novel catalysts for the environmentally friendly synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas can alleviate the environmental hazards associated with the current commercial MMA technology, the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. A three-step syngas-based process consisted of synthesis of a propionic acid, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) to form MMA. The first two steps, propionic acid synthesis and condensation, are discussed here. The low-temperature, low-pressure process for single-step hydrocarbonylation of ethylene to propionic acid is carried out using a homogeneous iodine-promoted Mo(CO){sub 6} catalyst at pressures (30--70 atm) and temperatures (150--200 C) lower than those reported for other catalysts. Mechanistic investigations suggest that catalysis is initiated by a rate-limiting CO dissociation from Mo(CO){sub 6}. This dissociation appears to be followed by an inner electron-transfer process of an I atom from EtI to the coordinately unsaturated Mo(CO){sub 5}. This homogeneous catalyst for propionate synthesis represents the first case of an efficient carbonylation process based on Cr group metals. The condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid is carried out by acid-base bifunctional catalysts. As a result of screening over 80 catalytic materials, group V metals supported on an amorphous silica are found to be most effective. A 20% Nb/SiO{sub 2} catalyst appears to be the most active and stable catalyst thus far. Preliminary relations among the reaction yield and catalyst properties indicate that a high surface area and a low overall surface acidity (<50 = mol of NH{sub 3}/g), with a high proportion of the acidity being weak (<350 C desorption of NH{sub 3}), are desirable. Long-term deactivation of V-Si-P, Nb-Si, and Ta-Si catalysts suggests that carbon deposition is the primary cause for activity decay, and the catalyst activity is partially restorable by oxidative regeneration.

  13. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Helmut; Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed.

  14. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC)

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by 1H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  15. Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) beads promote vascularization and wound repair in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel C; Semple, John L; Sefton, Michael V

    2010-05-01

    Topical application of beads made from poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (45 mol % methacrylic acid, MAA) increased the number of blood vessels and improved 1.5 x 1.5 cm full thickness wound closure in a diabetic mouse (db/db) model. Three groups were compared: MAA beads, control poly(methyl methacrylate) beads (PMMA), and no bead blanks. MAA bead treatment significantly increased percent wound closure at all timepoints (7, 14, and 21 days) with MAA bead-treated wounds almost closed at day 21 (91 +/- 5.4% MAA vs. 79 +/- 3.2% PMMA or 76 +/- 4.8% no beads; p < 0.05). This was consistent with the expected significant increase in vascularity in the MAA group at days 7 and 14. For example at day 14, MAA bead-treated wounds had a vascular density of 22.7 +/- 2.6 vessels/hpf compared with 17.0 +/- 2.0 vessels/hpf in the PMMA bead group (p < 0.05). Epithelial gap and migration measurements suggested that the increased vascularity leads to enhanced epithelial cell migration as a principal means of wound closure. Although studies are underway to elucidate the mechanism of this angiogenic response, the results presented here support the notion that such materials, perhaps in other forms, may be useful in wound care or in other situations where vascularity is to be enhanced without the use of exogenous growth factors.

  16. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Allen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  17. Thermally switchable thin films of an ABC triblock copolymer of poly( n -butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy W.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-09-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly( n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  18. Removal of methyl acrylate by ceramic-packed biotrickling filter and their response to bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhenhao; Quan, Yue; Fang, Yingyu; Yin, Chengri

    2016-06-01

    Methyl acrylate is a widely used raw chemical materials and it is toxic in humans. In order to treat the methyl acrylate waste gas, a 3-layer BTF packed with ceramic particles and immobilized with activated sludge was set up. The BTF exhibited excellent removal efficiency that no methyl acrylate could be detected when EBRT was larger than 266s and inlet concentration was lower than 0.19g/m(3). The 1st layer performed the best at fixed inlet concentration of 0.42g/m(3). PCR combined with DGGE was performed to detect the differences in different layers of the BTF. Phylum Proteobacteria (e.g. α-, β-, γ-, δ-) was predominantly represented in the bacterial community, followed by Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Desulfovibrio gigas, Variovorax paradoxus, Dokdonella koreensis, Pseudoxanthomonas suwonensis, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Hyphomicrobium denitrificans, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Comamonas testosteroni formed the bacteria community to treat methyl acrylate waste gas in the BTF.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of membranes obtained by graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid onto chitosan.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, K S C R; Coelho, J F J; Ferreira, P; Pinto, I; Lorenzetti, S G; Ferreira, E I; Higa, O Z; Gil, M H

    2006-03-09

    Chitosan based membranes to be applied on wound healing as topical drug delivery systems were developed by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto chitosan using cerium ammonium nitrate as chemical initiator. Evidence for graft copolymerization of the vinyl monomers onto chitosan was obtained by FTIR and DMTA. Swelling degree, cytotoxicity, thrombogenicity and haemolytic activity of these membranes were evaluated. Chitosan-graft-AA-graft-HEMA showed to be the best matrix for drug delivery systems than chitosan-graft-AA because it retains good swelling properties, but the content in HEMA has improved cytocompatibility, hemocompatibility and thrombogenic character.

  20. Horseradish peroxidase mediated free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kalra, B; Gross, R A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). A novel method was developed whereby MMA polymerization can be carried out at ambient temperatures in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and 2,4-pentanedione in a mixture of water and a water-miscible solvent. Polymers of MMA formed were highly stereoregular with predominantly syndiotactic sequences (syn-dyad fractions from 0.82 to 0.87). Analyses of the chloroform-soluble fraction of syndio-PMMA products by GPC showed that they have number-average molecular weights, Mn, that range from 7500 to 75,000. By using 25% v/v of the cosolvents dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, and dimethylformamide, 85, 45, 7 and 2% product yields, respectively, resulted after 24 h. Increasing the proportion of dioxane to water from 1:3 to 1:1 and 3:1 resulted in a decrease in polymer yield from 45 to 38 and 7%, respectively. Increase in the enzyme concentration from 70 to 80 and 90 mg/mL resulted in increased reaction kinetics. By adjustment of the molar ratio of 2,4-pentanedione to hydrogen peroxide between 1.30:1.0 and 1.45:1.0, the product yields and Mn values were increased. On the basis of the catalytic properties of HRP and studies herein, we believe that the keto-enoxy radicals from 2,4-pentanedione are the first radical species generated. Then, initiation may take place through this radical or by the radical transfer to another molecule.

  1. Assessment of methyl methacrylate genotoxicity by the micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Amarildo Mariano de; Alves, Guilherme Rodrigues; Avanço, Guilherme Trevisan; Parizi, José Luiz Santos; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of methyl methacrylate (MMA) vapor by simulating standard occupational exposure of 8 hours per day and using the micronucleus test. We used 32 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups: A - 16 rats exposed to MMA for 8 hours a day, B - Eight rats receiving single subcutaneous doses of cyclophosphamide on the first day of the experiment (positive control), C - Eight rats receiving only water and food ad libitum (negative control). Eight rats from group A and all of the rats from groups B and C were sacrificed 24 hours after beginning the experiment (acute exposure in group A). The remaining animals in group A were sacrificed 5 days after the experiment began (repeated exposure assessment in group A, simulating occupational exposure 40 hours/week). Femoral bone marrow was collected from each rat at the time of sacrifice for use in the micronucleus test. Two slides were completed per animal and were stained with Giemsa staining. Two thousand polychromatic erythrocytes were counted per animal. The Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a multiple comparisons test (Dunn test) was used for statistical analysis. The median number of micronuclei was 7.00 in the group exposed to MMA for 1 day, 2.00 in the group exposed to MMA for 5 days, 9.00 in the group exposed to cyclophosphamide (positive control) and 0.756 in the negative control group (p < 0.0001). MMA was genotoxic when measured after 1 day of exposure but was not evidently genotoxic after 5 days.

  2. The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

  3. Preparation of Optically Transparent Films of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Montmorillonite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    methacrylate] [PMMA] and Montmorillonite DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report...Society V6.4 Preparation of Optically Transparent Films of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Montmorillonite Elena Vasiliul, Chyi-Shan Wang"’ 2...exchanged with 1.40 meq/g of dimethyl dehydrogenated tallow ammonium from a sodium montmorillonite , Cloisite Na+ (CNa). Since the cation-exchange

  4. Analytical strategy for the molecular weight determination of random copolymers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(methacrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Rémi; Viel, Stéphane; Hidalgo, Manuel; Allard-Breton, Béatrice; Thévand, André; Charles, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    Molecular weight characterization of random amphiphilic copolymers currently represents an analytical challenge. In particular, molecules composed of methacrylic acid (MAA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the repeat units raise issues in commonly used techniques. The present study shows that when random copolymers cannot be properly ionized by MALDI, and hence detected and measured in MS, one possible analytical strategy is to transform them into homopolymers, which are more amenable to this ionization technique. Then, by combining the molecular weight of the so-obtained homopolymers, as measured by MS, with the relative molar proportion of the MMA and MMA units, as given by (1)H NMR spectrum, one can straightforwardly estimate the molecular weight of the initial copolymer. A methylation reaction was performed to transform MAA-MMA copolymer samples into PMMA homopolymers, using trimethylsilyldiazomethane as a derivatization agent. Weight average molecular weight (M(w)) parameters of the MAA-MMA copolymers could then be derived from M(w) values obtained for the methylated MAA-MMA molecules by MALDI, which were also validated by pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR. An alkene function in one of the studied copolymer end-groups was also shown to react with the methylation agent, giving rise to MMA-like polymeric by-products characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and which could be avoided by adjusting the amount of the trimethylsilyldiazomethane in the reaction medium.

  5. Exposure to volatile methacrylates in dental personnel.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Stig; Ljungkvist, Göran; Andreasson, Harriet; Karlsson, Stig; Barregård, Lars

    2005-06-01

    Dental personnel are exposed to acrylates due to the acrylic resin-based composites and bonding agents used in fillings. It is well known that these compounds can cause contact allergy in dental personnel. However, in the 1990s, reports emerged on asthma also caused by methacrylates. The main volatile acrylates in dentistry are 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate. The aim of this study was to quantify the exposure to these acrylates in Swedish dental personnel. We studied the exposure to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate in five randomly selected public dental clinics and at the Faculty of Odontology at Göteborg University. In total, 21 whole-day and 46 task-specific short-term (1-18 min) measurements were performed. The median 8-hour time-weighted averages were 2.5 microg/m3 (dentists) and 2.9 microg/m3 (dental nurses) for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 0.8 microg/m3 (dentists) and 0.3 microg/m3 (dental nurses) for methyl methacrylate. The maximum short-term exposure levels were 79 microg/m3 for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 15 microg/m3 for methyl methacrylate, similar in dentists and dental nurses. The observed levels are much lower than in complete denture fabrication. We found only one previous study in dentistry and it showed similar results (though it reported short-term measurements only). Irritant effects would not be expected in healthy people at these levels. Nevertheless, occupational respiratory diseases due to methacrylates may occur in dental personnel, and improvements in the handling of these chemicals in dentistry are warranted. This includes better vials for the bonding agents and avoiding evaporation from discarded materials.

  6. Synthesis of branched poly(methyl methacrylate)s via controlled/living polymerisations exploiting ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as branching agent.

    PubMed

    Isaure, Francoise; Cormack, Peter A G; Graham, Susan; Sherrington, David C; Armes, Steven P; Bütun, Vural

    2004-05-07

    With appropriate choice of reaction composition and conditions, copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using Cu-based ATRP or GTP methodologies yields soluble branched polymers in facile one-pot reactions.

  7. Toughening epoxy resin with poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaifard, A.H.; Hodd, K.A.; Barton, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber (Hevea-plus MG), has been studied as a toughening agent for bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Shell 828 epoxy resin) cured with piperidine. Effective dispersions of the rubber, in concentrations of 2-10 parts per hundred parts resin, were achieved by adjusting the solubility parameter of the epoxy to approximate that of poly(methyl methacrylate) by adding bisphenol A. The fracture energy of the rubber-modified resin was determined by compact tension tests (in the temperature range -60 to +40{degrees}C) and by Charpy impact tests. The poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber was found to be an effective toughening agent for the epoxy resin at both low and high rates of strain. Possible fracture mechanisms are discussed. 22 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Novel poly(methyl methacrylate)-based semi-interpenetrating polyelectrolyte gels for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Saibabu; Easteal, Allan J.

    Novel semi-interpenetrating polymer gel electrolytes designed for use in rechargeable lithium polymer batteries are synthesised from methyl methacrylate and the lithium salt of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (LiAMPS). The gels are made by first synthesising linear chains of poly(LiAMPS) by free radical polymerisation of LiAMPS dissolved in dimethyl acetamide (DMA) or DMA/ethylene carbonate mixtures, then co-polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and a cross-linking monomer (tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate) to form the semi-interpenetrating network. The electrical conductivity of the gels is determined as a function of LiAMPS and methyl methacrylate (MMA) concentrations, cross-link density, and solvent composition. The conductivity ( σ) is found to be in the range 0.2 ≤ σ ≤ 0.8 mS cm -1 at ambient temperature (20 ± 1 °C).

  9. Flexible fiber-reinforced composites with improved interfacial adhesion by mussel-inspired polydopamine and poly(methyl methacrylate) coating.

    PubMed

    Yi, Mi; Sun, Hongyang; Zhang, Hongcheng; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    To obtain a kind of light-curable fiber-reinforced composite for dental restoration, an excellent interfacial adhesion between the fiber and the acrylate resin matrix is quite essential. Herein, surface modification on glass fibers were carried out by coating them with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polydopamine (PDA), or both. The PMMA or PDA coating was performed by soaking fibers in PMMA/acetone solution or dopamine aqueous solution. PDA/PMMA co-coated glass fibers were obtained by further soaking PDA-coated fibers in PMMA/acetone solution. These modified fibers were impregnated with bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (5:5, w/w) dental resin at a volume fraction of 75%, using unmodified fibers as reference. Light-cured specimens were submitted to evaluations including flexural properties, morphological observation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and pull-out test. In comparison with unmodified glass fibers, all the modified glass fibers showed enhancements in flexural strength and modulus of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin composites. Results of DMTA and pull-out tests confirmed that surface modification had significantly improved the interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and the resin matrix. Particularly, the PDA/PMMA co-coated glass fibers displayed the most efficient reinforcement and the strongest interfacial adhesion due to the synergetic effects of PDA and PMMA. It indicated that co-coating method was a promising approach in modifying the interfacial compatibility between inorganic glass fiber and organic resin matrix.

  10. Surface modification of glycidyl-containing poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Jikun; Lee, Milton L

    2008-02-01

    Fabrication of microfluidic systems from polymeric materials is attractive because of simplicity and low cost. Unfortunately, the surfaces of many polymeric materials can adsorb biological samples. Therefore, it is necessary to modify their surfaces before these polymeric materials can be used for separation and analysis. Oftentimes it is difficult to modify polymeric surfaces because of their resistance to chemical reaction. Recently, we introduced a surface-reactive acrylic polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGMAMMA), which can be modified easily and is suitable for fabrication of microfluidic devices. Epoxy groups on the surface can be activated by air plasma treatment, hydrolysis, or aminolysis. In this work, the resulting hydroxyl or amino groups were reacted with 2-bromoisobutylryl bromide to introduce an initiator for surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) layers grown on the surface using this method were uniform, hydrophilic, stable, and resistant to protein adsorption. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize activated polymer surfaces, initiator-bound surfaces, and PEG-grafted surfaces. We obtained excellent capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations of proteins and peptides with the PEG-modified microchips. A separation efficiency of 4.4 x 10(4) plates for a 3.5 cm long separation channel was obtained.

  11. The Mark-Houwink-Sakurada Relation for Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Herman L.

    1987-04-01

    In this third review of a series, the literature values for the viscosity-molecular weight relationship (Mark-Houwink-Sakurada) for poly(methyl methacrylate) have been critically evaluated. Although most of the studies have been concerned with conventionally produced poly(methyl methacrylate), some work has also been done with the isotactic polymer. The Mark-Houwink relations for the following solvents are discussed: benzene, toluene, acetone, chloroform, 2-butanone, and tetrahydrofuran, as well as for several other infrequently used solvents. The values of the coefficient K in the relation [η]=KM0.5 for several theta solvents are also reported.

  12. Photo-Physical Behavior and Fluorescence of Thermo Switchable Nanocomposite Based on Methyl Methacrylate -Spirobenzopyran.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Shohre; Pishvaei, Malihe

    2017-03-01

    Nanocomposites with thermo and photo-switchable fluorescent properties were synthesized via mini-emulsion polymerization based on spiropyran and methyl methacrylate monomer. The photophysical behavior of fluorescence nanocomposites was investigated by fluorescence spectrophotometry in different temperature, UV-light and time of exposure. It was found that methyl methacrylate polymer is capable of acting as a protective layer and play a critical role in improving the photostability of colorants. The nanocomposites exhibited excellent fluorescent thermo-switching action with respect to the free spiro molecule. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as components of plastic articles... weight percent of polymer units derived from styrene. (b) The finished plastic food-contact article, when... not to exceed an absorbance of 0.15. (3) Ultraviolet-absorbing distilled water and 8 and 50...

  14. Development of Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatings for Acrylic Plastic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-12-01

    and methyl methacrylate monomer (I mole) in cyciohexanone (Z moles) vw’th benzoyl peroxide catalyst (0, Z% of total weight). The mix- ture was refluxed... methacrylic acid- methyl methaerylate copolymer re•I. The composite material, i. e., the acrylic and applied coating, retains essentially all the original...0.001" to 0.002" when rolled on and of less than 0.001" when sprayed on. The ability of the methacrylic acid- methyl methacrylate copolymer to cover the

  15. 21 CFR 882.5030 - Methyl methacrylate for aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... aneurysms, which are balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) is a self-curing acrylic used to encase and reinforce intracranial aneurysms that are not amenable to conservative management, removal, or obliteration by aneurysm clip. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. 21 CFR 882.5030 - Methyl methacrylate for aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aneurysms, which are balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) is a self-curing acrylic used to encase and reinforce intracranial aneurysms that are not amenable to conservative management, removal, or obliteration by aneurysm clip. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  17. 21 CFR 882.5030 - Methyl methacrylate for aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aneurysms, which are balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) is a self-curing acrylic used to encase and reinforce intracranial aneurysms that are not amenable to conservative management, removal, or obliteration by aneurysm clip. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  18. 21 CFR 882.5030 - Methyl methacrylate for aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... aneurysms, which are balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) is a self-curing acrylic used to encase and reinforce intracranial aneurysms that are not amenable to conservative management, removal, or obliteration by aneurysm clip. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  19. 21 CFR 882.5030 - Methyl methacrylate for aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... aneurysms, which are balloonlike sacs formed on blood vessels) is a self-curing acrylic used to encase and reinforce intracranial aneurysms that are not amenable to conservative management, removal, or obliteration by aneurysm clip. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  20. Affinity chromatography of proteins on non-porous copolymerized particles of styrene, methyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Lee, W C

    2001-06-29

    Non-porous particles having an average diameter of 2.1 microm were prepared by co-polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate, which was abbreviated as P(S-MMA-GMA). The particles were mechanically stable due to the presence of benzene rings in the backbone of polymer chains, and could withstand high pressures when a column packed with these particles was operated in the HPLC mode. The polymer particles were advantaged by immobilization of ligands via the epoxy groups on the particle surface that were introduced by one of the monomers, glycidyl methacrylate. As a model system, Cibacron Blue 3G-A was covalently immobilized onto the non-porous copolymer beads. The dye-immobilized P(S-MMA-GMA) particles were slurry packed into a 1.0 cm x 0.46 cm I.D. column. This affinity column was effective for the separation of turkey egg white lysozyme from a protein mixture. The bound lysozyme could be eluted to yield a sharp peak by using a phosphate buffer containing 1 M NaCl. For a sample containing up to 8 microg of lysozyme, the retained portion of proteins could be completely eluted without any slit peak. Due to the use of a shorter column, the analysis time was shorter in comparison with other affinity systems reported in the literature. The retention time could be reduced significantly by increasing the flow-rate, while the capacity factor remained at the same level.

  1. Preparation of poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels by radiation and their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2004-02-01

    The pH-responsive copolymer hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of polyethylene glycol methacrylate and acrylic acid based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The gel content of these copolymer hydrogels varied depending on both the composition of monomers and the radiation dose. Maximum gel percent and degree of crosslinking were obtained at the composition of equal amount of comonomers. These copolymer hydrogels did not show any noticeable change in swelling at lower pH range. However they showed an abrupt increase in swelling at higher pH range due to the ionization of carboxyl groups. This pH-responsive swelling behavior was applied for the insulin carrier via oral delivery. Insulin-loaded copolymer hydrogels released most of their insulin in the simulated intestinal fluid which had a pH of 6.8 but not in the simulated gastric fluid which had a pH of 1.2.

  2. Synthesis of polymer materials by low energy electron beam. IV. EB-polymerized urethane-acrylate, -methacrylate and -acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    The structure and properties before and after electron beam (EB) irradiation were investigated using urethane prepolymers with different terminal groups of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAAm). The prepolymers were synthesized by reaction of HEA, HEMA and HMAAm with the isocyanate-capped intermediate, which was obtained by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD) with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The resulting urethane-acrylate (UA-251M), -methacrylate (UMA-251M) and -acrylamide (UNAA-251M) had the crystallinity arising from PBAD moieties, and UA-251M and UMA-251M had higher crystallinity than UNAA-251M. IR results indicated that UNAA-251M was larger in the fraction of free NH stretching absorption than UA-251M and UMA-251M regardless of the number of NH group per a molecule. Accordingly, it was assumed that the difference in crystallinity was attributed to the polarity of terminal group. Hence, the rate of gel formation for UA-251M and UMA-251M was higher than that of UNAA-251M. The crystallinity based on PBAD of the prepolymers was remained also after EB irradiation. Spherulitic texture was observed on the EB-polymerized gel film surfaces for UA-251M and UMA-251M, while it was almost destroyed for UNAA-251M. Mechanical properties of UA-251M and UMA-251M gel films were much superior to those of UNAA-251M gel film according to the phase structure. Especially, UMA-251M gel film represented most excellent mechanical properties. Schematic models of the phase structure for UA-251M, UMA-251M and UNAA-251M were suggested from all experimental results.

  3. Optical Properties of Nanocellulose Dispersions in Water, Dimethylformamide and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    measurements for cellulose and PMMA thin- films . ..13  v List of Tables Table 1. Recorded optical data for nanocellulose in water...applications beyond thin films . In particular, the effects of nanocellulose fibers in higher concentrations, processed in different solvents, and...Optical Properties of Nanocellulose Dispersions in Water, Dimethylformamide and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) by James F. Snyder, Joshua Steele

  4. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  5. Chest Wall Reconstruction Using a Methyl Methacrylate Neo-Rib and Mesh.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Park, Bernard J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Rizk, Nabil P; Huang, James; Jones, David R; Bains, Manjit S

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic reconstruction of the chest wall after oncologic resection is performed by means of various techniques using different materials. We describe a new technique of chest wall reconstruction that includes the use of Marlex mesh and the creation of a neo-rib from a Steinmann pin and methyl methacrylate.

  6. Characterization of methyl methacrylate grafting onto preirradiated biodegradable lignocellulose fiber by gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ferdous

    2005-01-14

    Gamma-radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto natural lignocellulose (jute) fiber was carried out by the preirradiation method in an aqueous medium by using octylphenoxy-polyethoxyethanol as an emulsifier. The different factors that influenced the graft copolymer reaction process were investigated. In the case of radiation-dose-dependent grafting, samples irradiated in the presence of air produced up to 73% graft weight compared to 53% obtained in the case of irradiation in a nitrogen environment. By assuming Arrhenius reaction kinetics, the activation energy (E(a)) of the grafting reaction process was evaluated for different reaction temperatures. Moreover, the graft copolymer reaction was controlled by incorporating a homopolymer-inhibiting agent and three different chain-transfer agents in the reaction medium. The mechanical and thermal properties of jute fiber 'as received' and jute-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) were also investigated. The results showed that the percentage of grafting with jute fiber has a significant effect on the properties. The kinetic parameters were evaluated from TGA thermograms by using Broido's method in the temperature range 240-350 degrees C. Scanning electron micrographs show that the structural changes on the surface of jute fibers were induced by graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate monomer. Fiber-fiber surface friction was measured in terms of the average maximum load and the kinetic friction. SEM of jute-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate).

  7. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... composition range as the matrix polymer. (b) Adjuvants. The copolymer identified in paragraph (a) of this...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces §...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... composition range as the matrix polymer. (b) Adjuvants. The copolymer identified in paragraph (a) of this... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... composition range as the matrix polymer. (b) Adjuvants. The copolymer identified in paragraph (a) of this...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces §...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... composition range as the matrix polymer. (b) Adjuvants. The copolymer identified in paragraph (a) of this...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces §...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based experimental bone cements reinforced with TiO2-SrO nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Khaled, S M Z; Charpentier, Paul A; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2010-08-01

    In an attempt to overcome existing limitations of experimental bone cements we here demonstrate a simple approach to synthesizing strontium-modified titania nanotubes (n-SrO-TiO(2) tubes) and functionalize them using the bifunctional monomer methacrylic acid. Then, using 'grafting from' polymerization with methyl methacrylate, experimental bone cements were produced with excellent mechanical properties, radiopacity and biocompatibility. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy mapping and backscattered SEM micrographs revealed a uniform distribution of SrO throughout the titanium matrix, with retention of the nanotubular morphology. Nanocomposites were then reinforced with 1, 2, 4 and 6 wt.% of the functionalized metal oxide nanotubes. Under the mixing and dispersion regime employed in this study, 2 wt.% appeared optimal, exhibiting a more uniform dispersion and stronger adhesion of the nanotubes in the poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix, as shown by TEM and SEM. Moreover, this optimum loading provided a significant increase in the fracture toughness (K(IC)) (20%) and flexural strength (40%) in comparison with the control matrix (unfilled) at P<0.05. Examination of the fracture surfaces by SEM showed that toughening was provided by the nanotubes interlocking with the acrylic matrix and crack bridging during fracture. On modifying the n-TiO(2) tubes with strontium oxide the nanocomposites exhibited a similar radiopacity to a commercial bone cement (CMW 1), while exhibiting a significant enhancement of osteoblast cell proliferation (242%) in vitro compared with the control at P<0.05.

  12. Enhanced surface segregation of poly(methyl methacrylate) end-capped with 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate by introduction of a second block.

    PubMed

    Ni, Huagang; Gao, Jie; Li, Xuehua; Hu, Yanyan; Yan, Donghuan; Ye, XiuYun; Wang, Xinping

    2012-01-01

    New fluorinated copolymers of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(butyl methacrylate) or poly(n-octadecyl methacrylate) end-capped with 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (PMMA(x)-b-PBMA(y)-ec-PFMA(z) or PMMA(x)-b-PODMA(y)-ec-PFMA(z)) were synthesized by living atom transfer radical polymerization. Thin films made of PMMA(230)-b-PODMA(y)-ec-PFMA(1) were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These films were found to exhibit robust surface segregation of the end groups. Furthermore, the fluorine enrichment factor at the film surface was found to increase linearly with increasing degree of polymerization of poly(n-octadecyl methacrylate) and its increasing fusion enthalpy in the second block, which enhances the segregation of the fluorinated moieties.

  13. [Gas chromatographic analysis of methyl methacrylate and methanol in its esterification mixture].

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Zeng, C

    1997-09-01

    A fast, simple and accurate gas chromatographic method is established for determining the content of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methanol in the esterification mixture of methacrylic acid with methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. In the measurement, polyethylene glycol-20M/sodium hydroxide was adopted as liquid phase, coated on the acid-washed 201 pink support. n-Heptane was used as the internal standard and the correction factors of MMA and methanol obtained were 1.65 and 4.10, respectively. It is significant for this method to be used to control MMA production by acetone cyanohydrin method and to improve the production technology.

  14. Structural characterization of a poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Rémi; Viel, Stéphane; Hidalgo, Manuel; Allard-Breton, Béatrice; Thévand, André; Charles, Laurence

    2009-11-03

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been combined to achieve the complete microstructural characterization of a poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMAA-PMMA) copolymer synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Various PMAA-PMMA species could be identified which mainly differ in terms of terminaisons. 1H and 13C NMR experiments revealed the structure of the end-groups as well as the proportion of each co-monomer in the copolymers. These end-group masses were further confirmed from m/z values of doubly charged copolymer anions detected in the single stage mass spectrum. In contrast, copolymer composition derived from MS data was not consistent with NMR results, obviously due to strong mass bias well known to occur during electrospray ionization of these polymeric species. Tandem mass spectrometry could reveal the random nature of the copolymer based on typical dissociation reactions, i.e., water elimination occurred from any two contiguous MAA units while MAA-MMA pairs gave rise to the loss of a methanol molecule. Polymer backbone cleavages were also observed to occur and gave low abundance fragment ions which allowed the structure of the initiating end-group to be confirmed.

  15. Structure-function properties of starch spherulites grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  16. Structure-function properties of starch graft poly(methyl acrylate)copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  17. A rare case of pseudotumor formation associated with methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity in a patient following cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kenan, Shachar; Kahn, Leonard; Haramati, Noga; Kenan, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to orthopedic implant materials has been well documented with potential catastrophic consequences if not addressed pre-operatively. The spectrum of reactions is wide, from mild non-specific pain with localized erythema to severe periprosthetic inflammatory destruction and pseudotumor formation. It is therefore essential to identify patients who have or are at risk for implant-associated hypersensitivity. Although metal sensitivity is commonly cited as the cause of these reactions, methyl methacrylate (MMA) has rarely been implicated. To the best of our knowledge, methyl methacrylate-associated pseudotumor formation has not yet been described. The following is a case report of a 68-year-old female who, after undergoing a routine cemented right total knee arthroplasty, developed a painless, enlarging mass during a 13-year period. This mass was found to be a pseudotumor in association with methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity. A review of pseudotumor pathogenesis, methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity, and preoperative preventative care is discussed.

  18. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF3SO3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF3SO3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR).

  19. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-28

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in {sup 1}HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  20. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles via reverse ATRP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xiao, Yan; Huang, Xiujuan; Lang, Meidong

    2011-08-15

    Surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (reverse ATRP) technical was successfully employed to modify hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The peroxide initiator moiety for reverse ATRP was covalently attached to the HAP surface through the surface hydroxyl groups. Reverse ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from the initiator-functionalized HAP was carried out, and the end bromide groups of grafted PMMA initiated ATRP of MMA subsequently. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to confirm the grafting and to characterize the nanoparticle structure. The grafted PMMA gave HAP nanoparticles excellent dispersibility in MMA monomer. As the amount of grafted PMMA increased, the dispersibility of surface-grafted HAP and the compressive strength of HAP/PMMA composites were improved.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(methyl methacrylate)-functionalized Carboxyl Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-jie; Zhang, Xing-xiang; Bai, Shi-he; Wang, Xue-chen

    2007-12-01

    An in situ polymerization process was used to prepare poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-functionalized carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes using carboxylate carbon nanotubes and methyl methacrylate as reactants and benzoyl peroxide as an initiator agent. The functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized using transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman. The results indicate that the PMMA chains are covalently linked with the surface of carboxylate carbon nanotubes. The surface morphology is controlled by the content of carboxylate carbon nanotubes in the reactants. The PMMA functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are soluble in deuterated chloroform. The storage modulus and tanδ magnitude increase as the content of CCNTs increases up to 0.3%.

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers. II. Physical and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Badran, B.M.; Sherif, S.; El-Sheltawi, S.T.; Abu-Sedira, A.A.

    1981-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers were prepared by bulk polymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Cellulose nitrates of two different nitrogen contents (11.4 and 12.2%) were used. The prepared copolymers were ..gamma..-irradiated for specified periods of up to 11.83 Mrad. Their physical and mechanical properties were measured before and after irradiation. The title copolymers showed lower modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break than poly(methyl methacrylate) itself, but they showed better hardness and abrasian. Irradiation of up to 6.57 Mrad improved the modulus of the copolymers. Hardness and abrasion were improved by increasing cellulose nitrate content. The prepared copolymers that contained cellulose nitrate of 11.4% nitrogen showed secondary transition points. The increase of cellulose nitrate concentration shifted both first and second transition points to relatively higher values.

  3. Computational Study of the Self-Initiation Mechanism in Thermal Polymerization of Methyl Acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sriraj; Lee, Myung Won; Grady, Michael C.; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2009-09-01

    This computational study deals with the mechanism of spontaneous initiation in thermal polymerization of alkyl acrylates (e.g., methyl, ethyl, and n-butyl acrylate). The mechanism is presently still unknown. Density-functional theory (DFT) and Møller-Plesset (MP2) calculations are used to explore the Flory and Mayo mechanisms of self-initiation in methyl acrylate. On the singlet surface, a low-barrier, concerted [4 + 2] Diels-Alder mechanism for the formation of a dihydropyran adduct (DA) and a high-barrier nonconcerted [2 + 2] diradical (•M2s•) mechanism for the formation of dimethyl cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DCD) were found using B3LYP/6-31G*. Several levels of theory were used to validate the transition states, and the pathways for the DA and DCD formations on the singlet surface were determined using intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations. On the triplet surface, a triplet diradical intermediate (•M2t•) was identified that is structurally similar to •M2s• but lower in energy. The spin-orbit coupling constant for crossover of the diradical from singlet to triplet surface was calculated. Monoradical generation from the two intermediates, DA and •M2t• via hydrogen transfer to or from a third methyl acrylate was studied. It was found that generation of two monoradical species was possible from •M2t• and is proposed as a likely explanation for experimentally observed spontaneous-initiation.

  4. Fabrication of Poly(methyl Methacrylate) microfluidic chips by redox-initiated polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiang; Lin, Yuehe; Chen, Gang

    2007-08-16

    In this report, a method based on the redox-initiated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been developed for the rapid fabrication of PMMA microfluidic chips.The new fabrication approach obviates the need for special equipment and significantly simplifies the process of fabricating microdevices. The attractive performance of the novel PMMA microchips has been demonstrated in connection with contactless conductivity detection for the separation and detection of ionic species.

  5. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  6. Organophosphazenes.22 Copolymerization of (Alpha-Methylethenylphenyl) Penta-fluorocyclotriphosphazenes with Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-15

    pennultimate effects , 19. BSTRACT (Continue on reverse it necessary and identify by block number) i ., i. Both 3- and 4- (l-Methylethenylphenyl...parameters for theA, styrene system show that the major perturbation produced by the phosphazene is a polar6 electron withdrawing effect . The methyl...methacrylate system was found to exhibit significant penultimate effects in its reactivity behavior. The copolymers were characteri-zed using elemental

  7. Photoluminescence of Electrospun Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate:Alq3 Composite Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ke-Qin; Xu, Chun-Xian; Wang, Qiong; Gu, Bao-Xiang; Zheng, Ke; Ye, Li-Hua; Li, Xin-Song

    2008-12-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA:Alq3) composite nanofibres are fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology of fibres is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The photoluminescence of a series of the nanofibres with various contents of Alqs to PMMA is investigated. UV-visible absorption and the PL spectra analysis are employed to analyse the interaction between the polymer and the luminescent molecule.

  8. Occupational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer induces generalised neuropathy in a dental technician.

    PubMed

    Sadoh, D R; Sharief, M K; Howard, R S

    1999-04-24

    A 36-year-old dental technician for 14 years developed paraesthesia and numbness in her legs. Neurophysiological studies revealed absent sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from her lower limbs and normal upper limb SNAPs on presentation. Motor nerve studies were normal. Repeat studies 2 months after leaving her job showed some improvement in the lower limb SNAPs. It is suggested that her symptoms were caused by occupational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer.

  9. Effect of reactive adhesives on the tensile bond strength of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials to methyl methacrylate tray material.

    PubMed

    Ona, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sato, Masayuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    The effect of new adhesives on the bond strength of elastomeric impression materials to acrylic trays was evaluated. Two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Fusion and Imprinsis) with reactive adhesives and one (Examix) with a conventional adhesive were tested. Flat, double-sided plates of auto-polymerizing methyl methacrylate (10 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared with one of the adhesives. Five specimens were prepared by injecting each impression material into a 2-mm gap between the two plates. Tensile tests were conducted until separation failure occurred. The mean bond strengths of Fusion (1.0 MPa) and Imprinsis (0.8 MPa) were significantly greater than that of Examix (0.2 MPa). On the contrary, one of five Fusion showed adhesive failure mode while all the Imprinsis exhibited mixed failure. The conflicting results were presumably attributed to the mean tear strength of Fusion (0.8 N/mm) being higher than that of Imprinsis (0.5 N/mm).

