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Sample records for acrylate polymer generic

  1. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  2. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  5. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10223 Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10223 Styrenyl surface treated... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrenyl surface...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10223 Styrenyl surface treated... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrenyl surface...

  20. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10528 - Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified fluorinated acrylates... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10528 Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic). (a) Chemical substances... modified fluorinated acrylates (PMNs P-12-30, P-12-31, and P-12-32) are subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10528 - Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified fluorinated acrylates... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10528 Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic). (a) Chemical substances... modified fluorinated acrylates (PMNs P-12-30, P-12-31, and P-12-32) are subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  11. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). 721.484 Section 721.484 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  12. 40 CFR 721.336 - Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name). 721.336 Section 721.336 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.336 Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name). (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.330 - Aromatic acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.330 Aromatic acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aromatic acrylate (PMN P-01-420)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.330 - Aromatic acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.330 Aromatic acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aromatic acrylate (PMN P-01-420)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  17. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  18. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10519 - Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (generic). 721.10519 Section 721.10519 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  20. 40 CFR 721.330 - Aromatic acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic acrylate (generic). 721.330 Section 721.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as specified §...

  1. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34636... substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate copolymer (PMNs P-00-0333 and P-00-0334) are...

  2. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  15. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS Reg. No. 34364-83-5) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be.../methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS Reg. No. 34364-83-5) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be.../methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for the... processors of this substance as specified in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (f), (g), (h), and (i). (2... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  11. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... (PMNs P-00-0333 and P-00-0334) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  13. 40 CFR 721.465 - Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.465 Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...

  14. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... (PMNs P-00-0333 and P-00-0334) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  16. 40 CFR 721.465 - Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.465 Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10524 - Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10524 Section 721.10524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10524 Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (PMN P-11-384) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10524 - Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10524 Section 721.10524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10524 Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (PMN P-11-384) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS... methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the copolymerization of vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate such that the basic polymers or the finished food-contact articles meet...

  5. 40 CFR 721.336 - Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for... for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant...

  6. 40 CFR 721.336 - Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for... for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant...

  7. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10246 - Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10246 Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (PMN P-09-234) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10246 - Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10246 Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (PMN P-09-234) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10246 - Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10246 Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (PMN P-09-234) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. Mechanical properties of single pellets containing acrylic polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Zhang, G; Shah, N H; Infeld, M H; Malick, A W; McGinity, J W

    1996-07-01

    Three aqueous-based acrylic latex dispersions, Eudragit L 30 D, NE 30 D, and RS 30 D, were incorporated as granulating binders into a powder blend of microcrystalline cellulose and anhydrous lactose by wet massing. Spheronized pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and the mechanical properties of single pellets, including the tensile strength at break and the Young's modulus were determined from the stress-strain profiles using a Chatillon TCD-200 tension/compression digital test gauge. The influence of particle size and plasticizer on the mechanical properties of pellets containing Eudragit RS 30 D was investigated. All bead formulations deformed by brittle fracture under a diametral compression force. The mechanical strength was found to be influenced by the adhesive strength between the polymers and the powder particles instead of the cohesive strength of each polymer. The Young's modulus and the tensile strength were also significantly influenced by the type and concentration of polymer, the presence of plasticizer, and the particle size of the beads. The results were related to the properties of the polymers and the fracture mechanisms of the beads. Furthermore, the polymer type and the incorporation of plasticizer influenced the susceptibility of the moistened extruded granules to the shearing forces during the spheronization process, which influenced the surface morphological properties of the pellets. PMID:9552348

  4. Drilling fluids containing amps, acrylic acid, itaconic acid polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component, there being from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and being at least water dispersible. A method is described of drilling a well into a subterranean formation in which an aqueous drilling fluid is circulated into the well. The step of circulating the drilling fluid contains in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component. There is from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and is at least water dispersible.

  5. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. Characteristics and mechanisms of acrylate polymer damage to maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qin; Liao, Zongwen; He, Zhenli

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent acrylate polymers (SAPs) have been widely used to maintain soil moisture in agricultural management, but they may cause damage to plants, and the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, seed germination, soil pot culture, hydroponic experiments, and SAPs degradation were conducted to investigate damage characteristics and mechanisms associated with SAPs application. The Results showed that SAPs inhibited maize growth and altered root morphology (irregular and loose arrangement of cells and breakage of cortex parenchyma), and the inhibitory effects were enhanced at higher SAPs rates. After 1h SAP hydrogels treatment, root malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) content were significantly decreased. Hydroponics experiment indicated that root and shoot growth was inhibited at 2.5mgL(-1) acrylic acid (AA), and the inhibition was enhanced with increasing AA rates. This effect was exacerbated by the presence of Na(+) at a high concentration in the hydrogels. Release and degradation of AA were enhanced at higher soil moisture levels. A complete degradation of AA occurred between 15 and 20 days after incubation (DAI), but it took longer for Na(+) concentration to decrease to a safe level. These results indicate that high concentration of both AA and Na(+) present in the SAPs inhibits plant growth. The finding of this study may provide a guideline for appropriate application of SAPs in agriculture. PMID:27057990

  16. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Partially fluorinated condensation... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Partially fluorinated condensation... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Partially fluorinated condensation... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  1. Novel (meth)acrylate monomers for ultrarapid polymerization and enhanced polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beckel, E. R.; Berchtold, K. A.; Nie, J.; Lu, H.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is known to be one of the most efficient methods to initiatc polymeric reactions in the presence of a photonitiator. Photopolymerizations are advantageous because the chemistry of the materials can be tailored to design liquid monomers for ultrarapid polymerization into a solid polymer material. One way to achieve rapid photopolymerizations is to utilize multifunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. which form highly crosslinked polymers; however, these monomers typically do not achieve complete functional group conversion. Recently, Decker et al. developed novel monovinyl acrylate monomers that display polyriicrization kinetics that rival those of multifunctional acrylate monomers. These novel acrylate monomers incorporate secondary functionalities and end groups such as carbonates, carbamates, cyclic carbonates and oxazolidone which promote the increased polymerization kinetics of these monomers. In addition to thc polynierization kinetics, these novel monovinyl monomers form crosslinked polymers, which are characterized by having high strength and high flexibility. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the polymerization kinetics and crosslinking are not well understood.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10298 Section 721.10298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (P-11-662) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10298 Section 721.10298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (P-11-662) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10298 Section 721.10298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (P-11-662) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  10. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dul-Sun; Woo, Jang Chang; Youk, Ji Ho; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  11. New polymer for 157-nm single-layer resist based on fluorine-containing acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Endo, Koutaro; Komano, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Toshimasa

    2001-08-01

    We are reporting on the development of acryl polymer based on novel methacrylate and acrylate monomers with various trifluoromethyl groups for the application to 157nm chemically amplified positive-tone resists. The (alpha) - trifluoromethylation of the alkyl ester in methacrylate or acrylate could employ the reduction of acrylpolymer absorbance at 157nm by spectra analysis with the VUV-200 spectrophotometer by JASCO. Although the trifluoromethyl groups could employ the reduction of base polymer absorbance at 157nm, the homopolymers have issued weak etch resistance as a photoresist base polymer. To take account of this issue, we have developed a novel monomer, trifluoromethyl- iso-adamantylmethacrylate (TFIAdMA) and a new co-polymer system with the combination of fluorinated methacrylate derivatives and substituted p-hydroxystyrene. The absorption coefficient of poly(p-tert-butoxystyren-co- hexafluoro-tert-butyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) incicated to be less than 3 micrometers -1 at 157nm. Patterning results were obtained with a 157nm contact exposure system of VUVES-4500 by LTJ. One of the experimental resists, based on a particular polymer ratio and photo acid generator, has clearly achieved 180nm line and space pattern resolution. At 140nm resist film thickness, the sensitivity was 31 mJ/cm2 when using 0,26N tetrametylammonium hydroxide surfactant type developer.

  12. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. PMID:23008096

  13. 40 CFR 721.10624 - Dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). 721.10624 Section 721.10624 Protection of...,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (PMN P-12-326) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6680 - Alkanoic acid, butanediol and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). 721.6680 Section 721.6680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkanoic acid, butanediol, and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (PMN P-89-672)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6680 - Alkanoic acid, butanediol and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). 721.6680 Section 721.6680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkanoic acid, butanediol, and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (PMN P-89-672)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6680 - Alkanoic acid, butanediol and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). 721.6680 Section 721.6680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkanoic acid, butanediol, and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (PMN P-89-672)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10624 - Dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). 721.10624 Section 721.10624 Protection of...,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (PMN P-12-326) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6680 - Alkanoic acid, butanediol and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). 721.6680 Section 721.6680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkanoic acid, butanediol, and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (PMN P-89-672)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6680 - Alkanoic acid, butanediol and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). 721.6680 Section 721.6680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... cyclohexanealkanol polymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkanoic acid, butanediol, and cyclohexanealkanol polymer (PMN P-89-672)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  9. Degradability of an Acrylate-Linked, Fluorotelomer Polymer in Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer polymers are used in a broad array of products in modern societies worldwide and, if they degrade at significant rates, potentially are a significant source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related compounds to the environment. To evaluate this possibility, we i...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10367 - Hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene, cyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzene, cyanate (generic). 721.10367 Section 721.10367 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10367 Hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene... substance identified generically as hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene, cyanate (PMN P-10-83)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10367 - Hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene, cyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... benzene, cyanate (generic). 721.10367 Section 721.10367 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10367 Hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene... substance identified generically as hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene, cyanate (PMN P-10-83)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10367 - Hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene, cyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... benzene, cyanate (generic). 721.10367 Section 721.10367 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10367 Hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene... substance identified generically as hydroxy-aryl, polymer with substituted benzene, cyanate (PMN P-10-83)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted phenols (generic). 721.3810 Section 721.3810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted phenols (generic). 721.3810 Section 721.3810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted phenols (generic). 721.3810 Section 721.3810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product...

  2. Tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films used in the coating of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, M; Kuppler, F; Bodmeier, R

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to determine the tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films in order to make predictions on the tackiness (agglomeration) of coated dosage forms during coating and curing. Force-displacement curves of the detachment process of two polymeric films were used as a measure of tackiness. Various polymers (cellulosic (Aquacoat and acrylics (Eudragit RS 30D, L 30D, NE 30D)), plasticizers (triacetin, triethyl citrate, tributyl citrate, acetyltributyl citrate) and anti-tacking agents (talc and glyceryl monostearate) were investigated. The order of tackiness for films prepared from the different aqueous polymer dispersions was in order of Eudragit NE 30D > RS 30D > RL 30D > Aquacoat. The tackiness increased with increasing plasticizer concentration due to the softening of the polymer. A correlation between the minimum film formation temperature and the tackiness was observed, however, no correlation between the tackiness and the lipophilicity of the plasticizer was seen. Talc and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) reduced the tackiness of the films significantly, with GMS being effective at much lower concentrations. Curing of Eudragit RS 30D-coated theophylline beads at temperatures higher than 40 degrees C in an irreversible agglomeration of the beads and damage of the coating upon separation of the beads. This resulted in a faster release than with uncured beads. Blending the beads with talc just prior to the curing step eliminated the agglomeration and therefore film damage, even at a curing temperature of 60 degrees C. PMID:10234529

  3. Semiconductor nanoparticles in poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Blanuša, J.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Djoković, V.

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead sulfide (PbS) semiconductors were prepared in a poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) matrix. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using optical and structural methods. Co-polymers were synthesized in two different molar ratios of pDMAEMA:acrylic acid monomer units (1:2, 1:1). Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of nano-sized CdSe and PbS particles. In the case of CdSe, a shift of the onset of the optical absorption toward lower wavelengths was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both CdSe and PbS nanoparticles have cubic crystal structure.

  4. Investigation of electrochemical properties of a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) polymer blend

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, C.O.; Seliskar, C.; Heineman, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical sensors have wide applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, industrial applications, and others because of their versatility, ruggedness, sensitivity, selectivity, and economy. Electrochemical sensors are constructed by using a conducting medium, in this case graphite, and applying a constant potential while measuring changes in the current. Polymers are used for electrochemical sensors to exclude interferents from the electrode surface, to preconcentrate the analyte near the electrode, and in some cases to provide a matrix for the immobilization of analytes, such as enzymes. These functions of the polymer can serve to improve the detection limit of the sensor. This project involves the evaluation of a new polymer for electrode modification. The poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) polymer was originally developed as an ion exchanger for use in space batteries. It has also been used in wastewater cleanup because it will concentrate heavy metals in the presence of calcium ion. This polymer is also optically clear, so it can potentially be used for an optical sensor. We are interested in investigating the ion exchange properties of the PVA/PAA polymer, as well as the ability of this polymer to preconcentrate and exclude analytes on the basis of size, charge, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions.