  10. The electrochemical detection of Ru(II) in a methyl methacrylate solution.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Karolien; Adriaens, Annemie; Temmerman, Eduard

    2006-02-15

    This article describes the voltammetric behaviour of RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3) in a methyl methacrylate (MMA) solution. Acquiring this type of information is only possible when the ohmic resistance can be kept sufficiently low. Therefore, the conductivity study of pure methyl methacrylate and a tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBABF(4)) methyl methacrylate solution has been described as well. Impedance measurements show an increase in conductivity by adding TBABF(4), while a conductometric curve illustrates the presence of ion pairs, triple ions and quadrupoles depending on the TBABF(4) concentration. The conductivity of a 0.1molL(-1) TBABF(4)-MMA solution (formation of charged triple ions) was high enough to perform electrochemical experiments and a calibration curve could be obtained. The ability of obtaining relevant electrochemical data in low conducting media opens up new perspectives, especially for electroanalytical purposes used to monitor polymer reactions, more specific atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) reactions. This method employs a redox process with transition metal complexes in which a halogen ion is transferred reversibly between the transition metal and the polymer chain end. The dynamic equilibrium can be monitored by measuring the ruthenium concentration.

  11. Vibrational overtone enhancement of methyl methacrylate polymerization initiated by benzoyl peroxide decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinevich, Oleg; Snavely, D. L.

    1997-03-01

    Vibrational overtone initiated polymerization has been demonstrated using intracavity photolysis of a benzoyl peroxide/methyl methacrylate mixture. Excitation of the 6 νCH overtone transition of the ground electronic state of benzoyl peroxide creates radicals which subsequently begin the polymerization process. Polymer yield was monitored by comparison of the 2 νCH overtone absorptions for the methyl, methylenic and olefinic CH stretches at 5946 and 6170 cm -1, respectively. Plots of polymer yield versus time demonstrate an autoacceleration of the polymerization rate commencing many hours after the photolysis period. The delay before autoacceleration depends on the duration of the photolysis.

  12. Dual-Responsive pH and Temperature Sensitive Nanoparticles Based on Methacrylic Acid and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate for the Triggered Release of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Khine, Yee Yee; Jiang, Yanyan; Dag, Aydan; Lu, Hongxu; Stenzel, Martina H

    2015-08-01

    A series of thermo-and pH-responsive poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly[methacrylic acid-co-di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] PMMA-b-P[MAA-co-DEGMA] block copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization and self-assembled into micelles. The molar ratio of MAA was altered from 0-12% in order to modulate the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PDEGMA. The release of the drug albendazole from the micelle was strongly dependent on the temperature and the LCST value of the polymer. Systems below the LCST released the drug slowly while increasing the temperature above the LCST or decreasing the pH value to 5 resulted in the burst-like release of the drug. ABZ delivered in this pH-responsive drug carrier had a higher toxicity than the free drug or the drug delivered in a non-responsive drug carrier.

  13. Application of Targeted Molecular and Material Property Optimization to Bacterial Attachment-Resistant (Meth)acrylate Polymers.

    PubMed

    Adlington, Kevin; Nguyen, Nam T; Eaves, Elizabeth; Yang, Jing; Chang, Chien-Yi; Li, Jianing; Gower, Alexandra L; Stimpson, Amy; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Hook, Andrew L; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Irvine, Derek J

    2016-09-12

    Developing medical devices that resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is highly desirable. In this paper, we report the optimization of the molecular structure and thus material properties of a range of (meth)acrylate copolymers which contain monomers reported to deliver bacterial resistance to surfaces. This optimization allows such monomers to be employed within novel coatings to reduce bacterial attachment to silicone urinary catheters. We show that the flexibility of copolymers can be tuned to match that of the silicone catheter substrate, by copolymerizing these polymers with a lower Tg monomer such that it passes the flexing fatigue tests as coatings upon catheters, that the homopolymers failed. Furthermore, the Tg values of the copolymers are shown to be readily estimated by the Fox equation. The bacterial resistance performance of these copolymers were typically found to be better than the neat silicone or a commercial silver containing hydrogel surface, when the monomer feed contained only 25 v% of the "hit" monomer. The method of initiation (either photo or thermal) was shown not to affect the bacterial resistance of the copolymers. Optimized synthesis conditions to ensure that the correct copolymer composition and to prevent the onset of gelation are detailed.

  14. Surface modification with poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) to reduce fibrinogen adsorption, platelet adhesion, and plasma coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Chien, Hsiu-Wen; Wei, Ta-Chin; Lee, Chiapyng; Tsai, Wei-Bor

    2011-12-12

    Zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) polymers were known to possess excellent antifouling properties due to high hydration capacity and neutral charge surface. In this study, copolymers of SBMA and acrylic acid (AA) with a variety of compositions were synthesized and were immobilized onto polymeric substrates with layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films via electrostatic interaction. The amounts of platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption were determined to evaluate hemocompatibility of poly(SBMA-co-AA)-modified substrates. Among various deposition conditions by modulating SBMA ratio in the copolymers and pH of the deposition solution, poly(SBMA(56)-co-AA(44)) deposited at pH 3.0 possessed the best hemocompatibility. This work demonstrated that poly(SBMA-co-AA) copolymers adsorbed on polyelectrolyte-base films via electrostatic interaction improve hemocompatibility effectively and are applicable for various substrates including TCPS, PU, and PDMS. Furthermore, poly(SBMA-co-AA)-coated substrate possesses great durability under rigorous conditions. The preliminary hemocompatibility tests regarding platelet adhesion, fibrinogen adsorption, and plasma coagulation suggest the potential of this technique for the application to blood-contacting biomedical devices.

  15. Experimental study of albumin and lysozyme adsorption onto acrylic acid (AA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Omid; Modarress, Hamid; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2004-03-01

    Many commercial soft contact lenses are based on poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AA) hydrogels. The adsorption of proteins, albumin and lysozyme, on such contact lens surfaces may cause problems in their applications. In this work the adsorption of proteins, albumin and lysozyme, on hydrogel surfaces, AA and HEMA, was investigated as a function of concentration of protein. Also the effects of pH and ionic strength of protein solution on the adsorption of protein were examined. The obtained results indicated that the degree of adsorption of protein increased with the concentration of protein, and the adsorption of albumin on HEMA surface at the studied pHs (6.2-8.6) was higher than AA surface, whereas the adsorption of lysozyme on AA surface at the same pHs was higher than HEMA. The change in ionic strength of protein solution affected the proteins adsorption on both AA and HEMA surfaces. Also, the amount of sodium ions deposited on the AA surface was much higher than HEMA surface. This effect can be related to the negative surface charge of AA and its higher tendency for adsorption of sodium ions compared to the HEMA surface.

  16. Manufacture of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) hydrogel tubes for use as nerve guidance channels.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Paul D; Flynn, Lauren; Shoichet, Molly S

    2002-09-01

    Hydrogel tubes of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA-co-MMA)) made by liquid-liquid centrifugal casting are being investigated as potential nerve guidance channels in the central nervous system. An important criterion for the nerve guidance channel is that its mechanical properties are similar to those of the spinal cord, where it will be implanted. The formulated p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes are soft and flexible, consisting of a gel-like outer layer, and an interconnected macroporous, inner layer. The relative thickness of the gel phase to macroporous phase is controlled by the formulation chemistry, and specifically by the ratio of co-monomers, HEMA and MMA. By varying the surface chemistry of the mold within which the tubes are synthesized, tubes were prepared with either a "cracked" or a smooth outer morphology. Tubes with the cracked outer morphology had periodic channels that traversed the wall of the tube, which resulted in a lower modulus than smooth outer morphology tubes, yet likely greater diffusive permeability. For tubes (and not rods) to be formed, phase separation must precede gelation as is detailed in a formulation phase diagram for HEMA, MMA and water. The tensile elastic modulus of p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes reflected the formulation chemistry, with greater moduli (up to 400 kPa) recorded for tubes having 10 wt% MMA. The p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes therefore had similar mechanical properties to those of the spinal cord, which has a reported elastic modulus range between 200 and 600 kPa.

  17. Monitoring of acid-base status of workers at a methyl methacrylate and polymethyl methacrylate production plant in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Prakova, Gospodinka R

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out on 104 workers at three work operations and a control (nonproduction) area, within a methyl methacrylate (MMA)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) production facility in Bulgaria. Airborne monitoring was conducted over a 10-year period for MMA and the reactant chemicals methanol and acetone cyanhydrine at the MMA operation, and MMA was monitored at the PMMA operation. Acid-base status of the workers was evaluated using traditional criteria (pH, pCO(2), pO(2), and HCO(3) in plasma). Data from retrospective monitoring of air levels of the chemicals were compared with the acid-base status of workers at the plant. In some cases air concentrations exceeded the threshold limit value, with the highest percentage of overexposure occurring with airborne MMA in the PMMA production operation. Acid-base disruption indicated by reductions in plasma pH and HCO(3) was found for all groups except the control population. The highest percentage reduction was associated with PMMA production workers. Additionally, respiratory acidosis, indicated by increased pCO(2), was noted in the MMA production and maintenance groups, implying that the response to MMA exposure may involve both the metabolic and respiratory acidosis component. This study was unique in that the combined exposure to MMA and the precursor chemical (methanol) were shown to produce the same effects in workers. It is suggested that when combined exposure occurs, disruption of acid-base status may occur. Enforcement of PPM requirements for coveralls and gloves should prevent skin contamination. Additionally, improvement of equipment in MMA and PMMA production areas is recommended: (1) automation of some manual operations; (2) use of respiratory protection during equipment cleaning; and (3) installation of local ventilation when applicable.

  18. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  19. Influencing Solvent Miscibility and Aqueous Stability of Aluminum Nanoparticles through Surface Functionalization with Acrylic Monomers (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-26

    Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 2-carboxyethyl acrylate (CEA), phosphoric acid 2-hy- droxyethyl methacrylate ester (PAM), methyl methacrylate (MMA), cyclohexanone ...0.070 g, 0.43 mmol) was dissolved in dry cyclohexanone (25 mL) and added to the reaction vessel via the use of a cannula. The vessel was then immersed

  20. Poly(meth)acrylates obtained by cascade reaction.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Dragos; Keul, Helmut; Moeller, Martin

    2011-04-04

    Preparation, purification, and stabilization of functional (meth)acrylates with a high dipole moment are complex, laborious, and expensive processes. In order to avoid purification and stabilization of the highly reactive functional monomers, a concept of cascade reactions was developed comprising enzymatic monomer synthesis and radical polymerization. Transacylation of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with different functional alcohols, diols, and triols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and glycerol) in the presence of Novozyme 435 led to functional (meth)acrylates. After the removal of the enzyme by means of filtration, removal of excess (meth)acrylate and/or addition of a new monomer, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate the (co)polymerization via free radical (FRP) or nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP) resulted in poly[(meth)acrylate]s with predefined functionalities. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as ionic repeating units were assembled within the copolymer. The transacylation of MA and MMA with diols and triols carried out under mild conditions is an easy and rapid process and is suitable for the preparation of sensitive monomers.

  1. Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA).

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Eystein Ruyter, I

    2003-01-01

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface.

  2. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers' perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  3. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-22

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  4. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  5. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted titanate nanotubes by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Gao, Xueping; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports the successful preparation of core-shell hybrid nanocomposites by a 'grafting from' approach based on in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from titanate nanotubes (TNTs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the products provide direct evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure, possessing a hard core of TNTs and a soft shell of poly-MMA (PMMA). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the chemical structure, morphology, and the grafted PMMA quantities of the resulting products. The grafted PMMA content was well controlled and increased with increasing monomer/initiator ratio. Further copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with PMMA-coated TNTs as initiators was realized, illustrating the 'living' characteristics of the ATRP method used in this paper.

  6. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; da Mota, Adérito Soares

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis) to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA). Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 10) according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing), NF (Nealon technique and finishing), NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing), MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing), and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing). For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6 ± 3.05; MP, 5.36 ± 2.08; NP, 4.96 ± 1.93; MF, 7.36 ± 2.45; and LP, 1.56 ± 0.62 (CFU). The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23 ± 0.15; MP, 0.52 ± 0.05; NP, 0.60 ± 0.08; MF, 2.69 ± 0.12; and LP, 0.07 ± 0.02 (μm). A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material. PMID:27516775

  7. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Lucas Costa de Medeiros; da Silva-Neto, João Paulo; Dantas, Talita Souza; Naves, Lucas Zago; das Neves, Flávio Domingues; da Mota, Adérito Soares

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis) to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA). Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 10) according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing), NF (Nealon technique and finishing), NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing), MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing), and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing). For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6 ± 3.05; MP, 5.36 ± 2.08; NP, 4.96 ± 1.93; MF, 7.36 ± 2.45; and LP, 1.56 ± 0.62 (CFU). The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23 ± 0.15; MP, 0.52 ± 0.05; NP, 0.60 ± 0.08; MF, 2.69 ± 0.12; and LP, 0.07 ± 0.02 (μm). A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material.

  8. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0-10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge-charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of -38 to -56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials.

  9. Effect of chemical composition on corneal tissue response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and hydrogel material compatibility towards ocular anterior segment tissues, particularly the corneal endothelium. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Then, the 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from photopolymerized materials were placed into the ocular anterior chamber for 4days and assessed by biomicroscopic examinations, corneal thickness measurements, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The poly(HEMA-co-AAc) implants prepared from the solution mixture containing 0-10vol.% AAc displayed good biocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the enhanced inflammatory response, decreased endothelial cell density, and increased ocular score and corneal thickness were observed, probably due to the influence of surface charge of copolymer membranes. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelium exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of the implants having higher amount of AAc incorporated in the copolymers (i.e., 15.1 to 24.7μmol) and zeta potential (i.e., -38.6 to -56.5mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal tissue responses to polymeric biomaterials.

  10. Computational evidence for self-initiation in spontaneous high-temperature polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sriraj; Lee, Myung Won; Grady, Michael C; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M

    2011-02-17

    This paper presents computational evidence for the occurrence of diradical mechanism of self-initiation in thermal polymerization of methyl methacrylate. Two self-initiation mechanisms of interest were explored with first-principles density functional theory calculations. Singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces were constructed. The formation of two Diels-Alder adducts, cis- and trans-dimethyl 1,2-dimethylcyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate and dimethyl 2-methyl-5-methylidene-hexanedioate, on the singlet surface was identified. Transition states were calculated using B3LYP/6-31G* and assessed using MP2/6-31G*. The calculated energy barriers and rate constants with different levels of theory were found to show good agreement to corresponding data obtained from laboratory experiments. The presence of a diradical intermediate on the triplet surface was identified. When MCSCF/6-31G* was used, the spin-orbit coupling constant for the singlet to triplet crossover was calculated to be 2.5 cm(-1). The mechanism of monoradical generation via a hydrogen abstraction by both triplet and singlet diradicals from a third monomer was identified to be the most likely mechanism of initiation in spontaneous polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

  11. Effect of curing environment on mechanical properties and polymerizing behaviour of methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Hasegawa, A

    2005-03-01

    Methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin is used for multiple applications. Therefore, the mechanical properties of autopolymerizing resin should be assessed comprehensively including strength, stiffness and hardness. Any methods that effectively improve these mechanical properties are desirable. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the curing environment: air or water with/without pressure, and air or water temperature during polymerization, on the strength, stiffness and hardness of autopolymerizing resin. In addition, we examined the polymerizing behaviour associated with the mechanical properties. Autopolymerizing methyl-methacrylate resin (Unifast II) was polymerized under the following conditions: in air and water with/without pressure at 10, 23, 30, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C. The resin specimens were subjected to a transverse test (three-point flexural test) and micro-Brinell surface hardness test. Fractured surfaces of the specimens after the transverse test were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The transverse strength and transverse modulus increased with increasing curing temperature in both wet and dry conditions. Pressured wet conditions increased transverse strength and transverse modulus over non-pressured wet and dry conditions. The resin polymerized in dry conditions showed higher surface hardness than the one polymerized in wet conditions at matching temperature. The SEM images of fractured surfaces cured at lower temperature exhibited porosity within the polymer base and cracks between the base and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) particulates. Surfaces of the resin polymerized in wet conditions were characterized with PMMA particulates having rougher surfaces suggestive of water incorporation. Raising temperature and pressuring during polymerization increase strength and stiffness of autopolymerizing resin. However, wet condition reduces surface hardness of resin compared with dry condition. These altered

  12. Far infrared-assisted encapsulation of filter paper strips in poly(methyl methacrylate) for proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiwen; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Filter paper strips were enclosed between two poly(methyl methacrylate) plates to fabricate paper-packed channel microchips under pressure in the presence of far infrared irradiation. After the enclosed paper strip was oxidized by periodate, trypsin was covalently immobilized in them to fabricate microfluidic proteolysis bioreactor. The feasibility and performance of the unique bioreactor were demonstrated by digesting BSA and lysozyme. The results were comparable to those of conventional in-solution proteolysis while the digestion time was significantly reduced to ∼18 s. The suitability of the microfluidic paper-based bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  13. Controlling of optical energy gap of Co-ferrite quantum dots in poly (methyl methacrylate) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, H. M.; Agami, W. R.

    2015-07-01

    Different crystallite sizes of Co-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared and dispersed in the matrix of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. The effect of crystallite size on the structure and optical energy gap of Co-nanoferrite/PMMA composite has been studied. The optical energy gap of Co-ferrite was greatly affected by the crystallite size. This result was discussed in terms of the formation of electron-hole exciton using particle in a box model. The effective mass and the Bohr radius of the formed exciton have been calculated from the spectroscopic measurements.

  14. Thermal response of polystyrene/poly methyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) polymeric blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Vishal; Sharma, Kananbala

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the investigationsto evaluate thermal behavior of polystyrene/poly methyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) polymeric blends, prepared at different compositions through solution casting method. The glass transition temperatures have been obtained using dynamic mechanical analyzer. Simultaneous measurements of temperature dependentthermal transport properties (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) have been made using Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer based on transient plane source. The study reveals that blending of PS with PMMA leads to different phase morphologies corresponding to different composition range which further affects the thermal performance of respective blends.

  15. Turning electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers into graphitic nanostructures by in situ electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, H. G.; Xie, E. Q.; Han, L.

    2008-02-15

    Using ultrathin electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers as precursor, graphitic nanofibers, nanobridges, nanocones, and fullerenelike onions could be prepared by electron beam irradiation in a controlled manner. With the help of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy, the real time processing of the carbonization and graphitization of the PMMA nanofibers could be investigated. This way to obtain graphitic nanostructures has promising applications in graphitic carbon nanostructure electronics and devices. Because PMMA is a widely used standard high resolution electron resist, this graphitization could be combined with electron beam lithography to obtain high resolution patterned graphitic circuits.

  16. Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Zoubir, Arnaud; Lopez, Cedric; Richardson, Martin; Richardson, Kathleen

    2004-08-15

    Femtosecond laser direct writing is employed for the fabrication of buried tubular waveguides in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate). A novel technique using selective chemical etching is presented to resolve the two-dimensional refractive-index profile of the fabrication structures. End-to-end coupling in the waveguides reveals a near-field intensity distribution that results from the superimposition of several propagating modes with different azimuthal symmetries. Mode analysis of the tubular waveguides is performed using the finite-difference method, and the possible propagating mode profiles are compared with the experimental data.

  17. Photoinitiated polymerization of methyl methacrylate using Q-sized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.J.; Yee, H.; Mills, G.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1992-06-25

    Q-sized ZnO particles are determined to be efficient photoinitiators of methyl methacrylate polymerization. The effects of semiconductor particle size, solvent, initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and light intensity on reaction rates are examined. The reaction path is initiated anionically, followed by free-radical propogation steps. Polymerization increases with increased photoinitiator and monomer concentration and particle size; it also has a dependence upon the square root of the light intensity. Illumination-induced holes are scavenged by the solvent. 29 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Antibacterial properties of novel poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofiber containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-03-04

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber containing silver nanoparticles was synthesized by radical-mediated dispersion polymerization and applied to an antibacterial agent. UV-vis spectroscopic analysis indicated that the silver nanoparticles were continually released from the polymer nanofiber in aqueous solution. The antibacterial properties of silver/PMMA nanofiber against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria were evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the modified Kirby-Bauer method, and a kinetic test. The MIC test demonstrated that the silver/PMMA nanofiber had enhanced antimicrobial efficacy compared to that of silver sulfadiazine and silver nitrate at the same silver concentration.

  19. Properties of cellulase as template molecule on chitosan—methyl methacrylate membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xuefang; Wu, Haixia; Song, Shitao; Wang, Dongjun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel molecular imprinting membrane made of chitosan and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was fabricated with cellulase as template molecule and the thermal response to cellulase was characterized. The film was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the permeation experiment. The results showed that the space structure of the film was as similar as the cellulase. Moreover, the membrane had advanced molecular imprinting capability to cellulase comparing to pepsin and pectinase at any temperature and the film had excellent ability to identify specific template molecule (cellulase) at the synthesis temperature compared to other temperatures.

  20. Poly (methyl methacrylate) Formation and Patterning Initiated by Synchrotron X-ray Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, J.; Je, J. H.; Wang, C. H.; Yang, T. Y.; Hwu, Y.

    2007-01-19

    A facile radiation method was developed to obtain micro-sized poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles and create patterned coating on different substrates by a synchrotron x-ray induced dispersion polymerization. The polymerization of MMA monomer and well defined patterning was successfully realized. The produced PMMA particles and patterning were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The observed patterning contrast essentially derived from a variation of size, density and morphology of particles and the type of substrate materials used.

  1. Thermo-reversible gelation of atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) in poly(ethylene glycol) oligomers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Yu, Chunhong; Chen, Minzhi; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2013-04-01

    The temperature-concentration behavior of physical gel by atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (aPMMA) in poly(ethylene glycol) oligomer (PEG400) was investigated. A liquid-liquid demixing interferes with a glass transition during cooling. The combination of demixing and T g leads to the formation of amorphous gels at low temperature. We suggest that the gelation of aPMMA/PEG400 is a glassy gel, in which short-range attractive depletion interaction in the polymer/oligomer system was the driving force at molecular level.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers of Poly (1,3dioxolane) Macromonomers with Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaikha, H.; Clisson, G.; Khoukh, A.; François, J.; Kada, S. Ould; Krallafa, A.

    2008-08-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly (1,3dioxolane) (PDXL) macromonomers were synthesized by cationic ring-opening polymerization in the presence of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA) as transfer agent. Molecular weights and polydispersity index of the PDXL macromonomers were evaluated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 1H-NMR. Copolymerizations of PDXL macromonomers with styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were carried out using various feed molar ratios. Monomer reactivity ratios between the macromonomers and the comonomers were estimated from the copolymerization results. Glass transition temperatures of the copolymers were found to decrease with an increase in the amount of PDXL in the copolymers.

  3. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Eugen; Verestiuc, Liliana; Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca; Lungu, Adriana; Tsibouklis, John

    2009-06-03

    Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

  4. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Eugen; Verestiuc, Liliana; Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca; Lungu, Adriana; Tsibouklis, John

    2009-06-01

    Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

  5. Phase separation kinetics and morphology induced by photopolymerization of 2-hydroxyehyl methacrylate (HEMA) in poly(ethyl acrylate)/HEMA mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Pham, Dan-Thuy; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui

    2013-03-01

    Morphology and phase separation kinetics induced by polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in a HEMA/poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) mixture were observed by laser scanning confocal microscope in the presence of lucirin TPO used as an initiator. The results were analyzed by 2D-Fourier transform (2D-FFT). The photopolymerization is driven by irradiation with visible light λ = 405 nm. The mixture exhibits the Trommsdorff-Norrish effect which is responsible for a drastic increase in the reaction rate during the irradiation process. The concentration fluctuations and the increase in the viscosity of the medium play an important role in promoting the reaction yield. PHEMA droplets were found to develop in the rhodamine-B-labeled poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA-Rh) continuous matrix. The characteristic length of the morphology increases with increasing irradiation intensity, revealing the tool to control the morphology by varying the light intensity.

  6. Terminal-Selective Transesterification of Chlorine-Capped Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)s: A Modular Approach to Telechelic and Pinpoint-Functionalized Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yusuke; Terashima, Takaya; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2016-04-20

    Terminal-selective transesterification of chlorine-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA-Cl) with alcohols was developed as a modular approach to create telechelic and pinpoint-functionalized polymers. Being sterically less hindered and electronically activated, both the α-end ethyl ester and ω-end methyl ester of PMMA-Cl were efficiently and selectively transesterified with diverse alcohols in the presence of a titanium alkoxide catalyst, while retaining the pendent esters intact, to almost quantitatively give various chlorine-capped telechelic PMMAs. In sharp contrast to conventional telechelic counterparts, the telechelic polymers obtained herein yet carry a chlorine atom at the ω-terminal to further work as a macroinitiator in living radical polymerization. The iterative process of living radical polymerization and terminal-selective transesterification successfully afforded unique pinpoint-functionalized polymers where a single functional monomer unit was introduced into the desired site of the polymer chains.

  7. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic detection and determination of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a contaminant of methyl methacrylate raw material.

    PubMed

    Hanna, G M; Lau-Cam, C A

    1995-01-01

    A simple, specific, and accurate proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopic method is presented for detection and assay of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate dimer as a contaminant of methyl methacrylate monomer. In addition to minimizing exposure of the analyst to the irritant and toxic methacrylic acid esters, the proposed method requires no sample preparation. Quantitations are based on integrals for signals of methylene protons of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate at 4.37 ppm and methyl protons of methyl methacrylate at 3.70 ppm. Analysis of 10 synthetic mixtures of the monomer with 1-11% of dimer yielded a dimer recovery of 100.5 +/- 2.05% (mean +/- standard deviation). Correspondence (correlation coefficient, r = 0.9999) between the amount of dimer added and the amount found was excellent. The proposed method measures as little as 1% of dimer.

  8. Computational investigation of intermolecular interactions in polymer mixtures: Polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzwater, S.

    1993-12-31

    Molecular modeling and semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations on model compounds can give us detailed information about specific interactions in polymer mixtures. This study examines interactions between a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) tetramer and the polycarbonate (PC) repeat unit. The results suggested that PC-PMMA mixtures are stabilizing by hydrogen bonds between a carbonyl oxygen on one polymer and a proton or protons on the other. Multiple hydrogen bonds occur; stabilized generally increases with the number of hydrogen bonds. Several configurations had a PMMA carbonyl O H-bonded to a PC ring H, and the adjacent PC carbyonyl O H-bonded to PMMA methyl and methylene H`s. This suggests that the reduced PC mobility observed in PC-PMMA mixtures arises from suppression of both ring flips and carbonate group motion.

  9. Low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using disposable gelatin gel templates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Gang

    2010-06-15

    A simple method based on disposable gelatin gel templates has been developed for the low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Gelatin was dissolved in glycerol aqueous solution under heat to prepare a thermally reversible impression material. The molten gel was then sandwiched between a glass plate and a SU-8 template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative SU-8 template could be easily separated from the solidified gelatin gel and a layer of gelatin template bearing positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Subsequently, prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing a UV-initiator was sandwiched between the gel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under UV light to fabricate PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers using plasticizer-assisted thermal bonding at 90 degrees C. Gelatin gel template can be mass-produced and will find application in the mass production of PMMA microchips at low cost. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the capillary electrophoresis analysis of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  10. Formation of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films onto wool fiber surfaces by vapor deposition polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Mahbubul; McLaughlin, J Robert

    2013-03-13

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization is a useful technique because of the possibility of forming very thin film of pure polymers on substrates with any geometric shape. In this work, thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA were formed on the surfaces of wool fabrics by a CVD polymerization process. Various polymerization initiators including dicumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, and potassium peroxydisulfate have been investigated to polymerize methyl methacrylate onto the surfaces of wool by the CVD polymerization. The wool fabrics were impregnated with initiators and were then exposed to MMA monomer vapor under vacuum at the boiling temperature of the monomer. Wool fabrics with vapor-deposited PMMA surfaces were characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR, disperse dye absorption, contact angles measurement, AFM, and SEM. PMMA-coated wool fabrics showed higher contact angle and absorbed more dyes than that of the control wool. It was evident from the results obtained by various characterization techniques that MMA was successfully polymerized and formed thin films on the surfaces of wool fabrics by all initiators investigated but the best results were achieved with tert-butyl peroxide.

  11. Chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped poly (methyl methacrylate) with high nonlinearity for optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaojie; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lai; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear optical polymers show promising potential applications in photonics, for example, electro-optical devices. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used in optical waveguides, integrated optics and optical fibers. However, PMMA has not been used for nonlinear optical waveguides since it has a low nonlinear refractive index. We successfully prepared chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped PMMA that had a high nonlinearity. The As3S7 bulk glass was dissolved in propylamine to form a cluster solution. Then the As3S7/propylamine solution was added into methyl methacrylate (MMA) containing photoinitiator Irgacure 184 about 0.5 wt%. After well mixing the As3S7 nanoparticle doped MMA was transparent. Under the irradiation by a 365 nm UV lamp, As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was obtained with yellow color. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was investigated. An optical waveguide array based on the As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA composite of high nonlinearity was fabricated.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated... methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2′-...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated... methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2′-...

  14. Anti-fouling ultrafiltration membrane prepared from polysulfone-graft-methyl acrylate copolymers by UV-induced grafting method.

    PubMed

    Hua, Helin; Li, Na; Wu, Linlin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Guangxial; Yuan, Zonghuan; Lin, Xiangwei; Tang, Lianyi

    2008-01-01

    Membrane fouling is one of the most important challenges faced in membrane ultrafiltration operations. The copolymers of polysulfone-graft-methyl acrylate were synthesized by homogeneous photo-initiated graft copolymerization. The variables affecting the degree of grafting, such as the time of UV (Ultraviolet-visible) irradiation and the concentrations of the methyl acrylate and photoinitiator, were investigated. The graft copolymer membranes were prepared by the phase inversion method. The chemical and morphological changes were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angles measurements. Results revealed that methyl acrylate groups were present on the membranes and the graft degree of methyl acrylate had remarkable effect on the performance of membranes. Pure water contact angle on the membrane surface decreases with the increase of methyl acrylate graft degree, which indicated that the hydrophilicity of graft copolymer membranes was improved. The permeation fluxes of pure water and bovine serum albumin solution were measured to evaluate the antifouling property of graft copolymer membranes, the results of which have shown an enhancement of antifouling property for graft copolymer membranes.

  15. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona; Zaharia, Cătălin; Bălan, Mihai; Bressy, Christine; Ziarelli, Fabio; Margaillan, André

    2015-06-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70°C for 24h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, (13)C, (29)Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization.

  16. On the degelation of networks - Case of the radiochemical degradation of methyl methacrylate - ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Gilormini, Pierre; Verdu, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    Methyl methacrylate networks were synthetized and submitted to radiochemical degradation. Ageing was monitored by means of sol-gel analysis and glass transition temperature measurements. Networks were shown to undergo exclusively chain scission process leading to the degelation of network. The critical conversion degree corresponding to degelation (loss of all elastically active chains) is discussed regarding a statistical theory.

  17. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto chrome-tanned pig skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Pȩkala, W.; Kroh, J.

    Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto chrome-tanned pig skins was carried out by the irradiation with 60Co ?-rays. The grafted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) chains were isolated by acid hydrolysis of the collagen backbone in order to characterize the graft copolymers. Proof of grafting was obtained through the detection of amino acid endgroups in the isolated grafts by reaction with ninhydrin. The grafting yield of MMA in aqueous emulsion was found to be higher than that for pure MMA and MMA in acetone. The degree of grafting increases with increasing monomer concentration in emulsion and reaches maximum at radiation dose ca 15 kGy. The yield of grafting is very high - ca 90% of monomer converts into copolymer and only 10% is converted into homopolymer. The present paper reports the physical properties of chrome-tanned pig skins after graft polymerization with MMA in emulsion. Modified leathers are more resistant against water absorption and abrasion in comparison with unmodified ones. They have more uniform structure over the whole surface, greater thickness and stiffness. The results reported seem to indicate that MMA may be used in the production of shoe upper and sole leathers. The mechanism of some of the processes occuring during radiation grafting of MMA in water emulsion on tanned leathers has been also suggested and discussed.

  18. Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

  19. Reactive Poly(Amic Acid)/ Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate-r-Poly(ethylene Glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate) Blends as Gas Permeation Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Michael; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    Polymers containing polar moieties, such as ether groups show an affinity for acidic gases, such as CO2 due to dipole-quadrapole interactions. Polymer blends in which one of the components is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been studied extensively in literature as a CO2/light gas permeation membrane, but due to the crystallization and poor mechanical properties have been difficult to incorporate PEG above 60wt%. In this study, a series of random copolymers containing both glycidyl methacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate in different ratios are blended with a poly(amic acid) prepolymer made from 4, 4'-oxydianiline and pyromellitic dianhydride to create gas permeation membranes. By using a reactive blend PEG loadings above 70% have been realized with sufficient mechanical properties, and since the side chain on the PEGMA is short these blends do not suffer from crystallization.

  20. Robust isocratic liquid chromatographic separation of functional poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xulin; Lima, Vincent; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2003-11-07

    The separation of telechelic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepolymers based on the number of end-groups under critical liquid chromatography (LC) conditions has been studied using a bare-silica column, which can interact with polar functional groups. The critical solvent compositions for non-functional, mono-functional and bi-functional PMMAs were determined in normal-phase LC using mixtures of acetonitrile and dichloromethane (DCM) of varying composition as the mobile phase. The telechelic prepolymers were successfully separated according to hydroxyl (OH) functionality (with zero, one, or two OH groups, respectively) under the critical conditions, in which fast (5 min), base-line separations were obtained independent of molecular weight. Changing the column temperature, flow rate, and mobile-phase composition within a certain range did not affect the functionality separation. Therefore this isocratic LC separation method is quite robust. Evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) calibration curves were used for the quantitative analysis of functional PMMA prepolymers.

  1. Facile Soap-Free Miniemulsion Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate via Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaohua; Zhang, Lifen; Pan, Xiangqiang; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2012-12-21

    A facile soap-free miniemulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was successfully carried out via a reverse ATRP technique, using a water-soluble potassium persulfate (KPS) or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V-50) both as the initiator and the stabilizer, and using an oil-soluble N,N-n-butyldithiocarbamate copper (Cu(S2CN(C4H9)2)2) as the catalyst without adding any additional ligand. Polymerization results demonstrated the "living"/controlled characteristics of ATRP and the resultant latexes showed good colloidal stability with average particle size around 300-700 nm in diameter. The monomer droplet nucleation mechanism was proposed. NMR spectroscopy and chain-extension experiments under UV light irradiation confirmed the attachment and livingness of UV light sensitive -S-C(=S)-N(C4H9)2 group in the chain end.

  2. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates using ultrasonic imprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young Hak; Seo, Young Soo; Moon, In Yong; Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Keun

    2013-05-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) have received increasing attention in the last decade, and have been generally developed from hydrophobic materials. In this study, a facile fabrication method based on ultrasonic imprinting is proposed to develop SHSs from a hydrophilic polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). To fabricate SHSs on PMMA substrates, micro electrical discharge machining, micromachining and ultrasonic imprinting were sequentially used. The ultrasonic imprinting was performed for various channel designs and imprinting conditions, and the resulting water contact angles were measured for the replicated samples. As a result, superhydrophobic characteristics could be obtained on a hydrophilic PMMA replica without any chemical treatments. The effects of nanoscale roughness on the replicated channel as well as composition change are discussed with respect to the analyses using an atomic force microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Dry-adhesives based on hierarchical poly(methyl methacrylate) electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Rahul; Baji, Avinash; Parveen, Hashina; Ranganath, Anupama Sargur

    2017-03-01

    Here, we combine electrospinning and replica-molding to produce hierarchical poly(methyl methacrylate) structures and investigate its adhesion behavior. Normal and shear adhesion of these biomimetic hierarchical structures was measured using nanoindentaton and a custom-built apparatus attached to Zwick tensile testing machine, respectively. Shear adhesion was measured by sliding the samples along the glass slide under a predefined normal preload. Normal adhesion was measured by indenting the surface of the sample with the help of a diamond indenter tip and retracting it back to determine the pull-off force needed to detach it from the sample. These experiments were also conducted on neat PMMA fibers to investigate the effect of hierarchy on the adhesion performance of the samples. Our results show that the shear adhesion strength and pull-off forces recorded for the hierarchical samples are higher than those recorded for neat fibers.

  4. Tensile behaviour of blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) with poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Chung, Shirley Y.

    1990-01-01

    Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared over a wide concentration range and tested in tension at the same relative temperature below the glass transition. In nearly all blends, under conditions favoring disentanglement, (decrease in strain rate, or increase in test temperature), the yield stress and drawing stress decreased while the breaking strain increased. For materials with about the same degree of crystallinity, those with a higher proportion of amorphous PVF2 exhibited brittle-like behavior as a result of interlamellar tie molecules. In the semicrystalline blends, yield stress remains high as the test temperature approaches Tg, whereas in the amorphous blends the yield stress falls to zero near Tg. Results of physical aging support the role of interlamellar ties which cause semicrystalline blends to exhibit aging at temperatures above Tg.