  5. Improving bone cement toughness and contrast agent confinement by using acrylic branched polymers.

    PubMed

    Lissarrague, Maria H; Fascio, Mirta L; Goyanes, Silvia; D'Accorso, Norma B

    2016-02-01

    A new biomedical material to be used as part of acrylic bone cement formulations is described. This new material is tough, its Young's Modulus is similar to the one of poly (methylmethacrylate) and the contrast agent, usually employed in acrylic bone cements, is homogeneously distributed among the polymeric matrix. Additionally, its wear coefficient is 66% lower than the one measured in poly(methyl methacrylate). The developed material is a branched polymer with polyisoprene backbone and poly(methyl methacrylate) side chains, which are capable of retaining barium sulphate nanoparticles thus avoiding their aggregation. The grafting reaction was carried out in presence of the nanoparticles, using methyl methacrylate as solvent. From the (1)H-NMR spectra it was possible to determine the average number of MMA units per unit of isoprene (3.75:1). The ability to retain nanoparticles (about 8wt.%), attributed to their interaction with the polymer branches, was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and confirmed by FTIR and microscopy techniques. By SEM microscopy it was also possible to determine the homogeneous spatial distribution of the barium sulphate nanoparticles along the polymer matrix. PMID:26652446

  6. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10693 - Diphenylmethane diisocyanate polymer with alkanoic diacid and alkanediol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphenylmethane diisocyanate polymer... polymer with alkanoic diacid and alkanediol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... polymer with alkanoic diacid and alkanediol (PMN P-13-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10493 - Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10493 Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (PMN P-05-417) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10610 - Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10610 Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene... substances identified generically as toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (PMNs...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10610 - Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10610 Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene... substances identified generically as toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (PMNs...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10493 - Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10493 Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (PMN P-05-417) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  17. Preparation and drug-loading properties of Fe3O4/Poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wensheng; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2013-11-01

    Fe3O4/poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites were synthesized by the dispersion polymerization method using styrene as hard monomer, acrylic acid as functional monomer, Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified with oleic acid as core, and poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) as shell. Drug-loading properties of magnetic polymer nanocomposites with curcumin as a model drug were also studied. The results indicated that magnetic polymer nanocomposites with monodisperse were obtained, the particle size distribution was 50-120 nm, and the average size was about 100 nm. The contents of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in magnetic polymer nanocomposites were 74% and 24.7%, respectively. The drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency were 2.5% and 44.4%, respectively. The saturation magnetization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites at 300 K was 20.2 emu/g without coercivity and remanence. The as-prepared magnetic polymer nanocomposites have not only lots of functional carboxyl groups but also stronger magnetic response, which might have potential applications in drug carrier and targeted drug release.

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites in absence and presence of acrylic elastomer (ACM).

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Rath, T; Mahaling, R N; Mukherjee, M; Khatua, B B; Das, C K

    2009-05-01

    Polyetherimide/Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposites containing as-received and modified (COOH-MWNT) carbon nanotubes were prepared through melt process in extruder and then compression molded. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the MWNTs were well dispersed and formed an intimate contact with the polymer matrix without any agglomeration. However the incorporation of modified carbon nanotubes formed fascinating, highly crosslinked, and compact network structure throughout the polymer matrix. This showed the increased adhesion of PEI with modified MWNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed high degree of dispersion of modified MWNTs along with broken ends. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a marginal increase in storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (T(g)) with the addition of MWNTs. Increase in tensile strength and impact strength of composites confirmed the use the MWNTs as possible reinforcement agent. Both thermal and electrical conductivity of composites increased, but effect is more pronounced on modification due to formation of network of carbon nanotubes. Addition of acrylic elastomer to developed PEI/MWNTs (modified) nanocomposites resulted in the further increase in thermal and electrical properties due to the formation of additional bond between MWNTs and acrylic elastomers at the interface. All the results presented are well corroborated by SEM and FESEM studies. PMID:19452959

  19. Preparation and properties of UV-cured acrylated silane intercalated polymer/LDH nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yan; Shi, Wenfang

    2011-01-15

    A novel UV-cured polymer/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite was prepared by modifying the LDH with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and [3-(methyl-acroloxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane (KH570) followed by UV irradiation after blended into a acrylate system. From the XRD analyses, the SDS-modified LDH-DS presented the basal spacing of 2.67 nm, whereas the further KH570-intercalated LDH-KH showed a slight decrease to 2.41 nm. After UV irradiated the exfoliated microstructure was formed, and observed by TEM and HR-TEM, showing the fine dispersion and random orientation of LDH in the polymer matrix. The storage modulus and glass transition temperature of the nanocomposite containing 5% LDH-KH increased to 47.5 MPa and 67.8 {sup o}C, respectively, from 39.7 MPa and 66 {sup o}C of the pure polymer from DMTA measurements. The tensile strength and Persoz hardness were enhanced to 10.6 MPa and 111 s, respectively, from 7.7 MPa and 85 s of the pure polymer.

  20. The effect of acrylic latex-based polymer on cow blood adhesive resins for wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.; Lin, H. L.; Feng, G. Z.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, alkali-modified cow blood adhesive (BA) and blood adhesive/acrylic latex-based adhesive (BA/ALB) were prepared. The physicochemical and adhesion properties of cow blood adhesive such as UV- visible spectra, particle size, viscosity were evaluated; share strength, water resistance were tested. UV- visible spectra indicates that the strong bonding strength of BA/ALB appeared after incorporating; the particle size of adhesive decreased with the increase of ALB concentration, by mixing ALB and BA, hydrophilic polymer tends locate or extand the protein chains and provide stability of the particles; viscosity decreased as shear rate increased in concordance with a pseudoplastic behavior; both at dry and soak conditions, BA and ALB/BA show significant difference changes when mass fraction of ALB in blend adhesive was over 30% (p < 0.05). ALB/ BA (ALB30%) is not significant different than that of phenol formaldehyde which was used as control. A combination of cow blood and acrylic latex-based adhesive significantly increased the strength and water resistance of the resulting wood.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10352 Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dimethyl terephthalate,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10352 Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dimethyl terephthalate,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10352 Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dimethyl terephthalate,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10533 - Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10533 Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (PMN P-12-182) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10533 - Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10533 Amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as amine-modified urea-formaldehyde polymer (PMN P-12-182) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenols and formaldehyde... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenols and formaldehyde... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenols and formaldehyde... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  9. ABS polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly(acrylic acid) covalent grafting.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Mesnage, Alice; Jégou, Pascale; Nekelson, Fabien; Roussel, Sébastien; Palacin, Serge

    2010-04-01

    A new, efficient, palladium- and chromium-free process for the electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers has been developed. The process is based on the ion-exchange properties of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chemically grafted onto ABS via a simple and one-step method that prevents using classical surface conditioning. Hence, ABS electroless plating can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of PAA onto ABS, (ii) the copper Cu(0) seeding of the ABS surface, and (iii) the nickel or copper metallization using commercial-like electroless plating bath. IR, XPS, and SEM were used to characterize each step of the process, and the Cu loading was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This process successfully compares with the commercial one based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, because the final metallic layer showed excellent adhesion with the ABS substrate. PMID:20361751

  10. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. Biorenewable tough blends of polylactide and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil compatibilized by a polylactide star polymer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mauck, Sheli C.; Wang, Shu; Ding, Wenyue; Rohde, Brian J.; Fortune, C. Karen; Yang, Guozhen; Robertson, Megan L.; Ahn, Suk -Kyun

    2016-02-26

    Polylactide (PLA), a commercially available thermoplastic derived from plant sugars, finds applications in consumer products, disposable packaging, and textiles, among others. The widespread application of this material is limited by its brittleness, as evidenced by low tensile elongation at break, impact strength, and fracture toughness. Herein, a multifunctional vegetable oil, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), was investigated as a biodegradable, renewable additive to improve the toughness of PLA. AESO was found to be a highly reactive oil, providing a dispersed phase with tunable properties in which the acrylate groups underwent cross-linking at the elevated temperatures required for processing the blends.more » Additionally, the presence of hydroxyl groups on AESO provided two routes for compatibilization of PLA/AESO blends: (1) reactive compatibilization through the transesterification of AESO and PLA and (2) synthesis of a PLA star polymer with an AESO core. The morphological, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of PLA/oil blends were investigated, in which the dispersed oil phase consisted of AESO, soybean oil (SYBO), or a 50/50 mixture of AESO/SYBO. The oil additives were found to toughen the PLA matrix, with significant enhancements in the elongation at break and tensile toughness values, while maintaining the glass transition temperature of neat PLA. Specifically, the blend containing PLA, AESO, SYBO, and the PLA star polymer was found to exhibit a uniform oil droplet size distribution with small average droplet size and interparticle distance, resulting in the greatest enhancements of PLA tensile properties with no observable plasticization.« less

  16. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites by UV-curing of silver nano particles-acrylic resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, L.; Schneider, R.; Soppera, O.; Lougnot, D. J.

    2007-09-01

    We present here a simple method to synthesize organic-dispersible colloids and a scenario for the ultra-fast fabrication of silver/polymer nanocomposite by light-induced crosslinking polymerization. The objective of this work was to apply UV-curing technology for the fabrication of nanocomposite materials containing silver nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer binder. This new route allows processing operations to be simplified and the properties of the final product to be improved. A special attention has been paid to the synthesis and dispersion of metal nanoparticles in various monomers and oligomers and to the photopolymerization kinetics. The silver nanoparticles were generated by reduction of AgNO 3 with t-BuONa activated sodium hydride. Ag(0) particles present a narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 6.5 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis has shown that Ag(0) nanoparticles are well dispersed in the acrylic resin. The curing process was followed quantitatively by FTIR spectroscopy through the decrease upon UV exposure of the IR bands characteristic of the functional groups. The silver nanoparticles have no detrimental effect on the photopolymerization kinetics. The incorporation of metal nanoparticles was found to greatly reduce the gloss of UV-cured coatings. Moreover, the outstanding optical and viscoelastic properties of these UV-cured nanocomposites opens up interesting perspectives in various fields of applications (optics, nanoelectronic, biology...).

  17. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Nemoto, Eri; Sato, Kazuhiro; Orui, Toshihiko; Otaki, Takayuki; Yoshihiro, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA), on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe2A) and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe3A), which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment. PMID:26288362

  18. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Nemoto, Eri; Sato, Kazuhiro; Orui, Toshihiko; Otaki, Takayuki; Yoshihiro, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA), on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe2A) and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe3A), which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment. PMID:26288362

  19. Influence of selected surfactants on the tackiness of acrylic polymer films.

    PubMed

    Nimkulrat, Sathaporn; Suchiva, Krisda; Phinyocheep, Pranee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2004-12-01

    Anti-tacking agents are always necessary in polymeric film coating formulations in order to prevent substrate agglomeration. The objective of this study was to investigate the abilities of certain nonionic surfactants in a group of sorbitan ester in reducing the tackiness of the films obtained from aqueous acrylic polymer dispersions (Eudragit), compared with those of talc and glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The results from the peel tests demonstrated that GMS, Span 60 and Span 40 could significantly reduce the tackiness of both Eudragit NE 30D and Eudragit RS 30D films. The mechanisms in reducing the film tackiness were investigated by analyzing the film compositions, using attenuated total internal reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and optical microscopy. The storage modulus of the films was also examined. The results indicated that GMS, Span 60, and Span 40 could reduce the film tackiness by decreasing the polymer contents at the film surfaces, resulting in a notable reduction in the contact area of the polymers between the surfaces. The use of only 5% (w/w) of either GMS, Span 60 or Span 40 in the coating formulations is enough to prevent pellet agglomeration without adverse effects on film flexibility. The pellets coated with Eudragit RS 30D/RL 30D (9:1, w/w) did not exhibit any difference in the drug release profiles when either 100% (w/w) talc or 5% (w/w) GMS was used, whereas the formulations containing Span 60 or Span 40 gave a slightly faster release rate. PMID:15541909

  20. The Film Formation of Polymer Particles in Drying Thin Films of Aqueous Acrylic Latices.

    PubMed

    van Tent A; te Nijenhuis K

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors that contribute to the process of film formation of binder particles in drying aqueous dispersion coatings, based on acrylic polymers. It is known that concentrated latices of uniform size show iridescent, colored light patterns. These colors are caused by interparticle interference, and they are only present when the latex particles are ordered in a regular structure. The interparticle interference can be characterized by measuring the transmission as a function of wavelength of the incident light. It appeared that the changes of the interparticle interference of a drying latex film can be related to changes in the interparticle distance and displacement. It was also found that the interparticle distance becomes "negative" upon coalescence of the latex particles. This means that from this point on, the change in interparticle interference is directly related to the indentation or deformation of the latex particles. It became clear that the coalescence process differs from deformation mechanisms accepted in the literature. It seems that the deformation of the particles follows a biaxial mechanism. This means that the particles deform only in one direction, perpendicular to the film surface. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11097771

  1. Evaluation of a cross-linked polyurethane acrylate as polymer electrolyte for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Santhosh, P.; Gopalan, A. . E-mail: algopal_99@yahoo.com; Vasudevan, T.; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2006-06-15

    A cross-linked polyurethane acrylate (CL-PUA) was synthesized by end capping 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based prepolymer with hydroxybutyl methacrylate (HBMA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurements reveal the possible presence of significant interactions between lithium ions and soft/hard segments of the CL-PUA, when CL-PUA was complexed with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}). CL-PUA follows the VTF relationship for the ion transport. Predominant formation of contact ion pairs of LiClO{sub 4} has been observed through AC conductivity and DSC measurements. The lithium stripping-plating process is a reversible and implies better electrochemical stability in the working voltage range. Also, CL-PUA electrolyte shows better compatibility with lithium metal as inferred from impedance measurements and has a good cationic transference number suitable to be used as a solid polymer electrolyte. The addition of HBMA into PU matrix improves tensile strength of the CL-PUA. Swelling measurements of CL-PUA with plasticizer showed better dimensional stability. Also, a cell was constructed using CL-PUA as electrolyte and the performance was assessed.