  5. Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Minggang; Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli

    2012-09-15

    The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

  6. Free Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate in Various Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongwei; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    Conventional free radical polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out in various room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The RTILs used in this research encompass a wide range of cations and anions. Typical cations include imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium; typical anions include amide, borate, chloride, imide, phosphate, and phosphinate. Reactions are faster and polymers obtained usually have higher molecular weights when compared to polymerizations carried out in volatile organic solvents under the same conditions. This shows that rapid rates of polymerization and high molecular weights are general features of conventional radical polymerizations in RTILs. Attempts to correlate the polarities and viscosities of the RTILs with the polymerization behavior fail to yield discernible trends.

  7. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Sueske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248 nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  8. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-01

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  9. [Formation of stereocomplexes in atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) studied by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Gu, Q; Shen, D

    2000-10-01

    The stereocomplexation of atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (a-PMMA) films after isolated from acetone, benzene, and chloroform solution, respectively, was studied by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR). The results of spectra showed that the stereocomplex was formed for the films cast from acetone and benzene solutions with the appearance of the characteristic bands for the stereocomplex. The population of trans-trans conformers for the i- and s-sequences increased and the side chain preferred to its energetically optimized conformation during the formation of stereocomplex. The stereocomplexes may be formed by the interactions between the i- and s-sequences in the same molecular chain. During the annealing process the self-aggregation of s-sequences played a role in the aggregation process of stereocomplex, which was a function of annealing temperature and annealing time.

  10. Gradient structure-induced temperature responsiveness in styrene/methyl methacrylate gradient copolymers micelles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2014-02-01

    In this work, micelles are formed by gradient copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate in acetone-water mixture and their temperature responsiveness is investigated in a narrow range near room temperature. Three different kinds of structural transitions could be induced by temperature: unimers to micelle transition, shrinkage/stretching of micelles, and morphological transition from spherical micelles to vesicles. In addition, a model analysis on the interface of gradient copolymer micelle is made to better understand these phenomena. It is found that both position and composition of the interface could alter in response to the change in temperature. According to the experiments and model analysis, it is proposed that temperature responsiveness might be an intrinsic and universal property of gradient copolymer micelles, which only originates from the gradient structure.

  11. Floating-Gate Type Organic Memory with Organic Insulator Thin Film of Plasma Polymerized Methyl Methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-sung; Lee, Boong-Joo; Kim, Gun-Su; Shin, Paik-Kyun

    2013-02-01

    To fabricate organic memory device by entirely dry process, plasma polymerized methyl methacrylate (ppMMA) thin films were prepared and they were used as both tunneling layer and gate insulator layer in a floating-gate type organic memory device. The ppMMA thin films were prepared with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source combined with stabilized monomer vapor control. The ppMMA gate insulator thin film revealed dielectric constant of 3.75 and low leakage current of smaller than 10-9 A/cm. The floating-gate type organic memory device showed promising memory characteristics such as memory window value of 12 V and retention time of over 2 h, where 60 V of writing voltage and -30 V of erasing voltage were applied, respectively.

  12. Review of methyl methacrylate (MMA)/tributylborane (TBB)-initiated resin adhesive to dentin.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yohsuke; Imai, Yohji

    2014-01-01

    This review, focusing mainly on research related to methyl methacrylate/tributylborane (MMA/TBB) resin, presents the early history of dentin bonding and MMA/TBB adhesive resin, followed by characteristics of resin bonding to dentin. Bond strengths of MMA/TBB adhesive resin to different adherends were discussed and compared with other bonding systems. Factors affecting bond strength (such as conditioners, primers, and medicaments used for dental treatment), bonding mechanism, and polymerization characteristics of MMA/TBB resin were also discussed. This review further reveals the unique adhesion features between MMA/TBB resin and dentin: in addition to monomer diffusion into the demineralized dentin surface, graft polymerization of MMA onto dentin collagen and interfacial initiation of polymerization at the resin-dentin interface provide the key bonding mechanisms.

  13. Evaluation of methyl methacrylate monomer cytotoxicity in dental lab technicians using buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Dawasaz Ali; Syed, Sadatullah; Luqman, Master; Ali, Assiry A

    2013-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, a primary component of dental resins, is known to induce cytotoxicity, dermatitis, and neuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of dental technicians exposed to MMA using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay. The Risk Group (RG=13) consisted of all the technicians working in the prosthetic production laboratory of KKU-College of Dentistry. The Control Group (CG=14) consisted of healthy students and doctors matching the age of RG subjects. Buccal mucosa scrapes obtained from all the 27 RG and CG subjects were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (100×) for the presence of MN. There were no significant differences in the incidence of MN between RG and CG (p>0.05).

  14. Styrene and methyl methacrylate copolymer synthesized by RF inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Gillon, X.; Diallo, M.; Houssiau, L.; Pireaux, J.-J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of random copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate was prepared on a silicon substrate by RF pulsed inductively coupled plasma. The plasma gas phase was investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The physico-chemical characteristics of the deposited copolymer films were analyzed by several surface techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), etc. OES of the plasma and FT-IR spectra of the films are predictive: plasma emitting a higher relative benzyl radical signal results in the deposition of a more aromatic plasma polymer. The functional thin films can be deposited by selection of the co-monomers.

  15. Miscibility and Thermophysical Properties of Blend of Poly methyl methacrylate with Polyvinylchloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Manasvi; Mathur, Vishal; Baboo, Mahesh; Sharma, Kananbala; Saxena, N. S.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper reports the investigations on miscibility and thermophysical properties of blend of Poly methyl methacrylate with Polyvinylchloride, prepared by solution casting method. The miscibility of the samples is examined by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and the thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity (λ) and thermal diffusivity (χ)) have been measured using the transient plane source (TPS) technique from room temperature to 100 °C. The results of thermal transport properties of PMMA/PVC blend show an increasing trend of λ and χ upto Tg, beyond which they show a decreasing trend. The variation of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of PMMA, PVC and PMMA/PVC blend with temperature is explained on the basis of structural changes of the sample and mean free path of the phonons.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and stability of chitosan and poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Carson, Laura; Hibbert, Kemar; Akindoju, Feyisayo; Johnson, Chevaun; Stewart, Melisa; Kelly-Brown, Cordella; Beharie, Gavannie; Fisher, Tavis; Stone, Julia; Stoddart, Dahlia; Oki, Aderemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Regisford, Gloria; Traisawatwong, Pasakorn; Zhou, Jianren; Luo, Zhiping

    2012-10-01

    The single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were effectively functionalized through grafting with chitosan (CTS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Prior to grafting reaction, the carboxylated SWNCTs (SWNCTs-COOH) were obtained by treating pristine CNTs with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), and the successive treatment of SWNCTs-COOH with SOCl(2) yielded the acylated CNTs (CNTs-COCl). The functionalized derivatives of CNTs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both CTS and PMMA grafted CNTs showed better dispersability in acetic acid and tetrahydrofuran, in addition to higher stability in solution.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and stability of chitosan and poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Laura; Hibbert, Kemar; Akindoju, Feyisayo; Johnson, Chevaun; Stewart, Melisa; Kelly-Brown, Cordella; Beharie, Gavannie; Fisher, Tavis; Stone, Julia; Stoddart, Dahlia; Oki, Aderemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Regisford, Gloria; Traisawatwong, Pasakorn; Zhou, Jianren; Luo, Zhiping

    2012-10-01

    The single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were effectively functionalized through grafting with chitosan (CTS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Prior to grafting reaction, the carboxylated SWNCTs (SWNCTs-COOH) were obtained by treating pristine CNTs with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) H2SO4 and HNO3, and the successive treatment of SWNCTs-COOH with SOCl2 yielded the acylated CNTs (CNTs-COCl). The functionalized derivatives of CNTs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both CTS and PMMA grafted CNTs showed better dispersability in acetic acid and tetrahydrofuran, in addition to higher stability in solution.

  18. Electron capture of dopants in two-photonic ionization in a poly(methyl methacrylate) solid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Akira; Sakai, Wataru; Nakano, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Masahide

    1992-10-29

    Behavior of the electron produced by two-photonic excitation of an aromatic donor in a poly(methyl methacrylate) solid was studied by the addition of the electron scavengers to the system. According to the Perrin type analysis for the two-photonically ejected electron, the capture radii (R{sub c}) of the scavengers examined were estimated to be from 8 to 40 {Angstrom}. For the two-photonically ejected electrons, R{sub c} is a capture radius for thermalized electrons. In this case the parent electron donor is not necessarily within this radius. On the other hand, for the fluorescence quenching, the distance between the donor and acceptor is within the static quenching radius (R{sub q}) of the donor. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Aassar, M R; Hafez, Elsayed E; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2013-10-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to open some new aspects to fight and prevent diseases using atomic-scale tailoring of materials. The main aim of this study is to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Trichoderma viride (HQ438699); the metabolite of this fungus will help either in reduction of the silver nitrate-adding active materials which will be loaded on the surface of the produced AgNPs. Poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymer (poly (AN-co-MMA)) was grafted with the prepared AgNPs. The poly(AN-co-MMA)/AgNPs were examined against ten different pathogenic bacterial strains, and the result was compared with another four different generic antibiotics. The produced poly(AN-co-MMA)/AgNPs showed high antibacterial activity compared with the four standard antibiotics. Moreover, the grafting of these AgNPs into the copolymer has potential application in the biomedical field.

  20. Methyl methacrylate as a healing agent for self-healing cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tittelboom, K.; Adesanya, K.; Dubruel, P.; Van Puyvelde, P.; De Belie, N.

    2011-12-01

    Different types of healing agents have already been tested on their efficiency for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Generally, commercial healing agents are used while their properties are adjusted for manual crack repair and not for autonomous crack healing. Consequently, the amount of regain in properties due to self-healing of cracks is limited. In this research, a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based healing agent was developed specifically for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Various parameters were optimized including the viscosity, curing time, strength, etc. After the desired properties were obtained, the healing agent was encapsulated and screened for its self-healing efficiency. The decrease in water permeability due to autonomous crack healing using MMA as a healing agent was similar to the results obtained for manually healed cracks. First results seem promising: however, further research needs to be undertaken in order to obtain an optimal healing agent ready for use in practice.

  1. Radiation graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto poly (γ-methyl L-glutamate) membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue-E, Fang; Xia, Zhao; Wu, Ge Xue

    1997-11-01

    Radiation-induced grafting Copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto poly(γ-methyl L-glutamate)(PMLG) membrane was researched in aqueous solution in the absence of oxygen. The grafted weight increases with increasing water content in the grafting system. According to the values of the contact angles, the surface free energy, the interfacial free energy, and the adhesive work of the membranes with deionized water were calculated. Photoacoustic fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy were used for chemical analysis for the study of the surface composition of grafted membrane. From scanning electron micrographs and wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles we found that the radiation-induced graft copolymerization of HEMA onto PMLG membrane in water as solvent was carried out to be a graft in bulk.

  2. Fabrication of Poly (methyl methacrylate) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Thin Film Capacitors on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Bindu; Meenaa Pria KNJ, Jaisree; Alagappan, M.; Kandaswamy, A.

    2015-11-01

    Flexible electronics is becoming more popular with introduction of more and more organic conducting materials and processes for making thin films. The use of polymers as gate dielectric has over ruled the usage of conventional inorganic oxides in Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) on account of its solution process ability and ease of making highly insulating thin film. In this work Capacitance is fabricated with polymeric dielectrics namely poly (methyl methacrylate) - PMMA and poly (vinyl alcohol) - PVA. The electrodes used for these capacitors are Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Aluminium. Capacitance value of 9.5nF/cm2 and 33.12nF/cm2 is achieved for thickness of 510 nm of PMMA and 80 nm of PVA respectively. This study on capacitance can be used for assessing the suitability of these polymers as gate insulators in OTFTs.

  3. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaozong; Cui, Nai-Yi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang, He

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  4. Thermal assisted ultrasonic bonding method for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongbo; Wang, Xiaodong; Luo, Yi; He, Shengqiang; Wang, Liding

    2010-06-15

    A thermal assisted ultrasonic bonding method for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic devices has been presented. The substrates were preheated to 20-30 degrees C lower than glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the polymer. Then low amplitude ultrasonic vibration was employed to generate facial heat at the interface of PMMA substrates. PMMA microfluidic chips were successfully bonded with bulk temperature well below T(g) of the material and with pressure two orders lower than conventional thermal bonding, which was of great benefit to reduce the deformation of microstructures. The bonding process was optimized by Taguchi method. This bonding technique showed numerous superiorities including high bonding strength (0.95MPa), low dimension loss (0.3-0.8%) and short bonding time. Finally, a micromixer was successfully bonded by this method and its performance was demonstrated.

  5. Hydrophobic modification of cellulose isolated from Agave angustifolia fibre by graft copolymerisation using methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan; Mohamed, Faizal

    2015-07-10

    Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91 × 10(-3) and 5.63 × 10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845 cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component.

  6. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions.

  7. [Analysis of the character of film decomposition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) coated urea by infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-po; Wu, Zhi-jie; Liang, Cheng-hua; Chen, Li-jun; Zhang, Yu-lan; Nie, Yan-xi

    2012-03-01

    The degradability characteristics of film with 4 kinds of methyl methacrylate coated urea amended with inhibitors were analyzed by FITR, which was purposed to supply theoretical basis for applying the FITR analysis method to film decomposition and methyl methacrylate coated urea fertilizers on farming. The result showed that the chemical component, molecule structure and material form of the membrane were not changed because of adding different inhibitors to urea. the main peaks of expressing film degradation process were brought by the -C-H of CH3 & CH2, -OH, C-O, C-C, C-O-C, C=O, C=C flexing vibrancy in asymmetry and symmetry in 3 479-3 195, 2 993--2 873, 1 741-1 564, 1 461-925 and 850-650 cm(-1). The peak value changed from smooth to tip, and from width to narrow caused by chemical structural transform of film The infrared spectrum of 4 kinds of fertilizers was not different remarkably before 60 days, and the film was slowly degraded. But degradation of the film was expedited after 60 days, it was most quickened at 120 day, and the decomposition rate of film was decreased at 310 day. The substantiality change of film in main molecule structure of 4 kinds of fertilizers didn't happen in 310 days. The main component of film materials was degraded most slowly in brown soil. The speed of film degradation wasn't heavily impacted by different inhibitors. The characteristic of film degradation may be monitored entirely by infrared spectrum. The degradation dynamic, chemical structure change, degradation speed difference of the film could be represented through infrared spectrum.

  8. Methyl methacrylate levels in orthopedic surgery: comparison of two conventional vacuum mixing systems.

    PubMed

    Jelecevic, Jasmin; Maidanjuk, Stanislaw; Leithner, Andreas; Loewe, Kai; Kuehn, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Poly-methyl methacrylate bone cements contain methyl methacrylate (MMA), which is known for its sensitizing and toxic properties. Therefore, in most European countries and in the USA, guidelines or regulations exist for occupational exposures. The use of vacuum mixing systems can significantly reduce airborne MMA concentrations during bone setting. Our goal was to test two commonly used vacuum mixing systems (Palamix(®) and Optivac(®)) using Palacos(®) R bone cement for their effectiveness at preventing MMA vapor release in a series of standardized trials in a laboratory as well as in an operating theatre. MMA was quantified every second over a period of 3 min using a photoionization detector (MiniRAE(®) 3000) device positioned in the breathing area of the user. Significant differences in MMA mean vapor concentrations over 180 s were observed in the two experimental spaces, with the highest mean concentrations (7.61 and 7.98 ppm for Palamix(®) and Optivac(®), respectively) observed in a laboratory with nine air changes per hour and the lowest average concentrations (1.06 and 1.12 ppm for Palamix(®) and Optivac(®), respectively) in an operating theatre with laminar flow ventilation and 22 air changes per hour. No significant differences in overall MMA concentrations were found between the two vacuum mixing systems in either location. Though, differences were found between both systems during single mixing phases. Thus, typical handling of MMA in orthopedic procedures must be seen as not harmful as concentrations do not reach the short-term exposure limit of 100 ppm. Additionally, laminar airflow seems to have an influence on lowering MMA concentrations in operation theatres.

  9. Kinetics and mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Arisawa, H.; Brill, T.B.

    1997-05-01

    Flash pyrolysis (600--1,000 C/s) of a film of anionically polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was conducted at controlled temperatures in the 380--600 C range by T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy. In the endothermic decomposition process, the methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA {ge} 90%) and CO{sub 2} ({le} 10%) are the only pyrolysis products detected. Arrhenius parameters for evolution of MMA and CO{sub 2} were determined under a pressure of 2 and 11 atm Ar for PMMA with MW = 2,000 and 131,000. A zeroth-order rate model was used. A slope break occurs at 460--500 C in the Arrhenius plots. Below this range for MMA, E{sub a} = 43--66 kcal/mol and In(A/s) = 26--44, which are comparable to previous reports for random C-C scission kinetics. For CO{sub 2}, E{sub a} = 39--46 kcal/mol and In(A/s) = 23--27, which are comparable to the decarboxylation rates of other organic compounds. Above 460--500 C, increased control of the rates by desorption/diffusion of MMA and CO{sub 2} is suggested by the lower values of E{sub a} in the 12--30 kcal/mol range and In(A/s) in the 5.7--17 range. Thus, the limiting temperature of pyrolysis of PMMA is about 500 C before the deconsolidation rate of the pyrolysis products begins to take control from the bulk decomposition rate in determining the rate of product evolution.

  10. Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells proliferation and differentiation on poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cements with and without mineralized collagen incorporation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Xu, Suju; Qiu, Zhiye; Liu, Peng; Liu, Huiying; Yu, Xiang; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Chunhua, Zhao Robert

    2016-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement is widely used in vertebroplasty, joint replacement surgery, and other orthopaedic surgeries, while it also exposed many problems on mechanical property and biocompatibility. Better performance in mechanical match and bone integration is highly desirable. Recently, there reported that incorporation of mineralized collagen into poly(methyl methacrylate) showed positive results in mechanical property and osteointegration ability in vivo. In the present study, we focused on the comparison of osteogenic behavior between mineralized collagen incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate). Human marrow mesenchymal stem cells are used in this experiment. Adhesion and proliferation were used to characterize biocompatibility. Activity of alkaline phosphatase was used to assess the differentiation of human marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression of osteoblast-related markers at messenger RNA level. The results show that osteogenic differentiation on mineralized collagen incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement is more than two times higher than that of poly(methyl methacrylate) after culturing for 21 days. Thus, important mechanism on mineralized collagen incorporation increasing the osteogenetic ability of poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement may be understood in this concern.

  11. Effects of metal ions on entero-soluble poly(methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate) coating: a combined analysis by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Cilurzo, Francesco; Gennari, Chiara G M; Selmin, Francesca; Vistoli, Giulio

    2010-04-05

    Poly(methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate)s (HPMMs) are pH-dependent polymers which ionize and form salts (PMMs) in neutral conditions. Despite their wide use in tablet coating, the interactions of PMMs with electrolytes present in biorelevant media and luminal fluids have been scantly investigated. The data generated in the current work provide the basic information on the effect of bivalent cations, namely, Ca2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, on the HPMMs' solubility and, consequently, on the performances (disintegration and drug dissolution) of acetaminophen gastroresistant tablets when exposed to fluid containing such salts. The interactions between polymers and metal ions were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and in silico combining molecular dynamics simulations to explore the conformational profiles of several oligomers with different M(w), taken as model of the polymers, with ab initio and semiempirical calculations in the gas phase. The computational results agree with the experimental data in terms of spatial disposition of the bications with respect to PMMs (Ca2+ and Mn2+ as bidentate form and Zn2+ as monodentate ligand) and interaction strength (Zn2+ > Mn(2+) > Ca2+). The tablet disintegration and dissolution rate of acetaminophen were strongly affected by the interactions of the dissolving copolymer with the metal ions which led to coating insolubilization. These preliminary results underline that the ingestion of metal ions at high concentrations could affect the drug liberation from gastroresistant dosage forms.

  12. Nano-imprint lithography using poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yung-Chiang; Shy, Shyi-Long

    2016-04-01

    Nano-imprinting lithography (NIL) technology, as one of the most promising fabrication technologies, has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for large-area replication up to wafer-level, with features down to nanometer scale. The cost of resists used for NIL is important for wafer-level large-area replication. This study aims to develop capabilities in patterning larger area structure using thermal NIL. The commercial available Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) and Polystyrene (PS) polymers possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as low material cost, low bulkvolumetric shrinkage, high spin coating thickness uniformity, high process stability, and acceptable dry-etch resistance. PMMA materials have been utilized for positive electron beam lithography for many years, offering high resolution capability and wide process latitude. In addition, it is preferable to have a negative resist like PMMA, which is a simple polymer with low cost and practically unlimited shelf life, and can be dissolved easily using commercial available Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) safer solvent to give the preferred film thickness. PS is such a resist, as it undergoes crosslinking when exposed to deep UV light or an electron beam and can be used for NIL. The result is a cost effective patterning larger area structure using thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL) by using commercial available PMMA and PS ploymers as NIL resists.

  13. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  14. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  15. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  16. Magnetic pH-responsive poly(methacrylic acid-co-acrylic acid)-co-polyvinylpyrrolidone magnetic nano-carrier for controlled delivery of fluvastatin.

    PubMed

    Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-01

    A novel pH-responsive polymer, poly(methacrylic acid-co-acrylic acid)-co-polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (polymeric nano-carrier) was synthesized and used for encapsulation of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare a new magnetic nano-carrier. The loading and release characteristics of both polymeric and magnetic nano-carriers were investigated using fluvastatin as the model drug. The loading behavior of the carriers was studied by varying concentration of fluvastatin in aqueous medium at 25°C and their release was followed spectrophotometrically (at 304 nm) at 37°C in three different solutions (buffered at pH1.2, 5.5 and 7.2) to simulate gastric and intestine medium. The effect of different parameters on the release of fluvastatin such as the amount of methacrylic acid monomer, cross-linker amount, initiator amount, and magnetic nanoparticles content was also studied. Considering the release kinetics and mechanism of the magnetic nanocarrier besides swelling behavior study of the polymeric nano-carrier reveal Fickian pattern and diffusion controlled mechanism for delivery of fluvastatin.

  17. Catalytic Effects of Oxide Surfaces on Diels-Alder Cycloaddition between Furan and Methyl Acrylate: A DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati-Fard, Taha; Jenness, Glen; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Doren, Douglas

    Using density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions, we study the catalytic effects of oxide surfaces such as ZrO_2 and HfO_2 on Diels-Alder reaction between furan and methyl acrylate. The cycloadduct can be dehydrated later to produce methyl benzoic which is an important step toward benzoic acid production. The gas-phase and on-surface reaction mechanisms are studied in detail. The surface hydration effects on the reaction mechanism and energy profile are studied as well. Our calculations show that the oxide surfaces catalyze the reaction significantly through the interaction of metal sites with methyl acrylate. The calculations are interpreted by making use of electronic density of states and band structure of the catalyst.

  18. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  19. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  20. Morphological study and thermal analysis of surface modified {alpha}-FeOOH via in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yaoxing; Ma Xinsheng; Cao Hongming; Zhang Haiying; Wu Qiufang

    2004-06-08

    Considering the interfacial characteristics of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH, iron oxide yellow), the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate was employed to modify the surfaces of {alpha}-FeOOH pigments in aqueous slurry. The scanning electron micrographs indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) anchored on the surfaces of the particle homogeneously. From this study, it was found that one of the key requirements in the synthesis of the {alpha}-FeOOH-PMMA composite was to enhance interfacial compatibility between inorganic particles and organic monomer. Moreover, polymer-treated {alpha}-FeOOH particles were easily dispersed in organic medium to form a stable colloid and the heat resistance of {alpha}-FeOOH particles was improved.

  1. Synthesis and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)/PbS hybrid composite

    SciTech Connect

    Preda, N.; Rusen, E.; Musuc, A.; Enculescu, M.; Matei, E.; Marculescu, B.; Fruth, V.; Enculescu, I.

    2010-08-15

    The synthesis of a new hybrid composite based on PbS nanoparticles and poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) [P(MMA-AMPSA)] copolymer is reported. The chemical synthesis consists in two steps: (i) a surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization between methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (ii) the generation of PbS particles in the presence of the P(MMA-AMPSA) latex, from the reaction between lead nitrate and thiourea. The composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructure observed using SEM proves that the PbS nanoparticles are well dispersed in the copolymer matrix. The X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that the PbS nanoparticles have a cubic rock salt structure. It was also found that the inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles improve the thermal stability of the copolymer matrix.

  2. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: the role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Casson, Valeria; Snee, Tim; Maschio, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction.

  3. ESR study of the radiolysis of cellobiose, cellulose-containing materials, and their mixtures with methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, E.Y.; Shostenko, A.G.; Ermolaev, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The ESR spectra of {gamma}-irradiated cellobiose, paper waste, and cellulose extracted from paper waste and waste pulp sludge were analyzed. The kinetics of formation and decay of cellobiose radicals were investigated, and the radiation-chemical yields of the radicals formed in cellulose-containing materials were calculated. The ESR spectra of cellobiose irradiated in the presence of methyl methacrylate (MMA) were obtained. A probable mechanism of MMA grafting onto cellulose-containing matrices is considered.

  4. Bioinspired Hydroxyapatite/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite with a Nacre-Mimetic Architecture by a Bidirectional Freezing Method.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hao; Walsh, Flynn; Gludovatz, Bernd; Delattre, Benjamin; Huang, Caili; Chen, Yuan; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-01-06

    Using a bidirectional freezing technique, combined with uniaxial pressing and in situ polymerization, "nacre-mimetic" hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites are developed by processing large-scale aligned lamellar ceramic scaffolds. Structural and mechanical characterization shows "brick-and-mortar" structures, akin to nacre, with interesting combinations of strength, stiffness, and work of fracture, which provide a pathway to making strong and tough lightweight materials.

  5. Microgel formation in the free radical crosslinking copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethcrylate (EGDMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiudong Sung; Yuen-Yuen Chiu; Lee, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    The formation of heterogeneous structure through intramolecular reaction is an important feature in the free radical crosslinking copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). Such structure formation affects not only the curing behavior but also the rheological changes of the resin. In this work, the effect of co-monomer composition on the reaction kinetics, rheological changes and microgel formation of MMA-EGDMA copolymerization was studied. A percolation model was adopted to simulate such monovinyl-divinyl reactions.

  6. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Marc A.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  7. Pseudoplasticity and setting properties of two-solution bone cement containing poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres and nanospheres for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D C; Gilbert, J L; Hasenwinkel, J M

    2009-10-01

    The viscosity and setting parameters of acrylic bone cements used for restoring vertebral compression fractures are critical factors in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures. Cements exhibiting lower viscosities and longer setting times are desired to overcome the difficulty of forcing the dough through small gauge needles and to reduce the risk of cementing them during surgery. However, cement extravasation is of great concern and can result when cements exhibiting lower viscosities are used. Therefore, the viscosity of cements should also be highly pseudoplastic to simultaneously facilitate flow through needles (shear-thinning) and inhibit potentially deleterious extravasation by viscosity recovery at the delivery sites. The viscosity of two-solution bone cement can be manipulated by changes in the polymer-to-monomer ratio and by the incorporation of cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate), (PMMA), microspheres or nanospheres in the polymer phase. In this study, the effect of the addition of cross-linked PMMA particles to the linear polymer-monomer solution with particle sizes ranging from 20-100 microm (microspheres) and 300-330 nm (nanospheres) is evaluated in terms of cement rheological properties and setting behavior. The addition of cross-linked PMMA particles was observed to reduce the viscosity in comparison to the standard formulation while keeping the pseudoplastic characteristics, and to improve the setting properties by increasing curing time and reducing maximum exotherm significantly.

  8. A comparative study of the decomposition of pig carcasses in a methyl methacrylate box and open air conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the process of decomposition is essential in establishing the postmortem interval. However, despite the fact that insects are important players in body decomposition, their exact function within the decay process is still unclear. There is also limited knowledge as to how the decomposition process occurs in the absence of insects. In the present study, we compared the decomposition of a pig carcass in open air with that of one placed in a methyl methacrylate box to prevent insect contact. The pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box was in the fresh stage for 1 day, the bloated stage from 2 d to 11 d, and underwent deflated decay from 12 d. In contrast, the pig carcass in open air went through the fresh, bloated, active decay and post-decay stages; and 22.3 h (0.93 d), 62.47 h (2.60 d), 123.63 h (5.15 d) and 246.5 h (10.27 d) following the start of the experiment respectively, prior to entering the skeletonization stage. A large amount of soft tissue were remained on the pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box on 26 d, while only scattered bones remained on the pig carcass in open air. The results indicate that insects greatly accelerate the decomposition process.

  9. Dynamics of Methyl Methacrylate Nanoconfined in Silica Sol Glasses Studied by Optical Kerr Effect Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Dujuan; Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Quitevis, Edward; Simon, Sindee

    2014-03-01

    Nanoconfinement has been found to have an effect on polymerization processes [1,2] and on the glass transition temperature Tg [3]. Here we report studies of the nanoconfinement effect on the dynamics of monomers in the pores of silica sol-gel glass. The samples were prepared under a vacuum and studied by using optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy. The reorientational dynamics of methyl methacrylate (MMA) confined in silica sol-gel glasses with pore diameters of 32, 41, and 82 Å was studied. The decays of the reorientational correlation function C(t) became longer as the pore size decreased. Based on the analysis of the reorientational correlation functions using a two-state model [4], the nanoconfinement effect is due to the interaction of molecules with the surface of the silica-gel glass. In a study of the effect of nanoconfinement in modified silica sol-gel glasses, which were obtained by refluxing the sol-gel glasses in methanol to give hydrophobic pore surfaces, the decay is faster in the modified silica gel glass than in the unmodified sol-gel glass. This work is supported by NSF Grant CMMI-1235346.

  10. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  11. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-supported polydiacetylene films: unique chromatic transitions and molecular sensing.

    PubMed

    Parambath Kootery, Kaviya; Jiang, Hao; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Vinod, T P; Ritenberg, Margarita; Zeiri, Leila; Volinsky, Roman; Malferrari, Danilo; Galletti, Paola; Tagliavini, Emilio; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-06-11

    Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) constitute a family of conjugated polymers exhibiting unique colorimetric and fluorescence transitions, and have attracted significant interest as chemo- and biosensing materials. We spin-coated PDA films upon poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and investigated the photophysical properties and sensing applications of the new PDA configuration. Specifically, the as-polymerized blue PDA layer underwent distinct transformations to purple, red, and yellow phases, which could be quantified through conventional color scanning combined with application of image analysis algorithms. Furthermore, we recorded a reversible red-purple PDA transition that was induced by ultraviolet irradiation, a phenomenon that had not been reported previously in PDA film systems. We show that distinct color and fluorescence transitions were induced in the PMMA-supported PDA films by amphiphilic substances-surfactants and ionic liquids-and that the chromatic transformations were correlated to the analyte structures and properties. Overall, this study presents a new chromatic PDA film system in which noncovalent interactions between the PMMA substrate and spin-coated PDA give rise to distinct chromatic properties and molecular sensing capabilities.

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongo, S.; Kerasidou, A. P.; Sone, B. T.; Diallo, A.; Mthunzi, P.; Iliopoulos, K.; Nkosi, M.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-06-01

    Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10-21 m2 V-2 or 0.72 × 10-13 esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  13. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-graft-oligoamines as low cytotoxic and efficient nonviral gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Sun, Yun-Xia; Hong, Xin-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhang, Gao-Yong

    2010-01-01

    A series of poly(methyl methacrylate)-graft-oligoamines (PMMA-g-oligoamines), including PMMA-g-DETA, PMMA-g-TETA and PMMA-g-TEPA, were synthesized through aminolysis of the PMMA with diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine and tetraethylenepentamine. Agarose gel retardation assay indicated that PMMA-g-oligoamines had good binding capability with plasmid DNA, and the binding capability increased with increasing length of oligoamines and content of nitrogen (N%). The results of particle size, zeta potential and morphology observation further showed that the PMMA-g-oligoamines could condense DNA efficiently and the PMMA-g-oligoamine/DNA complexes were uniform nanospheres. The in vitro cell viability indicated that PMMA-g-oligoamines were less toxic than 25 kDa PEI, though the cytotoxicity of PMMA-g-oligoamines increased slightly with increasing length of oligoamines as well as the N% of PMMA-g-oligoamines. The transfection efficiency of PMMA-g-oligoamines/DNA complexes in 293 T and HeLa cells demonstrated that PMMA-g-oligoamines could transfect cells efficiently with increasing the length of oligoamines, especially PMMA-g-TEPA with highest N%, and showed similar transfection capability as 25 kDa PEI. The cellular uptake study showed that the distribution of YOYO-1 labeled DNA in the cytoplasm and nuclei increased gradually with increasing length of oligoamines.

  14. Transient gratings in thin films and bulk azo-dye-containing poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Duanbin; Lu, Wei; Wu, Shuizhu

    2005-02-01

    Using holographic recording technology, two kinds of transient diffraction gratings were demonstrated in azo-dye doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films and bulk matrices respectively. In PMMA films containing azo-dye Disperse Red 13 (DR13), the refractive index gratings came from the reorientation of azo-dye molecules in different areas with different polarization distribution of recording beams. The characteristics of the transient gratings in films samples which were recorded by two mutually parallel polarization beams (PP and SS) as well as orthogonal linear polarization beams (PS and +/-45°) from an Ar ion laser (514nm) were investigated by monitoring the first order diffraction intensity of the readout He-Ne laser beam (632.8nm). With the interaction of bi-photonic lights at 514nm and 632.8nm, the transient gratings in azo-dye DR13 doped PMMA bulk matrices was a kind of population gratings of Trans and Cis isomers, which was attributed to the weak absorption of Cis isomers at 632.8nm and the positive dichroism of Trans isomers at 514nm. Furthermore, the all-optical switching behavior of the two kinds of transient holographic gratings were observed repeatedly by turning on and off the writing beams, and a response time at the magnitude of ten milliseconds order could be obtained.

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microfluidic Systems Using Solvent Imprinting and Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuhua; Peeni, Bridget A.; Yang, Weichun; Becerril, Hector A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapid prototyping of hard polymer microfluidic systems using solvent imprinting and bonding. We investigated the applicability of patterned SU-8 photoresist on glass as an easily fabricated template for solvent imprinting. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min then had an SU-8 template pressed into the surface for 10 min, which provided appropriately imprinted channels and a suitable surface for bonding. After a PMMA cover plate had also been exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min, the imprinted and top PMMA pieces could be bonded together at room temperature with appropriate pressure. The total fabrication time was less than 15 min. Under the optimized fabrication conditions, nearly 30 PMMA chips could be replicated using a single patterned SU-8 master with high chip-to-chip reproducibility. Relative standard deviations were 2.3% and 5.4% for the widths and depths of the replicated channels, respectively. Fluorescently labeled amino acid and peptide mixtures were baseline separated using these PMMA microchips in <15 s. Theoretical plate numbers in excess of 5000 were obtained for a ~3 cm separation distance, and the migration time relative standard deviation for an amino acid peak was 1.5% for intra-day and 2.2% for inter-day analysis. This new solvent imprinting and bonding approach significantly simplifies the process for fabricating microfluidic structures in hard polymers such as PMMA. PMID:17466320

  16. Multi-color fluorescence in rare earth acetylacetonate hydrate doped poly methyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Shen, L. F.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Chen, B. J.; Lin, H.

    2013-01-01

    Europium and terbium acetylacetonate hydrates were doped into poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). Efficient purplish-red and green fluorescence was obtained from europium acetylacetonate hydrates (EAH) and terbium acetylacetonate hydrates (TAH) doped PMMA respectively. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω2 (19.73×10-20 cm2) and Ω4 (2.19×10-20 cm2) indicate a high inversion asymmetric and strong covalent environment in PMMA. The maximum stimulated emission cross-sections for the 5D0→7FJ (J=1, 2 and 4) transitions in EAH doped PMMA were calculated to be 0.38×10-21, 4.90×10-21 and 0.36×10-21 cm2, respectively. Variable fluorescence color can be efficiently achieved from the cooperation of three fluorescence colors offered by red (Eu3+), green (Tb3+) and blue (ligand) in EAH/TAH codoped PMMA by adjusting the excitation wavelength. These results indicate that PMMA is an effective photoluminescence co-sensitizer and PMMA doped with rare earth acetylacetonate hydrates is a promising candidate for a series of optoelectronic functional devices.

  17. A methyl methacrylate-HEMA-CL(n) copolymerization investigation: from kinetics to bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Rooney, Thomas R; Lupi, Monica; Ubezio, Paolo; Hutchinson, Robin A; Moscatelli, Davide

    2013-10-01

    The radical copolymerization kinetics of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and poly-ϵ-caprolactone macromonomer functionalized with a vinyl end group (HEMA-CL(n)) is studied using a pulsed-laser technique. The reactivity ratios for this system are near unity, while a linear relationship between k(p,cop), the copolymer-averaged propagation rate coefficient, and the composition of macromonomer in the feed (0-80 wt% range) is determined. At 50 wt% macromonomer in the feed, a 1.67 ± 0.02 and 1.64 ± 0.06 increase in k(p,cop)/k(p,MMA) is determined for HEMA-CL3 and HEMA-CL2, respectively. These macromonomers are adopted to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) in the range of 100-150 nm through batch emulsion free radical polymerization (BEP) to produce partially degradable drug delivery carriers. The produced NPs are tested in 4T1 cell line and show excellent characteristics as carriers: they do not affect cell proliferation, and a relevant number of NPs, thousands per cell, are internalized.

  18. Fabrication of superhydrophilic and antireflective silica coatings on poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Zhi; He, Junhui; Xu, Ligang

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Self-cleaning and antireflection properties were successfully achieved by assembling (PDDA/S-20){sub n} coatings on PMMA substrates followed by oxygen plasma treatment. Highlights: ► Porous silica coatings were created by layer-by-layer assembly on PMMA substrates. ► Silica coatings were treated by oxygen plasma. ► Porous silica coatings were highly antireflective and superhydrophilic on PMMA substrates. -- Abstract: Silica nanoparticles of ca. 20 nm in size were synthesized, from which hierarchically porous silica coatings were fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly followed by oxygen plasma treatment. These porous silica coatings were highly transparent and superhydrophilic. The maximum transmittance reached as high as 99%, whereas that of the PMMA substrate is only 92%. After oxygen plasma treatment, the time for a water droplet to spread to a contact angle of lower than 5° decreased to as short as 0.5 s. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and structure of nanoparticles and coating surfaces. Transmission and reflection spectra were recorded on UV–vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. The influence of mesopores on the transmittance and wetting properties of coatings was discussed on the basis of experimental observations.

  19. Adsorption and electron-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate on Ru(1010)

    SciTech Connect

    Hedhili, M. N.; Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Wasielewski, R.; Ciszewski, A.; Madey, T. E.

    2008-05-07

    The adsorption and electron irradiation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on a Ru(1010) surface have been studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and low energy ion scattering. TPD analysis indicates that a monolayer of MMA chemisorbs and dissociates on the Ru(1010) surface. The reaction products observed upon heating include H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and a small amount of MMA. Physisorbed multilayers of MMA desorb at temperatures around 170 K. Electron irradiation of physisorbed MMA at 140 K leads to a modification of the MMA film: The XPS spectra show an increase in thermal stability of the film with retention of the MMA structure, and indicate that electron irradiation induces polymerization. An increase in the electron bombardment fluence induces a degradation of the formed polymerized species and leads to the accumulation of carbon on the Ru surface. These results are relevant to the accumulation of carbon on surfaces of Ru films that serve as capping layers on Mo/Si multilayer mirrors used in extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  20. On the role of chemical reactions in initiating ultraviolet laser ablation in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Manish; Conforti, Patrick F.; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2007-05-15

    The role of chemical reactions is investigated versus the thermal and mechanical processes occurring in a polymer substrate during irradiation by a laser pulse and subsequent ablation. Molecular dynamics simulations with an embedded Monte Carlo based reaction scheme were used to study ultraviolet ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate) at 157 nm. We discuss the onset of ablation, the mechanisms leading to ablation, and the role of stress relaxation of the polymer matrix during ablation. Laser induced heating and chemical decomposition of the polymer substrate are considered as ablation pathways. It is shown that heating the substrate can set off ablation via mechanical failure of the material only for very short laser pulses. For longer pulses, the mechanism of ejection is thermally driven limited by the critical number of bonds broken in the substrate. Alternatively, if the photon energy goes towards direct bond breaking, it initiates chemical reactions, polymer unzipping, and formation of gaseous products, leading to a nearly complete decomposition of the top layers of substrates. The ejection of small molecules has a hollowing out effect on the weakly connected substrates which can lead to lift-off of larger chunks. Excessive pressure buildup upon the creation of gaseous molecules does not lead to enhanced yield. The larger clusters are thermally ejected, and an entrainment of larger polymer fragments in gaseous molecules is not observed.

  1. Effect of physical aging on stress relaxation of poly/methyl methacrylate/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizmecioglu, M.; Fedors, R. F.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made on the stress relaxation behavior at 25 C of poly(methyl methacrylate) in uniaxial tension as a function of physical aging at both room temperature and 60 C. Test specimens were compression molded at 165 C, then quenched to room temperature and allowed to age for up to 30 days prior to testing. Stress relaxation curves measured after different aging times could be superposed to a single master curve for each aging temperature. Superposition was achieved by applying vertical and horizontal shifts. Hence, the shape of the response curves was not changed by aging. This is in accordance with observations made by Struik for tensile creep curves. Volume changes as a function of physical aging were also determined. Simple exponential relationships were observed between volume and both horizontal and vertical shifts. The horizontal shift implies a shift in the effective time scale caused by a change in free volume. The vertical shifts could be correlated with changes in Young's modulus caused by a change in density. For the range of aging studied, the response time scale varied over nearly two decades of log-time. For the same conditions modulus varied by 30 percent.

  2. Influence of Ionic Complexes on Phase Behavior of Polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,J.; Chen, W.; Roy, C.; Sievert, J.; Russell, T.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of ionic complexes on phase behavior of PS-b-PMMA copolymers over a wide range of molecular weights and PS volume fractions was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and neutron reflectivity (NR). The disorder-to-order transition (DOT) in both symmetric and asymmetric copolymers indicates that the overall Flory-Huggins segmental interaction parameter, eff, between polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blocks with lithium-PMMA complexes is increased compared to that of the neat copolymers. This enhanced eff further results in an order-to-order transition (OOT), from spheres to cylinders, and an increase in the ordering and spacing of microdomains. Moreover, transitional metal ionic complexes, such as copper-PMMA complexes, are found to have the similar influence on phase behavior of PS-b-PMMA copolymers. The formation of ionic complexes in the copolymers not only offers a parameter to tune the degree of microphase separation of PS-b-PMMA copolymers but also provides a way to fabricate multifunctional materials.

  3. Molecular dynamics of poly(methyl methacrylate) determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Yuki; Kita, Rio; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin; Yoneyama, Masaru

    2013-02-01

    We performed broadband dielectric measurements for poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA], poly(vinyl alcohol) [PVA], and PVA-fibroin blend films in the temperature range of -50 °C to 200 °C, -120 °C to 200 °C, and -120 °C to 25 °C, respectively, in the frequency range of 10 mHz to 10 MHz. For PMMA, three relaxation processes were observed: process α at low frequency, the secondary process β at intermediate frequency, and the last process γ at high frequency. The symmetrically shaped three relaxation processes (α, β, γ) are described by the Cole-Cole equation. Near room temperature, process γ merges with process β. Similarly, at higher temperatures which close to Tg (103 °C for PMMA), process α merges with processes β and γ. For PVA-fibroin blend film, we observe the three relaxation processes (β, γ, δ), and the contribution of dc conductivity is larger than that of PMMA and PVA films.

  4. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  5. Invivo absorption behaviour of theophylline from starch-methyl methacrylate matrix tablets in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Campos, F; Ferrero, C; Colom, H; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2015-01-30

    This study evaluates in vivo the drug absorption profiles from potato starch-methyl methacrylate matrices(*) using theophylline as a model drug. Healthy beagle dogs under fasting conditions were used for in vivo studies and plasma samples were analyzed by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay analysis (FPIA method). Non-compartmental and compartmental (population approach) analysis was performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. The principle of superposition was applied to predict multiple dose plasma concentrations from experimental single dose data. An in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was also assessed. The sustained absorption kinetics of theophylline from these formulations was demonstrated by comparison with two commercially available oral sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) and Theolair(®)). A one-compartment model with first order kinetics without lag-time best describes the absorption/disposition of theophylline from the formulations. Results revealed a theophylline absorption rate in the order FD-HSMMA≥Theo-Dur(®)≥OD-CSMMA>Theolair(®)≥FD-CSMMA. On the basis of simulated plasma theophylline levels, a twice daily dosage (every 12h) with the FD-CSMMA tablets should be recommended. A Level C IVIVC was found between the in vitrot50% and the in vivo AUC/D, although further optimization of the in vitro dissolution test would be needed to adequately correlate with in vivo data.

  6. The Effect of Nanoconfinemnt on Methyl Methacrylate Polymerization: Reactivity and Resulting Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haoyu; Yu, Ziniu; Hedden, Ronald; Simon, Sindee

    2014-03-01

    The effect of nanoconfinement is well known to affect the properties of polymers. In this work, free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) is performed in hydrophilic or hydrophobic 13 nm diameter controlled pore glass (CPG). Changes in polymerization kinetics and the properties of the synthesized polymer are quantified. Reaction kinetics and glass transition temperatures are followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After polymerization, the changes in the molecular weights and tacticity are measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Nanoconfinement is found to result in earlier onset of autoacceleration leading to the increase in both number-average and weight-average molecular weights, whereas the polydispersity index at full conversion decreases relative to the bulk value. Moreover, for both pore surfaces, the glass transition temperature increases compared with the bulk, but the increase in hydrophilic pores is more pronounced at 20 °C. In addition to the changes in molecular weight and Tg, the tacticity changes from syndiotactic-rich triads for the bulk PMMA to a higher percentage of isotacticity under nanoconfinement. Funding from the National Science Foundation CMMI 0826437 and CRIF MU grant CHE-1048553 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Adsorption of doxorubicin on poly(methyl methacrylate)-chitosan-heparin-coated activated carbon beads.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianjun; Zhang, Fuming; Takieddin, Majde; Mousa, Shaker; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-03-06

    Extracorporeal filter cartridges, filled with an activated carbon bead (ACB) adsorbent, have been used for removal of overdosed cancer drugs from the blood. Coatings on adsorbent matrices, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/activated carbon bead and PMMA/chitosan/heparin/ACB composites, were tested to improve their biocompatibility and blood compatibility. PMMA coating on ACBs was accomplished in a straightforward manner using a PMMA solution in ethyl acetate. A one-step hybrid coating of ACBs with PMMA-anticoagulant heparin required the use of acetone and water co-solvents. Multilayer coatings with three components, PMMA, chitosan, and heparin, involved three steps: PMMA was first coated on ACBs; chitosan was then coated on the PMMA-coated surface; and finally, heparin was covalently attached to the chitosan coating. Surface morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the -SO(3)(-) group. Adsorption, of a chemotherapy drug (doxorubicin) from both water and phosphate-buffered saline, by the coated ACBs was examined. The adsorption isotherm curves were fitted using the Freundlich model. The current adsorption system might find potential applications in the removal of high-dose regional chemotherapy drugs while maintaining high efficiency, biocompatibility, and blood compatibility.

  8. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on bone marrow biopsies. A rapid procedure for methyl methacrylate embedding.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, A; Muthmann, H; Sendelhofert, A; Diebold, J; Löhrs, U

    1995-03-01

    Starting from previous methodical approaches a procedure for low temperature methyl methacrylate (MMA) embedding of bone marrow biopsies is introduced, which allows routine application of enzyme and immunohistochemistry without loss of morphological quality by retaining fixation in Schaffer's solution. Survival of enzyme activity and antigen determinants is achieved by washing the fixed specimens in 70% methanol and dehydration in acetone in ascending concentrations at 4 degrees C. Modifications of the plastic embedding technique used in this study simplify and shorten the procedure, so that embedding according to this routine method is complete after two days of preparation. Additionally, a rapid embedding variant is introduced, which enables tissue preparation within one day if necessary. Results are demonstrated using markers for myeloid, lymphoid and epithelial cells as well as immunoglobulins and the proliferation associated antigen Ki-67. The investigation of a panel of monoclonal and polyspecific antibodies in 31 cases shows the eventually reduced immunoreactivity of a few markers after prolonged fixation. As a consequence it seems essential to ensure short fixation periods, especially when the specimens are sent by mail.

  9. Effect of moisture on the physical and durability properties of methyl methacrylate polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1983-01-01

    The compressive strength of methyl methacrylate PC composites decays very rapidly as the moisture content of the coarse aggregate is increased from 0 to 1 wt %. The durability of the PC also shows evidence of decay. Addition of silane coupling agent, such as A-1120, to the monomer component of a PC composite increases the compressive strength of such composites made with moist coarse aggregates. The compressive strengths of such PC composites are as high as a normal PCC used in highway applications. The durability of PC composites made with a silane additive seems to increase as the composite undergoes freeze-thaw cycling which reinforces the justification that such materials can be used for PCC repairs without a sacrifice in use lifespans. However, for the convenience of using moist aggregates, one must endure the additional cost of the silane coupling agent. If it costs more than $0.02/lb to dry the aggregate, and one is willing to accept the reduced strengths associated with moist aggregates, then the use of a silane coupling agent can be cost effective. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Highly active ppm level organic copper catalyzed photo-induced ICAR ATRP of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Lifen; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2014-11-01

    A novel photo-induced homogeneous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) system is constructed using an organic copper salt (Cu(SC(S)N(C2 H5 )2 )2 ) as a photo-induced catalyst at 30 °C. Herein, N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) is used as a ligand, ethyl 2-bromophenylacetate (EBPA) as an ATRP initiator, and (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as a photo-induced radical initiator to establish an ICAR (initiators for continuous activator regeneration) ATRP using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as a modal monomer. The effect of the concentration of the organic copper on the polymerization is investigated in detail. It is found that well-controlled polymerization can be obtained even with the amount of (Cu(SC(S)N(C2 H5 )2 )2 decreasing to a 1.56 ppm level, with the molecular weight of the resultant polymers increasing linearly with monomer conversion while maintaining a narrow molecular weight distribution (M¯w/M¯n < 1.3).

  11. Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Unemori, Masako; Matsuya, Yoko; Matsuya, Shigeki; Akashi, Akane; Akamine, Akifumi

    2003-04-01

    The amount of water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% of an adhesive monomer, 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride (4-META), was measured at 7 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 60 degrees C. After the water uptake reached equilibrium in specimens, they were desorbed to obtain a constant value and the absorption process was repeated. Mass changes in the second desorption were recorded for the storage temperatures of 37 degrees C and 60 degrees C. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on three independent variables, 4-META concentration, storage temperature and absorption-desorption cycle. A statistically significant relationship was found between the maximum water uptake and 4-META concentration, while there was no relationship between the maximum water uptake and diffusion coefficient obtained using the Fick's law. The negative relationship in the latter did not support the free space theory. The significant and positive relationship between the maximum water uptake and 4-META concentration demonstrates that water molecules diffuse through the formation of a hydrogen bond at polar sites. The maximum water uptake was not influenced by temperature, while the diffusion coefficient increased with the rise in temperature. The activation energy was 41-47 and 50-53 kJ/mol in the first and second absorption tests, respectively.

  12. A cross-industry assessment of personal exposures to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Vos, Gordon A; Stephens, John Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated personal exposures to methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer during monomer production and use within the chemical manufacturing industry. The aim was to include multiple companies and sites to provide information regarding differences and similarities among exposure subgroups within the industry during the time period of 1998-2000. To this end, personal exposure data for MMA monomer from three chemical corporations was combined into a single data set. The data was stratified by sample type (full shift or short term), job classification (monomer production, monomer use, maintenance, distribution, and laboratory operations), company, and facility. Only classifications with three samples or more were included in the final data set, yielding 376 samples for analysis (334 full-shift and 42 short-term samples). Results compare well with previously published data on MMA monomer exposures. Although there was significant variability in several exposure subgroups (particularly among companies and facilities), MMA monomer use in the manufacture of other products resulted in the highest exposure distributions, with lower exposures associated with monomer production, maintenance, and distribution operations. The usefulness of these findings is related to the provision of information for discussion of current needs in the industry regarding data sampling, exposure assessment, and standards development.

  13. The effect of processing conditions on the properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) fibers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Debra D; Lautenschlager, Eugene P; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2002-01-01

    Brittle failure of bone cement remains a problem for the long-term stability of hip prostheses. Fibers have been developed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that retain the chemistry of bone cement, but improve the mechanical properties greatly. To fabricate the fibers, a polymer melt is extruded out of a small die (spinneret) and pulled onto a take-up wheel. Varying the speed of extrusion and temperature of the melt can control the viscosity of the molten polymer. This study examines the effect of melt viscosity on the resultant properties of fibers fabricated from PMMA. The goals are to optimize fiber processing and determine processing-structure--property relationships. Resultant fibers had moderate to high levels of retained molecular orientation, and ultimate tensile strengths (UTS) ranging from 60 to 225 MPa, moduli from 1.5 to 3.5 GPa, and strain to failure from 10 to 40%. Fibers fabricated at a constant viscosity and draw velocity had identical properties, whereas decreasing the viscosity generally increased the mechanical properties and retained orientation. Linear regression models were constructed to predict how the processing variables affect the structure (orientation) of the fiber and how the structure affects the UTS. This can be used to design efficient processing methods for PMMA fibers.

  14. Chitosan-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) particles by spinning disk processing for lipase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Jenjob, Somkieath; Sunintaboon, Panya; Inprakhon, Pranee; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2012-07-01

    Chitosan-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-CH) particles were prepared by complexation between the negatively charged PMMA particles and the positively charged chitosan via a spinning disk processing. Processing parameters; feed rate and spinning speed, were optimized, which were traced by size distribution profiles of the formed PMMA-CH particles. Their sizes and net surface charges were found to be affected by MWs of chitosan (45, 100, and 230 kDa) used. Microscopic evidences were used to confirm their core-shell morphology. Chemical characteristics and thermal stability of such particles were determined by FTIR and TGA, respectively. Then, their ability to immobilize lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) was conducted and followed through zeta potential measurement. The percentage of lipase adsorption capacity increased with increasing lipase content, but the value decreased when the size of PMMA-CH particles increased. Also, the activity of lipase attached on PMMA-CH particles' surface was preserved and increased with lipase loading.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and oral delivery of insulin loaded carboxylated chitosan grafted poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fuying; Qian, Feng; Zhao, Ziming; Yin, Lichen; Tang, Cui; Yin, Chunhua

    2009-05-11

    To improve the efficiency of insulin via oral administration, pH-sensitive carboxylated chitosan grafted poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (CCGN) were prepared. CCGN were characterized by (1)H NMR, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy, and the hypoglycemic effect of insulin loaded CCGN via the oral route was evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. CCGN exhibited a homogeneous morphology and a spherical shape with core-shell structure. They were aggregated in simulated gastric fluid while separated in simulated intestinal fluid. Insulin was mainly located in the shell of the CCGN via hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction, and Van der Waals force. Insulin release from the CCGN exhibited a pH-sensitive property in that it had a slow release rate at pH 2.0 and a fast release rate at pH 6.8 and 7.4. The pharmacological bioavailability after oral administration of insulin loaded CCGN at a dose of 25 IU/kg was found to be 9.7%. Besides, CCGN showed desirable tissue and blood compatibility. Therefore, the CCGN would be a promising delivery carrier for protein drugs via the oral route.

  16. Hot-Press Molded Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Matrix for Solid-State Dye Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kwong-Cheong; Tou, Teck-Yong; Ng, Seik-Weng

    1998-09-01

    A hot-press molding method was used to fabricate dye-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) slabs. Three rhodamine dyes, Rh640 (ClO 4 ), Rh6G(ClO 4 ), and Rh6G (Cl), were impregnated into the PMMA matrix first by dissolving the dye and granular PMMA in a solvent mixture of chloroform and methanol and then heating the mixture in vacuo at 175 C to obtain a spongy preform. The powdered preform was molded into slabs at 175 C and at 1 mbar, to eliminate the formation of bubbles in the slabs. We annealed the slabs for several hours to improve its optical homogeneity and hence its lasing efficiency. When pumped by a 1.5-mJ nitrogen laser, we obtained peak lasing efficiencies of 8% and 7.8%, respectively, for Rh6G (ClO 4 ) and Rh640 (ClO 4 ) in PMMA matrices. The lasing efficiency of Rh6G (ClO 4 )-doped PMMA suffered a reduction rate of 0.012% shot compared with 0.15% shot for Rh640 (ClO 4 )-doped PMMA. In contrast, Rh6G (Cl) in a hot-press molded PMMA slab suffered thermal bleaching that resulted in a low lasing efficiency of 1%; this can be explained by its absorption and fluorescence characteristics.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide filled poly(methyl methacrylate) microcapsules: potential oxygen delivery materials.

    PubMed

    Mallepally, Rajendar R; Parrish, Chance C; Mc Hugh, Mark A M; Ward, Kevin R

    2014-11-20

    This paper describes the synthesis of H₂O₂-H₂O filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microcapsules as potential candidates for controlled O₂ delivery. The microcapsules are prepared by a water-in-oil solvent emulsion and evaporation method. The results of this study describe the effect of process parameters on the characteristics of the microcapsules and on their in vitro performance. The size of the microcapsules, as determined from scanning electron microscopy, ranges from ∼5 to 30 μm and the size distribution is narrow. The microcapsules exhibit an internal morphology with entrapped H₂O₂-H₂O droplets randomly distributed in the PMMA continuous phase. In vitro release studies of 4.5 wt% H₂O₂-loaded microcapsules show that ∼70% of the H₂O₂ releases in 24h. This corresponds to a total O₂ production of ∼12 cc/gram of dry microcapsules. Shelf-life studies show that the microcapsules retain ∼84 wt% of the initially loaded H₂O₂ after nine months storage at 2-8 °C, which is an attractive feature for clinical applications.

  18. Biomolecular functionalization for enhanced cell–material interactions of poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Punet, Xavier; Mauchauffé, Rodolphe; Rodríguez-Cabello, José C.; Alonso, Matilde; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of implants or medical devices into the body tissues requires of good cell–material interactions. However, most polymeric materials used for these applications lack on biological cues, which enhanced mid- and long-term implant failure due to weak integration with the surrounding tissue. Commonly used strategies for tissue–material integration focus on functionalization of the material surface by means of natural proteins or short peptides. However, the use of these biomolecules involves major drawbacks such as immunogenic problems and oversimplification of the constructs. Here, designed elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs) are used to enhance poly(methyl methacrylate) surface properties and compared against the use of short peptides. In this study, cell response has been analysed for different functionalization conditions in the presence and absence of a competing protein, which interferes on surface–cell interaction by unspecific adsorption on the interface. The study has shown that ELRs can induce higher rates of cell attachment and stronger cell anchorages than short peptides, being a better choice for surface functionalization. PMID:26816640

  19. Responses of Vascular Endothelial Cells to Photoembossed Topographies on Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Films

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lin; Hughes-Brittain, Nanayaa F.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Peijs, Ton; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Failures of vascular grafts are normally caused by the lack of a durable and adherent endothelium covering the graft which leads to thrombus and neointima formation. A promising approach to overcome these issues is to create a functional, quiescent monolayer of endothelial cells on the surface of implants. The present study reports for the first time on the use of photoembossing as a technique to create polymer films with different topographical features for improved cell interaction in biomedical applications. For this, a photopolymer is created by mixing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate (TPETA) at a 1:1 ratio. This photopolymer demonstrated an improvement in biocompatibility over PMMA which is already known to be biocompatible and has been extensively used in the biomedical field. Additionally, photoembossed films showed significantly improved cell attachment and proliferation compared to their non-embossed counterparts. Surface texturing consisted of grooves of different pitches (6, 10, and 20 µm) and heights (1 µm and 2.5 µm). The 20 µm pitch photoembossed films significantly accelerated cell migration in a wound-healing assay, while films with a 6 µm pitch inhibited cells from detaching. Additionally, the relief structure obtained by photoembossing also changed the surface wettability of the substrates. Photoembossed PMMA-TPETA systems benefited from this change as it improved their water contact angle to around 70°, making it well suited for cell adhesion. PMID:27941669

  20. Absorption behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotube composites: effects of UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Je-Chuan; Cao, Wenxin; Yang, Fuqian; Yang, Tsong-Jen; Lee, Sanboh

    2017-03-08

    Understanding the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on solvent transport in polymers is of practical importance for the applications of polymer-CNT composites in electronics and photonics. The transport behavior of methanol in poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PMMA-MWCNT) composites with and without UV light irradiation has been studied. The anomalous transport has been investigated as a function of the weight percentage of MWCNTs and UV dose in the temperature range of 30-50 °C. The anomalous transport consists of Case I (controlled by concentration gradient) and Case II (controlled by stress relaxation) transport; both UV irradiation and the addition of MWCNTs in PMMA enhance the transport of methanol. The activation energies for Case I and Case II transport decrease with the increase of UV dose for the PMMA-MWCNT plates with the same weight percentage of MWCNTs. Without UV irradiation, the activation energy for Case I transport of methanol decreases with the increase of the weight percentage of MWCNTs, and the activation energy for Case II transport increases with the increase of the weight percentage of MWCNTs.

  1. Dielectric properties and fluctuating relaxation processes of poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymeric nanocomposite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengwa, R. J.; Choudhary, Shobhna

    2014-06-01

    Solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes (SPNEs) consisted of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) of molar ratio C=O:Li+=4:1 with varying concentration of montmorillonite (MMT) clay as nanofiller have been prepared by classical solution casting and high intensity ultrasonic assisted solution casting methods. The dielectric/electrical dispersion behaviour of these electrolytes was studied by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy at ambient temperature. The dielectric loss tangent and electric modulus spectra have been analyzed for relaxation processes corresponding to the side groups rotation and the segmental motion of PMMA chain, which confirm their fluctuating behaviour with the sample preparation methods and also with change of MMT concentration. The feasibility of these relaxation fluctuations has been explained using a transient complex structural model based on Lewis acid-base interactions. The low permittivity and moderate dc ionic conductivity at ambient temperature suggest the suitability of these electrolytes in fabrication of ion conducting electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries. The amorphous behaviour and the exfoliated/intercalated MMT structures of these nanocomposite electrolytes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements.

  2. Segmental and local dynamics of stacked thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tatsuhiko; Fukao, Koji

    2014-02-01

    The glass transition temperature and the dynamics of the α and β processes have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy during successive annealing processes above the glass transition temperature for stacked thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of various thicknesses. The glass transition temperature and the dynamics of the α process (segmental motion) of as-stacked PMMA thin films exhibit thin-film-like behavior, insofar as the glass transition temperature is depressed and the dynamics of the α process are faster than those of the bulk system. Annealing at high temperature causes the glass transition temperature to increase from the reduced value and causes the dynamics of the α process to become slower approaching those of the bulk. Contrary to the segmental motion, the relaxation time of the β process (local motion) of the stacked PMMA thin films is almost equal to that of the bulk PMMA and is unaffected by the annealing process. However, the relaxation strengths of both the α process and β process show a strong correlation between each other. The sum of the relaxation strengths remains almost unchanged, while the individual relaxation strengths change during the annealing process. The fragility index of the stacked PMMA thin films increases with annealing, which suggests that the glassy state of the stacked thin films changes from strong to fragile.

  3. Bioactivity and architecture of Candida albicans biofilms developed on poly(methyl methacrylate) resin surface.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Wander José; Seneviratne, Jayampath; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and architecture of Candida albicans biofilms developed on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin. To do this, surface roughness (SR) and surface free energy of PMMA specimens were measured. Next, the biofilms of two different C. albicans strains (ATCC 90028 and SC5314) were allowed to develop on the PMMA surface and evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after adhesion. The bioactivity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. Biofilm topography was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the architectural properties of bio-volume, average thickness, biofilm roughness, surface area/volume ratio and the proportion of live/dead cells in the different biofilm development stages. SR and SFE had no influence on biofilm development. Each strain exhibited a different biofilm activity (P < 0.001). Confocal images showed different architectures for the different biofilm development stages. We conclude that the main differences detected in biofilm bioactivity and architecture were related to the characteristics of each C. albicans strain and to biofilm development time.

  4. Blend miscibility of cellulose propionate with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-15

    The blend miscibility of cellulose propionate (CP) with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MMA)) was investigated. The degree of substitution (DS) of CP used ranged from 1.6 to >2.9, and samples for the vinyl polymer component were prepared in a full range of VP:MMA compositions. Through DSC analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR and FT-IR measurements, we revealed that CPs of DS<2.7 were miscible with P(VP-co-MMA)s of VP≥~10mol% on a scale within a few nanometers, in virtue of hydrogen-bonding interactions between CP-hydroxyls and VP-carbonyls. When the DS of CP exceeded 2.7, the miscibility was restricted to the polymer pairs using P(VP-co-MMA)s of VP=ca. 10-40 mol%; the scale of mixing in the blends concerned was somewhat larger (ca. 5-20 nm), however. The appearance of such a "miscibility window" was interpretable as an effect of intramolecular repulsion in the copolymer component. Results of DMA and birefringence measurements indicated that the miscible blending of CP with the vinyl polymer invited synergistic improvements in thermomechanical and optical properties of the respective constituent polymers. Additionally, it was found that the VP:MMA composition range corresponding to the miscibility window was expanded by modification of the CP component into cellulose acetate propionate.

  5. Metal-Free Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate with ppm Level of Organic Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhicheng; Gu, Yu; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lifen; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2016-10-28

    It is well known that the recently developed photoinduced metal-free atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been considered as a promising methodology to completely eliminate transition metal residue in polymers. However, a serious problem needs to be improved, namely, large amount of organic photocatalysts should be used to keep the controllability over molecular weights and molecular weight distributions. In this work, a novel photocatalyst 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,6-dicyanobenzene (4CzIPN) with strong excited state reduction potential is successfully used to mediate a metal-free ATRP of methyl methacrylate just with parts per million (ppm) level usage under irradiation of blue light emitting diode at room temperature, using ethyl α-bromophenyl-acetate as a typical initiator with high initiator efficiency. The polymerization kinetic study, multiple controlled "on-off" light switching cycle regulation, and chain extension experiment confirm the "living"/controlled features of this promising photoinduced metal-free ATRP system with good molecular weight control in the presence of ppm level photocatalyst 4CzIPN.

  6. Control of methyl methacrylate during the preparation of orthopedic bone cements.

    PubMed

    Ungers, Leslie J; Vendrely, Timothy G; Barnes, C Lowry

    2007-04-01

    The use of methyl methacrylate (MMA) bone cement during orthopedic procedures has been seen as a potential exposure hazard to health care professionals. However, that assessment is based on a number of investigations with problems in experimental design, analysis, and data interpretation. The current investigation quantified differences in MMA vapors produced during the preparation of competing bone cements using various methods of preparation. Unlike previous investigations, this effort employs modern validated sampling and analytical methods, and considers the affect of censored results. Measurements of sufficient quality and number were collected to allow for a statistical treatment of the data. The ability of two controlled preparation techniques to reduce MMA emissions were compared with a traditional open container. The results confirmed that the preparation of bone cement releases MMA vapors into the breathing zone of the preparer. One preparation technique (Stryker Bowl) controlled emissions during mixing and curing and affected a 73% reduction in measured MMA concentrations. In addition to mixing and curing, the second technique (UltraMix System) also controlled the MMA during pouring of the monomer and affected a 90% reduction in MMA concentrations. An ANOVA test of interaction indicates that the reductions are attributable to the preparation technique regardless of the type of cement being used. Both a Fisher's PLSD and Games/Howell post hoc test of the results indicate that the mean differences between the uncontrolled open container and the controlled preparation techniques are significant (p < 0.05).

  7. Facile control of surface wettability in TiO2/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite films.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengjin; Di, Zengfeng; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2012-02-15

    A facile method to produce very hydrophobic surface was developed simply using the mixture of TiO(2) nanoparticles and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). When the volume ratio of TiO(2) to PMMA is between 35 vol.% and 50 vol.%, the mixture of two hydrophilic materials became very hydrophobic. Analysis of the molecular structure by infrared spectroscopy shows that the preferential orientation and attachment of a carbonyl group of a polymer molecule to the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles play a critical role in the appearance of the strong hydrophobicity. When this composite was exposed to UV light, PMMA on the surface of the mixture film was decomposed through a photocatalytic reaction and the very hydrophobic surface turned to the superhydrophilic one. The superhydrophilic property of UV-irradiated composite lasts as long as several months. This long lasting superhydrophilicity is ascribed to the porous structure, which provides high roughness and strong capillary interaction. Easy transition from strong hydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity in TiO(2)/PMMA composites could be applied to designing high contrast hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns.

  8. Surface characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) microgrooved for contact guidance of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, J A; De Cupere, V M; Moser, S; Van den Bosh de Aguilar, P; Rouxhet, P G

    2001-06-01

    High-resolution patterns of grooves have been made in poly(methyl methacrylate) films, PMMA, by an electron-beam microlithographic process. The surface of films processed over a large width was characterized in terms of chemical composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy), wettability (sessile drop) and topography (atomic force microscopy). Collagen adsorption was also studied (radiocounting, XPS) as such or in competition with Pluronic F68. The chemical alteration of the surface induced by the electron-beam irradiation disappeared after the dissolution involved in the development process. W138 human fibroblasts cultivated on microgrooved substrata (grooves 1 microm deep and 0.5-10 microm wide) showed a strong orientation parallel to the grooves. The contact guidance is induced by the topography of the surface and not by the alternation of zones with different physico-chemical properties. It may be explained in terms of probability of successful substratum contact by cell protrusions.

  9. Photochemically patterned poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces used in the fabrication of microanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Wei, Suying; Vaidya, Bikas; Patel, Ami B; Soper, Steven A; McCarley, Robin L

    2005-09-08

    We report here the photochemical surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, microfluidic devices by UV light to yield pendant carboxylic acid surface moieties. Patterns of carboxylic acid sites can be formed from the micrometer to millimeter scale by exposure of PMMA through a contact mask, and the chemical patterns allow for further functionalization of PMMA microdevice surfaces to yield arrays or other structured architectures. Demonstrated here is the relationship between UV exposure time and PMMA surface wettability, topography, surface functional group density, and electroosmotic flow (EOF) of aqueous buffer solutions in microchannels made of PMMA. It is found that the water contact angle on PMMA surfaces decreases from 70 degrees to 24 degrees after exposure to UV light as the result of the formation of carboxylic acid sites. However, upon rinsing with 2-propanol, the water contact angle increases to approximately 80 degrees , and this increase is attributed to changes in surface roughness resulting from removal of low molecular weight PMMA formed from scission events. In addition, the surface roughness and surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups exhibit a characteristic trend with UV exposure time. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) in PMMA microchannels increases upon UV modification and is pH dependent. The possible photolysis mechanism for formation of carboxylic acid groups on PMMA surfaces under the conditions outlined in this work is discussed.

  10. Homogeneously aligned liquid crystal molecules on reformed poly(methyl methacrylate) via ion-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hae-Chang; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Ju Hwan; Jang, Sang Bok; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Han, Jeong-Min; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated uniform LC alignment using IB-irradiated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as an alignment layer. We confirmed the topographical changes on PMMA caused by IB irradiation. Moreover, the wettability and chemical modification of the PMMA surface were investigated as functions of incidence angle. The results show that PMMA irradiated with IB at an incidence angle of 30° had a higher molecular polarity than PMMA irradiated with IB at other incidence angles, resulting in strong van der Waals interactions between the surface and LC molecules. The LC cells containing PMMA irradiated with IB at an incidence angle of 30° exhibited good thermal stability (180°) compared with LC cells containing conventional rubbing PI (150°). In addition, LC molecules on PMMA irradiated with IB at an incidence angle of 30° were observed to switch faster than those on conventional rubbing PI. Therefore, PMMA irradiated with IB under the optimal conditions may allow for PMMA to be applied in advanced LC devices as an alternative alignment layer.

  11. Gas-to-liquid permeation in silicon-containing, crosslinked, glassy copolymers of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Yang, W M; Peppas, N A

    1983-10-01

    Copolymers of methyl methacrylate with disiloxane derivatives have been proposed as biomaterials for contact lens applications. Although glassy, these copolymers exhibit high oxygen permeability and adequate wettability so that they can be used for manufacture of hard, extended wear lenses. Crosslinked copolymers of poly(methylmethacrylate-co-1,3-bis(methacryloxymethyl) -1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-disiloxane), P(MMA-co-BMTDS), containing from 0.085 to 0.53 mole fraction of BMTDS were prepared and tested for oxygen permeation using a novel apparatus which simulates the atmosphere/lens/cornea conditions. The gas-to-liquid dissolved oxygen permeability, P gd1 was determined and it was found to increase with BMTDS content. Permeability values for P(MMA-co-BMTDS) at 34 degrees C were significantly higher than for pure homopolymer PMMA, although these copolymers were glassy at this temperature. The increased oxygen permeation was attributed to increased oxygen solubility in the copolymers due to the presence of the -Si-O-bonds.