  2. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  3. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  4. Polymer collapse in miscible good solvents is a generic phenomenon driven by preferential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M.; Kremer, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Water and alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, are miscible and, individually, good solvents for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm), but this polymer precipitates in water-alcohol mixtures. The intriguing behaviour of solvent mixtures that cannot dissolve a given polymer or a given protein, while the same macromolecule dissolves well in each of the cosolvents, is called cononsolvency. It is a widespread phenomenon, relevant for many formulation steps in the physicochemical and pharmaceutical industry, that is usually explained by invoking specific chemical details of the mixtures: as such, it has so far eluded any generic explanation. Here, by using a combination of simulations and theory, we present a simple and universal treatment that requires only the preferential interaction of one of the cosolvents with the polymer. The results show striking quantitative agreement with experiments and chemically specific simulations, opening a new perspective towards an operational understanding of macromolecular solubility.

  5. Chelating compounds as potential flash rust inhibitors and melamine & aziridine cure of acrylic colloidal unimolecular polymers (CUPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Jigar Kishorkumar

    Waterborne coatings on ferrous substrates usually show flash rusting which decreases the adhesion of the coating and the corrosion products can form a stain. Chelating compounds were investigated as potential flash rust inhibitors. Compounds being evaluated include amine alcohols, diamines and sulfur containing amines. A new corrosion inhibitor 2,5-bis(thioaceticacid)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (H2ADTZ) was synthesized and its performance characteristics were evaluated. It was noted that the observed structure of 1,3,4-thiadiazolidine-2,5-dithione (also known as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD or DMcT)) has been previously reported in three different tautomeric forms including -dithiol and -dithione. The relative stability of each form as well as the synthesis and characterization of the structures of mono- and dialkylated forms of 5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thione (MTT) were examined. The methods of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and ab-initio electronic structure calculations were combined to understand the reactivity and structure of each compound. Polymers were synthesized with a 1:7 or 1:8 ratio of acrylic acid to acrylate monomers to produce an acid rich resin. The polymers were reduced and solvent stripped to produce Colloidal Unimolecular Polymers (CUPs). These particles are typically 3-9 nanometers in diameter depending upon the molecular weight. They were then formulated into a clear coating with either a melamine (bake) or an aziridine (ambient cure) and then cured. The melamine system was solvent free, a near zero VOC and the aziridine system was very low to near zero VOC. The coatings were evaluated for their MEK resistance, adhesion, hardness, gloss, flexibility, wet adhesion, abrasion and impact resistance properties.

  6. Polymers with customizable optical and rheological properties based on an epoxy acrylate based host-guest system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleiβner, U.; Hobmaier, J.; Hanemann, T.

    2015-09-01

    We report an easy way to tune the optical refractive index and viscosity of an epoxy acrylate-based host-guest system which can be used for the fabrication of optical waveguides. This allows fast and precise modification of the material system for different replication methods like hot embossing, inkjet printing or spin coating. To modify the refractive index n, an electron-rich organic dopant such as phenanthrene is added to a commercially available reactive polymer based resin. Moreover, changes in viscosity can be achieved by using a comonomer with suitable properties like benzyl methacrylate (BMA). We used a commercially available UV-curable epoxy acrylate based polymer matrix to investigate both the influence of phenanthrene and of benzyl methacrylate. First, mixtures of the pure polymer and benzyl methacrylate with a ratio of 30, 50, and 80 wt% benzyl methacrylate were produced. Second, phenanthrene was added with 5 and 10 wt%, respectively. All components were mixed and then polymerized by UV-irradiation and with a thermal postcure. The viscosity of the mixtures decreased at 20°C linearly from 1.5 Pa·s (30 wt%) to 8 mPa·s (80 wt%), whereas the refractive index decreased at the same time by a small amount from 1.570 to 1.568 (@589 nm, 20 °C). By adding phenanthrene refractive index increased to a maximum of n = 1.586 (50 wt% BMA, 10 wt% phenanthrene). Abbe numbers for the compositions without phenanthrene ranged from 35 to 38.

  7. 40 CFR 721.5585 - 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). 721.5585 Section 721.5585 Protection of...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and a diamine (PMN P-97-0916) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5585 - 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). 721.5585 Section 721.5585 Protection of...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and a diamine (PMN P-97-0916) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5585 - 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). 721.5585 Section 721.5585 Protection of...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and a diamine (PMN P-97-0916) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5585 - 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). 721.5585 Section 721.5585 Protection of...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and a diamine (PMN P-97-0916) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5585 - 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). 721.5585 Section 721.5585 Protection of...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane and a diamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and...-methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and a diamine (PMN P-97-0916) is subject...

  12. Generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly via hybrid polymer capsules for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Sami, Haider; Maparu, Auhin K; Kumar, Ashok; Sivakumar, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the 'as prepared' nanoparticles without 'further surface modification' in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles) in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells), without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb(3+) was observed after internalization of LaF(3):Tb(3+)(5%) nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery) without the need of individual cargo design/modification. PMID:22649489

  13. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC)

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by 1H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  14. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Helmut; Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  15. Preparation of polymer/LDH nanocomposite by UV-initiated photopolymerization of acrylate through photoinitiator-modified LDH precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Lihua; Yuan, Yan; Shi, Wenfang

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: This is the HR-TEM micrograph of UV cured nanocomposite at 5 wt% LDH-2959 loading for a-5 sample. The dark lines are the intersections of LDH platelets. It can be seen that samples a-5 dispersed in the polymer matrix and lost the ordered stacking-structure and show the completely exfoliation after UV curing. This can be explained by the fact that the sample a-5 only containing LDH-2959 exhibited a relative lower photopolymerization rate, which was propitious to further expand the LDH intergallery to form the exfoliated structure. Research highlights: {yields} The UV cured polymer/LDH nanocomposites were prepared through the photopolymerization initiated by the photoinitiator-modified LDH precursor, LDH-2959. {yields} The exfoliated UV cured nanocomposites were achieved in the presence of LDH-2959 only. However, the UV cured nanocomposites prepared using both LDH-2959 and Irgacure 2959 showed the intercalated structure. {yields} Compared with the pure polymer, the exfoliated polymer/LDH nanocomposite showed remarkable enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties because of their well dispersion in the polymer matrix. -- Abstract: The exfoliated polymer/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite by UV-initiated photopolymerization of acrylate systems through an Irgacure 2959-modified LDH precursor (LDH-2959) as a photoinitiator complex was prepared. The LDH-2959 was obtained by the esterification of 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure 2959) with thioglycolic acid, following by the addition reaction with 3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560), finally intercalation into the sodium dodecyl sulfate-modified LDH. For comparison, the intercalated polymer/LDH nanocomposite was obtained with additive Irgacure 2959 addition. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and HR-TEM observations, the LDH lost the ordered stacking-structure and well dispersed in the polymer matrix at 5 wt% LDH-2959 loading

  16. Determination of enrofloxacin by room-temperature phosphorimetry after solid phase extraction on an acrylic polymer sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Cabrini F.; Martins, Renata K. S.; da Silva, Andrea R.; da Cunha, Alessandra L. M. C.; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.

    A phosphorimetric method was developed to enable the determination of enrofloxacin using photochemical derivatization which was used to both improve detection limits and to minimize the uncertainty of measurements. Phosphorescence was induced on cellulose containing TlNO3. Absolute limit of detection at the ng range and linear analytical response over three orders of magnitude were achieved. A metrological study was made to obtain the combined uncertainty value and to identify that the precision was mainly affected by the changing of substrates when measuring the signal from each replicate. Pharmaceutical formulations containing enrofloxacin were successfully analyzed by the method and the results were similar to the ones achieved using a HPLC method. A solid phase extraction on an acrylic polymer was optimized to separate enrofloxacin from interferents such as diclofenac and other components from biological matrices, which allowed the successful use of the method in urine analysis.

  17. Feasibility of Crosslinked Acrylic Shape Memory Polymer for a Thrombectomy Device

    PubMed Central

    Muschenborn, Andrea D.; Hearon, Keith; Volk, Brent L.; Conway, Jordan W.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of utilizing a system of SMP acrylates for a thrombectomy device by determining an optimal crosslink density that provides both adequate recovery stress for blood clot removal and sufficient strain capacity to enable catheter delivery. Methods Four thermoset acrylic copolymers containing benzylmethacrylate (BzMA) and bisphenol A ethoxylate diacrylate (Mn~512, BPA) were designed with differing thermomechanical properties. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to ensure that the materials were able to undergo the strains imposed by crimping, and fabricated devices were subjected to force-monitored crimping, constrained recovery, and bench-top thrombectomy. Results Devices with 25 and 35 mole% BPA exhibited the highest recovery stress and the highest brittle response as they broke upon constrained recovery. On the contrary, the 15 mole % BPA devices endured all testing and their recovery stress (5 kPa) enabled successful bench-top thrombectomy in 2/3 times, compared to 0/3 for the devices with the lowest BPA content. Conclusion While the 15 mole% BPA devices provided the best trade-off between device integrity and performance, other SMP systems that offer recovery stresses above 5 kPa without increasing brittleness to the point of causing device failure would be more suitable for this application. PMID:25414549

  18. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction. PMID:24859074

  19. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  1. Preparation and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles dispersed in poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Djoković, V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Radhakrishnan, T.

    2008-03-01

    CdS/poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized using structural, optical and thermal methods. Co-polymers used as the matrices were synthesized by radical polymerization of the co-monomers in different mol ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, DMAEMA:acrylic acid). The presence of the nanostructured CdS was confirmed by TEM analysis as well as by the shift of the onset of the optical absorption towards lower wavelengths. XRD spectra showed the cubic crystal phase of the obtained CdS nanoparticles. TGA measurements revealed improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite with respect to pure co-polymer matrix.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... premanufacturing notification under 40 CFR 723.250. Polymers exempted can be used as dispensers, resins, fibers... given in 40 CFR 723.250(b), are not automatically excluded by 40 723.250(d), and meet the tolerance exemption criteria in 40 CFR 723.250(e)(1), 40 CFR 723.250 (e)(2) or 40 CFR 723.250(e)(3)....

  3. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... premanufacturing notification under 40 CFR 723.250. Polymers exempted can be used as dispensers, resins, fibers... given in 40 CFR 723.250(b), are not automatically excluded by 40 723.250(d), and meet the tolerance exemption criteria in 40 CFR 723.250(e)(1), 40 CFR 723.250 (e)(2) or 40 CFR 723.250(e)(3)....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... premanufacturing notification under 40 CFR 723.250. Polymers exempted can be used as dispensers, resins, fibers... given in 40 CFR 723.250(b), are not automatically excluded by 40 723.250(d), and meet the tolerance exemption criteria in 40 CFR 723.250(e)(1), 40 CFR 723.250 (e)(2) or 40 CFR 723.250(e)(3)....

  5. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... premanufacturing notification under 40 CFR 723.250. Polymers exempted can be used as dispensers, resins, fibers... given in 40 CFR 723.250(b), are not automatically excluded by 40 723.250(d), and meet the tolerance exemption criteria in 40 CFR 723.250(e)(1), 40 CFR 723.250 (e)(2) or 40 CFR 723.250(e)(3)....

  6. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... premanufacturing notification under 40 CFR 723.250. Polymers exempted can be used as dispensers, resins, fibers... given in 40 CFR 723.250(b), are not automatically excluded by 40 723.250(d), and meet the tolerance exemption criteria in 40 CFR 723.250(e)(1), 40 CFR 723.250 (e)(2) or 40 CFR 723.250(e)(3)....

  7. A fast low-temperature micromolding process for hydrophilic microfluidic devices using UV-curable acrylated hyperbranched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Young-Hyun; Cho, Young-Ho; Schmidt, Lars E.; Leterrier, Yves; Månson, Jan-Anders E.