  12. Nanopillar formation from two-shot femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baset, F.; Popov, K.; Villafranca, A.; Alshehri, A. M.; Guay, J.-M.; Ramunno, L.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present experimental and numerical studies on the morphological evolution and dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation of bulk poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated with a pair of pulses. We show that a nanopillar-like structure is formed in the middle of the ablation crater for pulse energies below single-shot ablation threshold. The nanopillar is ∼400 nm long, lies adjacent to a nanopore, and protrudes ∼150 nm above the sample surface. As the pulse energy is increased gradually, the nanopillar disappears and the nanopore inside the ablation crater becomes larger. At higher pulse energies, a volcanic eruption like structure appears in the middle of the crater whose size and height increases with energy. 2D molecular dynamics simulations reveal that a nanojet and other features observed at higher pulse energies can be formed when the reflection of a shockwave, induced by the second laser pulse, causes density pinching in the middle of the interaction region that rapidly pushes out molten material towards the surface. The shockwave is reflected from the cold boundaries of a modified region created by the first laser pulse.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Suzhu; Juay, Yang Kang; Young, Ming Shyan

    2008-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated with melt blending. Two melt blending approaches of batch mixing and continuous extrusion have been used and the properties of the derived nanocomposites have been compared. The interaction of PMMA and CNTs, which is crucial to greatly improve the polymer properties, has been physically enhanced by adding a third party of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) compatibilizer. It is found that the electrical threshold for both PMMA/CNT and PMMA/PVDF/CNT nanocomposites lies between 0.5 to 1 wt% of CNTs. The thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites increase with CNTs and they are further increased by the addition of PVDF For 5 wt% CNT reinforced PMMA/PVDF/CNT nanocomposite, the onset of decomposition temperature is about 17 degrees C higher and elastic modulus is about 19.5% higher than those of neat PMMA. Rheological study also shows that the CNTs incorporated in the PMMA/PVDF/CNT nanocomposites act as physical cross-linkers.

  14. Dispersion characteristics and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Sébastien; Labzour, Asmae; Sinha-Ray, Suprakas; El Mabrouk, Khalil; Bousmina, Mosto

    2007-07-01

    The preparation, characterization, and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites are described. Nanocomposites have been prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer. Both unmodified and surface modified MWCNTs have been used for the nanocomposites preparation. Using both unmodified and modified MWCNTs, the effect of surface modification in nanocomposites is investigated by focusing on three major aspects: dispersion characteristics, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity measurements. Dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix is examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy that revealed a homogeneous distribution-dispersion of MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix for both unmodified and modified MWCNTs. Thermomechanical behavior is studied by dynamic mechanical analyzer and results showed a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties of PMMA in conjunction to an increase in the elastic behavior. The tensile properties of neat PMMA moderately improved after nanocomposites preparation with both modified and unmodified MWCNTs, however, electrical conductivity of neat PMMA significantly improved after nanocomposites preparation with 2 wt% unmodified MWCNTs. For example, the through plane conductivity increased from 3.6 x 10(-12) S x cm(-1) for neat PMMA to 3.6 x 10(-9) S x cm(-1) for nanocomposite. The various property measurements have been conducted and results have shown that, in overall, surface modifications have very little or no effect on final properties of neat PMMA.

  15. A Sol-Gel-Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) Electrophoresis Microchip with a Hydrophilic Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-07-27

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was 27.4° compared with 66.3° for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74 882.3 m-1 compared with 14 730.5 m-1 for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  16. Effect of ZnO on the Thermal Degradation Behavior of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Japić, Dajana; Marinšek, Marjan; Crnjak Orel, Zorica

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ZnO nanoparticles on the thermal degradation behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was tested using thermoanalytical techniques. The studied materials were investigated using TG, DTA, EGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via precipitation by adding LiOH into Zn2+ water/ethylene glycol solutions. The ZnO-PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by adding the appropriate amount of ZnO into MMA and subsequent MMA radical polymerization. According to the experimental results and model-free isoconversional activation energy calculations, the addition of ZnO into PMMA played a double role. The ZnO concentrations up to 0.15% stabilized the composite by shifting the degradation interval toward higher temperatures and increasing the apparent activation energy relative to pure PMMA. At higher concentrations, the catalytic effect of ZnO started to prevail and was reflected in the lower temperature intervals of intense PMMA degradation and lower apparent activation energy. The addition of ZnO generally did not change the nature of the PMMA decomposition process.

  17. Surface dilational moduli of poly (ethylene oxide), poly (methyl methacrylate), and their blend films.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoaki; Kawaguchi, Masami

    2012-10-15

    Surface dilational moduli of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and compatible PEO/PMMA blend films spread at the air-water interface were investigated as a function of surface concentration. The surface dilational modulus of an expanded PEO film increased as the surface concentration increased to 0.4 mg/m(2), which corresponds to the limiting surface area of PEO. After peaking at this value, the surface dilational modulus decreased with an increase in the PEO concentration. Lissajous orbits of PEO films exhibited positive hysteresis loops for all surface concentration ranges. On the other hand, the surface dilational modulus of a condensed PMMA film steeply increased as the surface concentration increased. Lissajous orbits of PMMA films changed from positive hysteresis loops to negative loops at the surface concentration at which the surface pressure reached in the plateau region. The magnitude of the surface dilational modulus of PMMA was larger than that of PEO at a fixed surface concentration. The surface dilational moduli of the PEO/PMMA blend films increased with the total surface concentration and their magnitudes were less than those of the individual PMMA films and larger than those of the individual PEO films at fixed surface concentrations. Lissajous orbits of the PEO/PMMA blend films also changed from positive hysteresis loops to negative loops beyond the surface concentration at which the plateau surface pressure of PEO was attained.

  18. Relationship between water structure and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akira; Miwa, Yuko; Miyoshi, Riko; Namiki, Takahiro

    2017-03-22

    We previously reported that the platelet compatibility of methyl methacrylate (MMA)-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) diblock copolymers is related to the characteristic water structure in the copolymer, as the copolymer has an excess amount of nonfreezing water when compared with that estimated from the amounts of water in HEMA and MMA homopolymers. Thus, in this study, the relationship between water structure and polymer structure, including the heterogeneity and mobility of the copolymer, was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The prepared copolymers were classified into two groups: copolymers with a short, constant polyMMA segment length (Mn = ~2900) and copolymers with a constant polyHEMA segment length (Mn = ~9500), whereas the lengths of the counter segments varied. DSC analysis showed that when the polyMMA and polyHEMA segment lengths are similar, the amount of nonfreezing water increases, regardless of the total molecular weight of the copolymer. NMR analysis showed that heterogeneity of the copolymer is enhanced and the mobility of the copolymer decreases when the segment lengths are similar. These findings suggested that the excess amount of nonfreezing water is formed when the properties of water near the HEMA unit change from freezing to nonfreezing owing to interactions with the MMA unit. In addition, it is suggested that the heterogeneity of the copolymer structure or the mobility of the polymer are involved in the generation of excess nonfreezing water.

  19. Effect of mouse VEGF164 on the viability of hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate-microencapsulated cells in vivo: bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dangxiao; Lo, Chuen; Sefton, Michael V

    2008-11-01

    Bioluminescent imaging was used to track the viability of luciferase transfected L929 cells in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (HEMA-MMA) microcapsules. Bioluminescence, as determined by Xenogen imaging after addition of luciferin to microcapsules in vitro, increased with time, consistent with an increase in cell number. Capsules were suspended in Matrigel and injected subcutaneously. The bioluminesence in vivo increased over the first 3 weeks and then decreased, both with and without the delivery of mVEGF(164) (1.2 ng/24 h/200 microcapsules in vitro); VEGF delivery was from microencapsulated doubly transfected cells (both luciferase and mVEGF(164)). VEGF delivery was sufficient to generate a greater number of vascular structures, but this did not result in the expected increase in microencapsulated cell viability. Interestingly, the number of vessels at day 28 was less than at day 21, consistent with what would be an expected reduction in VEGF secretion when cell viability is lost. The results presented here do not support the hypothesis that transfection of microencapsulated cells with VEGF is sufficient to correct the oxygen transport limitation, at least with this type of tissue engineering construct. On the other hand, bioluminescent imaging proved to be a useful method of monitoring microencapsulated cell viability over many weeks in vivo.

  20. Surface segregation of fluorinated moieties on poly(methyl methacrylate-ran-2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate) films during film formation: Entropic or enthalpic influences.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiuyun; Zuo, Biao; Deng, Mao; Hei, Yanlin; Ni, Huagang; Lu, Xiaolin; Wang, Xinping

    2010-09-01

    The effects of solvents, fluorinated monomer content and film-formation methods on the surface structures of random copolymers composed of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (FMA) were investigated by contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface tension measurement. It is found that, with cyclohexanone as the solvent, there is a critical FMA content of 9mol%, below which the copolymer films by spin coating have a more surface segregation extent of fluorinated moieties than those by solution casting; above which the copolymer films by solution casting have a more surface segregation extent of fluorinated moieties than those by spin coating. However, with toluene as solvent, the critical FMA content lowers down to 3mol%. We believe that the solvent nature and the content of fluorinated moieties in the random copolymer have the great effect because the combined effect of these two factors can determine the random copolymer chain conformations and their thermodynamic dominating factors in the solution and at the solution-air interface. A thermodynamic analysis combining the entropic and enthalpic effects is suggested to explain the observed phenomenon. This research is believed to obtain an enhanced understanding of the surface formation mechanism of the polymer films and thus demonstrate how to promote the segregation of fluorinated moieties at the polymer film surfaces.

  1. Photophysical, photochemical and laser behavior of some diolefinic laser dyes in sol-gel and methyl methacrylate/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Mahmoud A. S.; Abdel Gawad, El-Sayed A.; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2015-08-01

    The photophysical properties such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, fluorescence spectra, dipole moment, fluorescence quantum yields, fluorescence lifetimes and laser activity of 1,4-bis (β-Pyridyl-2-Vinyl) Benzene (P2VB), 2,5-distyryl-pyrazine (DSP) and 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene(MSB) diolefineic laser dyes have been measured in different restricted hosts. (P2VB), (DSP) and (MSB) are embedded in transparent sol-gel glass and a copolymer of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) media. The absorption and fluorescence properties of these laser dyes in sol-gel glass matrices are compared with their respective properties in copolymer host. The photostability of these laser dyes in sol-gel glass and (MMA/HEMA) copolymer samples are measured in terms of half-life method (using nitrogen laser 337.1 nm in pumping), as the number of pulses necessary to reduce the dye laser intensity to 50% of its original value. The gel laser materials show improved photostability upon pumping by nitrogen laser compared with those in organic polymeric host matrix.

  2. Study of the water structure in poly(methyl methacrylate-block-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and its relationship to platelet adhesion on the copolymer surface.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akira; Namiki, Takahiro; Nishimori, Yusuke; Ogawa, Haruki

    2015-01-01

    The water structure and platelet compatibility of poly(methyl methacrylate (MMA)-block-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)) were investigated. The molecular weight (Mn) of the polyHEMA segment was kept constant (average: 9600), while the Mn of the polyMMA segment was varied from 1340 to 7390. The equilibrium water content of the copolymers was found to be mainly governed by the HEMA content. The water structure in the copolymers was characterized in terms of the amounts of non-freezing and freezing water (abbreviated as Wnf and Wfz, respectively) using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the Wnf for the copolymers were higher than those estimated from the Wnf for the HEMA and MMA homopolymers and that the amount of excess non-freezing water depended on the polyMMA segment length. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that some of the copolymers had cold-crystallizable water. These facts suggested that the polyMMA segments were involved in determining the water structures in the copolymers. Furthermore, the platelet compatibility of the copolymers was improved as compared to that of the HEMA homopolymer. It was therefore concluded that the platelet compatibility of the copolymer was related to the amount of excess non-freezing water.

  3. Poly(butyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) and poly(methyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) graft copolymers: preparation and aqueous solution properties.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Adrian; Saunders, Brian; Vincent, Brian; Heenan, Richard K

    2003-06-15

    A series of water-soluble, amphiphilic graft copolymers has been prepared by free-radical copolymerization of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers, with either methyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate as the comonomers, in water/ethanol solvent mixtures. Lower molecular weight copolymers were obtained by increasing the concentration of the initiator, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), used in the polymerization reaction. However, the route used also led to the formation of significant quantities of tetramethylsuccinodinitrile, a toxic byproduct resulting from the cage reaction of AIBN. Static fluorescence measurements using pyrene as a probe, along with 1H NMR experiments, showed that the graft copolymers form aggregates in water at very low concentrations (approximately 0.01 g l(-1)) with the pendant hydrophilic graft chains forming a stabilizing shell around the hydrophobic backbone. An increase in the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the graft copolymers was found to lead to smaller aggregates with lower aggregation numbers and highly swollen hydrophilic shells, as revealed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS).

  4. Nonviral Plasmid DNA Carriers Based on N,N'-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate Star Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Barbara; Sieroń, Łukasz; Żymełka-Miara, Iwona; Binkiewicz, Paulina; Libera, Marcin; Smet, Mario; Trzebicka, Barbara; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Kowalczuk, Agnieszka; Dworak, Andrzej

    2015-10-12

    Star polymers with random and block copolymer arms made of cationic N,N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and nonionic di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in gene therapy. All stars were able to form polyplexes with plasmid DNA. The structure and size of the polyplexes were precisely determined using light scattering and cryo-TEM microscopy. The hydrodynamic radius of a complex of DNA with star was dependent on the architecture of the star arms, the DEGMA content and the number of amino groups in the star compared to the number of phosphate groups of the nucleic acid (N/P ratio). The smallest polyplexes (Rh90°∼50 nm) with positive zeta potentials (∼15 mV) were formed of stars with N/P=6. The introduction of DEGMA into the star structure caused a decrease of polyplex cytotoxicity in comparison to DMAEMA homopolymer stars. The overall transfection efficiency using HT-1080 cells showed that the studied systems are prospective gene delivery agents. The most promising results were obtained for stars with random copolymer arms of high DEGMA content.

  5. Polystyrene nanoparticles based on poly(butyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) and poly(methyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Adrian; Vincent, Brian

    2003-06-15

    The solubilization of styrene by poly(butyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) and poly(methyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) graft copolymers has been examined. From turbidity measurements the solubility limit of the monomer in the micelles was obtained and the distribution coefficients were evaluated. Dynamic light scattering revealed that below the solubility limit, solubilization leads to a slight increase in micelle size, while above the solubility limit, there is a dramatic increase in particle size and turbidity as oil-in-water emulsions are formed through coalescence of monomer-swollen micelles. Polymerizations carried out below the solubility limit using the graft copolymer micelles as templates resembled microemulsion polymerizations in nature and led to very fine sterically stabilized polystyrene latex particles. Through careful control of the monomer concentration and the polymerization temperature it was possible to obtain spherical nanosize latex particles with similar size to those of the micelle precursors (10 nm) up to 11% monomer by weight. Polymerizations above the solubility limit, on the other hand, showed similarities with emulsion polymerizations and resulted in larger particles with higher polydispersity.

  6. [Pathways of degradation of organic components of waste water of (meth)acrylate-producing factories to methane by communities of microorganisms of adapted and unadapted sludge].

    PubMed

    Shtarkman, N B; Laurinavichius, K S

    1992-01-01

    Pathways of the degradation of the main compounds of (meth)acrylate-producing factories wastewater (methyl methacrylate, methyl and butyl acrylate, acrylate and methacrylate, acetone, isopropanol, butanol and methanol) by the anaerobic microbial consortium of mesophilic unadapted granulated sludge from the "UASB" reactor and of adapted activated sludge from the contact reactor were comparatively studied. It was shown that the degradation of fatty acids and alcohols took place in both types of sludge. Methacrylate, acrylate and acetone degradation occurred only in adapted sludge. Both types of sludge were characterized by the reversible conversion of acetone and isopropanol and by the presence of the isomeric transition of butyrate and isobutyrate too. The present results allow to suggest that the adaptation of activated sludge to substrate includes the accumulation of biomass of microorganisms capable of hydrolyze specific substrates into such general intermediates as low-molecular-weight fatty acid and alcohols further metabolized to methane and carbon dioxide.

  7. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Epasinghe, D. Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-na; Kimmerling, Kirk A.; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol–gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly (methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3 month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4 wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  8. Development of microporous drug-releasing films cast from artificial nanosized latexes of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) or poly(styrene-co-ethyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Otto, Daniel P; Vosloo, Hermanus C M; Liebenberg, Wilna; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2008-08-01

    Two sets of copolymers comprising of styrene and either methyl or ethyl methacrylate as comonomer were conveniently synthesized by microemulsion copolymerization. The purified materials were characterized by GPC-MALLS and were shown to form artificial nanolatexes in THF. ATR-FTIR analysis revealed differences in copolymer composition and based on the copolymer properties, a selection of copolymers was chosen to cast drug-loaded, microporous films that exhibit microencapsulation of drug agglomerates. The contact angles of the copolymers suggested potential applications in medical devices to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms that commonly result in infections. Additionally, the different copolymeric films showed two phases of drug release characterized by a rapid initial drug release followed by a zero-order phase. Depending on the application, one could select the copolymer films that best suited the application i.e. for short-term drug release applications such as urinary catheters or long-term applications such as artificial implants.

  9. Characterization and electrolytic cleaning of poly(methyl methacrylate) residues on transferred chemical vapor deposited graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianbo; Finklea, Harry O.; Liu, Yuxin

    2017-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue has long been a critical challenge for practical applications of the transferred chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. Thermal annealing is empirically used for the removal of the PMMA residue; however experiments imply that there are still small amounts of residues left after thermal annealing which are hard to remove with conventional methods. In this paper, the thermal degradation of the PMMA residue upon annealing was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The study reveals that post-annealing residues are generated by the elimination of methoxycarbonyl side chains in PMMA and are believed to be absorbed on graphene via the π–π interaction between the conjugated unsaturated carbon segments and graphene. The post-annealing residues are difficult to remove by further annealing in a non-oxidative atmosphere due to their thermal and chemical stability. An electrolytic cleaning method was shown to be effective in removing these post-annealing residues while preserving the underlying graphene lattice based on Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. Additionally, a solution-gated field effect transistor was used to study the transport properties of the transferred CVD graphene before thermal annealing, after thermal annealing, and after electrolytic cleaning, respectively. The results show that the carrier mobility was significantly improved, and that the p-doping was reduced by removing PMMA residues and post-annealing residues. These studies provide a more in-depth understanding on the thermal annealing process for the removal of the PMMA residues from transferred CVD graphene and a new approach to remove the post-annealing residues, resulting in a residue-free graphene.

  10. Characterization and electrolytic cleaning of poly(methyl methacrylate) residues on transferred chemical vapor deposited graphene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianbo; Finklea, Harry O; Liu, Yuxin

    2017-03-24

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue has long been a critical challenge for practical applications of the transferred chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. Thermal annealing is empirically used for the removal of the PMMA residue; however experiments imply that there are still small amounts of residues left after thermal annealing which are hard to remove with conventional methods. In this paper, the thermal degradation of the PMMA residue upon annealing was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The study reveals that post-annealing residues are generated by the elimination of methoxycarbonyl side chains in PMMA and are believed to be absorbed on graphene via the π-π interaction between the conjugated unsaturated carbon segments and graphene. The post-annealing residues are difficult to remove by further annealing in a non-oxidative atmosphere due to their thermal and chemical stability. An electrolytic cleaning method was shown to be effective in removing these post-annealing residues while preserving the underlying graphene lattice based on Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. Additionally, a solution-gated field effect transistor was used to study the transport properties of the transferred CVD graphene before thermal annealing, after thermal annealing, and after electrolytic cleaning, respectively. The results show that the carrier mobility was significantly improved, and that the p-doping was reduced by removing PMMA residues and post-annealing residues. These studies provide a more in-depth understanding on the thermal annealing process for the removal of the PMMA residues from transferred CVD graphene and a new approach to remove the post-annealing residues, resulting in a residue-free graphene.

  11. Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate monomer on natural rubber latex. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah, S.

    1984-05-01

    A method of radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer on natural rubber (NR) latex has been studied. The irradiation dose in radiation emulsion polymerization of MMA monomer was lower compared to the irradiation dose for grafting of MMA monomer on NR latex, in order to obtain the same degree of conversion. This is due to the size of the rubber particles which are quite large and, hence, not sufficient to ensure an ideal emulsion polymerization. The irradiation dose for radiation grafting of MMA monomer on latex was around 300 krad to obtain a 75% degree of conversion. However, this irradiation dose was lower compared to the irradiation dose for bulk polymerization of MMA momomer, in order to obtain the same degree of conversion. This is due to the gel effect in the viscous media. Radiation grafting of MMA monomer on NR latex does not influence the pH of the latex, but influences the viscosity significantly. The viscosity of the NR latex increased with an increase in irradiation dose, due to the increase of the total solid content in the latex. The MMA monomer converted to P-MMA in NR latex was largely grafted on the NR, or at least insoluble in a solvent for P-MMA, such as acetone or toluene. The hardness of the pure gum vulcanizate increased with an increase in the degree of grafting or P-MMA content, but the other physical properties, such as tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, and thermal stability, were not greatly influenced by the degree of grafting. 9 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) measured by vertical interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Mambaye; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Massin, Philippe; Baslé, Michel Felix; Chappard, Daniel

    2012-08-07

    PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) is widely used to prepare orthopedic cements. They are in direct contact with cells and body fluids. PMMA, despite its hydrophobic nature, can absorb ~2% w/w water. We have evaluated by vertical interference microscopy if water absorption can produce a significant swelling in different types of PMMA blocks: pure, with a plasticizer, with a cross-linker, and in two types of commercial bone cements. Graphite rods which do not swell in water were used as internal standard. Hardness, indentation modulus, plastic, and elastic works were determined by nanoindentation under a 25mN fixed force. Vertical interference microscopy was used to image the polymer in the dry state and hydrated states (after 24 h in distilled water). On the surface of the polished polymers (before and after hydration), we measured roughness by the fractal dimension, the swelling in the vertical and the lateral directions. For each polymer block, four images were obtained and values were averaged. Comparison and standardization of the images in the dry and hydrated states were done with Matlab software. The average value measured on the graphite rod between the two images (dried and hydrated) was used for standardization of the images which were visualized in 3D. After grinding, a small retraction was noticeable between the surface of the rod and the polymers. A retraction ring was also visible around the graphite rod. After hydration, only the pure PMMA and bone cements had a significant swelling in the vertical direction. The presence of polymer beads in the cements limited the swelling in the lateral direction. Swelling parameters correlated with the nanoindentation data. PMMA can swell by absorbing a small amount of water and this induces a swelling that varies with the polymer composition and particle inclusions.

  13. Polymer PCF Bragg grating sensors based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian. P.; Webb, David J.; Kalli, Kyriacos; Yuan, Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bang, Ole

    2011-05-01

    Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been fabricated in polymer photonic crystal fibre (PCF). Results are presented using two different types of polymer optical fibre (POF); first multimode PCF with a core diameter of 50μm based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and second, endlessly single mode PCF with a core diameter of 6μm based on TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. Bragg grating inscription was achieved using a 30mW continuous wave 325nm helium cadmium laser. Both TOPAS and PMMA fibre have a large attenuation of around 1dB/cm in the 1550nm spectral region, limiting fibre lengths to no longer than 10cm. However, both have improved attenuation of under 10dB/m in the 800nm spectral region, thus allowing for fibre lengths to be much longer. The focus of current research is to utilise the increased fibre length, widening the range of sensor applications. The Bragg wavelength shift of a grating fabricated in PMMA fibre at 827nm has been monitored whilst the POF is thermally annealed at 80°C for 7 hours. The large length of POF enables real time monitoring of the grating, which demonstrates a permanent negative Bragg wavelength shift of 24nm during the 7 hours. This creates the possibility to manufacture multiplexed Bragg sensors in POF using a single phase mask in the UV inscription manufacturing. TOPAS holds certain advantages over PMMA including a much lower affinity for water, this should allow for the elimination of cross-sensitivity to humidity when monitoring temperature changes or axial strain, which is a significant concern when using PMMA fibre.

  14. Tacticity Effects on the Local Conformation and Interfacial Properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) at the Liquid-Vapor Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Kshitij C.; Zhu, He; Dhinojwala, Ali; Tsige, Mesfin

    2013-03-01

    The orientation of functional groups of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) play a key role in understanding functionalities like wettability, aggregation and solvent interaction. We have studied the orientation of different functional groups such as the α-methyl, ester methyl, methylene and carbonyl groups of the PMMA chain through all atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for different chain lengths of the polymer. Through orientational correlation, and number density computations we are able to establish the identity and extent of groups coming to the surface. Surface tensions are computed to validate our PMMA model. Analysis has been carried out for all three tacticities-atactic, syndiotactic, and isotactic. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy also provides insight into the orientation of various groups at the liquidvapor interface. Characterization of the SFG peaks is the point of some debate and MD simulations aim to aid in the understanding of local ordering.

  15. Modeling the free radical polymerization of acrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Hakan; Salman, Seyhan; Tüzün, Nurcan Şenyurt; Avci, Duygu; Aviyente, Viktorya

    Acrylates have gained importance because of their ease of conversion to high-molecular-weight polymers and their broad industrial use. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a well-known monomer for free radical polymerization, but its α-methyl substituent restricts the chemical modification of the monomer and therefore the properties of the resulting polymer. The presence of a heteroatom in the methyl group is known to increase the polymerizability of MMA. Methyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (MHMA), methyl α-methoxymethylacrylate (MC1MA), methyl α-acetoxymethylacrylate (MAcMA) show even better conversions to high-molecular-weight polymers than MMA. In contrast, the polymerization rate is known to decrease as the methyl group is replaced by ethyl in ethyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (EHMA) and t-butyl in t-butyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (TBHMA). In this study, quantum mechanical tools (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in order to understand the mechanistic behavior of the free radical polymerization reactions of acrylates. The polymerization rates of MMA, MHMA, MC1MA, MAcMA, EHMA, TBHMA, MC1AN (α-methoxymethyl acrylonitrile), and MC1AA (α-methoxymethyl acrylic acid) have been evaluated and rationalized. Simple monomers such as allyl alcohol (AA) and allyl chloride (AC) have also been modeled for comparative purposes.

  16. A design-of-experiments approach for the optimization and understanding of the cross-metathesis reaction of methyl ricinoleate with methyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao T T; Jacobs, Tina; Meier, Michael A R

    2009-01-01

    A design-of-experiments approach for the investigation of the cross-metathesis of methyl ricinoleate with methyl acrylate is described. Two second-generation metathesis initiators were studied using different reaction conditions, revealing optimal reaction conditions for each catalyst. Interestingly, the two catalysts showed completely different temperature response profiles. As a result of these investigations, suitable reaction conditions for the sustainable production of two value-added chemical intermediates were derived. Moreover, the design-of-experiments approach provided valuable information for a thorough understanding of catalytic reactions that would be more difficult to obtain by classic approaches.

  17. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by acrylic monomer in a denture.

    PubMed

    Koutis, D; Freeman, S

    2001-08-01

    A 71-year-old edentulous man developed a severely painful red mouth at sites of contact with a new denture. Patch testing showed allergy to samples of the denture material and to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Patch testing to methyl methacrylate was negative. Prolonged boiling of the denture resulted in reversal of his symptoms and samples of this fully cured denture material produced negative patch tests. While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms. Material safety data sheets are unreliable in providing information regarding the type of acrylate present in the material. Hence, patch testing should be performed with a battery of acrylate allergens as well as with small samples of the denture material.

  18. Surface treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and its toughening effect on poly(ethylene terephthalate)/elastomer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2013-09-01

    To improve the compatibility between ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate random terpolymer (E-MA-GMA) elastomer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), thereby enhance the toughening effect of E-MA-GMA on PET, γ-radiation-induced graft copolymerization technique was used to graft methyl acrylate (MA) monomer onto PET. The produced PET-g-PMA copolymer can be used as a self-compatibilizer in PET/E-MA-GMA blend since the copolymer contains the same segments, respectively, with PET and E-MA-GMA. The impact strength of PET/E-MA-GMA blend increased nearly by 30% in the presence of less than 0.1 wt% PET-g-PMA compared with that of the neat PET/elastomer blend, without loss of the tensile strength of the blends. This work proposed a potential application of radiation-induced grafting copolymerization technique on the in-situ compatibilization of PET/elastomer blends so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  19. Durability to oxygen reactive ion etching enhanced by addition of synthesized bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shunya; Sato, Hiroki; Tasaki, Yuhei; Watanuki, Kimihito; Nemoto, Nobukatsu; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the selection of bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates as additives to improve the durability to oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) of sub-50 nm imprint resist patterns suitable for bubble-defect-free UV nanoimprinting with a readily condensable gas. 2,5-Bis(2-acryloyloxyethoxy)-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a diacrylate chemical structure similar to that of glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate used as a base monomer, and 3-(2-methacryloyloxyethoxy)-1-(hydroxylethoxy)-2-propoxy-3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a hydroxy group similar to the base monomer, were synthesized taking into consideration the Ohnishi and ring parameters, and the oxidization of the trimethylsilyl moiety to inorganic species during O2 RIE. The addition of the latter liquid additive to the base monomer decreased etching rate owing to the good miscibility of the additive in the base monomer, while the addition of the former crystalline additive caused phase separation after UV nanoimprinting. The latter additive worked as a compatibilizer to the former additive, which is preferred for etching durability improvement. The coexistence of the additives enabled the fabrication of a 45 nm line-and-space resist pattern by UV nanoimprinting, and its residual layer could be removed by O2 RIE.

  20. Gas-phase kinetics of OH radicals reaction with a series of fluorinated acrylates and methacrylates at atmospheric pressure and 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, Carmen M.; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2014-09-01

    Rate coefficients for the gas phase reactions of OH radicals with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylmethacrylate (k1) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropylacrylate (k2), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropylmethacrylate (k3), and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylacrylate (k4) were determinated to be k1 = (2.54 ± 0.12) × 10-11, k2 = (1.41 ± 0.11) × 10-11, k3 = (1.65 ± 0.14) × 10-11 and k4 = (1.25 ± 0.13) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. Kinetic experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using the relative-rate technique with GC-FID analysis. This study is the first kinetic for these reactions of OH radicals under atmospheric pressure. Additionally, the rate constants obtained are compared with other halogenated and non halogenated acrylates and methacrylates to develop structure/reactivity relationships in terms of the presence of fluorine and ester groups and the hydrocarbon chain length. The atmospheric implications of the reactions were assessed by the estimation of the tropospheric lifetimes of the title reactions.

  1. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islas, Luisa; Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin; Isoshima, Takashi; Burillo, Guillermina

    2016-10-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from 60Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C1s and O1s content at the catheter's surface, revealed that the catheter's surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC's Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Adsorption of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(methacrylic acid) on Dodecyltrimethylammonium Chloride Micelle in Water: Effect of Charge Density.

    PubMed

    Sulatha, Muralidharan S; Natarajan, Upendra

    2015-09-24

    We have investigated the interaction of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTA) micelle with weak polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid). Anionic as well as un-ionized forms of the polyelectrolytes were studied. Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes were formed within 5-11 ns of the simulation time and were found to be stable. Association is driven purely by electrostatic interactions for anionic chains whereas dispersion interactions also play a dominant role in the case of un-ionized chains. Surfactant headgroup nitrogen atoms are in close contact with the carboxylic oxygens of the polyelectrolyte chain at a distance of 0.35 nm. In the complexes, the polyelectrolyte chains are adsorbed on to the hydrophilic micellar surface and do not penetrate into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Polyacrylate chain shows higher affinity for complex formation with DoTA as compared to polymethacrylate chain. Anionic polyelectrolyte chains show higher interaction strength as compared to corresponding un-ionized chains. Anionic chains act as polymeric counterion in the complexes, resulting in the displacement of counterions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) into the bulk solution. Anionic chains show distinct shrinkage upon adsorption onto the micelle. Detailed information about the microscopic structure and binding characteristics of these complexes is in agreement with available experimental literature.

  3. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95 MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20 MPa after immersing for 30 days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37 °C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption.

  4. Synthesis, structural features, and methyl methacrylate polymerisation of binuclear zinc(II) complexes with tetradentate pyrazolyl ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Dongil; Lee, Ha-Jin; Lee, Hyosun

    2014-04-01

    The reaction of ZnCl2 with ancillary ligands, including 1,4-bis-(N,N-di-(1H-pyrazolyl-1-methyl)amine)benzene (L1) and 4,4‧-bis-(N,N-di(1H-pyrazolyl-1-methyl)phenyl)methane (L2), in ethanol yields Zn(II) chloride complexes, i.e., 1,4-bis-(N,N-di-(1H-pyrazolyl-1-methyl)amine)benzene(dichloro)Zn(II) [L1Zn2Cl4] and 4,4‧-bis-(N,N-di-(1H-pyrazolyl-1-methyl)phenyl)methane(dichloro)Zn(II) [L2Zn2Cl4]. The X-ray crystal structures of Zn(II) complexes revealed that they are binuclear, and each zinc atom has a distorted tetrahedral geometry which involves a nitrogen atom from two pyrazole groups and two chloro ligands. The catalytic activity of [L1Zn2Cl4] and [L2Zn2Cl4] for the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO) increased by twofold compared to the corresponding monomeric Zn(II) complex, N,N-bis(1H-pyrazolyl-1-methyl)aniline(dichloro)Zn(II) [LZnCl2], at 60 °C.

  5. Simple, green, and clean removal of a poly(methyl methacrylate) film on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.-H.; Jung, W.; Cho, D.; Seo, J.-T.; Moon, Y.; Woo, S. H.; Lee, C.; Park, C.-Y.; Ahn, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The clean removal of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film on graphene has been an essential part of the process of transferring chemical vapor deposited graphene to a specific substrate, influencing the quality of the transferred graphene. Here we demonstrate that the clean removal of PMMA can be achieved by a single heat-treatment process without the chemical treatment that was adopted in other methods of PMMA removal. The cleanness of the transferred graphene was confirmed by four-point probe measurements, synchrotron radiation x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, optical images, and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Molecular structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) surface II: Effect of stereoregularity examined through all-atom molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kshitij C; Zhu, He; Dhinojwala, Ali; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-11-04

    Utilizing all-atom molecular dynamics (MD), we have analyzed the effect of tacticity and temperature on the surface structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at the polymer-vacuum interface. We quantify these effects primarily through orientation, measured as the tilt with respect to the surface normal, and the surface number densities of the α-methyl, ester-methyl, carbonyl, and backbone methylene groups. Molecular structure on the surface is a complex interplay between orientation and number densities and is challenging to capture through sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy alone. Independent quantification of the number density and orientation of chemical groups through all-atom MD presents a comprehensive model of stereoregular PMMA on the surface. SFG analysis presented in part I of this joint publication measures the orientation of molecules that are in agreement with MD results. We observe the ester-methyl groups as preferentially oriented, irrespective of tacticity, followed by the α-methyl and carbonyl groups. SFG spectroscopy also points to ester-methyl being dominant on the surface. The backbone methylene groups show a very broad angular distribution, centered along the surface plane. The surface number density ratios of ester-methyl to α-methyl groups show syndiotactic PMMA having the lowest value. Isotactic PMMA has the highest ratios of ester- to α-methyl. These subtle trends in the relative angular orientation and number densities that influence the variation of surface structure with tacticity are highlighted in this article. A more planar conformation of the syndiotactic PMMA along the surface (x-y plane) can be visualized through the trajectories from all-atom MD. Results from conformation tensor calculations for chains with any of their segments contributing to the surface validate the visual observation.

  7. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  8. Investigation of dairy cattle ease of movement on new methyl methacrylate resin aggregate floorings.

    PubMed

    Franco-Gendron, N; Bergeron, R; Curilla, W; Conte, S; DeVries, T; Vasseur, E

    2016-10-01

    Freestall dairy farms commonly present issues with cattle slips and falls caused by smooth flooring and manure slurry. This study examined the effect of 4 new methyl methacrylate (MMA) resin aggregate flooring types (1-4) compared with rubber (positive) and concrete (negative control) on dairy cow (n=18) ease of movement when walking on straight and right-angled corridors. Our hypothesis was that cow ease of movement when walking on the MMA surfaces would be better than when walking on traction milled concrete, and at least as good as when walking on rubber. Cattle ease of movement was measured using kinematics, accelerometers, and visual observation of gait and associated behaviors. Stride length, swing time, stance time, and hoof height were obtained from kinematic evaluation. Acceleration and asymmetry of variance were measured with accelerometers. Locomotion score and behaviors associated with lameness, such as arch back, head bob, tracking up, step asymmetry, and reluctance to bear weight were visually observed. Stride length, swing time, stance time, and the number of steps taken were the only variables affected by flooring type. Differences between flooring types for these variables were tested using a generalized linear mixed model with cow as a random effect, week as a random block factor, and flooring type as a fixed effect. Multiple comparisons with a Scheffé adjustment were done to analyze differences among flooring types. Stride length was 0.14 m longer (better) on rubber when compared with concrete, and 0.11 and 0.17 m shorter on MMA 1 and 2 compared with rubber. On MMA 3 and 4, stride length did not differ from either rubber or concrete. Swing time was 0.04 s shorter (worse) on MMA 1 than on rubber, but did not differ from any other flooring. Stance time was 0.18 s longer (worse) on MMA 2 when compared with rubber, but it did not differ from any other treatment. The number of steps was higher on MMA 4 compared with rubber (4.57 vs. 3.95 steps), but

  9. Recrystallization of water in non-water-soluble (meth)acrylate polymers is not rare and is not devitrification.

    PubMed

    Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Ohya, Atsushi; Kitano, Hiromi

    2012-02-16

    Change in the state of water sorbed into four kinds of non-water-soluble poly(meth)acrylates with low water content by temperature (T) perturbation was examined on the basis of T variable mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Many studies using differential scanning calorimetry suggested that there was no change in the state. T dependence of their MIR spectra, however, clearly demonstrated various changes in the state. Furthermore, recrystallization, which was crystallization during heating, was observed in all four polymers. The recrystallization observed in this study was not devitrification, which is the change in the state from glassy water to crystalline water, but vapor deposition during heating (vapor re-deposition). There were only two reports about recrystallization of water in a non-water-soluble polymer before this report; therefore, it might be considered to be a rare phenomenon. However, as demonstrated in this study, it is not a rare phenomenon. Recrystallization (vapor re-deposition) of water in the polymer matrices is related to a balance between flexibility and strength of the electrostatic interaction sites of polymer matrices but might not be related to the biocompatibility of polymers.