    2007-06-01

    A novel UV-curable low-stress hyperbranched polymer (HBP) micromolding process is presented for the fast and low-temperature fabrication of hydrophilic microfluidic devices. Process, material and surface properties of the acrylated polyether HBP are also characterized and compared to those of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and cyclic olefin copolymers (COC). The HBP dispensed on a PDMS master was cured at room temperature using a 3 min UV exposure at the intensity of 22.2 mW cm-2. Thermal, mechanical and surface properties of the micromolded HBP structures have been characterized and resulted in a glass transition temperature of 55 °C, Young's modulus of 770 MPa and hydrophilic surface having a water contact angle of 54°. Micromolding of 33 µm thick HBP microstructures has been demonstrated. We achieved 14.5 µm wide vertical walls, 14.7 µm wide fluidic channels, 24.1 µm wide square pillars and 53.4 µm wide square holes. A microfluidic network device, composed of microfluidic channels and reservoirs, was fabricated and its microfluidic performance has been verified by a fluidic test.

  8. Sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically stepped glassy substrates of silicate glass and acryl polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-11-01

    In the nanoimprint process, the resolution limit of patterning has attracted much attention from both scientific and industrial aspects. In this article, we briefly review the main achievements of our research group on sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically patterned glassy substrates of oxide glass and polymer. By applying the sapphire (α-Al2O3 single crystal) wafers with self-organized nanopatterns of atomic steps as thermal nanoimprinting molds, we successfully transferred their nanoscale patterns onto the surfaces of glassy substrates such as soda-lime silicate glasses and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers. The surfaces of nanoimprinted glassy materials exhibited regularly arrayed atomic stairs with 0.2-0.3 nm step height, which were in good agreement with the sub-nanopatterns of sapphire molds. These atomically stepped morphologies on the glassy substrates were found to be stable for about 1 year.

  9. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on amidoximated acrylic polymer activated by cyanuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed S; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on amidoximated acrylic fabric after being activated with cyanuric chloride. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize fabrics. The maximum immobilization efficiency of HRP (70%) was detected at 4% cyanuric chloride and pH 7.0. The immobilized enzyme retained 45% of its initial activity after ten reuses. The immobilization of enzyme on the carrier is saturated after 6h of incubation time. The pH was shifted from 7.0 for soluble HRP to 7.5-8.0 for the immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP and immobilized HRP had the same optimum activity at 40°C. The immobilized HRP is more thermal stable than soluble HRP. Substrate analogues were oxidized by immobilized HRP with higher efficiencies than those of soluble HRP. Km values of the soluble HRP and the immobilized HRP were 31 and 37mM for guiacol and 5.0 and 7.8mM for H2O2, respectively. The immobilized HRP had higher efficiency for removal of phenol than that of soluble HRP. The immobilized HRP had higher resistance toward heavy metal ions compared to the soluble enzyme. The immobilized HRP was more stable against high concentration of urea, Triton X-100 and isopropanol. The immobilized HRP exhibited high resistance to proteolysis by trypsin than soluble enzyme. In conclusion, the immobilized HRP could be used as a potential efficient catalyst for the removal of aromatic pollutants from wastewater. PMID:27264646

  10. Folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel for site specific delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The hydrogel based system is found to be rarely reported for the delivery of hydrophobic drug due to the incompatibility of hydrophilicity of the polymer network and the hydrophobicity of drug. This problem can be solved by preparing semi-interpenetrating network of cross-linked polymer for tuning the hydrophilicity so as to entrap the hydrophobic drugs. The current study is to develop a folic acid conjugated cross-linked pH sensitive, biocompatible polymeric hydrogel to achieve a site specific drug delivery. For that, we have synthesized a folic acid conjugated PEG cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel and investigated its loading and release of curcumin. The formed polymer hydrogel was then conjugated with folic acid for the site specific delivery of curcumin to cancer cells and then further characterized and conducted the cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). Results In this study, we synthesized folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs to the cancer site. Poly (ethyleneglycol) (PEG) diacrylate cross-linked acrylic polymer (PAA) was prepared via inverse emulsion polymerization technique and later conjugated it with folic acid (FA-CLAP). Hydrophobic drug curcumin is entrapped into it and investigated the entrapment efficiency. Characterization of synthesized hydogel was done by using Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Polymerization and folate conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The release kinetics of drug from the entrapped form was studied which showed initial burst release followed by sustained release due to swelling and increased cross-linking. In vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were conducted in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Conclusions Results showed that curcumin entrapped folate conjugated cross-linked acrylic

  11. Stability study of ambroxol hydrochloride sustained release pellets coated with acrylic polymer.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Islam, K M Ariful; Jalil, Reza-Ul

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to perform stability study of ambroxol hydrochloride sustained release pellets stored in different storage conditions. The drug loaded beads were prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology then coated with ammonio methacrylate copolymer type A (Eudragit RL 30 D) and ammonio methacrylate copolymer type B (Eudragit RS 30 D) at a ratio of 2:3 (8% polymer by weight on dry basis) in fluid bed coater (Wurster column). Stability study of pellets was performed as capsule dosage form in aluminium-PVDC packaging mode at room temperature, 40 degrees C, 40 degrees C/75%RH & 30 degrees C/70%RH for three months. After one month the shape & size of the pellets was changed in all conditions. The color of the pellets remains unchanged up to the 2nd month in all conditions except at 40 degrees C/75%RH and in this case some pellets become brown. But after 3rd month, pellets become brownish in all conditions except at room temperature. At RT the color of pellets remains unchanged during the stability study. The mean drug content decreased gradually in all conditions. In acid media the initial drug release was 23% but after 1st month it was decreased to 13-15% in all conditions. In the buffer media (pH 6.8) the drug release was increased a little bit in all conditions except at 30 degrees C/70%RH with the passes of storage time. Stability studies at 30 degrees C/70%RH revealed consistent drug release (f(2)>50) throughout the stability period. The physical properties of pellets as well as the in vitro release profile of the drug was found to be a function of the different storage conditions as well as the physico-chemical nature of the polymers. PMID:19168418

  12. ToF‐SIMS analysis of a polymer microarray composed of poly(meth)acrylates with C6 derivative pendant groups

    PubMed Central

    Scurr, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Surface analysis plays a key role in understanding the function of materials, particularly in biological environments. Time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF‐SIMS) provides highly surface sensitive chemical information that can readily be acquired over large areas and has, thus, become an important surface analysis tool. However, the information‐rich nature of ToF‐SIMS complicates the interpretation and comparison of spectra, particularly in cases where multicomponent samples are being assessed. In this study, a method is presented to assess the chemical variance across 16 poly(meth)acrylates. Materials are selected to contain C6 pendant groups, and ten replicates of each are printed as a polymer microarray. SIMS spectra are acquired for each material with the most intense and unique ions assessed for each material to identify the predominant and distinctive fragmentation pathways within the materials studied. Differentiating acrylate/methacrylate pairs is readily achieved using secondary ions derived from both the polymer backbone and pendant groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the SIMS spectra of the 16 polymers, whereby the resulting principal components are able to distinguish phenyl from benzyl groups, mono‐functional from multi‐functional monomers and acrylates from methacrylates. The principal components are applied to copolymer series to assess the predictive capabilities of the PCA. Beyond being able to predict the copolymer ratio, in some cases, the SIMS analysis is able to provide insight into the molecular sequence of a copolymer. The insight gained in this study will be beneficial for developing structure–function relationships based upon ToF‐SIMS data of polymer libraries. © 2016 The Authors Surface and Interface Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27134321

  13. Generic Role of Polymer Supports in the Fine Adjustment of Interfacial Interactions between Solid Substrates and Model Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Fernanda F; Schneck, Emanuel; Fragneto, Giovanna; Konovalov, Oleg V; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-04-21

    To understand the generic role of soft, hydrated biopolymers in adjusting interfacial interactions at biological interfaces, we designed a defined model of the cell-extracellular matrix contacts based on planar lipid membranes deposited on polymer supports (polymer-supported membranes). Highly uniform polymer supports made out of regenerated cellulose allow for the control of film thickness without changing the surface roughness and without osmotic dehydration. The complementary combination of specular neutron reflectivity and high-energy specular X-ray reflectivity yields the equilibrium membrane-substrate distances, which can quantitatively be modeled by computing the interplay of van der Waals interaction, hydration repulsion, and repulsion caused by the thermal undulation of membranes. The obtained results help to understand the role of a biopolymer in the interfacial interactions of cell membranes from a physical point of view and also open a large potential to generally bridge soft, biological matter and hard inorganic materials. PMID:25794040

  14. Extending framework based on the linear coordination polymers: Alternative chains containing lanthanum ion and acrylic acid ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui . E-mail: lihui@bit.edu.cn; Guo Ming; Tian Hong; He Feiyue; Lee, G.-H.; Peng, S.-M.

    2006-11-15

    One-dimensional alternative chains of two lanthanum complexes: [La(L{sup 1}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (L{sup 1}=anion of {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid ) 1 and [La(L{sup 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (L{sup 2}=anion of trans-3-(4-methyl-benzoyl)-acrylic acid) 2 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C{sub 31}H{sub 36}LaN{sub 3}O{sub 17}, triclinic, P-1, a=9.8279(4)A, b=11.8278(5)A, c=17.8730(7)A, {alpha}=72.7960(10){sup o}, {beta}=83.3820(10){sup o}, {gamma}=67.1650(10)-bar , Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0377, wR{sub 2}=0.0746; for 2: C{sub 33}H{sub 37}LaO{sub 14}, triclinic, P-1, a=8.7174(5)A, b=9.9377(5)A, c=21.153(2)A, {alpha}=81.145(2){sup o}, {beta}=87.591(2){sup o}, {gamma}=67.345(5){sup o}, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0869, wR{sub 2}=0.220. 1 is a rare example of the alternative chain constructed by syn-syn and anti-syn coordination mode of carboxylato ligand arranged along the chain alternatively. La(III) ions in 2 are linked by two {eta}{sup 3}-O bridges and four bridges (two {eta}{sup 2}-O and two {eta}{sup 3}-O) alternatively. Both of the linear coordination polymers grow into two- and three-dimensional networks by packing through extending hydrogen-bond network directed by ligands.

  15. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). 721.8658 Section 721.8658 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... ammonium compound (PMN P-99-0874) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.405 - Polyether acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.405 Polyether acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyether acrylate (PMN P-95-666) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.405 - Polyether acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.405 Polyether acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyether acrylate (PMN P-95-666) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer..., polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (PMN P-05-1) is subject...

  6. All-acrylic film-forming colloidal polymer/silica nanocomposite particles prepared by aqueous emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee A; Tonnar, Jeff; Armes, Steven P

    2011-09-01

    The efficient synthesis of all-acrylic, film-forming, core-shell colloidal nanocomposite particles via in situ aqueous emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with n-butyl acrylate in the presence of a glycerol-functionalized ultrafine silica sol using a cationic azo initiator at 60 °C is reported. It is shown that relatively monodisperse nanocomposite particles can be produced with typical mean weight-average diameters of 140-330 nm and silica contents of up to 39 wt %. The importance of surface functionalization of the silica sol is highlighted, and it is demonstrated that systematic variation of parameters such as the initial silica sol concentration and initiator concentration affect both the mean particle diameter and the silica aggregation efficiency. The nanocomposite morphology comprises a copolymer core and a particulate silica shell, as determined by aqueous electrophoresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Moreover, it is shown that films cast from n-butyl acrylate-rich copolymer/silica nanocomposite dispersions are significantly more transparent than those prepared from the poly(styrene-co-n-butyl acrylate)/silica nanocomposite particles reported previously. In the case of the aqueous emulsion homopolymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of ultrafine silica, a particle formation mechanism is proposed to account for the various experimental observations made when periodically sampling such nanocomposite syntheses at intermediate comonomer conversions. PMID:21776995

  7. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  10. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks for improving optrode-neural tissue interface in optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Li, Yanling; Pan, Jianqing; Wei, Pengfei; Liu, Nan; Wu, Bifeng; Cheng, Jinbo; Lu, Caiyi; Wang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The field of optogenetics has been successfully used to understand the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric diseases through the precise spatial and temporal control of specific groups of neurons in a neural circuitry. However, it remains a great challenge to integrate optogenetic modulation with electrophysiological and behavioral read out methods as a means to explore the causal, temporally precise, and behaviorally relevant interactions of neurons in the specific circuits of freely behaving animals. In this study, an eight-channel chronically implantable optrode array was fabricated and modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks (PEDOT/PSS-PVA/PAA IPNs) for improving the optrode-neural tissue interface. The conducting polymer-hydrogel IPN films exhibited a significantly higher capacitance and lower electrochemical impedance at 1 kHz as compared to unmodified optrode sites and showed significantly improved mechanical and electrochemical stability as compared to pure conducting polymer films. The cell attachment and neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells on the IPN films were clearly observed through calcein-AM staining. Furthermore, the optrode arrays were chronically implanted into the hippocampus of SD rats after the lentiviral expression of synapsin-ChR2-EYFP, and light-evoked, frequency-dependant action potentials were obtained in freely moving animals. The electrical recording results suggested that the modified optrode arrays showed significantly reduced impedance and RMS noise and an improved SNR as compared to unmodified sites, which may have benefited from the improved electrochemical performance and biocompatibility of the deposited IPN films. All these characteristics are greatly desired in optogenetic applications, and the fabrication method of conducting polymer-hydrogel IPNs can be easily integrated with other modification methods to build a

  11. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA.

  12. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  13. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  14. Experimental and theoretical studies on the permeation of argon through matrices of acrylic polymers containing 1,3-dioxane groups in their structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna, Mari-Fe; Guzmán, Julio; Saiz, Enrique; Riande, Evaristo

    1999-02-01

    The permeation of argon gas through membranes of poly(cis/trans 2-phenyl-5-ethyl-5acryloxymethyl-1,3-dioxacyclohexane) (PAEDP) has been measured in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of this polymer (˜Tg≈50 °C). Both the permeation and the diffusion coefficients show only a slight dependence on temperature while the membrane remains in glassy state, but exhibit a sharp increase with temperature in the rubbery state. Theoretical calculations of the diffusion coefficient were performed according to the transition-state approach, i.e., assuming that the diffusant path is independent of the structural relaxation in the polymeric matrix, as a function of the smearing factor Δ and temperature. Reasonably good agreement among theoretical and experimental values of the diffusion coefficient was obtained. Theoretical calculations were also performed for poly(cis/trans 2-phenyl-5-ethyl-5-methacryloxymethyl-1,3-dioxacyclohexane) (PMAEDP), the methacrylate analog of PAEDP, which indicate that the diffusion coefficient of glassy PMAEDP is lower than that of glassy PAEDP when the same temperature is taken as the basis of comparison, due to the higher values of Tg in methacrylate than in acrylate polymers which, in turn is a consequence of the rigidity conferred to the polymeric chain by the methyl group.

  15. Mitigation of Biofilm Formation on Corrugated Cardboard Fresh Produce Packaging Surfaces Using a Novel Thiazolidinedione Derivative Integrated in Acrylic Emulsion Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, Michael; Al-Quntar, Abed; Goldberg, Hila; Mosheyev, Gregory; Goffer, Moshe; Marin-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed. PMID:26909074

  16. Mitigation of Biofilm Formation on Corrugated Cardboard Fresh Produce Packaging Surfaces Using a Novel Thiazolidinedione Derivative Integrated in Acrylic Emulsion Polymers.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, Michael; Al-Quntar, Abed; Goldberg, Hila; Mosheyev, Gregory; Goffer, Moshe; Marin-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed. PMID:26909074

  17. Bioinspired monolithic polymer microsphere arrays as generically anti-adhesive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Eichler-Volf, Anna; Kovalev, Alexander; Wedeking, Tim; Gorb, Elena V; Xue, Longjian; You, Changjiang; Piehler, Jacob; Gorb, Stanislav N; Steinhart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired surface topographies showing generic anti-adhesive behaviour by minimization of the real contact area not only with rigid, but also with soft and compliant counterpart surfaces recently attracted increasing attention. In the present study, we show that such generic anti-adhesive surfaces, which moreover demonstrate anti-fouling behaviour, can be produced on a large scale by a simple double replication of monolayers of microspheres with diameters of a few 10 μm. Thus, we obtained mechanically stable monolithic arrays of microspheres tightly connected to a support of the same material. Adhesion of these microsphere arrays to sticky and compliant counterpart surfaces was one order of magnitude weaker than that of flat control samples of the same material. The generation of nanorod arrays with nanorod diameters of a few 100 nm as the second hierarchical structure level on monolithic microsphere arrays did not significantly affect the adhesion force. The experimental data on anti-adhesive behaviour were modelled using a modified Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theoretical approach that also provided general design criteria for topographic adhesion minimization to sticky counterpart surfaces. PMID:26989086

  18. Polymer optical waveguide composed of europium-aluminum-acrylate composite core for compact optical amplifier and laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Marina; Yamashita, Kenichi; Fukui, Toshimi; Ishigure, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We successfully fabricate polymer waveguides with Europium-Aluminum (Eu-Al) polymer composite core using the Mosquito method that utilizes a microdispenser for realizing a compact waveguide optical amplifiers and lasers. Rareearth (RE) ions are widely used as the gain medium for fiber lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. However, high concentration doping of rare-earth-ion leads to the concentration quenching resulting in observing less gain in optical amplification. For addressing the concentration quenching problem, a rare-earth metal (RE-M) polymer composite has been proposed by KRI, Inc. to be a waveguide core material. Actually, 10-wt% RE doping into organic polymer materials was already achieved. Hence, realization of compact and high-efficiency waveguide amplifiers and lasers have been anticipated using the RE-M polymer composite. In this paper, a microdispenser is adopted to fabricate a Eu-doped polymer waveguide. Then, it is experimentally confirmed that the low-loss waveguides are fabricated with a high reproducibility. Optical gain is estimated by measuring the amplified spontaneous emission using the variable stripe length method. The fabricated waveguide exhibits an optical gain as high as 7.1 dB/cm at 616-nm wavelength.

  19. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Dienes with Acrylic Esters: A Novel Approach to Photocured Polymer Film Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilhan, Faysal; Tyson, Daniel S.; Smith, Deedee; Meador, Mary Ann; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloadditions have often been utilized in polymer synthesis as an alternative to condensation reactions. In our earlier efforts, we developed a new method for the preparation of linear aromatic polyimides, which employs o-quionodimethanes (o-QDMs), generated by a well-known photochemical reaction: the photoenolization of o-methylphenyl ketones. Photolysis of o-methylbenzophenone 1 produces hydroxy-o-quino- diemthane 2, which can be trapped with dienophiles, such as dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, to efficiently yield the corresponding cycloadduct (Scheme 1). Here we extend this approach to a novel photocuring process for development of polymer films. We synthesized a series of molecules with multi o-mehtylphenyl ketone functionalities. We further investigated these molecules as photoreactive monomers to obtain polyester films through Diels-Alder cycloadditions.

  2. Nanoclays reinforced glass ionomer cements: dispersion and interaction of polymer grade (PG) montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Fareed, Muhammad A; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite nanoclays (PGV and PGN) were dispersed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) for utilization as reinforcing filler in glass ionomer cements (GICs). Chemical and physical interaction of PAA and nanoclay (PGV and PGN) was studied. PAA–PGV and PAA–PGN solutions were prepared in different weight percent loadings of PGV and PGN nanoclay (0.5-8.0 wt%) via exfoliation-adsorption method. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD results of PAA–PGN demonstrated that the interlayer space expanded from 12.83 to 16.03 Å indicating intercalation whereas the absence of the peak at d(001) in PAA–PGV indicated exfoliation. XPS scans of PGV and PGN nanoclays depicted the main peak of O 1s photoelectron due to Si–O–M (M = Mg, Al, Fe) whereas, Si–O–Al linkages were identified by Si 2p or Si 2s and Al 2p or Al 2s peaks. The disappearance of the Na peak confirmed that PAA molecules exchanged sodium ions present on surface of silicate layers and significantly reduced the electrostatic van-der-Waals forces between silicate plates resulting in intercalation or exfoliation. FTIR spectra of PAA–nanoclay suspensions demonstrated the presence of a new peak at 1,019 cm(-1) associated with Si–O– stretching vibrations which increased with increasing nanoclays concentration. Information concerning the dispersion of nanoclay in PAA aqueous solutions, chemical reaction and increase interlayer space in montmorillonite nanoclay is particularly useful regarding dispersion and reinforcement of nanoclay in PAA. PMID:24077996

  3. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  8. Influence of relative humidity on the mechanical and drug release properties of theophylline pellets coated with an acrylic polymer containing methylparaben as a non-traditional plasticizer.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; McGinity, J W

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the mechanical and dissolution properties of theophylline pellets coated with Eudragit((R)) RS 30 D/RL 30 D containing methylparaben (MP) as a non-traditional plasticizer. The coated beads were stored at 23 degrees C and at different relative humidities (0, 29, 51, 75 and 84% RH). The effect of storage conditions on the rate of drug release from coated beads was determined in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution. The mechanical properties, including tensile strength and Young's modulus, of individual beads were determined by a diametral compression method with a Chatillon((R)) tension/compression apparatus. The morphology of the intact and fractured beads was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The moisture content of the polymeric films was determined using a Karl Fischer coulometric moisture analyzer. The results from the mechanical studies demonstrated that an increase in the relative humidity resulted in a decrease in the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the coated beads. SEM photographs showed that coated beads stored at 0% RH exhibited brittle fracture failure. The coated beads stored at 84% RH showed ductile behavior, which was attributed to the hydroplasticization effect on the acrylic polymer due to the uptake of moisture. The moisture content in the films was also shown to influence the rate of drug release from Eudragit((R)) RS 30 D/RL 30 D coated beads containing MP as the plasticizer. The change in release profiles could be minimized when the relative humidity was reduced to zero. The dissolution rate of theophylline from the coated beads decreased when stored at high relative humidities. This trend was reversed when the coated beads that were stored at 84% RH for 5 weeks, were then equilibrated at 0% RH. PMID:10962239

  9. Unusually Stable Hysteresis in the pH-Response of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes Confined within Nanoporous Block Polymer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jacob L; Mulvenna, Ryan A; Boudouris, Bryan W; Phillip, William A

    2016-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive soft materials are a highly studied field due to their wide-ranging applications; however, only a small group of these materials display hysteretic responses to stimuli. Moreover, previous reports of this behavior have typically shown it to be short-lived. In this work, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains at extremely high grafting densities and confined in nanoscale pores displayed a unique long-lived hysteretic behavior caused by their ability to form a metastable hydrogen bond network. Hydraulic permeability measurements demonstrated that the conformation of the PAA chains exhibited a hysteretic dependence on pH, where different effective pore diameters arose in a pH range of 3 to 8, as determined by the pH of the previous environment. Further studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the fraction of ionized PAA moieties depended on the thin film history; this was corroborated by metal adsorption capacity, which demonstrated the same pH dependence. This hysteresis was shown to be persistent, enduring for days, in a manner unlike most other systems. The hypothesis that hydrogen bonding among PAA units contributed to the hysteretic behavior was supported by experiments with a urea solution, which disrupted the metastable hydrogen bonded state of PAA toward its ionized state. The ability of PAA to hydrogen bond within these confined pores results in a stable and tunable hysteresis not previously observed in homopolymer materials. An enhanced understanding of the polymer chemistry and physics governing this hysteresis gives insight into the design and manipulation of next-generation sensors and gating materials in nanoscale applications. PMID:27172428

  10. Flame retardant brominated styrene-based polymers. V. Synthesis and characterization of dibromostyrene and butyl acrylate latices with and without itaconic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.L.; Favstritsky, N.A.; Hemmerly, D.M.

    1995-12-01

    Dibranostyrene and butyl acrylate lattices with and without itaconic acid having desirable physical properties in combination with flame retardancy are prepared by an emulsion polymerization techniques Both lattices were characterized in terms of glass transition temperature (Tg), residual monomer, solids, Brookfield viscosity, UV stability and flame retardancy.

  11. UV curing of nanoparticle reinforced acrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F.; Flyunt, R.; Czihal, K.; Ernst, H.; Naumov, S.; Buchmeiser, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    To improve the surface hardness of radiation cured acrylate coatings, both silica nanoparticles and alumina particles with a few microns in size have been embedded into acrylate formulations. Regular mixing of nanoparticles into acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification of nanoparticles using trialkoxysilanes, which provide an interface between the two dissimilar materials. Nanoparticles modified by methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MEMO) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO), both having polymerisation-active groups, may be crosslinked with the acrylate resin. UV curing of the nanocomposites revealed an unexpected lower reactivity of the vinyl groups of VTMO modified silica compared to MEMO grafted on silica. For VTMO modification, DFT calculations showed a decrease of Mulliken atomic charge for the olefinic carbons pointing to a lower reactivity. For UV cured nano/microhybrid composites, a significant improvement of abrasion resistance was obtained.

  12. ACUTE TOXICITY AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACRYLATES AND METHACRYLATES TO JUVENILE FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylate and methacrylate esters are reactive monomers that are used primarily in the synthesis of acrylic plastics and polymers. Ninety-six hour flow-through acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) using 6 acrylates and 6 methacrylates. Nin...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../acrylic copolymers shall not be used as polymer modifiers in vinyl chloride homo- or copolymers. (e... (other than articles composed of vinyl chloride homo- or copolymers) intended for use in contact with...

  14. Using NMR chemical shift imaging to monitor swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid): methodology and effects of polymer (in)solubility.