  10. Stimulus-responsiveness and methyl violet release behaviors of poly(NIPAAm-co-AA) hydrogels chemically crosslinked with β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Gao, Jun; Liu, Ruina; Zhao, Sanping

    2016-06-16

    To fabricate thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrogels functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties, β-CD polymer bearing methacrylate (CDP-g-GMA) used as a reactive and functional crosslinker was synthesized, and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solution via UV-initiated free radical polymerization. The stimulus-responsiveness of the resultant hydrogels has been carried out by measuring the swelling ratio at different temperatures and pH values. The results showed that the thermo- and pH-sensitivities of the produced hydrogels were significantly dependent on the compositions of the hydrogels, and the dual sensitivities exhibited good reversible process. The interior morphology observed by SEM exhibited that the pore size of the hydrogels could be tailored by pH of the local medium. Using a water-soluble cationic dye methyl violet (MV) as a model drug, MV loading and release profiles of the hydrogels as potential drug controlled release carriers were evaluated. The MV release rate from CD-functionalized hydrogels was much slower than that from the hydrogel without β-CDs at both pH 2.0 and pH 7.4. The release of MV from CD-functionalized hydrogels at pH 2.0 was faster than that at pH 7.4, the release kinetics of MV from the CD-functionalized hydrogels displayed a sustained release profile, and the release mechanism followed Fickian diffusion.

  11. Reactivity of methacrylates in insertion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Rünzi, Thomas; Guironnet, Damien; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2010-11-24

    Polymerization of ethylene by complexes [{(P^O)PdMe(L)}] (P^O = κ(2)-(P,O)-2-(2-MeOC(6)H(4))(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3))) affords homopolyethylene free of any methyl methacrylate (MMA)-derived units, even in the presence of substantial concentrations of MMA. In stoichiometric studies, reactive {(P^O)Pd(Me)L} fragments generated by halide abstraction from [({(P^O)Pd(Me)Cl}μ-Na)(2)] insert MMA in a 1,2- as well as 2,1-mode. The 1,2-insertion product forms a stable five-membered chelate by coordination of the carbonyl group. Thermodynamic parameters for MMA insertion are ΔH(++) = 69.0(3.1) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(++) = -103(10) J mol(-1) K(-1) (total average for 1,2- and 2,1-insertion), in comparison to ΔH(++) = 48.5(3.0) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(++) = -138(7) J mol(-1) K(-1) for methyl acrylate (MA) insertion. These data agree with an observed at least 10(2)-fold preference for MA incorporation vs MMA incorporation (not detected) under polymerization conditions. Copolymerization of ethylene with a bifunctional acrylate-methacrylate monomer yields linear polyethylenes with intact methacrylate substituents. Post-polymerization modification of the latter was exemplified by free-radical thiol addition and by cross-metathesis.

  12. Synergistic effect of ultrasonication and phase transfer catalysts in radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate - A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Prabha, J; Susan Jemima, W; Jayaprada, M; Umapathy, M J

    2017-03-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been polymerized to poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) by employing three different phase transfer catalysts (PTC) such as 1,4-bis(dimethylhexyl)ethylenediammoniumbromide (DMHEDAB), 1,4bis(dimethylheptyl)ethylenediammoniumbromide (DMH1EDAB) and 1,4-bis(dimethyloctyl)ethylenediammonium bromide (DMOEDAB) under the influence of ultrasound radiation. The radical polymerization was performed under unstirred condition at a temperature of 60±1°C in an oxygen free atmosphere employing water soluble K2S2O8 as initiator. Various parameters such as role of [Monomer], [Initiator], [PTC], solvent and temperature were investigated on rate of polymerization (Rp) and the synergic efficacy of ultrasound wave variation and phase transfer catalysts were also assessed. It was found that the rate of polymerization (Rp) increased drastically for all the three catalyst under the influence of ultrasound and the order of efficiency was found to be [Formula: see text] This increase may be due to the number of carbon chain attached to the polar group which facilitate and accelerate the rate of polymerization.

  13. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Zhao, Leihua; Zhang, Li; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108° and a well dispersion.

  14. Plasma-polymerized methyl methacrylate via intense and highly energetic atmospheric pressure micro-plasma for bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Sang; Ballato, John; Kim, Sung-O.; Clemson University Team

    2013-09-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate), PMMA, has been widely used as a biocompatible material in bone cement, dental fillings, and many other bio-related applications. Vacuum plasmas and radio frequency (RF) atmospheric plasmas are the most common methods for depositing plasma-derived thin films and nanoparticles. However, the necessary equipment is difficult to operate and maintain as well as being large and expensive. Here, we report the use of a novel intense and highly energetic atmospheric pressure plasma jet array using direct plasma jet-to-jet coupling effects to deposit high quality plasma-polymerized MMA (PPMMA) for bio-medical applications. The newly proposed atmospheric pressure micro-plasma jet array device can generate the intense plasma mode with a strong plasma emission and high plasma particle energy. PPMMA was successfully deposited on a variety of substrates and characterized by SEM, AFM, and FT-IR. The micro-plasma jet is obtained at a sinusoidal voltage with a peak value of 30 kV and frequency of 35 kHz. Argon gas was employed as the discharge gas for plasma generation and its flow rate was in the range of 2230 sccm, Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer was vaporized by means of a glass bubbler which was supplied by argon gas with flow rates in the range of 268 sccm from room temperature to 400°C. The deposited PPMMA thin films were flexible, transparent, thin, and strong on metal substrates.

  15. Modulating fibroblast cell proliferation with functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) based copolymers: chemical composition and monomer distribution effect.

    PubMed

    El Khadali, Fatima; Hélary, Gérard; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Migonney, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)-based terpolymers bearing sulfonate and carboxylate groups have been synthesized by radical copolymerization leading to polymers with random distributions of ionic monomer units. Fibroblast cells were seeded on terpolymers of various molar compositions of ionic groups. Kinetics of the cell proliferation were examined and systematically compared to the nonfunctionalized control polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate). Modulation of cell proliferation was observed on 15% ionic monomer content copolymers of various compositions (R = COO(-)/(COO(-) + SO(3)(-)) and varies from 0 to 1). The inhibition percentage of cell proliferation calculated for each polymer by comparison to the cell proliferation on the control was plotted against R and gave a maximum value for R close to 0.55. Copolymers with ionic group contents higher or lower than 15% exhibit inhibition percentages fitting with those previously observed for the same R values, showing that the hydrophilic properties are not sufficient to explain the modulation effect of this material toward cells. Moreover, for each polymer tested, cells, even if inhibited in growth, were shown to be viable, indicating that the synthesized terpolymers exhibit cytostatic properties excluding any cytotoxic effect. Such polymers may be used for the fabrication of biocompatible intraocular lenses and prevent secondary cataract.

  16. Influence of ultrasonic condition on phase transfer catalyzed radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in two phase system - A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Elumalai; Murugesan, Vajjiravel

    2016-08-25

    An ultrasonic condition assisted phase transfer catalyzed radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate was investigated in an ethyl acetate/water two phase system at 60±1°C and 25kHz, 300W under inert atmosphere. The influence of monomer, initiator, catalyst and temperature, volume fraction of aqueous phase on the rate of polymerization was examined in detail. The reaction order was found to be unity for monomer, initiator and catalyst. Generally, the reaction rate was relatively fast in two phase system, when a catalytic amount of phase transfer catalyst was used. The combined approach, use of ultrasonic and PTC condition was significantly enhances the rate of polymerization. An ultrasonic and phase transfer catalyzed radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate has shown about three fold enhancements in the rate compared with silent polymerization of MMA using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as PTC. The resultant kinetics was evaluated with silent polymerization and an important feature was discussed. The activation energy and other thermodynamic parameters were computed. Based on the obtained results an appropriate radical mechanism has been derived. TGA showed the polymer was stable up to 150°C. The FT-IR and DSC analysis validates the atactic nature of the obtained polymer. The XRD pattern reveals the amorphous nature of polymer was dominated.

  17. Chemical grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate onto polymer surfaces by atmospheric pressure plasma processing.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Raechelle A; Meenan, Brian J

    2010-02-02

    This article reports the use of atmospheric pressure plasma processing to induce chemical grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) onto polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces with the aim of attaining an adlayer conformation which is resistant to protein adsorption. The plasma treatment was carried out using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with PEGMA of molecular weights (MW) 1000 and 2000, PEGMA(1000) and PEGMA(2000), being grafted in a two step procedure: (1) reactive groups are generated on the polymer surface followed by (2) radical addition reactions with the PEGMA. The surface chemistry, coherency, and topography of the resulting PEGMA grafted surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The most coherently grafted PEGMA layers were observed for the 2000 MW PEGMA macromolecule, DBD processed at an energy dose of 105.0 J/cm(2) as indicated by ToF-SIMS images. The effect of the chemisorbed PEGMA layer on protein adsorption was assessed by evaluating the surface response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using XPS. BSA was used as a model protein to determine the grafted macromolecular conformation of the PEGMA layer. Whereas the PEGMA(1000) surfaces showed some protein adsorption, the PEGMA(2000) surfaces appeared to absorb no measurable amount of protein, confirming the optimum surface conformation for a nonfouling surface.

  18. Ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) by 308, 222 and 193 nm excimer-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; Figuera, J. M.; Florido, F.; García-Moreno, I.; Collar, E. P.; Sastre, R.

    1995-03-01

    Data on the ablation of Poly(Methyl MetAcylate) (PMMA) and Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl MetAcylate) (PHEMA) with 0%, 1% and 20% of Ethylene Glycol DiMethAcrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking monomer by 193, 222 and 308 nm laser radiation are presented. Direct photoetching of PMMA at 308 nm is demonstrated for laser fluences ranging from 2 to 18 J/cm2. The ablation rate of PHEMA is lower than the corresponding to PMMA and decreases when the amount of EGDMA increases. The determination of the absorbed energy density required to initiate significant ablation suggests that the photoetching mechanism is similar for all the polymers studied and is a function of the irradiation wavelength. The Beer-Lambert law, the Srinivasan, Smrtic and Babu (SSB) theory and the kinetic model of the moving interface are used to analyze the experimental results. It is shown that only the moving interface theory fits well the etch rate for all the selected polymers at the three radiation wavelengths.

  19. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/oligo (ethylene glycol) acrylate) terpolymeric hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, M.; Stamenic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-09-01

    Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers, it is possible to prepare P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels with dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of the obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of terpolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesised by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterised by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature range (20-70 °C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in the swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increased progressively with an increase in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl groups from IA occurs at pH>4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, peptides, proteins, etc.

  20. I Situ Laser Interferometry and Fluorescence Quenching Measurements of Poly(methyl Methacrylate) Thin Film Dissolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei

    The dissolution mechanisms of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films in selected organic solvents was investigated. The dissolution was monitored using an in situ laser interferometry and fluorescence quenching (LIFQ) technique. Phenanthrene -labeled PMMA (Phe-PMMA) was used as a probe. Solutions of PMMA in toluene were spin-coated onto sapphire substrate to form films approximately 1 μm thick. The LIFQ results show that for PMMA film dissolution the transition layer thickness increases until the dissolution reaches its steady state. Then this final transition layer thickness (FTL) does not change until solvent vanguard molecules reach the surface of the substrate. Thermal history effects on PMMA film dissolution were examined. The dissolution rate decreases with increasing baking temperature and reaches a constant value for annealing at 150^circC. The results show that the thermal history has negligible effect on the factor of reduction f obtained from interferometry measurements. Fluorescence quenching measurements, by contrast, suggest that transition layer thickness decreases with increasing baking temperature. This suggests that the fluorescence quenching part of the LIFQ experiment is sensitive to the Fickian precursor portion of the solvent concentration profile in the film. The dissolution of PMMA films in acetone, 2-butanone, and 2-pentanone was studied. The results show that the dissolution rate decreases significantly with increasing solvent molecular size. Significant differences are found for FTL values calculated from LIFQ experiments and those calculated from f obtained by laser interferometry. Values of f are essentially identical in three solvents used. The effect of non-solvent on PMMA dissolution was studied by using 2-propanol and 2-butanone mixtures as solvents. The dissolution rate decreases with increasing non-solvent content. This indicates a strong thermodynamic effect, especially at high concentration of non-solvent. Molecular weight

  1. Fabrication and physical properties of transparent poly (methyl-methacrylate)-layered silicate nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliu, Elena

    Transparent polymer nanocomposites have promising potential for protective coating applications with improved surface resistance, higher temperature performance and low gas permeability for containers and films. Extremely thin protective layers are required for improved performance of various electronic devices in aviation, aerospace and medical equipment as well as for lenses and fiber optics in optical communications. This research study developed a method for fabricating optically transparent nanocomposites of poly(methyl-methacrylate)(PMMA) and a commercial organically-modified layered silicate CloisiteRTM 6A (C6A). The nanocomposites were produced by dispersing C6A and PMMA separately in a common solvent xylene followed by mixing the two solutions by mechanical stirring and/or ultrasonic agitation and then removing the solvent by evaporation. Processing conditions such as the mixing methods and times and the rates of solvent removal were investigated in order to achieve a high degree of dispersion and exfoliation of C6A in the polymer matrix and produce a nanocomposite material with high optical transparency. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to monitor the morphology of the C6A after each processing step. Thin films of PMMA/C6A nanocomposites were produced by casting and spraying. SAXS results suggest that C6A was partially exfoliated in the composite material with an average of 2 to 3 platelets per crystallite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the existence of both exfoliated and intercalated C6A in PMMA. One mm thick discs were obtained by molding the sprayed films. The optical transmission of the nanocomposite films and discs was measured with an UV/VIS spectrometer. The spectroscopic results served to identify the best process for producing PMMA-C6A films of high optical transparency. Even the nanocomposite films containing up to 20 wt.% C6A prepared by this process exhibited optical transmittance in the range of 80 to 90

  2. In vitro drug release studies from the polymeric hydrogels based on HEA and HPMA using 4-[(E)-[(3Z)-3-(4-(acryloyloxy)benzylidene)-2-hexylidene]methyl]phenyl acrylate as a crosslinker.

    PubMed

    Arun, A; Reddy, B S R

    2005-04-01

    Novel crosslinker, 4-[(E)-[(3Z)-3-(4-(acryloyloxy)benzylidene)-2-hexylidene]methyl]phenyl acrylate (AMA) was synthesized using (2Z, 6E)-2,6-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (HBC) and acryloyl chloride. Two types of crosslinked polymeric hydrogels were prepared from 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) monomers using AMA as a crosslinking agent. 2',4-dichloro-5'-fluoro-1-ene-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)phenone (EHP) (J. Bio Active Compat. Polym. 18 (2003) 219) was used as a drug molecule for monitoring the releasing behaviour of the hydrogels. Morphology of the hydrogels was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Several modifications were made in the experimental sections to study the effect of crosslinking percentage (CLP), drug loading percentage (DLP), monomer type (HEA and HPMA) and the pH. Totally 18 experiments were carried out to study the desired parameters in the hydrogels. The drug-releasing rate was monitored by the absorption appeared at 330.5 nm using UV spectrometer. It was found that the releasing rate of the drug from the polymeric hydrogels was dependent on the crosslinking density, drug loading percentage, monomer type and pH of the medium.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN...

  5. Effect of Low Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma on Optical Properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP), Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, S. H.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Faryadras, S.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene, Poly Vinyl Chloride and Poly Methyl Methacrylate samples treated by DC glow discharge of N2 plasma have been investigated by UV-Vis_NIR spectrophotometer. It was found that plasma treatment change chemical structure of polymer surfaces. In addition, absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient of all treated samples have been slightly changed.

  6. Laser vibrational overtone activation of ethyl acrylate/benzoyl peroxide mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinevich, Oleg; Snavely, D. L.

    1999-04-01

    Intra- and extracavity laser vibrational overtone polymerization of ethyl acrylate/benzoyl peroxide mixture has been demonstrated. Five photolysis wavenumbers on and near the fifth CH stretch overtone absorption of benzoyl peroxide was investigated. The polymer yield was monitored by observing the decrease in the intensity ratio of the olefinic/methyl and methylenic first CH stretch overtone absorptions of ethyl acrylate. The rate of the polymerization did not depend on the photolysis wavenumber. Molecular weights of the overtone initiated polymers were an order of magnitude larger than those obtained by thermal polymerization. The polymerization rate is compared to the intracavity laser vibrational overtone polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

  7. Dependence of ultraviolet nanosecond laser polymer ablation on polymer molecular weight: Poly(methyl methacrylate) at 248 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounos, Giannis; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta; Bityurin, Nikita

    2006-12-01

    We rely on a methodology demonstrated previously for assessing the temperature evolution and polymer viscosity changes in the 248nm irradiation of poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMAs) with molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 2.5to996kDa. Briefly, this methodology [G. Bounos et al., J. Appl. Phys. 98, 084317 (2005)] relies on monitoring the formation of aryl products in the irradiation of polymer doped with iodonaphthalene or iodophenanthrene. The results demonstrate that higher temperatures are attained with increasing Mw. The surface temperatures at the corresponding ablation thresholds are estimated to be ˜850-900K for Mw⩾120kDa vs ˜600K for 2.5kDa PMMA. In addition, for all Mw's, melting is demonstrated (viscosity values of ≈101Pas), but it lasts longer for high Mw PMMAs. We ascribe these differences to the fact that low Mw PMMAs dissociate efficiently to desorbing monomers/oligomers, thereby resulting in more efficient energy removal. Even so, the ablation threshold of the high Mw PMMAs is attained at higher fluences. This can be ascribed to the higher fraction of bonds that is required to be broken, and also plausibly to the higher gaseous product pressures that must be attained, for material ejection to be effected. The results are overall well accounted by the bulk photothermal model.

  8. Dependence of ultraviolet nanosecond laser polymer ablation on polymer molecular weight: Poly(methyl methacrylate) at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Bounos, Giannis; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta; Bityurin, Nikita

    2006-12-01

    We rely on a methodology demonstrated previously for assessing the temperature evolution and polymer viscosity changes in the 248 nm irradiation of poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMAs) with molecular weights (M{sub w}) ranging from 2.5 to 996 kDa. Briefly, this methodology [G. Bounos et al., J. Appl. Phys. 98, 084317 (2005)] relies on monitoring the formation of aryl products in the irradiation of polymer doped with iodonaphthalene or iodophenanthrene. The results demonstrate that higher temperatures are attained with increasing M{sub w}. The surface temperatures at the corresponding ablation thresholds are estimated to be {approx}850-900 K for M{sub w}{>=}120 kDa vs {approx}600 K for 2.5 kDa PMMA. In addition, for all M{sub w}'s, melting is demonstrated (viscosity values of {approx_equal}10{sup 1} Pa s), but it lasts longer for high M{sub w} PMMAs. We ascribe these differences to the fact that low M{sub w} PMMAs dissociate efficiently to desorbing monomers/oligomers, thereby resulting in more efficient energy removal. Even so, the ablation threshold of the high M{sub w} PMMAs is attained at higher fluences. This can be ascribed to the higher fraction of bonds that is required to be broken, and also plausibly to the higher gaseous product pressures that must be attained, for material ejection to be effected. The results are overall well accounted by the bulk photothermal model.

  9. Biconvex intraocular lenses and Nd:YAG capsulotomy: Experimental comparison of surface damage with different poly(methyl methacrylate) formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.E.; Alberhasky, M.T. )

    1990-11-01

    Biconvex posterior chamber lenses have optical advantages and decrease the risk of capsular opacification, but they are more likely to be pitted during ND:YAG capsulotomy because of apposition of the lens to the capsule. This study reports the likelihood of surface damage to different formulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) at the energy levels required to open posterior capsules. Molded lenses are more easily damaged than higher molecular weight lathe-cut materials (P less than .01), as expected. However, by keeping energy output low, even injection-molded lenses showed minimal damage, with mean pit size 39 +/- 39 microns at 1 mJ. By using a converging contact lens, low power, and keeping the focus behind the capsule, damage to all materials tested should be clinically insignificant.

  10. Pilot-scale synthesis and rheological assessment of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers: perspectives for medical application.

    PubMed

    Linan, Lamia Zuniga; Nascimento Lima, Nádson M; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Sabino, Marcos A; Kozlowski, Mark T; Manenti, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    This work presents the rheological assessment of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymers synthesized in a dedicated pilot-scale plant. This material is to be used for the construction of scaffolds via Rapid Prototyping (RP). The polymers were prepared to match the physical and biological properties required for medical applications. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) measurements verified that the synthesized polymers were atactic, amorphous and linear in chains. Rheological properties such as viscosity, storage and loss modulus, beyond the loss factor, and creep and recovery were measured in a plate-plate sensor within the viscoelastic linear region. The results showed the relevant influence of the molecular weight on the viscosity and elasticity of the material, and how, as the molecular weight increases, the viscoelastic properties are getting closer to those of human bone. This article demonstrates that by using the implemented methodology it is possible to synthesize a polymer, with properties comparable to commercially-available PMMA.

  11. Interfacial chemistry of poly(methyl methacrylate) arising from exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hanqiu; Killelea, Daniel R; Tepavcevic, Sanja; Kelber, Scott I; Sibener, S J

    2011-04-28

    We herein report on the chemical and physical changes that occur in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, induced by exposure to high-energy vacuum ultraviolet radiation and a supersonic beam of neutral, ground electronic state O((3)P) atomic oxygen. A combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance and in situ Fourier-transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the photochemical reaction kinetics and mechanisms during irradiation. The surface morphological changes were measured with atomic force microscopy. The results showed there was no enhancement in the mass loss rate during simultaneous exposure of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation and atomic oxygen. Rather, the rate of mass loss was impeded when the polymer film was exposed to both reagents. This study elucidates the kinetics of photochemical and oxidative reaction for PMMA, and shows that the synergistic effect involving VUV irradiation and exposure to ground state atomic oxygen depends substantially on the relative fluxes of these reagents.

  12. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE), POLYVINYL BUTYRAL RESIN AND POLYIMIDE AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R

    2008-01-01

    Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. For this reason dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low temperature power applications. In this work we report the dielectric properties of four polymers: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB), and polyimide (PI--Kapton\\textregistered). The dielectric measurements are performed with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 45K to 350K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the polymers are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure. It is observed that PI and \\pmma\\ dissolved in toluene have the lowest dielectric losses for temperatures lower than $100\\ \\kelvin$. \\Blx\\ and PI have the smallest spread in their breakdown strength data.

  13. Graphene functionalized with poly(vinyl alcohol) as a Pickering stabilizer for suspension polymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Erdenedelger, Gansukh; Dao, Trung Dung; Jeong, Han Mo

    2016-08-15

    Two types of thermally reduced graphenes (TRGs) having different lateral sizes were non-covalently modified with poly(vinyl alcohol) to endow water-dispersibility. The modified TRGs were examined as Pickering stabilizers for the suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). They were effective graphene-based Pickering stabilizers for the system with almost all of the polymerized composite microparticles having a regular spherical shape. The particle size of the composite microparticles was tunable by the size or the amount of modified TRG used as stabilizer. The almost perfect core-shell structure of the composite microparticles effectively enhanced the thermal stability of the core PMMA. In addition, when the core-shell microparticles were compression molded into a monolith, the obtained composite exhibited an ultra-low percolation threshold of electrical conductivity of around 0.04vol%.

  14. A Room-Temperature Operation Formaldehyde Sensing Material Printed Using Blends of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Wen-Yu; Yang, Sung-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a printable blending material, i.e., reduced graphene oxide (RGO) mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), for formaldehyde sensing. Based on experimental results, 2% RGO/10% PMMA is an optimal ratio for formaldehyde detection, which produced a 30.5% resistance variation in response to 1000 ppm formaldehyde and high selectivity compared to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs), humidity, CO, and NO. The demonstrated detection limit is 100 ppm with 1.51% resistance variation. Characterization of the developed formaldehyde sensing material was performed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Based on Raman spectroscopy, the basic sensing mechanism is the band distortion of RGO due to blending with PMMA and the adsorption of formaldehyde. This work establishes insights into the formaldehyde sensing mechanism and explores a potential printable sensing material for diverse applications. PMID:26580624

  15. Expanded corn starch as a versatile material in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankushi; Kumar, Arvind; Latha, Patnam Padma; Ray, Siddharth Sankar; Chatterjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-10-05

    Polymerization of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was performed by surface initiated (SI) and activator generated by electron transfer (AGET) systems of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using renewable expanded corn starch (ECS) as a support. This prepared ECS is found to have V type crystallinity with 50 m(2)g(-1) surface area (<1m(2)g(-1) for corn starch (CS)) and average pore volume of 0.43 cm(3)g(-1) (<0.1cm(3)g(-1) for CS). In SI-ATRP, hydroxyl groups on ECS were converted into macro-initiator by replacing with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) with a 0.06 degree of substitution determined from NMR. In AGET-ATRP, CuBr2/ligand complex get adsorbed on ECS (Cu(II)/ECS=10 wt.%) to catalyze the polymerization. Synthesized PS/PMMA was characterized by SEM, FT-IR, (1)H NMR.

  16. Biconvex intraocular lenses and Nd:YAG capsulotomy: experimental comparison of surface damage with different poly(methyl methacrylate) formulations.

    PubMed

    Downing, J E; Alberhasky, M T

    1990-11-01

    Biconvex posterior chamber lenses have optical advantages and decrease the risk of capsular opacification, but they are more likely to be pitted during ND:YAG capsulotomy because of apposition of the lens to the capsule. This study reports the likelihood of surface damage to different formulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) at the energy levels required to open posterior capsules. Molded lenses are more easily damaged than higher molecular weight lathe-cut materials (P less than .01), as expected. However, by keeping energy output low, even injection-molded lenses showed minimal damage, with mean pit size 39 +/- 39 microns at 1 mJ. By using a converging contact lens, low power, and keeping the focus behind the capsule, damage to all materials tested should be clinically insignificant.

  17. Autophobic dewetting of a poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film on a silicon wafer treated in good solvent vapor.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Han, Yanchun

    2009-05-05

    The wettability of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films on a silicon wafer with a native oxide layer exposed to solvent vapors is dependent on the solvent properties. In the nonsolvent vapor, the film spread on the substrate with some protrusions generated on the film surface. In the good solvent vapor, dewetting happened. A new interface formed between the anchored PMMA chains and the swollen upper part of the film. Entropy effects caused the upper movable chains to dewet on the anchored chains. The rim instability depended on the surface tension of solvent (i.e., the finger was generated in acetone vapor (gamma(acetone) = 24 mN/m), not in dioxane vapor (gamma(dioxane) = 33 mN/m)). The spacing (lambda) that grew as an exponential function of film thickness h scaled as approximately h(1.31), whereas the mean size (D) of the resulting droplets grew linearly with h.

  18. Effect of Solvent on the Dielectric Properties of Nanocomposite Poly(methyl methacrylate)-Doped Titanium Dioxide Dielectric Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyl Ismail, Lyly; Hafizah Nik Mohamad, Nik Noor; Salleh Shamsudin, Muhamad; Zulkefle, Habibah; Hanapiah Abdullah, Mohd; Herman, Sukreen Hana; Rusop, Mohamad

    2012-06-01

    A poly(methyl methacrylate)-doped titanium dioxide (PMMA:TiO2) nanocomposite film was obtained by spin coating the nanocomposite solution onto a silicon substrate. The nanocomposite solutions were prepared by dissolving the PMMA and TiO2 nanopowder in three different types of organic solvent, namely, toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and acetone. We found that the dielectric properties of the PMMA:TiO2 nanocomposite are dependent on the type of solvent used. The dielectric properties measured at a frequency of 1 kHz showed that acetone gives the highest dielectric constant and capacitance compared with toluene and THF. Toluene gives the lowest dielectric loss among the three. The topography and roughness of the PMMA:TiO2 nanocomposite indicate that a particular solvent results in a different kind of surface morphology.

  19. Electrical detection of spin precession in freely suspended graphene spin valves on cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Neumann, Ingmar; Van de Vondel, Joris; Bridoux, German; Costache, Marius V; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2013-01-14

    Spin injection and detection is achieved in freely suspended graphene using cobalt electrodes and a nonlocal spin-valve geometry. The devices are fabricated with a single electron-beam-resist poly(methyl methacrylate) process that minimizes both the fabrication steps and the number of (aggressive) chemicals used, greatly reducing contamination and increasing the yield of high-quality, mechanically stable devices. As-grown devices can present mobilities exceeding 10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and, because the contacts deposited on graphene are only exposed to acetone and isopropanol, the method is compatible with almost any contacting material. Spin accumulation and spin precession are studied in these nonlocal spin valves. Fitting of Hanle spin precession data in bilayer and multilayer graphene yields a spin relaxation time of ∼125-250 ps and a spin diffusion length of 1.7-1.9 μm at room temperature.

  20. Chemical properties of 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane-methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yujin; Umemoto, Kozo; Kurata, Shigeaki

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties such as water sorption, water solubility and solvent resistance of a new resin material consisting of 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (BMPMS) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Water sorption was evaluated by immersing the specimens in water at 37±1°C for 1 week, water solubility was evaluated by keeping the specimens in a desiccator under dry conditions at 37±1°C until the weight became constant, and solvent resistance was evaluated by immersing the specimens in acetone for 1 week and measuring the dissolved weight of acetone volatilized from those liquids. The water sorption and solvent resistance of the new resin were improved with increasing amount of BMPMS, whereas the water solubility remained the same value and did not depend on the amount of BMPMS.

  1. Fabrication of ordered poly(methyl methacrylate) nanobowl arrays using SiO2 colloidal crystal templates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lier; Fu, Ming; Tao, Yinglei; Guo, Xiaoyun

    2014-06-01

    A simple approach is presented for the fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanobowl arrays over cm2 areas using SiO2 colloidal crystal templates. SiO2 colloidal crystal templates were prepared on a clean glass substrate by self-assembled SiO2 spheres of 410 nm in diameter. The air between the silica spheres was filled by the superfluous monomer of PMMA that can be subsequently polymerized. After infiltration, the SiO2-PMMA templates were immersed in a 3 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF) aqueous solution. After 24 h, silica spheres were etched and a free-standing nanobowl sheet was obtained. The size of the nanobowls could be controlled by the size of the SiO2 spheres and the area of the nanobowl sheet could be altered by the size of the glass substrate.

  2. Influence of fabrication conditions on characteristics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for holographic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Cho, Sheng-Lung; Lin, June-Hua; Hsu, Ken Y.; Chi, Sien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of the fabrication conditions on holographic characteristics in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ:PMMA) bulk photopolymer. In our investigation, the PQ:PMMA bulk samples are fabricated by use of a two-step thermo-polymerization method. We firstly propose to monitor relative viscosity of the monomer solution during the sample preparation to obtain a reliable criterion for material fabrication. We then compare experimentally characteristics of 2-mm thick samples fabricated with different conditions for holographic memory. The results show that the conditions in the first step play a important rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA samples with good optical uniformity. In addition, the conditions in the second step play the rule for controlling the concentration of residual monomer and determine holographic characteristics. These results can provide a useful rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA photopolymers for further applications on volume holographic data storage.

  3. Kinetic study of Candida antarctica lipase B immobilization using poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles obtained by miniemulsion polymerization as support.

    PubMed

    Valério, Alexsandra; Nicoletti, Gabrieli; Cipolatti, Eliane P; Ninow, Jorge L; Araújo, Pedro H H; Sayer, Cláudia; de Oliveira, Débora

    2015-03-01

    With the objective to obtain immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) with good activity and improved utilization rate, this study evaluated the influence of enzyme and crodamol concentrations and initiator type on the CalB enzyme immobilization in nanoparticles consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) obtained by miniemulsion polymerization. The kinetic study of immobilized CalB enzyme in PMMA nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of monomer conversion, particle size, zeta potential, and relative activity. The optimum immobilization condition for CalB was compared with free enzyme in the p-NPL hydrolysis activity measurement. Results showed a higher CalB enzyme stability after 20 hydrolysis cycles compared with free CalB enzyme; in particular, the relative immobilized enzyme activity was maintained up to 40%. In conclusion, PMMA nanoparticles proved to be a good support for the CalB enzyme immobilization and may be used as a feasible alternative catalyst in industrial processes.

  4. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  5. Detonation Characteristics of Plastic Explosives Based on Attractive Nitramines with Polyisobutylene and Poly(methyl methacrylate) Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbeih, Ahmed; Pachman, Jiri; Zeman, Svatopluk; Vávra, Pavel; Trzciński, Waldemar A.; Akštein, zbyněk

    2012-10-01

    Four highly brisant nitramines, RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane), HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane), BCHMX (cis-1,3,4,6-tetranitro-octahydroimidazo-[4,5-d]imidazole), and ɛ-HNIW (ɛ-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane), were studied as extruded plastic explosives bonded by two plastic matrices based on polyisobutylene (C4 matrix) and poly-methylmethacrylate (plasticized by dioctyl-adipate) binders. The detonation velocities, D, were measured experimentally. Detonation parameters were also calculated by means of the Kamlet and Jacobs method and CHEETAH and EXPLO5 codes. These detonation parameters showed that plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) based on BCHMX are more powerful explosives than those based on RDX. The Urizar coefficient for poly(methyl methacrylate) binder was also calculated.

  6. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-r-hexafluoro propylene) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Steven; Conway, Maeve; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, is a highly crystalline and rigid polymer, and is used in many applications where chemical inertness, resistance to various solvents and environmental degradation are required. Copolymerization of PVDF with hexafluoropropylene (HFP) tends to decrease the amount of crystallinity, thereby, resulting in a more flexible polymer, which provides new applications for PVDF. Various studies were undertaken to investigate the structure and properties of miscible blends of PVDF and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA; however, no studies were performed on the blends of P(VDF-HFP) random copolymers and PMMA. In the current study, we investigate the miscibility, and thermal and mechanical properties of P(VDF-HFP)/PMMA blends via differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation. Results indicate that increasing PMMA concentration leads to decreased crystallinity and shifting of the crystallization onset temperature during cooling to lower values. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  7. Usefulness of a quick decalcification of bone sections embedded in methyl methacrylate[corrected]: an improved method for immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Samirah Abreu; dos Reis, Luciene Machado; de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Noronha, Irene de Lourdes; Jorgetti, Vanda; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of undecalcified bone sections embedded in methyl methacrylate (MMA) is not commonly employed because of potential destruction of tissue antigenicity by highly exothermic polymerization. The aim of the present study was to describe a new technique in which a quick decalcification of bone sections embedded in MMA improves the results for immunohistochemistry. The quality of interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) immunostaining according to the present method was better than the conventional one. Immunostaining for osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) in bone sections of chronic kidney disease patients with mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD) was stronger than in controls (postmortem healthy subjects). The present study suggested that this method is easy, fast, and effective to perform both histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry in the same bone fragment, yielding new insights into pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic approaches in bone disease.

  8. In situ Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Graphene Composite Gel Electrolytes for Highly Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-il; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with long-term stability are produced using polymer-gel electrolytes (PGEs). In this study, we introduce the formation of PGEs using in situ gelation with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles and graphene fillers that are pre-deposited on the counter electrodes. We obtain a high concentration PMMA-based PGEs (i.e., over 10 wt%). A DSC composed of a PMMA/graphene composite PGEs exhibits an 8.49% photon-to-electric conversion efficiency, which is comparable to conventional liquid electrolyte DSCs. This finding is attributed to increased ion diffusivity and conductivity of the PMMA-based PGEs resulting from the incorporation of graphene nanofillers. The PMMA-based PGE DSCs exhibit highly stable long-term efficiencies, maintaining up to 90% of their initial efficiency during thermal soaking, whereas the efficiencies of liquid electrolyte cells decrease significantly, by up to 60%.

  9. UV-laser-assisted modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application to capillary-driven-flow immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchiwaki, Y.; Takaoka, H.

    2015-07-01

    A concave microchannel surface was formed by nanosecond pulse laser ablation to allow antibody immobilization on a capillary flow immunoassay chip. Microscopic analysis showed that UV laser ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate) at 193 nm and 1.76 J · cm-2 allowed excellent immobilization of Cy5 conjugated antibody. The concave structure was 10 µm deep and 260 µm wide and supported uniform antibody printing on the microchannel surface. The characteristics of immobilized antibodies on this surface and on a commercially available polymer coating were comparable. Quantitative analysis of procollagen type I C-peptide (PICP) at different concentrations provided a linear relationship in the range 0-600 ng ml-1 PICP, which is sufficient for clinical estimation of PICP in the blood. The results may provide a new benchmark for a mechatronic antibody immobilization-based capillary flow immunoassay chip.