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Topgaard, Daniel; Wahlgren, Marie; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2013-11-12

    A new technique has been developed using NMR chemical shift imaging (CSI) to monitor water penetration and molecular transport in initially dry polymer tablets that also contain small low-molecular weight compounds to be released from the tablets. Concentration profiles of components contained in the swelling tablets could be extracted via the intensities and chemical shift changes of peaks corresponding to protons of the components. The studied tablets contained hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) as the polymer component and griseofulvin and ethanol as hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively, low-molecular weight model compounds. The water solubility of HMPAA could be altered by titration with NaOH. In the pure acid form, HMPAA tablets only underwent a finite swelling until the maximum water content of the polymer-rich phase, as confirmed by independent phase studies, had been reached. By contrast, after partial neutralization with NaOH, the polyacid became fully miscible with water. The solubility of the polymer affected the water penetration, the polymer release, and the releases of both ethanol and griseofulvin. The detailed NMR CSI concentration profiles obtained highlighted the clear differences in the disintegration/dissolution/release behavior for the two types of tablet and provided insights into their molecular origin. The study illustrates the potential of the NMR CSI technique to give information of importance for the development of pharmaceutical tablets and, more broadly, for the general understanding of any operation that involves the immersion and ultimate disintegration of a dry polymer matrix in a solvent. PMID:24106807

  15. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated acrylate salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2014-09-09

    A method for synthesizing a deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1), the method comprising: (i) deuterating a propiolate compound of Formula (2) to a methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in the presence of a base and D.sub.2O: and (ii) reductively deuterating the methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in a reaction solvent in the presence of deuterium gas and a palladium-containing catalyst to afford the deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1). The resulting deuterated acrylate compounds, derivatives thereof, and polymers derived therefrom are also described.

  16. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  17. Star-shaped polymers of bio-inspired algae core and poly(acrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid) as arms in dissolution of silica/silicate.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Kalpana; Patiyal, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S; Sharma, Praveen

    2014-06-01

    Silica, in natural waters (due to weathering of rocks) decreases system performance in water processing industry due to scaling. In view of that, the present work involves the synthesis of novel green star shaped additives of algae core (a bio-inspired material as diatom maintains silicic acid equilibrium in sea water) as silica polymerization inhibitors. Star shaped materials with bio-inspired core and poly(acrylamide) [poly(AAm)] and poly(acrylic acid) [poly(AAc)] arms were synthesized by economical green approach. The proficiency was evaluated in 'mini lab' scale for the synthesized APAAm (Algae-g-poly(AAm)) and APAAc (Algae-g-poly(AAc)) dendrimers (star shaped) in colloidal silica mitigation/inhibition at 35 °C and 55 °C. Synthesized dendrimers were equally proficient in silica inhibition at 12 h and maintains ≥450 ppm soluble silica. However, APAAm dendrimers of generation 0 confirmed better results (≈300 ppm) in contrast to APAAc dendrimers in silica inhibition at 55 °C. Additionally, dendrimers also worked as a nucleator for heterogeneous polymerization to inhibit silica homo-polymerization. APAAm dendrimer test set showed no silica deposit for more than 10 days of inhibition. EDX characterization results support nucleator mechanism with Si content of 6.97%-10.98% by weight in silica deposits (SiO2-APAAm dendrimer composites). PMID:24681378

  18. Antistatic coating for acrylics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Somono, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    After immersion in low molecular-weight solvents such as acetonitril or nitromethane, clear acrylic plastics dissipate up to 70% of induced electric charge within one minute, yet retain optical clarity.

  19. The acrylic jacket crown.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M

    1975-04-01

    An attempt has been made to cover briefly the many applications of the acrylic jacket crown. It is readily understandable that this type of restoration has many shortcomings but at the same time it has many useful and important applications in dentistry when properly employed. It is hoped that the specialist and generalist alike will have found some new and useful applications of the acrylic jacket crown. PMID:1090464

  20. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates. PMID:26367207

  1. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  2. Acrylic purification and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzniak, Marcin

    2011-04-27

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  3. Hydrophilic surface modification of acrylate-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Arnal-Pastor, M; Comín-Cebrián, S; Martínez-Ramos, C; Monleón Pradas, M; Vallés-Lluch, A

    2016-04-01

    Acrylic polymers have proved to be excellent with regard to cell adhesion, colonization and survival, in vitro and in vivo. Highly ordered and regular pore structures thereof can be produced with the help of polyamide templates, which are removed with nitric acid. This treatment converts a fraction of the ethyl acrylate side groups into acrylic acid, turning poly(ethyl acrylate) scaffolds into a more hydrophilic and pH-sensitive substrate, while its good biological performance remains intact. To quantify the extent of such a modification, and be able to characterize the degree of hydrophilicity of poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate) was treated with acid for different times (four, nine and 17 days), and compared with poly(acrylic acid) and a 90/10%wt. EA/AAc copolymer (P(EA-co-AAc)). The biological performance was also assessed for samples immersed in acid up to four days and the copolymer, and it was found that the incorporation of acidic units on the material surface was not prejudicial for cells. This surface modification of 3D porous hydrophobic scaffolds makes easier the wetting with culture medium and aqueous solutions in general, and thus represents an advantage in the manageability of the scaffolds. PMID:26767395

  4. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polymer units derived from methyl acrylate. (b) The finished food-contact article, when extracted with the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340 Section 177.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. Industrially relevant epoxy-acrylate hybrid resin photopolymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiboye, Gbenga I.

    Photopolymerization of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins takes advantages of inherent properties present in the free-radical and cationic reactions to reduce oxygen inhibition problems that plague free-radical reactions. Similarly, the combined reaction mechanisms reduce moisture sensitivity of the cationic reactions. Despite the advantages of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins, problems persist that need to be addressed. For example, low conversion and polymerization rate of the epoxides are a problem, because the fast acrylate conversion prevents the epoxide from reaching high conversion. Controlling phase separation is challenging, since two moieties with different properties are reacting. The physical properties of the polymer will be impacted by the availability of different moieties. High shrinkage stress results from the acrylate moiety, causing buckling and cracking in film and coating applications. The overall goal of this study is to use the fundamental knowledge of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins to formulate industrially viable polymers. In order to achieve this goal, the study focuses on the following objectives: (I) determine the apparent activation energy of the hybrid monomer METHB, (II) increase epoxide conversion and polymerization rate of hybrid formulations, and (III) control physical properties in epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins. In order to increase the epoxide conversion and rate of polymerization, the sensitivity of epoxides to alcohol is used to facilitate the activated monomer (AM) mechanism and induce a covalent bond between the epoxide and acrylate polymers through the hydroxyl group. It is hypothesized that if the AM mechanism is facilitated, epoxide conversion will increase. As a result, the resins can be tailored to control phase separation and physical properties, and shrinkage stress can be reduced. In pursuit of these objectives, the hybrid monomer METHB was polymerized at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 70°C to obtain apparent activation

  6. Comparative study of the relaxation behavior at very low frequencies of acrylate polymers with pendant 1,3-dioxane rings in their structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Calleja, R.; Sanchís, M. J.; Guzmán, J.; Riande, E.

    1998-10-01

    The dielectric activity of poly {5-[(acryloxy)methyl]-5-methyl-1,3-dioxacyclohexane} (PAMMD), poly{5-[(acryloxy)methyl]-5-ethyl-1,3-dioxacyclohexane} (PAMED) and poly{5-[(acryloxy) methyl]-2-phenyl-5-ethyl-1,3-dioxacyclohexane} (PAEDP) is studied by thermostimulated discharge current (TSDC) techniques. The global TSDC curves corresponding to PAMMD, PAMED, and PAEDP exhibit subglass absorptions centered in the vicinity of -105, -100, and -120 °C, respectively. The dielectric activity of PAEDP in the glassy region is negligible in comparison with that of both PAMMD and PAEDP which have nearly similar relaxation strengths. Prominent peaks associated with the glass-rubber transition are located at 41, 38, and 57 °C for PAMMD, PAMED, and PAEDP, respectively. The real and loss components of the complex dielectric permittivity in the frequency domain (10-10-10-2 Hz) were calculated at several temperatures from elementary peaks obtained by partial TSDC curves in the glassy region. The differences observed in the spectra are discussed in terms of previous molecular dynamics studies carried out in model compounds of the flexible side groups of these polymers.

  7. AB-polymer networks with cooligoester and poly(n-butyl acrylate) segments as a multifunctional matrix for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Wischke, Christian; Neffe, Axel T; Steuer, Susi; Engelhardt, Eva; Lendlein, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Semi-crystalline AB-copolymer networks from oligo[(epsilon-caprolactone)-co-glycolide]dimethacrylates and n-butylacrylate have recently been shown to exhibit a shape-memory functionality, which may be used for self-deploying and anchoring of implants. In this study, a family of such materials differing in their molar glycolide contents chi(G) was investigated to determine structure-property functional relationships of unloaded and drug loaded specimens. Drug loading and release were evaluated, as well as their degradation behavior in vitro and in vivo. Higher chi(G) resulted in higher loading levels by swelling and a faster release of ethacridine lactate, lower melting temperature of polymer crystallites, and a decrease in shape fixity ratio of the programmed temporary shape. For unloaded networks, the material behavior in vivo was independent of the mechanical load associated with different implantation sites and agreed well with data from in vitro degradation studies. Thus, AB networks could be used as novel matrices for biofunctional implants, e.g., for urogenital applications, which can self-anchor in vivo and provide mechanical support, release drugs, and finally degrade in the body to excretable fragments. PMID:20603884

  8. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions. PMID:27078740

  9. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  10. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  15. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  16. Tuning the emission properties of a fluorescent polymer using a polymer microarray approach - identification of an optothermo responsive polymer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Duan, Zongquan; Sheng, Yang; Neumann, Kevin; Deng, Linhong; Li, Jian; Bradley, Mark; Zhang, Rong

    2016-08-18

    Polymer microarrays were prepared using inkjet printing mixtures of acrylate monomers each with a common fluorescent fluorene co-polymer. Fluorescence analysis of each of the features on the array allowed identification of polymers that could tune the fluorescence under a variety of insults. The "hit" polymers were made into beads via reverse suspension polymerization and their fluorescence properties were analyzed. PMID:27491507

  17. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  18. Structure and properties of binary polystyrene-epoxy acrylate oligomer mixtures irradiated by electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lomonosova, N.V.

    1995-03-01

    The change in the structure of oriented polymer-oligomer systems based on polystyrene (PS) with M > 10{sup 6} and epoxy acrylate oligomers (aliphatic and aromatic) under irradiation by accelerated electrons was studied using birefringence, isometric heating, IR dichroism, and thermooptical analysis. Mechanical properties of these systems were investigated. It was found that, by adding aliphatic epoxy acrylate to PS and further irradiating this mixture, one can obtain both isotropic and oriented composites with higher strengths, elasticity moduli, and glass transition temperatures.

  19. Preparation and properties of acrylic resin coating modified by functional graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Rui; Liu, Lili

    2016-04-01

    To improve the dispersion and the strength of filler-matrix interface in acrylic resin, the functional graphene oxide (FGO) was obtained by surface modification of graphene oxide (GO) by γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (KH-570) and then the acrylic nanocomposites containing different loadings of GO and FGO were prepared. The structure, morphology and dispersion/exfoliation of the FGO were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated that the KH-570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of GO sheets. Furthermore, the corresponding thermal, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the acrylic nanocomposites filled with the FGO were studied and compared with those of neat acrylic and GO/acrylic nanocomposites. The results revealed that the loading of FGO effectively enhanced various properties of acrylic resin. These findings confirmed that the dispersion and interfacial interaction were greatly improved by incorporation of FGO, which might be the result of covalent bonds between the FGO and the acrylic matrix. This work demonstrates an in situ polymerization method to construct a flexible interphase structure, strong interfacial interaction and good dispersion of FGO in acrylic nanocomposites, which can reinforce the polymer properties and be applied in research and industrial areas.

  20. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Salih, Ashraf M; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated. PMID:26248072

  1. Poly(amide-graft-acrylate) interfacial compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Michael Perez

    Graft copolymers with segments of dissimilar chemistries have been shown to be useful in a variety of applications as surfactants, compatibilizers, impact modifiers, and surface modifiers. The most common route to well defined graft copolymers is through the use of macromonomers, polymers containing a reactive functionality and thus capable of further polymerization. However, the majority of the studies thus far have focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of reacting with vinyl monomers to form graft copolymers. This study focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of participating in condensation polymerizations. A chain transfer functionalization method was utilized. Cysteine was evaluated as a chain transfer agent for the synthesis of amino acid functionalized poly(acrylate) and poly(methacrylate) macromonomers. Low molar mass, functionalized macromonomers were produced. These macromonomers were proven to be capable of reacting with amide precursors to form poly(amide-g-acrylate) graft copolymers. Macromonomers and graft copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The second part of this research involved poly(dimethacrylate) dental restorative materials. Volumetric shrinkage during the cure of these resins results in a poor interface between the resin and the remaining tooth structure, limiting the lifetime of these materials. Cyclic anhydrides were incorporated into common monomer compositions used in dental applications. Volume expansion from the ring opening hydrolysis of these anhydrides was shown to be feasible. The modified dental resins were characterized by swelling, extraction and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and density measurements. Linear poLymers designed to model the crosslinked dental resins were

  2. Low attenuation optical fiber of deuterated polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, J.K.; Beckerbauer, R.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Wilson, F.C.