  10. Di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMEMA)-derived gels align small organic molecules in methanol.

    PubMed

    García, Manuela E; Woodruff, Shannon R; Hellemann, Erich; Tsarevsky, Nicolay V; Gil, Roberto R

    2017-03-01

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) constitute an important NMR parameter for structural elucidation in all areas of chemistry. In this study, di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMEMA)-based gels are introduced as alignment media for the measurement of RDCs of small organic molecules in polar solvents such as methanol. The low viscosity of methanol permits the execution of J-scaled BIRD HSQC experiments that yield very sharp lines in anisotropic conditions. The gels have excellent mechanical properties, and their compression and expansion in the swollen state can be reversed and performed multiple times. This process enables the easy loading and release of analytes. The excellent performance of these new aligning gels is demonstrated by analyzing the structure of the alkaloid retrorsine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sub-5 nm Domains in Ordered Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) Block Polymers for Lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Kennemur, Justin; Yao, Li; Bates, Frank Stephen; Hillmyer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PCHE PMMA) diblock copolymers with varying molar mass (4.9 kg/mol Mn 30.6 kg/mol) and narrow molar mass distribution were synthesized through a combination of anionic and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques. Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of -(hydroxy)polystyrene (PS-OH) yielded -(hydroxy)poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHEOH) with little loss of hydroxyl functionality. PCHE-OH was reacted with -bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB) to produce an ATRP macroinitiator used for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. PCHE PMMA is a glassy, thermally stable material with a large effective segment segment interaction parameter, eff = (144.4 6.2)/T (0.162 0.013), determined by meanfield analysis of order-to-disorder transition temperatures (TODT) measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Ordered lamellar domain pitches (9 D 33 nm) were identified by small-angle X-ray scattering from neat BCPs containing 43 52 vol % PCHE ( f PCHE). Atomic force microscopy was used to show 7.5 nm lamellar features (D = 14.8 nm) which are some of the smallest observed to date. The lowest molar mass sample (Mn = 4.9 kg/mol, f PCHE = 0.46) is characterized by TODT = 173 3 C and sub-5 nm nanodomains, which together with the sacrificial properties of PMMA and the high overall thermal stability place this material at the forefront of high- systems for advanced nanopatterning applications.

  12. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure.

  14. Synthesis of hollow silver spheres using poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ge, Chen; Ren, Min; Liu, Yumin; Jiang, Tingshun

    2010-02-01

    Hollow silver spheres were successfully prepared by reducing AgNO 3 with ascorbic acid and using negatively charged poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) (PSA) spheres as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate as a stabilizer. Firstly, silver cations adsorbed on the surface of PSA spheres via electrostatic attraction between the carboxyl groups and silver cations were reduced in situ by ascorbic acid. The silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface of PSA spheres served as seeds for the further growth of silver shells. After that, extra amount of AgNO 3 and ascorbic acid solutions were added to form PSA/Ag composites with thick silver shells. In order to obtain compact silver shells, the as-prepared PSA/Ag composites were heated at 150 °C for 3 h. Then hollow silver spheres were prepared by dissolving PSA templates with tetrahydrofuran.

  15. An ORMOSIL-Containing Orthodontic Acrylic Resin with Concomitant Improvements in Antimicrobial and Fracture Toughness Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; Blizzard, John D.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances. PMID:22870322

  16. UV-Curable Polyurethane-Methacrylate Co-Networks and Interpenetrating Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-30

    were: methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate ( HEMA ), butyl methacrylate (BMA), lauryl methacrylate (LMA), and...ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) UV’V-Curable Polyurethane- Methacrylate Co-Networks and Interpenetrating Networks 12. PERSONAL...by block number 4 Castor oil was reacted in varying ratios with 6-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate to form a liquid urethane- methacrylate prepolymer. This

  17. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methoxyl ethylene glycol-caprolactone-co-methacrylic acid-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) pH-sensitive hydrogel for delivery of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xu, Xu; Wang, YuJun; Yan, Xi; Guo, Gang; Huang, MeiJuan; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2010-04-15

    In this work, a novel pH-sensitive hydrogels based on macromonomer of methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone)-acryloyl chloride (MPEG-PCL-AC, PCE-AC), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) were successfully synthesized by heat-initiated free radical polymerization method. The obtained macromonomers and hydrogels were characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR, respectively. Morphology study, swelling behavior, in vitro drug release behavior, acute oral toxicity of hydrogels, and cytotoxicity of PCE-AC macromonomer were also investigated in this paper. Finally, the hydrogels demonstrated that the sharp change in different pH value, thus believing to be promising the suitability of the candidate for oral drug-delivery systems.

  18. Electrospinning preparation and photoluminescence properties of poly (methyl methacrylate)/Eu{sup 3+} ions composite nanofibers and nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Maoying; Zhang, Zhenyi; Cao, Tieping; Sun, Yangyang; Liang, Pingping; Shao, Changlu; Liu, Yichun

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanofibers and nanoribbons of poly (methyl methacrylate)/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites were successfully prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique. And the photoluminescence properties of the above PMMA/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites were studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers and nanoribbons of PMMA/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites are fabricated by electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence properties of as-electrospun PMMA/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ratios of electric- and magnetic-dipole transitions are enhanced by increasing electrospinning voltage. -- Abstract: Nanofibers and nanoribbons of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites with different concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ions were successfully prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique. From the results of scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we found that the morphology of the as-electrospun PMMA/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites could be changed from fiber to ribbon structure by adjusting the concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ions in the electrospun precursor solution. The coordination between the Eu{sup 3+} ions and PMMA molecules were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the as-electrospun PMMA/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites were studied in comparison to those of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} powder. It was showed that the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) emission appeared in the PL spectra of the as-electrospun PMMA/Eu{sup 3+} ions composites, whereas the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 0} emission was completely absent in the PL spectra of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} powder due to the different local environments surrounding Eu{sup 3+} ions. It was interesting to note that the intensity ratios of the electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole transitions for

  19. Synthesis of ultrathin poly(methyl methacrylate) model coatings bound via organosilanes to zinc and investigation of their delamination kinetics.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Danish; Rechmann, Julian; Sarfraz, Adnan; Altin, Abdulrahman; Genchev, Georgi; Erbe, Andreas

    2014-10-22

    Polymer coatings are widely used to protect metals from corrosion. Coating adhesion to the base material is critical for good protection, but coatings may fail because of cathodic delamination. Most of the experimental studies on cathodic delamination use polymers to study the corrosion behavior under conditions where the interfacial chemistry at the metal(oxide)/polymer interface is not well-defined. Here, ultrathin linear and cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] coatings that are covalently bound to oxide-covered zinc via a silane linker have been prepared. For preparation, zinc was functionalized with vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTS), yielding a vinyl monomer-covered surface. These samples were subjected to thermally initiated free radical polymerization in the presence of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to yield surface-bound ultrathin PMMA films of 10-20 nm thickness, bound to the surface via Zn-O-Si bonds. A similar preparation was also carried out in the presence of different amounts of the cross-linkers ethylene glycol diacrylate and hexanediol diacrylate. Functionalized and polymer-coated zinc samples were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Coating stability toward cathodic delamination has been evaluated by scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) experiments. In all cases, the covalently linked coatings show lower delamination rates of 0.02-0.2 mm h(-1) than coatings attached to the surface without covalent bonds (rates ∼10 mm h(-1)). Samples with a higher fraction of cross-linker delaminate slower, with rates down to 0.03-0.04 mm h(-1), compared to ∼0.3 mm h(-1) without cross-linker. Samples with longer hydrophobic alkyl chains also delaminate slower, with the lowest observed delamination rate of 0.028 mm h(-1) using hexanediol diacrylate. For the coatings studied here, delamination kinetics is not diffusion limited, but the rate is controlled by a chemical

  20. Synthesis and Characteristics of Radiation Curable Polyurethanes Containing Pendant Acrylate Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-09

    the mechanical properties of electron beam . cured acrylated polyester urethanes based on toluene diisocyanate(TDI) and hydroxyethyl - methacrylate ( HEMA ...acrylate or methacrylate pendant groups are can- didates for radiation sensitive solid polymers since the acrylate groups may undergo crosslinking...acrylate com- 4ponents. Toluene diisocyanate - hydroxyethylmethacrylate (TDI- HEMA ) or isophorone diisocyanate - hydroxylethylmethacrylate (IPDI-HEHA

  1. Facile Synthesis of Novel Polyethylene-Based A-B-C Block Copolymers Containing Poly(methyl methacrylate) Using a Living Polymerization System.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiangyang; Ma, Qiong; Cai, Zhengguo; Tanaka, Ryo; Shiono, Takeshi; Grubbs, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene-propylene-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene-hexene-MMA A-B-C block copolymers with high molecular weight (>100,000) are synthesized using fluorenylamide-ligated titanium complex activated by modified methylaluminoxane and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol for the first time. After diblock copolymerization of olefin is conducted completely, MMA is added and activated by aluminum Lewis acid to promote anionic polymerization. The length of polyolefin and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is controllable precisely by the change of the additive amount of olefin and polymerization time, respectively. A soft amorphous polypropylene or polyhexene segment is located between two hard segments of semicrystalline polyethylene and glassy PMMA blocks.

  2. Preparation of a new micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separator for high performance Li secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-10-01

    In this study, micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separators (PE-g-PMMA) were prepared by a radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate onto a conventional PE separator followed by a phase inversion. After the phase inversion, the micro-pores were generated in the grafted PMMA layer. The prepared micro-porous PE-g-PMMA separators showed an improved electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity due to their improved affinity with a liquid electrolyte and the presence of pores in the grafted PMMA layer. The PE-g-PMMA separators exhibited a lower thermal shrinkage compared to the original PE separator. The PE-g-PMMA separators showed a better oxidation stability up to 5.0 V when compared to the original PE separator (4.5 V).

  3. Synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymer of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate by radiation-induced polymerization at high pressure. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, I.; Okada, T.; Sasuga, T.; Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

    1981-02-01

    Polymer of the methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its copolymer with acrylamide are used as cationic flocculants for the treatment of waste water containing organic suspensions. As reported, radiation-induced polymerization is one of the most convenient methods because of its temperature independence of initiation and extremely large G-value. In general, a flocculant with higher molecular weight has larger flocculation effects. The high-molecular-weight products were prepared in high monomer concentration and a low dose rate. This paper concerns the polymerization and copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate at high pressure, up to 7000 kg/cm/sup 2/, providing high-molecular-weight cationic flocculants.

  4. In situ synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)/MgAl layered double hydroxide nanocomposite with high transparency and enhanced thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Li; Qu, Baojun

    2004-04-01

    A novel poly(methyl methacrylate)/MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite (PMMA-MgAl NC) with high transparency and enhanced thermal properties was synthesized in situ by adding sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to an emulsion consisting of metal ion aqueous solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, methyl methacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, then followed by the thermal initiation polymerization. The basal spacing of PMMA-MgAl NC was 2.72 nm determined by X-ray diffraction measurement. The intercalated MgAl LDH particles of 60-120 nm width and 25-40 nm thickness were well dispersed at molecular level in the PMMA matrix. When the 50% weight loss was selected as a comparison point, the decomposition temperature of PMMA-MgAl NC sample with 30 wt% MgAl LDH (including dodecyl sulfate) was ca. 45 °C higher than that of pure PMMA.

  5. Fabrication of nanopatterned poly(ethylene glycol) brushes by molecular transfer printing from poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) films to generate arrays of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onses, M Serdar

    2015-01-27

    This article presents a soft lithographic approach using block copolymer (BCP) films to fabricate functional chemically patterned polymer brushes on the nanoscale. Hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-OH) was transfer printed from the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) domains of self-assembled poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) films to a substrate in conformal contact with the film to generate patterned PEG brushes mirroring the pattern of BCP domains. A key point in the study is that the chemistry of the functional transferred brushes is different from the chemistry of either block of the copolymer; PEG-OH is miscible only in the PMMA block and therefore transferred only from PMMA domains. The functionality of the PEG brushes was demonstrated by the selective immobilization of citrate-stabilized Au NPs (15 nm) and validated the generation of high-quality chemical patterns with sub-30-nm feature sizes.

  6. The 60Co- γ ray-initiated seeded-emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of waterborne polyurethane seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guixi; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2004-09-01

    In this work, the waterborne polyurethane (WPU)/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite material was successfully prepared via 60Co- γ ray radiation-induced seeded emulsion polymerization. The kinetic curves of the synthesis of WPU have been obtained in MMA medium and in acetone medium, respectively. The FT-IR spectra were used to investigate the grafting efficiency of the PMMA on WPU backbone.

  7. Surface structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) films influenced by chain entanglement in the corresponding film-formation solution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianquan; Liu, Yingjun; He, Jinsheng; Zhang, Rongping; Zuo, Biao; Wang, Xinping

    2014-11-28

    The effects of the properties of casting solution on the surface structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were systematically investigated. It was observed that the hydrophobicity of PMMA films increased with increasing viscosity of the corresponding polymer solution regardless of the film-formation techniques that were utilized. The ratio of the C-H symmetric stretching vibrations of methylene groups (hydrophobic components, with a peak at 2910 cm(-1)) to those of the ester methyl groups (relative hydrophilic components, with a peak at 2955 cm(-1)) from sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra, A2910/A2955, was used as a parameter to evaluate the structure on the film surface, which was related to the surface wettability of the films. The results showed that A2910/A2955 of cast PMMA films increased linearly with ηsp(0.3) (ηsp, the specific viscosity of the casting solution), whereas that of the corresponding spin-coated films showed a linear relationship defined as ηsp(0.3)E(0.26), where E is the average number of entanglement points per molecule (E = Mw/Me). These results indicate that a relative equilibrium conformation on the PMMA film surface, adopted from the perspective of thermodynamics, was easily achieved during film formation, when the conformation of the polymer chains in the corresponding casting solution was close to that in the bulk. For the spin-coated films, the chain entanglement structure in the casting solution was a more important factor for the resulting film to reach a relative equilibrium state, since this structure was in favor of maintaining the pristine conformation in casting solution under centrifugal force during spin-coating. This work may help to enhance the fundamental understanding of the formation of the film surface structure from polymer solution to the resulting solid film, which will affect not only the corresponding surface properties, but also the dynamics of the resulting thin films.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of the molecular weight dependence of surface tensions of normal alkanes and methyl methacrylate oligomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunli; Choi, Phillip

    2006-04-06

    Surface tensions (gamma) of normal alkanes and methyl methacrylate (MMA) oligomers at various molecular weights in the low molecular weight range were computed using a newly proposed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation strategy which was developed based on the definition of gamma = ( partial differential U/ partial differential sigma)n,V,S. The MD simulations, even with the use of a generic force field, reproduced the experimentally observed molecular weight dependence of gamma (i.e., gamma proportional Mn(-2/3), where Mn is the number-average molecular weight) for both series of oligomers. Analysis of the data reveals that solvent accessible surface area, one of the key input variables used for the calculation of gamma, exhibits an Mn(2/3) (rather than Mn(1)) dependence. The reason for such dependence is that solvent accessible surface area formed by the chainlike small molecules depends, to a larger extent, on their orientations rather than their size. However, this is not the case for high molecular weight molecules as solvent accessible surface area of such surfaces are determined by the orientations of their segments which are determined by the conformations of the molecules. This may explain why surface tension of polymers experimentally exhibits an Mn(-1) dependence. It is inferred that the corresponding molecular weight dependence of the entropy changes associated with molecules in the low and high molecular weight ranges would be different.

  9. Surface Molecularly Imprinted Polymer of Chitosan Grafted Poly(methyl methacrylate) for 5-Fluorouracil and Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xue-Fang; Lian, Qi; Yang, Hua; Wang, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    The molecular surface imprinted graft copolymer of chitosan with methyl methacrylate (MIP-CS-g-PMMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the template molecule using initiator of ammonium persulfate as adsorption system. MIPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, 1H NMR and SEM. The mechanism of graft copolymerization and factors affected graft reaction were studied in details, and the optimum reaction conditions (to the highest %G and %E as the standard) were obtained at [MMA] 1.2 mol/L, [Chitosan] 16.67 mol/L, [initiator] 0.0062 mol/L, temperature 60 °C and reaction time 7 h. MIPs exhibited high recognition selectivity and excellent combining affinity to template molecular. The in vitro release of the 5-FU was highly pH-dependent and time delayed. The release behavior showed that the drugs did not release in simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.0), and the drug release was small in the simulated small intestinal fluid (pH = 6.8), and drug abrupt release will be produced in the simulated colon fluid (pH = 7.4), indicating excellent colon-specific drug delivery behavior. PMID:26892676

  10. Effects of water storage of E-glass fiber reinforced denture base polymers on residual methyl methacrylate content.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Gulsen; Duran, Ozlem; Bural, Canan; Guvener, Bora

    2004-07-15

    This study investigated the effect of water storage on residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) content of continuous E-glass fiber (Wetrotex International) reinforced denture base polymers. Heat-polymerization (short- and long-term boiling and conventional curing cycle using Meliodent), autopolymerization (processed in air at room temperature and in water at 60 degrees C with the use of Meliodent Rapid Repair), and microwave-polymerization (3 min at 500 W with the use of Acron MC) were employed. The residual MMA contents of 120 specimens were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at deflasking (control) and after water (37 degrees C) storage of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Bonferroni's pairwise comparison test was used for statistical analysis. Significant reduction were determined only in the long-term terminal boiled heat-polymerized test group at the end of 1 day (p < 0.01), 1 week (p < 0.05) and also 1 month of water storage (p < 0.01). Significant reduction in autopolymerized test groups started even after 1 week of water storage (p < 0.05). Microwave-polymerized test groups did not show a significant residual MMA reduction in all time intervals (p > 0.05). The polymerization methods and cycles applied to the glass fiber reinforced denture base polymers influence both the content and the reduction of residual MMA after water storage.

  11. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2014-02-24

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (∼130 °C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k = 3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  12. Effect of silver ion-induced disorder on morphological, chemical and optical properties of poly (methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Shafaq; Saleemi, Farhat; Rafique, M. Shahid; Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu; Mahmood, Arshad; Aziz, Uzma

    2016-11-01

    Ion implantation is a versatile technique to tailor the surface properties of polymers in a controlled manner. In the present study, samples of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been implanted with 400 keV silver (Ag+) ion beam to various ion fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effect of Ag+ ion-induced disorder on morphological, chemical and optical properties of PMMA is analyzed using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of pristine and implanted PMMA is measured using four probe apparatus. The AFM images revealed the growth of nano-sized grainy structures and hillocks above the surface of implanted PMMA. The FTIR spectra confirmed the modifications in chemical structure of PMMA along with the formation of sbnd Cdbnd Csbnd carbon contents. The refractive index, extinction coefficient and photoconductivity of implanted PMMA have been found to increase as a function of ion fluence. Simultaneously, indirect optical band gap is reduced from 3.13 to 0.81 eV at a relatively high fluence (5 × 1015 ions/cm2). A linear correlation has been established between the band gap and Urbach energies. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of Ag+ implanted PMMA has increased from 2.14 × 10-10 (pristine) to 9.6 × 10-6 S/cm.

  13. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Surface Modification for Surfactant-Free Real-Time Toxicity Assay on Droplet Microfluidic Platform.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Raphael; Chen, Jian Lin; Stuckey, David C; Steele, Terry W J

    2017-04-07

    Microfluidic droplet reactors have many potential uses, from analytical to synthesis. Stable operation requires preferential wetting of the channel surface by the continuous phase which is often not fulfilled by materials commonly used for lab-on-chip devices. Here we show that a silica nanoparticle (SiNP) layer coated onto a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other thermoplastics surface enhances its wetting properties by creating nanoroughness, and allows simple grafting of hydrocarbon chains through silane chemistry. Using the unusual stability of silica sols at their isoelectric point, a dense SiNP layer is adsorbed onto PMMA and renders the surface superhydrophilic. Subsequently, a self-assembled dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTS) monolayer yields a superhydrophobic surface that allows the repeatable generation of aqueous droplets in a hexadecane continuous phase without surfactant addition. A SiNP-DTS modified chip has been used to monitor bacterial viability with a resazurin assay. The whole process involving sequential reagents injection, and multiplexed droplet fluorescence intensity monitoring is carried out on chip. Metabolic inhibition of the anaerobe Enterococcus faecalis by 30 mg L(-1) of NiCl2 was detected in 5 min.

  14. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure for memory device application

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, Sachin M.; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-12-07

    Combination of two dimensional graphene and semi-conducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) is of great interest for various electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a hybridized structure with the chemical vapor deposited graphene and MoS{sub 2} crystals to configure a memory device. Elongated hexagonal and rhombus shaped MoS{sub 2} crystals are synthesized by sulfurization of thermally evaporated molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) thin film. Scanning transmission electron microscope studies reveal atomic level structure of the synthesized high quality MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the prospect of a memory device fabrication, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as an insulating dielectric material as well as a supporting layer to transfer the MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the fabricated device, PMMA-MoS{sub 2} and graphene layers act as the functional and electrode materials, respectively. Distinctive bistable electrical switching and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect is observed in the fabricated PMMA-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure. The developed material system and demonstrated memory device fabrication can be significant for next generation data storage applications.

  15. Sustained release of hydrophilic drug from polyphosphazenes/poly(methyl methacrylate) based microspheres and their degradation study.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Yu, Haojie; Wang, Li; Khalid, Hamad; Abbasi, Nasir M; Zain-ul-Abdin; Chen, Yongsheng; Ren, Fujie; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery system is referred as an approach to deliver the therapeutic agents to the target site safely in order to achieve the maximum therapeutic effects. In this perspective, synthesis of three new polyphosphazenes and their blend fabrication system with poly(methyl methacrylate) is described and characterized with (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR, GPC and DSC. Furthermore, these novel blends were used to fabricate microspheres and evaluated for sustain release of hydrophilic drug (aspirin as model drug). Microspheres of the two blends showed excellent encapsulation efficacy (about 93%), controlled burst release (2.3% to 7.93%) and exhibited sustain in vitro drug release (13.44% to 32.77%) up to 218 h. At physiological conditions, the surface degradation of microspheres and diffusion process controlled the drug release sustainability. Furthermore, it was found that the degree of porosity was increased with degradation and the resulting porous network was responsible for water retention inside the microspheres. The percentage water retention was found to be interrelated with degradation time and percentage drug release.

  16. RAFT mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by Bergman cyclization: access to high molecular weight narrow polydispersity polymers.

    PubMed

    Gerstel, Peter; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2011-03-02

    The first RAFT mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by diradicals derived from Bergman cyclization was performed employing 3,4-benzocyclodec-3-ene-1,5-diyne (BCDY) as diradical source and cyanoisopropyldithiobenzoate (CPDB) as RAFT agent. The polymerization was conducted in bulk at 80 °C for 3 h. The concentration of the enediyne was kept constant at 3.0 x 10⁻² mol · L⁻¹ and the RAFT agent concentration was varied between 0.0 mol · L⁻¹ and 2.4 x 10⁻¹ mol · L⁻¹. A detailed ESI-MS analysis reveals the absence of intramolecular termination reactions (ring formation) in the RAFT mediated system, which usually makes diradicalic initiation unfavorable. The presence of polymeric chains propagating at both ends could be confirmed. The conversion of the RAFT mediated polymerization was up to more than two times higher than the RAFT free polymerization at identical conditions. Thus, polymers with narrow polydispersities (1.1 ≤ PDI ≤ 1.5) even at very high molecular weights (near 400,000 Da) were obtained within modest reaction times.

  17. Facile synthesis of graphene by pyrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) on nickel particles in the confined microzones

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ningning; Yang, Wei; Bao, Chenlu; Jiang, Saihua; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► The GNWs with few defects were synthesized by pyrolyzing PMMA on nickel particles. ► PMMA as carbon source was easily prepared and safe to handle. ► Nickel microparticles were directly used as catalysts without any pre-treatment. ► The method can be used for the low cost and bulk production of graphene. -- Abstract: In this work, multi-layer graphene has been prepared by pyrolyzing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on nickel microparticles in the confined microzones formed by organophilic montmorillonite (OMT). Gram-scale of product can be obtained per day by using this method. The obtained graphene was evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolytic conditions such as the system composition of the composites, reaction temperature and the size of catalyst are important parameters affecting the morphology and yield of the final product. Based on the experimental observations and reported literatures, a possible formation process is discussed. The synthesis method of graphene is simple, low-cost, and scalable, which is promising for the application in many fields.

  18. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; dos Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes

    2016-04-01

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  19. Electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems: molecular dynamics simulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with disperse red chromophores.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaoquan; Zhang, Qiong; Agren, Hans

    2007-04-12

    We demonstrate a complete procedure for simulations of electric field poled polymeric nonlinear optical systems with the purpose to evaluate the macroscopic electro-optic coefficients. The simulations cover the electric field poling effects on the chromophore order at the liquid state, the cooling procedure from the liquid to the solid state in the presence of the poling field, and the back-relaxation of the system after the removal of the field. We use Disperse Red chromophore molecules doped in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix for a numerical demonstration of the total procedure. On the basis of the simulation results, the polymer mobility and the static properties of the dopant chromophores are derived. In the liquid state, the chromophore molecules are closer to the side chains than to the backbones of the polymer matrix, and after the simulated annealing, the polymer matrix tends to be closely packed, leading to a significant change in the polymer structure around the chromophore molecules. Besides predicting the absolute macroscopic electro-optic coefficient values, the results are used to derive the microscopic origin of these values in terms of geometric and electronic structure, loading, poling, and back-relaxation effects, thereby aiding to establish design principles for optimum guest-host configurations.

  20. Human Fetal Osteoblast Response on Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)/Polystyrene Demixed Thin Film Blends: Surface Chemistry Vs Topography Effects.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Raechelle A; Raj, Jog; Dickinson, Peter J; McCabe, Fiona; Meenan, Brian J

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in materials sciences have allowed for the development and fabrication of biomaterials that are capable of providing requisite cues to instigate cells to respond in a predictable fashion. We have developed a series of poly(methyl methacrylate)/polystyrene (PMMA/PS) polymer demixed thin films with nanotopographies ranging from nanoislands to nanopits to study the response of human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOBs). When PMMA was in excess in the blend composition, a nanoisland topography dominated, whereas a nanopit topography dominated when PS was in excess. PMMA was found to segregate to the top of the nanoisland morphology with PS preferring the substrate interface. To further ascertain the effects of surface chemistry vs topography, we plasma treated the polymer demixed films using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge reactor to alter the surface chemistry. Our results have shown that hFOBs did not have an increased short-term cellular response on pristine polymer demixed surfaces. However, increasing the hydrophilicty/wettability of the surfaces by oxygen functionalization causes an increase in the cellular response. These results indicate that topography alone is not sufficient to induce a positive cellular response, but the underlying surface chemistry is also important in regulating cell function.

  1. Investigation of cross-linking poly(methyl methacrylate) as a guiding material in block copolymer directed self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Robert; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina; Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Wu, Hengpeng; Her, Youngjun; Yin, Jian; Nealey, Paul; de Pablo, Juan; Gronheid, Roel

    2014-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DDSA) of block copolymers ((BCP) is attracting a growing amount of interest as a techhnique to expand traditional lithography beyond its current limits. It has reecently been demonstrated that chemoepitaxy can be used to successfully ddirect BCP assembly to form large arrays off high-density features. The imec DSA LiNe flow uses lithography and trim-etch to produce a "prepattern" of cross-linked polystyrene (PS) stripes, which in turn guide the formation of assembled BCPP structures. Thhe entire process is predicated on the preferential interaction of the respective BCP domains with particular regionss of the underlying prepattern. The use of polystyrene as the guiding material is not uniquely required, however, and in fact may not even be preferable. This study investigates an alternate chemistry -- crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate), X-PMMA, -- as the underlying polymer mat, providing a route to higher auto-affinity and therefore a stronger guiding ability. In addition to tthe advantages of the chemistry under investigation, this study explores the broader theme of extending BCP DSA to other materials.

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for volatile organic compound discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muangrat, Worawut; Chodjarusawad, Thanawee; Maolanon, Rungroj; Pratontep, Sirapat; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were fabricated for use in volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. Pristine SWNTs were separately coated with PMMA (PMMA/SWNTs) and thiophene (thiophene/SWNTs) by spin-coating. Pristine SWNTs showed the highest response to methanol, while PMMA/SWNTs enabled 5.4-fold improved dichloromethane detection and thiophene/SWNTs enabled 1.4-fold improved acetone detection compared with pristine SWNTs. The sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and that of thiophene/SWNTs to acetone can be attributed to the Hildebrand solubility parameter (HSP). The more similar the HSP, the higher the sensor response. The sensor response of pristine SWNTs to methanol is related to the diffusion coefficient and molecular size. The relationships between the vapor concentration and sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and thiophene/SWNTs to acetone are based on Henry’s adsorption isotherm, while that of pristine SWNTs to methanol is based on the Henry-clustering model. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol were successfully discriminated.

  3. Solvent quality effects on scaling behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) brushes in the moderate- and high-density regimes.

    PubMed

    Moh, Lionel C H; Losego, Mark D; Braun, Paul V

    2011-04-05

    Herein, we give a detailed experimental analysis for scaling law behavior in the "moderately dense" and "high-density" brush regimes for poly(methyl methacrylate) brushes swollen in a range of solvent conditions. This expansive experimental analysis aims to validate decades of mean field theory predictions on power law scaling behavior of grafted polymer chains. Brushes with grafting densities (σ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 nm(-2) are prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization. The swollen thickness (h) is characterized using liquid cell ellipsometry, and the solvent quality is varied using mixtures of acetone and methanol. In a good solvent, the exponential scaling behavior (h ∝ σ(n)) has the typical n = 1/3 dependency for grafting densities of σ ≤ 0.4 nm(-2). For grafting densities of >0.4 nm(-2), n increases, indicating the transition from the moderately dense to the high-density brush regime. However, in a poor solvent, the scaling behavior is independent of σ and scales as h ∝ σ(0.80), approaching the theoretical expectations of h ∝ σ(1). An abrupt transition between these scaling law behaviors occurs at the Θ-solvent condition of ∼45% (v/v) methanol in acetone. While our experimental results parallel trends predicted by mean field theory, differences are observed and appear to be attributed to self-solvation of the polymer, polydispersity in the molecular weight, and chain termination.

  4. Facile iron-mediated dispersant-free suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate via reverse ATRP in water.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Zhang, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaowu; Tian, Chun; Zhao, Xiaoning; Ke, Qi; Pan, Xiangqiang; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2013-11-01

    An iron-mediated reverse ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) is successfully carried out in water in the absence of any dispersants, using a water-soluble 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V-50) as the initiator and the stabilizer, and using an oil-soluble N,N-butyldithiocarbamate ferrum (Fe(S2 CN(C4 H9 )2 )3 ) as the catalyst without adding any additional ligands. Micron-sized PMMA particles with UV light-sensitive -S2 CN(C4 H9 )2 end group are obtained, and monomer droplet nucleation and suspension polymerization mechanism are proposed. Polymerization results demonstrated typical "living"/controlled characteristics of ATRP: first-order polymerization kinetics, linear increase of molecular weights with monomer conversion and narrow molecular weight distributions for the resultant PMMA particles. NMR spectroscopy and chain-extension experiments under UV light irradiation confirm the attachment and livingness of UV light-sensitive -S2 CN(C4 H9 )2 group in the chain end.

  5. Methyl methacrylate-induced changes in CNS (central nervous system) activity. 1 March 1978-28 February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine if methyl-methacrylate (MMA) monomer vapor in air caused central nervous system (CNS) changes in exposed rats. Rats were exposed to 400 parts per million (ppm) MMA vapor for 60 minutes. The only significant changes occurred in the lateral hypothalamic and ventral hippocampal nuclei. Several substudies suggested that the changes in the hippocampal neuronal firing rates were related to the perception of the MMA odor and dependent on an intact nervous connection to the receptors in the nose. In a subchronic study no consistent long term changes in neuronal activity were detected. However, a decrease in neuronal activity was detected during the first week of exposure. In another study, the exposure levels of MMA ranged from 50 to 800 ppm. The lateral hypothalamic and ventral hippocampal nuclei responded as before, but not at the 50 ppm level. The author concludes that the threshold exposure concentration for the observed effects are the same as or slightly less than the current threshold limit value for MMA vapor in the workplace.

  6. Gene delivery efficacy of polyethyleneimine-introduced chitosan shell/poly(methyl methacrylate) core nanoparticles for rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pimpha, Nuttaporn; Sunintaboon, Panya; Inphonlek, Supharat; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated polyethyleneimine (PEI)-introduced chitosan (CS) (CS/PEI) nanoparticles as non-viral carrier of plasmid DNA for rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The CS/PEI nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate monomer induced by a small amount of t-butyl hydroperxide in the presence of different concentrations of PEI mixed with CS. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by their surface properties and buffering capacity. In vitro gene transfection was also evaluated. The introduction of PEI affected the surface charge, dispersing stability and buffering capacity of the nanoparticles. The CS/PEI nanoparticles formed a complex upon mixing with a plasmid DNA of luciferase. The complex enhanced the level of gene transfection and prolonged the time period of expression for MSCs, compared with those of plasmid DNA-original CS and PEI nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of CS/PEI complexes with plasmid DNA was significantly low, depending on the amount of PEI introduced. It is concluded that the CS/PEI nanoparticle was a promising carrier for gene delivery of MSCs.

  7. Surface Molecularly Imprinted Polymer of Chitosan Grafted Poly(methyl methacrylate) for 5-Fluorouracil and Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Fang; Lian, Qi; Yang, Hua; Wang, Xiuping

    2016-02-19

    The molecular surface imprinted graft copolymer of chitosan with methyl methacrylate (MIP-CS-g-PMMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the template molecule using initiator of ammonium persulfate as adsorption system. MIPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, (1)H NMR and SEM. The mechanism of graft copolymerization and factors affected graft reaction were studied in details, and the optimum reaction conditions (to the highest %G and %E as the standard) were obtained at [MMA] 1.2 mol/L, [Chitosan] 16.67 mol/L, [initiator] 0.0062 mol/L, temperature 60 °C and reaction time 7 h. MIPs exhibited high recognition selectivity and excellent combining affinity to template molecular. The in vitro release of the 5-FU was highly pH-dependent and time delayed. The release behavior showed that the drugs did not release in simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.0), and the drug release was small in the simulated small intestinal fluid (pH = 6.8), and drug abrupt release will be produced in the simulated colon fluid (pH = 7.4), indicating excellent colon-specific drug delivery behavior.

  8. Sidechain Dynamics Explain Dissimilar Strength of Nanoconfinement Effect in Polystyrene and Poly(methyl methacrylate) Free Standing Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David; Xia, Wenjie; Song, Jake; Keten, Sinan

    Despite substantially similar bulk glass transition temperature (Tg) and other bulk properties, polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) exhibit characteristically different Tg depression in the free-standing ultrathin film configuration. The mechanism for this disparate Tg-nanoconfinement effect due to the free surfaces has not been fully explained. Here we utilize recently established chemically specific coarse grain (CG) models to qualitatively reproduce contrasting thickness dependent Tg and length scale of enhanced chain relaxation gradient in the interfacial layer. Vibrational mode analysis is utilized to uncover a relationship between the amplitude and frequency of sidechain fluctuations of reduced order models and the degree of Tg-nanoconfinement. By systematic variation of the distribution of mass in the sidechain versus the backbone, we demonstrate inertia-driven differences in sidechain fluctuations and Tg-nanoconfinement in the CG model. We hypothesize that mass distribution and sidechain flexibility are governing factors causing PS and PMMA free surface effect differences and also provide insight into broader nanoconfinement phenomena from past experiments. D.H., W.X., J.S., and S.K. acknowledge support by the University Partnership Initiative between Northwestern University and The Dow Chemical Company.

  9. Surface Modification of Poly(methyl methacrylate) by Hydrogen-Plasma Exposure and Its Sputtering Characteristics by Ultraviolet Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Ikuse, Kazumasa; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Murai, Kensuke; Honjo, Kuniaki; Kiuchi, Masato; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films by hydrogen-plasma exposure has been studied in the light of sputtering resistance of polymer-based materials in plasma etching processes. Surface measurements of PMMA were performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It has been found that oxygen atoms are preferentially removed from the surface when a PMMA film is subjected to hydrogen-plasma exposure, with the depth of modification being about 40 nm in the case we examined. Hydrogen-plasma exposure is also found to reduce the sputtering yields of PMMA by ultraviolet light irradiation, as in the case of Ar+ ion irradiation [S. Yoshimura et al.: J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. 56 (2013) 129]. The results suggest that PMMA films become hardened and more sputtering resistant due to the formation of a thick (i.e., 40 nm in the case of this study) amorphous carbon layer by hydrogen-plasma exposure. Hydrogen-plasma exposure is thus an effective technique to increase etching resistance of polymer films.