    1985-04-16

    Light-transmitting optical fiber having a core of a (deuterated acrylate) polymer selected from the group consisting of a deuterated methacrylate homopolymer, a deuterated methacrylate copolymer and a deuterated methacrylate/acrylate copolymer which exhibits remarkably high transmission of light in the visible and at certain wavelengths in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

  3. JKR studies of adhesion with model acrylic elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, K.R.; Ahn, D.

    1996-12-31

    Acrylic elastomers are widely used in coating applications because of their inherent thermal stability, oil resistance and adhesive properties. These same features make acrylic elastomers attractive for fundamental studies of polymer adhesion. This endeavor has been simplified recently by the development of techniques for producing monodisperse acrylic homopolymers and block copolymers from anionically synthesized parent polyacrylates, thus allowing precise microstructural control of adhering surfaces. In terms of the adhesion measurement itself, an adhesion test based upon the theory of Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR), henceforth referred to as the JKR technique, is well suited for probing the molecular origins of adhesion in elastomeric systems. This technique is quite practical, and minimizes the sample volume to reduce bulk viscoelastic losses. Further, the JKR technique permits testing at very low crack velocities, where interfacial effects are unobscured by bulk effects. In this paper, the authors report the results of JKR adhesion tests between poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PNBA) elastomers and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The latter is employed as a control substrate because its inertness and low surface energy (relative to metallic or silicon based surfaces) are conducive to the creation of reproducible solid surfaces.

  4. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. PMID:24107720

  5. Base-Mediated Stereospecific Synthesis of Aryloxy and Amino substituted Ethyl Acrylates

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Verma, Ranjit; Lorenz, Michael; Tiruveedhula, V. V. N. Phani Babu; Monte, Aaron; Bertz, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted E- and Z-ethyl-3-acrylates is of interest because of their potential in the polymer industry and in medicinal chemistry. During work on a copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of E- and Z-ethyl-3-iodo-acrylates with phenols and N-heterocycles, we discovered a very simple (non-metallic) method for the stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates. To study this long standing problem on the stereoselectivity of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates, a series of O- and N-substituted nucleophiles was allowed to react with E- and Z-ethyl-3-iodo-acrylates. Screening of different bases indicated that DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) afforded successful conversion of E- and Z- ethyl-3-iodoacrylates into aryloxy and amino substituted ethyl acrylates in a stereospecific manner. Herein are the details of this DABCO-mediated stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted E- or Z-acrylates. PMID:22073965

  6. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca²⁺ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - In moulding sands, Part II.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2015-12-01

    The hardening process of moulding sands on quartz matrices bound by polymer binders containing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups can be carried out by using physical (microwave radiation, thermal holding) and chemical (Ca(2+) cations, glutaraldehyde) cross-linking agents. The highest hardening level obtain moulding sand samples containing binders in a form of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) within the microwave radiation field, for which the bending strength is of 1.6 MPa value even after 24h from ending the agent activity. The authors focused, in this study, on finding the reason of this effect. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods, that the chemical adsorption process activated by microwaves plays an essential role. The applied microwaves activate the polar groups present in the polymer composition structure as well as the quartz crystals surfaces (silane groups). Then the chemical adsorption occurs in the binder-matrix system within the microwave radiation field and intermolecular lattices are formed with a participation of hydrogen bridges (SiOH⋯OC, SiOH⋯OH) and COSi type bonds. PMID:26125981

  7. Toward pH-responsive coating materials--high-throughput study of (meth)acrylic copolymers.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Andreas; Arici, Elif; Windhab, Norbert; Schattka, Jan Hendrik; Schubert, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-08-11

    The release behavior of a model compound (β-naphthol orange) encapsulated in (meth)acrylate-based statistical copolymers under different environmental conditions was investigated. From monomers of varying polarity (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, tert-butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate) in combination with methacrylic acid, five polymer series were synthesized by free radical polymerization. The pH-dependent release kinetics were investigated via UV-vis spectroscopy at pH 1.2 and 6.8, simulating physiological conditions in the stomach and intestines. Furthermore, the influence of different ethanol contents (0 and 40 vol %) in the acidic medium was investigated. The whole approach was designed to meet the requirements of a high-throughput experimentation workflow. PMID:24964068

  8. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca(2+) ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch--part I.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-25

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca(2+) ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca(2+) ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds. PMID:25123942

  9. Generic prescribing of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Bruck, P; Antao, C A; Henry, J A

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of National Health Service prescription data for the antidepressants from 1980 to 1989 shows a consistent secular trend towards the increased use of generic names on prescriptions for this group of drugs. This apparently reflects national trends for all drugs, and was similar for most antidepressants. However, generic prescribing had by 1989 increased significantly more rapidly with fluvoxamine, which was introduced in 1987. The two drugs introduced in 1989, fluoxetine and amoxapine, also had a high generic prescribing rate in their year of introduction. Increased generic prescribing may become a feature with further new drugs. However, the use of the generic name on the prescription has relatively little influence on what is dispensed to the patient. Pharmacists may dispense a brand name when given a generic prescription. Moreover, pressures on doctors to write generic names on prescriptions may have limited relevance for some drugs; generic alternatives were available for only four out of 22 antidepressants. PMID:1474553

  10. Transparent acrylic enamel slide holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares Pérez, A.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Toxqui-López, S.

    2006-02-01

    We present holograms generated in a computer to an acrylic enamel slide (Comex (R)), getting phase holograms. The information in the mask is transferred to the material by temperature gradients generated by rubbing. The refraction index is transformed at each material point by the temperature changes, thus the film is recorded and developed by itself. this material can be used for soft lithography.

  11. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  12. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  13. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  14. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  15. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340 Section 177.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340 Section 177.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340 Section 177.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340 Section 177.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...

  19. [New acrylic resins with very low residual monomer].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Kadoma, Y; Imai, Y

    1989-07-01

    New experimental acrylic resins were prepared by polymerization of MMA in the presence of vinylidene fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer. The amount of residual monomer in the resins prepared by visible light curing, cold curing, and heat curing, at various polymer/monomer ratios, was measured and compared with the usual MMA/PMMA resin. In the visible light cured resins containing 60 or 70 wt% of the fluoropolymer, the amount of residual monomer was less than 0.1%. In the cold cured resins, the amount of residual monomer was very low: 0.2% and 0.7% for the resins containing 70 and 60 wt% of the polymer, respectively. These values were comparable to the usual heat cured MMA/PMMA resins. In the heat cured resins, the amount of residual monomer was the lowest; less than 0.1%, even in the resin consisting of 50 wt% polymer. Thus, we prepared new acrylic resins with much less residual monomer than the usual MMA/PMMA resins. PMID:2491165

  20. Desorption of biocides from renders modified with acrylate and silicone.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Bollmann, Ulla E; Wangler, Timothy P; Bester, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Biocides are used in the building industry to prevent algal, bacterial and fungal growth on polymericrenders and thus to protect buildings. However, these biocides are leached into the environment. To better understand this leaching, the sorption/desorption of biocides in polymeric renders was assessed. In this study the desorption constants of cybutryn, carbendazim, iodocarb, isoproturon, diuron, dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone and tebuconazole towards acrylate and silicone based renders were assessed at different pH values. At pH 9.5 (porewater) the constants for an acrylate based render varied between 8 (isoproturon) and 9634 (iodocarb) and 3750 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone), respectively. The values changed drastically with pH value. The results for the silicone based renders were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high sorption constants for one polymer also had high values for the other polymer. Comparison of the octanol water partitioning constants (Kow) with the render/water partitioning constants (Kd) revealed similarities, but no strong correlation. Adding higher amounts of polymer to the render material changed the equilibria for dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole, cybutryn, carbendazim but not for isoproturon and diuron. PMID:24059976

  1. MM and QM: conformational and vibrational spectra analysis of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Belaidi, O; Adjim, M; Bouchaour, T; Maschke, U

    2015-02-25

    2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is generally used with other acrylic and methacrylic products in order to get the desired characteristics of the final product. In this work we are about to make an assignment of experimental infrared bands with the help of a theoretical quantum chemistry calculations. The exact knowledge of some bands which are not characteristics of acrylic materials will enable us to make a quick analysis with available techniques of low costs for mixtures of polymers based on acrylate and methacrylate molecules. In the experimental part, the infrared spectrum of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate is obtained by using a FTIR Perkin Elmer model 2000. In the computational part and as first step, the theoretical calculations are performed by the semi-empirical AM1 method for excluding similar structures of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate molecule by a meticulous conformational analysis. As a second step the obtained structures are optimized using DFT. The simulated frequencies are then scaled and a tentative assignment is made based on band intensities and PED percentages. The theoretical calculations predict the existence of thirteen conformations two of them represent the majority of experimental bands in the infrared spectrum. Two neighbor experimental bands located at 1301 and 1207 cm(-1) maybe used as characteristic bands to locate and distinguish the existence of one or both conformations. PMID:25194321

  2. MM and QM: Conformational and vibrational spectra analysis of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belaidi, O.; Adjim, M.; Bouchaour, T.; Maschke, U.

    2015-02-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is generally used with other acrylic and methacrylic products in order to get the desired characteristics of the final product. In this work we are about to make an assignment of experimental infrared bands with the help of a theoretical quantum chemistry calculations. The exact knowledge of some bands which are not characteristics of acrylic materials will enable us to make a quick analysis with available techniques of low costs for mixtures of polymers based on acrylate and methacrylate molecules. In the experimental part, the infrared spectrum of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate is obtained by using a FTIR Perkin Elmer model 2000. In the computational part and as first step, the theoretical calculations are performed by the semi-empirical AM1 method for excluding similar structures of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate molecule by a meticulous conformational analysis. As a second step the obtained structures are optimized using DFT. The simulated frequencies are then scaled and a tentative assignment is made based on band intensities and PED percentages. The theoretical calculations predict the existence of thirteen conformations two of them represent the majority of experimental bands in the infrared spectrum. Two neighbor experimental bands located at 1301 and 1207 cm-1 maybe used as characteristic bands to locate and distinguish the existence of one or both conformations.

  3. 40 CFR 721.6515 - Polymerof polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... trisubstituted phenol (generic). 721.6515 Section 721.6515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6515 - Polymerof polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trisubstituted phenol (generic). 721.6515 Section 721.6515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6515 - Polymerof polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... trisubstituted phenol (generic). 721.6515 Section 721.6515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6515 - Polymerof polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... trisubstituted phenol (generic). 721.6515 Section 721.6515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6515 - Polymerof polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trisubstituted phenol (generic). 721.6515 Section 721.6515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyalkylenepolyol and trisubstituted phenol (PMN...

  8. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  9. Acrylic esters in radiation polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, N.V.; Khoromskaya, V.A.; Shiryaeva, G.V.

    1988-03-01

    The radiation behavior of (meth)acrylic esters of varying structure was studied. It was shown that in radiation polymerization, in contrast to thermal polymerization, the structure of the ester part can significantly affect the reaction rate and capacity for polymerization in the presence of oxygen. The experimental data are explained from the point of view of consideration of nonvalence effects of the substitutent on the reactivity of the double bond.

  10. A method for preparing sodium acrylate-d3, a useful and stable precursor for deuterated acrylic monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A convenient and economical method for converting propiolic acid to sodium acrylate-d3 is described. Successive D/H exchange of the alkyne proton of sodium propiolate (prepared from propiolic acid) using D2O affords sodium propiolate-d having up to 99 atom% D. Sodium propiolate-d can be partially reduced to sodium acrylate-d3 with 90% conversion and 89% yield, using D2 and the Lindlar catalyst with control of reaction parameters to maximize conversion while minimizing over reduction.