  10. Synthesis of hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-(L)-histidine methyl ester cryogels. Application on the separation of bovine immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Elkak, Assem; Hamade, Amar; Bereli, Nilay; Armutcu, Canan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-02-21

    In this study cryogels based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) functionalized with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine methyl ester (MAH) were synthesized and used for the adsorption and separation of bovine IgG. Two series of cryogels functionalized with 5 and 10 mg of MAH as pseudobioaffinity ligand were prepared and characterized by swelling test, FTIR and SEM analysis. The adsorption efficiency of the bovine immunoglobulin into cryogels is discussed with respect to the following chromatographic parameters: pH, flow rate, initial IgG concentration, adsorption time and ionic strength. Our results show good adsorption of bovine immunoglobulin under mild separation conditions at pH 7.4. The maximum binding capacity was determined (32.4 mg/g of cryogel) and demonstrates the efficiency of the used cryogels. This efficacy is clearly seen upon increasing the maximum binding capacity from 23.2 mg (obtained with cryogels with 5 mg MAH) to 32.4 mg/g (for cryogel with 10 mg MAH ligand concentration). The purity of separated fractions was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Together our observations highlights poly (HEMA-MAH) as an efficient adsorbent for bovine immunoglobulins G separation.

  11. Poly(methyl methacrylate) microchip device integrated with gold nanoelectrode ensemble for in-column biochemical reaction and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chen, Chun-Mao; Huang, Hsuan-Jung; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2007-09-21

    This paper proposes a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microchip with an integrated gold nanoelectrode ensemble (GNEE) and a quartet-T loading channel for in-column urea/urease reactions and electrochemical detections. The on-chip GNEE electrode is fabricated using an electrodeless deposition process on a thin polycarbonate (PC) film and bonded directly onto a PMMA substrate to carry out high-performance electrochemical detections. The in-column bio-catalytic reaction of urea/urease is successfully demonstrated utilizing a novel approach based on the different electrokinetic mobilities of urea and urease in capillary electrophoresis (CE) channel. The experimental results significantly show that the GNEE electrode provides a better detection response for the reaction product of ammonia (NH(4)(+)) than a conventional planar gold electrode. The detection results demonstrate a satisfactory determination coefficient (R(2) value) and high reproducibility with a detection limit of 14.8 and 62.8 microM while detecting standard ammonia solution and the urea/urease reaction product of NH(4)(+), respectively. These results confirm the capability of the proposed device for the high-resolution CE-electrochemical detection (CE-ED) of bioanalytical reactions.

  12. 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran methyl methacrylate copolymer nonviral vector: still a long way toward the safety of aerosol gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, P; Hohenforst-Schmidt, W; Darwiche, K; Krauss, L; Sparopoulou, D; Sakkas, L; Gschwendtner, A; Huang, H; Turner, F J; Freitag, L; Zarogoulidis, K

    2013-10-01

    Revealing the lung tumor genome has directed the current treatment strategies toward targeted therapy. First line treatments targeting the genome of lung tumor cells have been approved and are on the market. However, they are limited by the small number of patients with the current investigated genetic mutations. Novel treatment administration modalities have been also investigated in an effort to increase the local drug deposition and disease control. In the current study, we investigated the safety of the new nonviral vector 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran methyl methacrylate copolymer (DDMC; Ryujyu Science), which belongs to the 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran family by aerosol administration. Thirty male BALBC mice, 2 month old, were included and divided into three groups. However, pathological findings indicated severe emphysema within three aerosol sessions. In addition, the CytoViva technique was applied for the first time to display the nonviral particles within the pulmonary tissue and emphysema lesions, and a spectral library of the nonviral vector was also established. Although our results in BALBC mice prevented us from further investigation of the DDMC nonviral vector as a vehicle for gene therapy, further investigation in animals with larger airways is warranted to properly evaluate the safety of the vector.

  13. Thermo-mechanical response of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) large volumes exposed to time-dependent environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraldi, M.; Esposito, L.; Perrella, G.; Cutolo, A.

    2014-02-01

    Low thermal conductivity and elevated absorbance of large bulky volumes of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to moderately aggressive environmental conditions may cooperate to determine critical mechanical conditions, kindling unexpected high thermal stresses values which lead the material to failure. From the engineering point of view, this can be explained as the result of two concomitant phenomena which activate a cascade of events: very sharp thermal gradients engendered by transient thermal processes induced by cyclic environmental conditions, combined with significant bulk heat generation due to the high thermal inertia of massive PMMA volumes, in turn aggravating the steepness of the thermal gradients, may in fact ingenerate severe stress regimes, potentially undermining the structural stability of the material. Moving from these considerations, the present study is aimed to investigate possible rupture of PMMA blocks experiencing heating processes as a consequence of their exposure to outdoor cyclic environmental conditions. The problem is approached by means of both rigorous analytical arguments and the Finite Element based numerical methods, finally exploiting the theoretical outcomes to formulate a hypothesis which might explain the still unclear phenomenon of the sudden breaking of the PMMA structure, named Huge Wine Glass and designed by the world famous Japanese architect Toyo Ito, which occurred in Pescara (Italy) in 2009.

  14. Nanotopographic Substrates of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Do Not Strongly Influence the Osteogenic Phenotype of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Isaac A.; Kong, Yen P.; Putnam, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical, mechanical, and topographical features of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have all been documented to influence cell adhesion, gene expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Topography plays a key role in the architecture and functionality of various tissues in vivo, thus raising the possibility that topographic cues can be instructive when incorporated into biomaterials for regenerative applications. In the literature, there are discrepancies regarding the potential roles of nanotopography to enhance the osteogenic phenotype of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In this study, we used thin film substrates of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with nanoscale gratings to investigate the influence of nanotopography on the osteogenic phenotype of MSCs, focusing in particular on their ability to produce mineral similar to native bone. Topography influenced focal adhesion size and MSC alignment, and enhanced MSC proliferation after 14 days of culture. However, the osteogenic phenotype was minimally influenced by surface topography. Specifically, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was not increased on nanotopographic films, nor was calcium deposition improved after 21 days in culture. Ca: P ratios were similar to native mouse bone on films with gratings of 415 nm width and 200 nm depth (G415) and 303 nm width and 190 nm depth (G303). Notably, all surfaces had Ca∶P ratios significantly lower than G415 films. Collectively, these data suggest that, PMMA films with nanogratings are poor drivers of an osteogenic phenotype. PMID:24594848

  15. Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) Brushes on High-κ Metal Oxide Dielectric Surfaces for Bioelectrical Environments.

    PubMed

    Joh, Daniel Y; McGuire, Felicia; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Andrews, Joseph B; Achar, Rohan K; Zimmers, Zackary; Mozhdehi, Darush; Blair, Rebecca; Albarghouthi, Faris; Oles, William; Richter, Jacob; Fontes, Cassio M; Hucknall, Angus M; Yellen, Benjamin B; Franklin, Aaron D; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2017-02-15

    Advances in electronics and life sciences have generated interest in "lab-on-a-chip" systems utilizing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry for low-power, portable, and cost-effective biosensing platforms. Here, we present a simple and reliable approach for coating "high-κ" metal oxide dielectric materials with "non-fouling" (protein- and cell-resistant) poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (POEGMA) polymer brushes as biointerfacial coatings to improve their relevance for biosensing applications utilizing advanced electronic components. By using a surface-initiated "grafting from" strategy, POEGMA films were reliably grown on each material, as confirmed by ellipsometric measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The electrical behavior of these POEGMA films was also studied to determine the potential impact on surrounding electronic devices, yielding information on relative permittivity and breakdown field for POEGMA in both dry and hydrated states. We show that the incorporation of POEGMA coatings significantly reduced levels of nonspecific protein adsorption compared to uncoated high-κ dielectric oxide surfaces as shown by protein resistance assays. These attributes, combined with the robust dielectric properties of POEGMA brushes on high-κ surfaces open the way to incorporate this protein and cell resistant polymer interface into CMOS devices for biomolecular detection in a complex liquid milieu.

  16. Dynamic modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) chips using poly(vinyl alcohol) for glycosaminoglycan disaccharide isomer separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Ping, Guichen; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2007-09-01

    We describe a microchip electrophoresis (MCE) method for the assay of unsaturated disaccharides of chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfates, and hyaluronic acid (HA). Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) could be irreversibly adsorbed onto poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates and this approach was applicable for dynamic coating. The characteristics of the PMMA surface with PVA coating were evaluated in terms of the wettability, EOF, and adsorption of 2-aminoacridone (AMAC)-labeled disaccharide. The water contact angle decreased from 73 degrees on a pristine PMMA surface to 37.5 degrees on a PVA-coated surface, indicating that the PVA coating increased hydrophilicity. EOF was reduced approximately twofold and was relatively stable. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy images showed that adsorption of AMAC-labeled disaccharides was dramatically suppressed. Using the PVA coating, baseline separation of two pairs of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) disaccharide isomers, DeltaDi-diS(B)/DeltaDi-diS(D) and DeltaDi-0S/DeltaDi-HA, was achieved in Tris-borate buffer within 130 s by MCE.

  17. Charging of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids in cyclohexyl bromide: locking, size dependence, and particle mixtures.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Marjolein N; Stiefelhagen, Johan C P; Heessels-Gürboğa, Gülşen; van der Hoeven, Jessi E S; Elbers, Nina A; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2015-01-13

    We studied suspensions of sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles in the solvent cyclohexyl bromide (CHB; εr = 7.92). We performed microelectrophoresis measurements on suspensions containing a single particle species and on binary mixtures, using confocal microscopy to measure the velocity profiles of the particles. We measured the charge of so-called locked PMMA particles, for which the steric stabilizer, a comb-graft stabilizer of poly(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA) grafted on a backbone of PMMA, was covalently bonded to the particle, and for unlocked particles, for which the stabilizer was adsorbed to the surface of the particle. We observed that locked particles had a significantly higher charge than unlocked particles. We found that the charge increase upon locking was due to chemical coupling of 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol to the PMMA particles, which was used as a catalyst for the locking reaction. For particles of different size we obtained the surface potential and charge from the electrophoretic mobility of the particles. For locked particles we found that the relatively high surface potential (∼ +5.1 kBT/e or +130 mV) was roughly constant for all particle diameters we investigated (1.2 μm < σ < 4.4 μm), and that the particle charge was proportional to the square of the diameter.

  18. Glyco-Nanoparticles Made from Self-Assembly of Maltoheptaose-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate): Micelle, Reverse Micelle, and Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Zepon, Karine M; Otsuka, Issei; Bouilhac, Cécile; Muniz, Edvani C; Soldi, Valdir; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-07-13

    The synthesis and the solution-state self-assembly of the "hybrid" diblock copolymers, maltoheptaose-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MH-b-PMMA), into large compound micelles (LCMs) and reverve micelle-type nanoparticles, are reported in this paper. The copolymers were self-assembled in water and acetone by direct dissolution method, and the morphologies of the nanoparticles were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and fluorescence spectroscopy as a function of the volume fraction of the copolymer hydrophobic block, copolymer concentration, stirring speed, and solvent polarity. The DLS measurements and TEM images showed that the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the LCMs obtained in water increases with the copolymer concentration. Apart from that, increasing the stirring speed leads to polydispersed aggregations of the LCMs. On the other hand, in acetone, the copolymers self-assembled into reverse micelle-type nanoparticles having Rh values of about 6 nm and micellar aggregates, as revealed the results obtained from DLS, AFM, and (1)H NMR analyses. The variation in micellar structure, that is, conformational inversion from LCMs to reverse micelle-type structures in response to polarity of the solvent, was investigated by apparent water contact angle (WCA) and (1)H NMR analyses. This conformational inversion of the nanoparticles was further confirmed by encapsulation and release of hydrophobic guest molecule, Nile red, characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. Role of poly(ethylene glycol) in surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yiming; Shan, Guorong; Shang, Yue

    2013-03-05

    Through zeta potential and surface tension measurements and a series of polymerization experiments, the role of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the process of surfactant-free polymerization of styrene (St)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been investigated experimentally. Nanoscale and stable copolymer particles were formed after an abnormal process, in which the nucleation and growth of particles was different from that in previously proposed mechanisms. It has been observed that PEG can exist in both the monomer and the aqueous phases at high temperature. PEG in the aqueous phase could form copolymer particles with a loose structure, making them prone to enter the monomer phase. Entry of these copolymer particles into the monomer phase would introduce excess PEG. From the ternary phase diagram, a solubility curve could be delineated in the ternary system of PEG/monomer/copolymer. The system used the ternary solubility property to regenerate copolymer particles in the monomer phase, which maintained their morphology until the end of the polymerization. At the end, consumption of the monomer resulted in the volume contraction of the particles, and the surface potential increased. This increasing potential is a driving force to prevent particles from stacking, leading to the formation of nanoscale and stable particles.

  20. Encapsulation of glucose oxidase within poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate microparticles for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hervás Pérez, J P; López-Cabarcos, E; López-Ruiz, B

    2008-06-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) microparticles were synthesized and glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized within the microparticles. An amperometric biosensor was fabricated using the microparticles with GOx as biological component. The enzyme immobilization method was optimized by investigating the influence of monomer concentration and cross-linker content used in the preparation of the microparticles in the response of the biosensor. The best analytical results were obtained with the microparticles prepared with 0.21 M PEGMEM and 0.74% cross-linking. Furthermore, we have investigated the influence on the biosensor behaviour of parameters such as working potential, pH, temperature and enzymatic load. In addition, analytical properties such as sensitivity, linear range, response time and detection limit were determined. The biosensor was used to determine glucose in human serum samples and to avoid common interferents present in human serum such as uric and ascorbic acids. A Nafion layer was deposited on the electrode surface with satisfactory results. The useful lifetime of the biosensor was at least 520 days.

  1. Antifouling properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) films grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate immersed in seawater.

    PubMed

    Iguerb, O; Poleunis, C; Mazéas, F; Compère, C; Bertrand, P

    2008-11-04

    Biofouling of all structures immersed in seawater constitutes an important problem, and many strategies are currently being developed to tackle it. In this context, our previous work shows that poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate (PEGA) macromonomer grafted on preoxidized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMAox) films exhibits an excellent repellency against the bovine serum albumin used as a model protein. This study aims to evaluate the following: (1) the prevention of a marine extract material adsorption by the modified surfaces and (2) the antifouling property of the PEGA-g-PMMAox substrates when immersed in natural seawater during two seasons (season 1: end of April-beginning of May 2007, and season 2: end of October-beginning of November 2007). The antifouling performances of the PEGA-g-PMMAox films are investigated for different PEG chain lengths and macromonomer concentrations into the PEGA-based coatings. These two parameters are followed as a function of the immersion time, which evolves up to 14 days. The influence of the PEGA layer on marine compounds (proteins and phospholipids) adsorption is evidenced by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the antifouling efficiency of the PEGA-grafted surfaces increases with both PEGA concentration and PEG chain length.

  2. Radiation-grafting of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate onto polypropylene films by one step method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Alejandro; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene films were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) using the pre-irradiation method with gamma-rays (one step method). The effect of absorbed dose from 10 to 100 kGy, temperature (50, 60, and 70 °C), monomer concentration between 12.5% and 62.5%, monomers ratio from 10% to 90% and reaction time from 5 to 50 h; on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were analyzed by FTIR-ATR, TGA, DSC, swelling, and contact angle. Grafts onto polymeric films between 3% and 109% were obtained at doses from 10 to 100 kGy and a dose rate around 7.4 kGy/h. The graft percent increased with the content in HEMA in the HEMA:OEGMA feed mixture, which indicates a lower reactivity of OEGMA compared to HEMA. The hydrogel layer grafted on the polypropylene substrate increases the hydrophilicity of the surface and also provides certain temperature-responsiveness, which may be of interest for biomedical applications.

  3. Temperature dependent luminescence of a europium complex incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Xie, Fang; Ren, Xiaojun; Chen, Yifa; Chen, Biao; Guo, Fuquan

    2013-12-01

    An europium β-diketonate complex with a dipyrazolyltriazine derivative ligand, Eu(TTA)3DPBT, has been incorporated into poly(methyl methacryate) (PMMA). The influence of temperature on its luminescence properties has been investigated. The fluorescence emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes showed temperature sensitivity. The analysis of the relative intensity ratio (R) of (5)D0 → (7)F2 to (5)D0 → (7)F1 transition and Judd-Ofelt experimental intensity parameters Ω2 indicated that the local structure and asymmetry in the vicinity of europium ions show no obvious change when the temperature is increased.

  4. Copper(II)/tertiary amine synergy in photoinduced living radical polymerization: accelerated synthesis of ω-functional and α,ω-heterofunctional poly(acrylates).

    PubMed

    Anastasaki, Athina; Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Zhang, Qiang; Burns, James; Samanta, Shampa R; Waldron, Christopher; Haddleton, Alice J; McHale, Ronan; Fox, David; Percec, Virgil; Wilson, Paul; Haddleton, David M

    2014-01-22

    Photoinduced living radical polymerization of acrylates, in the absence of conventional photoinitiators or dye sensitizers, has been realized in "daylight'"and is enhanced upon irradiation with UV radiation (λ(max) ≈ 360 nm). In the presence of low concentrations of copper(II) bromide and an aliphatic tertiary amine ligand (Me6-Tren; Tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine), near-quantitative monomer conversion (>95%) is obtained within 80 min, yielding poly(acrylates) with dispersities as low as 1.05 and excellent end group fidelity (>99%). The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by polymerization of methyl acrylate to a range of chain lengths (DP(n) = 25-800) and a number of (meth)acrylate monomers, including macromonomer poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA480), tert-butyl acrylate, and methyl methacrylate, as well as styrene. Moreover, hydroxyl- and vic-diol-functional initiators are compatible with the polymerization conditions, forming α,ω-heterofunctional poly(acrylates) with unparalleled efficiency and control. The control retained during polymerization is confirmed by MALDI-ToF-MS and exemplified by in situ chain extension upon sequential monomer addition, furnishing higher molecular weight polymers with an observed reduction in dispersity (Đ = 1.03). Similarly, efficient one-pot diblock copolymerization by sequential addition of ethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate and PEGA480 to a poly(methyl acrylate) macroinitiator without prior workup or purification is also reported. Minimal polymerization in the absence of light confers temporal control and alludes to potential application at one of the frontiers of materials chemistry whereby precise spatiotemporal "on/off" control and resolution is desirable.

  5. Hepatitis B surface antibody purification with hepatitis B surface antibody imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-tyrosine methyl ester) particles.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Lokman; Say, Ridvon; Unal, Serhat; Denizli, Adil

    2009-01-15

    Hepatitis B surface antibody imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-tyrosine methyl ester) particles were prepared for the purification of hepatitis B surface antibody from human plasma. N-methacryloyl-L-tyrosine methyl ester was chosen as a complexing agent for hepatitis B surface antibodies. Hepatitis B surface antibody imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-tyrosine methyl ester) particles were characterized by surface area measurements, swelling test, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ethylene glycol (1.0M) was used as desorption agent. Adsorption studies were performed from hepatitis B surface antibody and anti-hepatitis A antibody positive human plasma. Effects of antibody concentration, contact time, N-methacryloyl-L-tyrosine methyl ester content and temperature on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The amount of hepatitis B surface antibody adsorbed per unit mass increased with increasing hepatitis B surface antibody concentration, then reached saturation. Maximum hepatitis B surface antibody adsorption amount was 21.4 mIU/mg. Adsorption process reached the equilibrium in 60 min. Competitive adsorption of hepatitis B surface antibody, total anti-hepatitis A antibody and total immunoglobulin E was investigated for showing the selectivity. Hepatitis B surface antibody-imprinted particles could adsorb hepatitis B surface antibody 18.3 times more than anti-hepatitis A antibody and 2.2 times more than immunoglobulin E. It can be concluded that hepatitis B surface antibody-imprinted particles have significant selectivity for hepatitis B surface antibody.

  6. Effect of emulsion polymerization and magnetic field on the adsorption of albumin on poly(methyl methacrylate)-based biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P

    2010-08-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto the surfaces of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and of methyl methacrylate copolymer with 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate, it was investigated. The polymeric matrices were obtained through radical emulsion polymerization with and without the presence of a continuous external magnetic field (MF) of 1,500 Gs intensity. Two types of surfactant agents were used for polymers' synthesis: a classic one sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and beta-cyclodextrin (CD). The protein adsorption was conducted in the presence as well as in the absence of MF, by varying the coupling conditions, respectively, the temperature, pH and albumin/polymer ratio. The study underlines the assistance of MF during the adsorption process, materialized into growth of the BSA adsorbed quantity. Thus, MF presence during adsorption determines the doubling of the BSA adsorbed quantity onto the surface of polymers prepared in the MF. The adsorption process was also related to the tensioactive used for the synthesis of polymeric matrices. The higher content of the adsorbed BSA corresponds to the polymers with CD instead of SLS. The fact was attributed to the catalytic activity of the MF, which determines the molecules distortions, the growth of distance interactions and the modifications of the angles between bonds, with benefit effect upon adsorption.

  7. Corrosion resistance of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunst, S. R.; Cardoso, H. R. P.; Oliveira, C. T.; Santana, J. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Muller, I. L.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol-gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane-PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase and irregular surface coverage.

  8. Drug release from interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Ding, Frank; Hsu, S-H; Wu, D-H; Chiang, W-Y

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop new materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and gelatin were synthesized. These two materials were cross-linked sequentially using N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA) and glutaraldehyde (Glu). Two series of IPNs gels were synthesized by applying different amounts of PEGMEA and gelatin in the initial feed. Sequential IPNs were prepared by polymerizing and cross-linking PEGMEA in the presence of gelatin using redox initiators (e.g., ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TEMED)), as well as NMBA as the cross-linking agent. Gelatin in firm gel was then cross-linked with 1% glutaraldehyde. The swelling kinetics, mechanical properties and drug-release behavior of these IPNs were analyzed. The surface properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the swelling ratio decreased with an increase in the content of both PEGMEA and gelatin in the IPNs. PEGMEA/gelatin-based full-IPNs had a significantly higher shear modulus (G) and cross-linking density (rho) when the content of PEGMEA was increased. The drug loading was very high due to the full-IPN structure. The drug-release velocity was mainly affected by the content of PEGMEA.

  9. Poly(methyl methacrylate) particles for local drug delivery using shock wave lithotripsy: In vitro proof of concept experiment.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Eliav; Shani, Yoav; Zilberman, Meital; Scheinowitz, Mickey

    2015-08-01

    To leverage current local drug delivery systems methodology, there is vast use of polymeric particles serving as drug carriers to assure minimal invasive therapy with little systemic distribution of the released drug. There is an increasing interest in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) serving as carriers in drug delivery. The study aims to develop PMMA carriers for localized drug delivery and release system, combining innovative biomaterial technology and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), and to study the effect of SWL on various concentrations of PMMA particles. We prepared PMMA particles that contain horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using a double emulsion technique, and investigated the mechanism of in vitro drug release from the carriers following exposure to SWL. We investigated the correlation between production method modifications, concentrations of the carriers subjected to SWL, and shock wave patterns. We successfully produced PMMA particles as drug carriers and stimulated the release of their contents by SWL; their polymeric shell can be shattered externally by SWL treatment, leading to release of the encapsulated drug. HRP enzyme activity was maintained following the encapsulation process and exposure to high dose of SWL pulses. Increased shock wave number results in increased shattering and greater fragmentation of PMMA particles. The results demonstrate a dose-response release of HRP; quantitation of the encapsulated HRP from the carriers rises with the number of SWL. Moreover, increased concentration of particles subjected to the same dose of SWL results in a significant increase of the total HRP release. Our research offers novel technique and insights into new, site-specific drug delivery and release systems.

  10. Mechanical characterization and validation of poly (methyl methacrylate)/multi walled carbon nanotube composite for the polycentric knee joint.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Kanagaraj, S

    2015-10-01

    Trans femoral amputation is one of the most uncomfortable surgeries in patient׳s life, where the prosthesis consisting of a socket, knee joint, pylon and foot is used to do the walking activities. The artificial prosthetic knee joint imitates the functions of human knee to achieve the flexion-extension for the above knee amputee. The objective of present work is to develop a light weight composite material for the knee joint to reduce the metabolic cost of an amputee. Hence, an attempt was made to study the mechanical properties of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared through melt mixing technique and optimize the concentration of reinforcement. The PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by reinforcing 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.4 wt% of MWCNT using injection moulding machine via twin screw extruder. It is observed that the tensile and flexural strength of PMMA, which were studied as per ASTM D638 and D790, respectively, were increased by 32.9% and 26.3% till 0.25 wt% reinforcement of MWCNT. The experimental results of strength and modulus were compared with theoretical prediction, where a good correlation was noted. It is concluded that the mechanical properties of PMMA were found to be increased to maximum at 0.25 wt% reinforcement of MWCNT, where the Pukanszky model and modified Halpin-Tsai model are suggested to predict the strength and modulus, respectively, of the PMMA/MWCNT composite, which can be opted as a suitable materiel for the development of polycentric knee joint.

  11. Interchain coupled chain dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in blends with poly(methyl methacrylate): Coupling model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, K. L.; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation data from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends found that for short times the self-dynamics of PEO chain follows the Rouse model, but at longer times past tc = 1-2 ns it becomes slower and departs from the Rouse model in dependences on time, momentum transfer, and temperature. To explain the anomalies, others had proposed the random Rouse model (RRM) in which each monomer has different mobility taken from a broad log-normal distribution. Despite the success of the RRM, Diddens et al. [Eur. Phys. Lett. 95, 56003 (2011)] extracted the distribution of friction coefficients from the MD simulations of a PEO/PMMA blend and found that the distribution is much narrower than expected from the RRM. We propose a simpler alternative explanation of the data by utilizing alone the observed crossover of PEO chain dynamics at tc. The present problem is just a special case of a general property of relaxation in interacting systems, which is the crossover from independent relaxation to coupled many-body relaxation at some tc determined by the interaction potential and intermolecular coupling/constraints. The generality is brought out vividly by pointing out that the crossover also had been observed by neutron scattering from entangled chains relaxation in monodisperse homopolymers, and from the segmental α-relaxation of PEO in blends with PMMA. The properties of all the relaxation processes in connection with the crossover are similar, despite the length scales of the relaxation in these systems are widely different.

  12. Properties of radiation cured vinyl-divinyl copolymers. Part I. Thermomechanical properties of crosslinked methyl methacrylate polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Micko, M.M.; Paszner, L.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation copolymerization (crosslinking) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with a series of divinyl monomers containing 1 to 4 ethyleneglycol connecting units between the terminal reactive divinyl units was found to provide numerous improvements in the thermomechanical properties of the copolymers. Thermoplastic poly-MMA was converted to a thermoset copolymer with only small additions (2 to 5%) of the divinyl crosslinking agent. When the measured thermomechanical properties (glass transition temperature, Tg, thermal distortion temperature, TDT; and thermomechanical deformation degree, TDD) of the above crosslinked copolymers were related to the respective crosslink densities (expressed by the copolymer connection number, CN/sub co/) the crosslink efficiency increased in terms of the above parameters in a reverse order as observed for acceleration, i.e., TEGDMA < TrEGDMA < DEGDMA < EGDMA. This observation is readily explained by the relation between segmental mobility of the respective macromolecules of the copolymers formed and the critical thermomechanical parameters which can be determined for such solid copolymers. Segmental mobility of the crosslinking agent increases with increasing molecular bridge length and hence the increased temperature sensitivity of the copolymers to thermal softening and distortion as the bridge length increases from a single ethyleneglycol (EGDMA) to four ethyleneglycol (TEGDMA) units in the bridge connecting the vinyl functions of the divinyl monomers. For all copolymers of this study, the linear thermomechanical deformation coefficient, representing thermal deformation between the plastic and rubbery states, remained relatively constant across a broad temperature interval until the respective TDT temperatures are reached, and decreased exponentially with the divinyl monomer concentration in the copolymer regardless of the connecting bridge length.

  13. Synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) core/chitosan-mixed-polyethyleneimine shell nanoparticles and their antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Inphonlek, Supharat; Pimpha, Nuttaporn; Sunintaboon, Panya

    2010-06-01

    The core-shell nanoparticles possessing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core coated with chitosan (CS), polyethyleneimine (PEI), and chitosan-mixed-polyethyleneimine (CS/PEI) shells were synthesized in this work. The emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization triggered by a redox initiating system from t-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) and amine groups on CS and/or PEI was used as a synthetic method. In the CS/PEI systems, the amount of CS was kept constant (0.5g), while the amount of PEI was varied from 0.1 to 0.5g. The surface and physico-chemical properties of prepared nanoparticles were then examined. FTIR spectra indicated the presence of grafted PMMA on CS and/or PEI, and the weight fraction of incorporated PEI in the CS/PEI nanoparticles. All nanoparticles were spherical in shape with uniform size distribution illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The introduction of PEI to CS nanoparticles yielded the higher monomer conversion, grafting efficiency, and grafting percentage compared with the CS nanoparticles. The size of CS/PEI nanoparticles was smaller than the original CS and PEI nanoparticles, and tended to decrease with increasing amount of PEI introduced. The introduction of PEI also brought the higher colloidal stability to the nanoparticles as indicated by zeta-potential measurement and isoelectric point analysis. The nanoparticles exhibited a promising antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The nanoparticle-bacteria interaction was studied via SEM. The results suggested that they would be useful as effective antibacterial agents.

  14. Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Morshed; Vaughan, Melville B; Morris, Tracy L; White, Jeremiah J; Meng, Zhaotong

    2014-01-01

    The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications. PMID:24920906

  15. Kinetics for the Sequential Infiltration Synthesis of Alumina in Poly(methyl methacrylate): An Infrared Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mahua; Libera, Joseph A.; Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) is a method for growing inorganic materials within polymers in an atomically controlled fashion. This technique can increase the etch resistance of optical, electron-beam, and block copolymer (BCP) lithography resists and is also a flexible strategy for nanomaterials synthesis. Despite this broad utility, the kinetics of SIS remain poorly understood, and this knowledge gap must be bridged in order to gain firm control over the growth of inorganic materials inside polymer films at a large scale. In this paper, we explore the reaction kinetics for Al2O3 SIS in PMMA using in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. First, we establish the kinetics for saturation adsorption and desorption of trimethyl aluminum (TMA) in PMMA over a range of PMMA film thicknesses deposited on silicon substrates. These observations guide the selection of TMA dose and purge times during SIS lithography to achieve robust organic/inorganic structures. Next, we examine the effects of TMA desorption on BCP lithography by performing SIS on silicon surfaces coated with polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) films. After etching the organic components, the substrates are examined using scanning electron microcopy to evaluate the resulting Al2O3 patterns. Finally, we examine the effects of temperature on Al2O3 SIS in PMMA to elucidate the infiltration kinetics. The insights provided by these measurements will help extend SIS lithography to larger substrate sizes for eventual commercialization and expand our knowledge of precursor-polymer interactions that will benefit the SIS of a wide range of inorganic materials in the future.

  16. Evaluation of different nonspecific binding blocking agents deposited inside poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic flow-cells.

    PubMed

    Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Gubala, Vladimir; Gandhiraman, Ram P; Daniels, Stephen; Williams, David E

    2011-07-19

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) flow-cells containing microwells were deposited with different nonspecific binding blocking agents, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), cationic lipid (DOTAP:DOPE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME). Water contact angle (WCA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements were carried out to confirm the successful depositions of BSA, DOTAP, and DEGDME onto the PMMA surfaces. Fluorescent intensity measurements were performed to evaluate the degree of nonspecific adsorption of Cy5-labeled anti-IgG proteins onto plain and oxygen plasma-treated (PT) PMMA flow-cells as well as PMMA flow-cells deposited with different above-mentioned blocking agents. We then employed a label-free detection method called total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) to evaluate the stability of the deposited blocking agents inside the PMMA flow-cells. It was found that, while DOTAP:DOPE was the best agent for blocking the nonspecific adsorption, it could be removed from the PMMA surfaces of the flow-cells upon rinsing with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and later deposited back onto the Au-coated glass sensing substrate of the TIRE. The removal of the blocking agents from PMMA surfaces and their deposition onto the sensing substrate were further manifested by measuring the kinetics and the amount of adsorbed anti-α-hCG proteins. Overall, the dry DEGDME coating by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) showed very good blocking and excellent stability for subsequent assay inside the microwells. Our results could be useful when one considers what blocking agents should be used for PMMA-based microfluidic immunosensor or biosensor devices by looking at both the blocking efficiency and the stability of the blocking agent.

  17. Interchain coupled chain dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in blends with poly(methyl methacrylate): coupling model analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K L; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-21

    Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation data from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends found that for short times the self-dynamics of PEO chain follows the Rouse model, but at longer times past t(c) = 1-2 ns it becomes slower and departs from the Rouse model in dependences on time, momentum transfer, and temperature. To explain the anomalies, others had proposed the random Rouse model (RRM) in which each monomer has different mobility taken from a broad log-normal distribution. Despite the success of the RRM, Diddens et al. [Eur. Phys. Lett. 95, 56003 (2011)] extracted the distribution of friction coefficients from the MD simulations of a PEO/PMMA blend and found that the distribution is much narrower than expected from the RRM. We propose a simpler alternative explanation of the data by utilizing alone the observed crossover of PEO chain dynamics at t(c). The present problem is just a special case of a general property of relaxation in interacting systems, which is the crossover from independent relaxation to coupled many-body relaxation at some t(c) determined by the interaction potential and intermolecular coupling/constraints. The generality is brought out vividly by pointing out that the crossover also had been observed by neutron scattering from entangled chains relaxation in monodisperse homopolymers, and from the segmental α-relaxation of PEO in blends with PMMA. The properties of all the relaxation processes in connection with the crossover are similar, despite the length scales of the relaxation in these systems are widely different.

  18. Acid-base properties, deactivation, and in situ regeneration of condensation catalysts for synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Condensation reaction of a propionate with formaldehyde is a novel route for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The reaction mechanism involves a proton abstraction from the propionate on the basic sites and activation of the aliphatic aldehyde on the acidic sites of the catalyst. The acid-base properties of ternary V-Si-P oxide catalysts and their relation to the NWA yield in the vapor phase condensation of formaldehyde with propionic anhydride has been studied for the first time. Five different V-Si-P catalysts with different atomic ratios of vanadium, silicon, and phosphorous were synthesized, characterized, and tested in a fixed-bed microreactor system. A V-Si-P 1:10:2.8 catalyst gave the maximum condensation yield of 56% based on HCHO fed at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h. A parameter called the ``q-ratio`` has been defined to correlate the condensation yields to the acid-base properties. The correlation of q-ratio with the condensation yield shows that higher q-ratios are more desirable. The long-term deactivation studies on the V-Si-P 1: 10:2.8 catalyst at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h show that the catalyst activity drops by a factor of nearly 20 over a 180 h period. The activity can be restored to about 78% of the initial activity by a mild oxidative regeneration at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm. The performance of V-Si-P catalyst has been compared to a Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. The Ta- catalyst is more stable and has a higher on-stream catalyst life.

  19. Characterization and comparison of methacrylic acid with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid in the preparation of monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Daisuke; Ohyama, Kaname; Masunaga, Tomoko; Fujita, Yoshiko; Ali, Marwa Fathy Bakr; Kishikawa, Naoya; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2013-01-01

    Butyl methacrylate (BMA)-ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA)-methacrylic acid (MAA) and BMA-EDMA-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) monolithic columns were prepared by varying the percentage of ionic monomers for capillary electrochromatography. Monolithic columns with a higher content of ionic monomers provided better column efficiency, and the performance of BMA-EDMA-MAA monoliths was better than BMA-EDMA-AMPS. To characterize and optimize BMA-EDMA-MAA monoliths, the effects of the content of cross-linker and the total monomer in the polymerization mixture on column performance were also studied. Plate heights of 8.2 µm for the unretained solute (thiourea) and 12.6 µm for the retained solute (naphthalene) were achieved with a monolithic column using 2.5% MAA (Column I).

  20. Development and application of methods for determination of residual monomer in dental acrylic resins using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Urban, V M; Cass, Q B; Oliveira, R V; Giampaolo, E T; Machado, A L

    2006-04-01

    Two high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for determination of residual monomer in dental acrylic resins are described. Monomers were detected by their UV absorbance at 230 nm, on a Nucleosil C18 (5 microm particle size, 100 A pore size, 15 x 0.46 cm i.d.) column. The separation was performed using acetonitrile-water (55:45 v/v) containing 0.01% triethylamine (TEA) for methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate, and acetonitrile-water (60:40 v/v) containing 0.01% TEA for isobutyl methacrylate and 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate as mobile phases, at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Good linear relationships were obtained in the concentration range 5.0-80.0 microg/mL for methyl methacrylate, 10.0-160.0 microg/mL for butyl methacrylate, 50.0-500.0 microg/mL for isobutyl methacrylate and 2.5-180.0 microg/mL for 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate. Adequate assay for intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy was observed during the validation process. An extraction procedure to remove residual monomer from the acrylic resins was also established. Residual monomer was obtained from broken specimens of acrylic disks using methanol as extraction solvent for 2 h in an ice-bath. The developed methods and the extraction procedure were applied to dental acrylic resins, tested with or without post-polymerization treatments, and proved to be accurate and precise for the determination of residual monomer content of the materials evaluated.