  11. Water-soluble polymers 60. Synthesis and solution behavior of terpolymers of acrylic arid, acrylamide, and the zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Kathmann, E.E.L.; Davis, D.D.; McCormick, C.L. . Dept. of Polymer Science)

    1994-06-06

    Terpolymers of acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), and the zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (AMPDAPS) have been prepared by the free-radical polymerization in a 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution using potassium persulfate as the initiator. The feed ratio of AMPDAPS:AA:AM was varied from 5:5:90 to 40:20:20 mol%, with the total monomer concentration held constant at 0.45 M. Terpolymer compositions were obtained by [sup 13]C NMR. Low-angle laser light scattering provided molecular weights and second virial coefficients which varied from (3.0 to 7.9) [times] 10[sup 6] and (2.23 to 2.95) [times] 10[sup [minus]4] ml mol g[sup [minus]2], respectively. The solubilities of the resulting terpolymers are dependent on pH as well as the amount of AMPDAPS and AA present in the feed. At pH 4 and for higher incorporation of AA and AMPDAPS in the feed (>25 mol %), the terpolymers are insoluble in deionized water and 0.25 M NaCl. At pH 8, all terpolymers are soluble in deionized water and salt solutions. The dilute and semidilute solution behavior f the terpolymers were studied as a function of composition and added electrolytes. Polyelectrolyte behavior was observed for all terpolymers at pH 8 as evidenced by a viscosity decrease in the presence of added electrolytes. The terpolymers exhibit higher viscosities in the presence of NaSCN versus NaCl. Comparison of the solution behavior of the terpolymers to copolymers of AM and AA as well as copolymers of AMPDAPS and AM has been made.

  12. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  13. The fabrication of wavelength shifting lightguides from clear acrylic sheet by disperse dyeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, J. E.

    2015-06-01

    Wavelength shifting lightguides have found extensive use as a means of collecting scintillation or cherenkov light from large areas onto a smaller area photodetector and for matching the emitted spectrum to the spectral response of the photodetector. Conventionally, such lightguides are fabricated by casting acrylic polymer with the fluorescent dye incorporated in the bulk. A technique has been developed in which plain cast acrylic sheet is disperse dyed in an aqueous bath. The resulting lightguide has the fluorescent dye held in a thin layer at the surface of the material. A number of different fluorescent dyes are demonstrated

  14. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level. PMID:26314244

  15. Synthesis of Fluorinated Polymers and Evaluation of Wettability.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tamami; Kasuya, Maria Carmelita; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Matsuoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of fluorinated polymers were synthesized: an acrylate polymer having a fluorinated triethylene glycol as a pendant group (2a) and a fluoroalkyl acrylate polymer (2b). The contact angle of these fluorinated polymers against water, non-fluorinated alcohols and fluorinated alcohols were evaluated. As compared with the fluoroalkyl polymer (2b), fluoroethylene glycol polymer (2a) showed smaller contact angle against water and non-fluorinated alcohols. This supports the proposition that changing the alkyl chain into the ethylene glycol-type chain gave some interaction between etheric oxygen and water or non-fluorinated alcohols. In addition, fluoroalkyl acrylate polymer (2b) showed remarkably low values of critical surface tension. PMID:26999097

  16. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  17. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  18. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  19. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The acrylate ester copolymer is a fully polymerized copolymer of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl...

  20. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The acrylate ester copolymer is a fully polymerized copolymer of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl...

  1. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  2. Effects of water on starch-g-polystyrene and starch-g-poly(methyl acrylate) extrudates. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.M.; Rudin, A.

    1982-11-01

    Polystyrene and poly(methyl acrylate) were grafted onto wheat starch by gamma radiation and chemical initiation, respectively. The respective percent add-on values were 46 and 45; 68% of the polystyrene formed was grafted to starch, and corresponding proportion of poly(methyl acrylate) was 41%. The molecular weight distributions of the homopolymer and graft portions were characterized, and extrusion conditions were established for production of ribbon samples of starch-g-PS and starch-g-PMA. Both copolymer types were considerably weakened by soaking in water, and this effect was more immediate and drastic for starch-g-poly(methyl acrylate). Both graft copolymers regained their original tensile strengths on drying, but the poly(methyl acrylate) specimens did not recover their original unswollen dimensions and retained high breaking elongations characteristic of soaked specimens. Tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of extruded and molded samples of both graft polymers are reported, and plasticizing effects of water are summarized.

  3. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  4. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  5. Polymer inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Syed Moeez; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2015-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a Gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semiclassical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by an epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow-roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckian initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  6. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

    2000-10-01

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

  7. Porous polymer media

    DOEpatents

    Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  8. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product. PMID:20000278

  9. Morphological alteration of microwave disinfected acrylic resins used for dental prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M. C.; Bita, B. I.; Avram, A. M.; Tucureanu, V.; Schiopu, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we aim to perform a cross section morphological characterization of an acrylic polymer used for dental prostheses subjected to microwave disinfection. The method was largely investigated and the microbiological effectiveness is well established, but there are some issues regarding the in-depth alteration of the material. In our research, the surface roughness is insignificant and the samples were not polished or refined by any means. Two groups of 7 acrylic discs (20 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared from a heat-cured powder. Half of the samples embedded a stainless steel reinforcement, in order to observe the changes at the interfaces between the polymer and metallic wire. After the gradual wet microwave treatment, the specimens - including the controls - were frozen in liquid nitrogen and broken into pieces. Fragments were selected for gold metallization to ensure a good contrast for SEM imaging. We examined the samples in cross section employing a high resolution SEM. We have observed the alterations occurred at the surface of the acrylic sample and at the interface with the metallic wire along with the increase of the power and exposure time. The bond configuration of acrylate samples was analysed by FTIR spectrometry.

  10. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance.

  11. Microscopic study of a ligand induced electroless plating process onto polymers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Palacin, Serge

    2010-11-01

    The ligand induced electroless plating (LIEP) process was recently developed and thoroughly demonstrated with one of the most used polymers for plating processes: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). This generic process is based, thanks to the use of diazonium salts as precursors, on the covalent grafting of a thin layer of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) acting as ligand for metallic salts onto pristine polymer surfaces. This strategy takes advantage of the PAA ion exchange properties. Indeed, carboxylate groups contained in PAA allow one to complex copper ions which are eventually reduced and used as catalysts of the metallic deposition. Essentially based on ABS, ABS-PC (ABS-polycarbonate) and PA (polyamide) substrates, the present paper focuses on the role of the polymer substrate and the relationships between the macroscopic properties and microscopic characterizations such as infrared (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adhesion strength of the metallic layer deposited via that LIEP process with the bulk polymer substrates was successfully compared with the adhesion of similar copper films deposited by the usual process based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, by measuring the T-peel adhesion strength, and by carrying out the common industrial scotch tape test. Lastly, the electrical properties of the deposited layer were studied thanks to a four-point probe and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. PMID:21053943

  12. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    SciTech Connect

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). 721.10526 Section 721.10526...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). 721.10526 Section 721.10526...

  15. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  16. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  17. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  18. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  19. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  1. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  2. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  3. Enhanced Two-Stage Reactive Polymer Network Forming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Devatha P.; Cramer, Neil B.; McBride, Matthew K.; Gaipa, John C.; Shandas, Robin; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we develop thiol/acrylate two-stage reactive network forming polymer systems that exhibit two distinct and orthogonal stages of curing. Using a thiol-acrylate system with excess acrylate functional groups, a first stage polymer network is formed via a 1 to 1 stoichiometric thiol-acrylate Michael addition reaction (stage 1). At a later point in time, the excess acrylate functional groups are homopolymerized via a photoinitiated free radical polymerization to form a second stage polymer network (stage 2). By varying the monomers within the system as well as the stoichiometery of the thiol to acrylate functional groups, we demonstrate the ability of the two-stage polymer network forming systems to encompass a wide range of properties at the end of both the stage 1 and stage 2 polymerizations. Using urethane di- and hexa-acrylates within the formulations led to two-stage reactive polymeric systems with stage 1 Tgs that ranged from −12 to 30 °C. The systems were then photocured, upon which the Tg of the systems increases by up to 90 °C while also achieving a nearly 20 fold modulus increase. PMID:22798700

  4. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  5. Modification of silicon nitride slip properties by poly(acrylic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Hackley, V.A.; Maglhan, S.G.

    1996-06-01

    Acrylic-acid based polyelectrolytes are used for dispersion and rheology control of ceramic powder slips. This study focuses on the Si{sub 3}N4/H{sub 2}O/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) system, with the goal of improving our basic understanding of the mechanisms which may significantly affect slip properties during processing. A variety of experimental techniques were employed, including potentiometric titration, electroacoustic analysis, adsorption isotherms, and controlled-stress rheology. The slips exhibited complex behavior over a wide range of conditions in which solids concentration, PAA molecular weight and concentration, and pH were varied. Polymer charge and conformation were found to have significant impact on the flow properties. Pseudoplastic behavior was attributed to the presence of free polymer. The flow properties were also found to be highly pH dependent.

  6. Electrophoretic Mobility of Poly(acrylic acid)-Coated Alumina Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhosale, Prasad S.; Chun, Jaehun; Berg, John C.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption on the electrokinetic behavior of alumina dispersions under high pH conditions was investigated as a function of polymer concentration and molecular weight as well as the presence, concentration and ion type of background electrolyte. Systems of this type are relevant to nuclear waste treatment, in which PAA is known to be an effective rheology modifier. The presence of all but the lowest molecular weight PAA studied (1800) led to decreases in dynamic electrophoretic mobility at low polymer concentrations, attributable to bridging flocculation, as verified by measurements of particle size distribution. Bridging effects increased with polymer molecular weight, and decreased with polymer concentration. Increases in background electrolyte concentration enhanced dynamic electrophoretic mobility as the polymer layers were compressed and bridging was reduced. Such enhancements were reduced as the cation was changed from Na+ to K+ to Cs+.

  7. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  8. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  9. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    PubMed

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  10. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-Qiang; Epasinghe, D Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-Na; Kimmerling, Kirk A; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol-gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly(methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  11. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Epasinghe, D. Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-na; Kimmerling, Kirk A.; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol–gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly (methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3 month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4 wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  12. Solventless, radiation-cured acrylate formulations for magnetic tape manufacturer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jin Young

    Significant progress was made toward identifying a binder materials package that would enable a solventless magnetic tape manufacturing process that would eliminate the possibility of air pollution. Mixtures of commercial acrylate monomers and acrylate-terminated urethane oligomers gave electron beam cured films with good tensile properties. The binder polymers suffered no significant decrease in tensile strength after accelerated aging at 60°C and 90% relative humidity. Commercial magnetic particles were treated with silane coupling agents, which enabled the preparation of dispersions with rheological properties that approach those of conventional solvent-based formulations. A methacylate functionalized silane coupling agent provided the best rheological properties. Branched silane coupling agents provided steric barriers against magnetic attraction forces between particles. Magnetic particles acted as reinforcing fillers in a magnetic tape. Silane treated particles provided 20--30% increase in tensile strength and Young's modulus over untreated particles. UV could cure the magnetic tape containing 70 wt% particles. This was done with the help of silane coupling agents which acted as dispersion stabilizing agents.

  13. Patterned biofunctional poly(acrylic acid) brushes on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Baird, Barbara A; Lindau, Manfred; Ober, Christopher K

    2007-10-01

    Protein patterning was carried out using a simple procedure based on photolithography wherein the protein was not subjected to UV irradiation and high temperatures or contacted with denaturing solvents or strongly acidic or basic solutions. Self-assembled monolayers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on silicon surfaces were exposed to oxygen plasma through a patterned photoresist. The etched regions were back-filled with an initiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). ATRP of sodium acrylate was readily achieved at room temperature in an aqueous medium. Protonation of the polymer resulted in patterned poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes. A variety of biomolecules containing amino groups could be covalently tethered to the dense carboxyl groups of the brush, under relatively mild conditions. The PEG regions surrounding the PAA brush greatly reduced nonspecific adsorption. Avidin was covalently attached to PAA brushes, and biotin-tagged proteins could be immobilized through avidin-biotin interaction. Such an immobilization method, which is based on specific interactions, is expected to better retain protein functionality than direct covalent binding. Using biotin-tagged bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model, a simple strategy was developed for immobilization of small biological molecules using BSA as linkages, while BSA can simultaneously block nonspecific interactions. PMID:17880179

  14. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  15. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  16. Development and characterization of amorphous acrylate networks for use as switchable adhesives inspired from shapememory behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhera, Nishant

    Several types of insects and animals such as spiders and geckos are inherently able to climb along vertical walls and ceilings. This remarkable switchable adhesive behavior has been attributed to the fibrillar structures on their feet, with size ranging from few nanometers to a few micrometers depending on the species. Several studies have attempted to create synthetic micro-patterned surfaces trying to imitate this adhesive behavior seen in nature. The experimental procedures are scattered, with sole purpose of trying to increase adhesion, thereby making direct comparison between studies very difficult. There is a lack of fundamental understanding on adhesion of patterned surfaces. The influence of critical parameters like material modulus, glass transition temperature, viscoelastic effects, temperature and water absorption on adhesion is not fully explored and characterized. These parameters are expected to have a decisive influence on adhesion behavior of the polymer. Previous studies have utilized conventional "off-the-shelf" materials like epoxy, polyurethanes etc. It is however, impossible to change the material modulus, glass transition temperature etc. of these polymer systems without changing the base constituents itself, thereby explaining the gaps in the current research landscape. The purpose of this study was to use acrylate shape-memory polymers (SMPs) for their ability to be tailored to specific mechanical properties by control of polymer chemistry, without changing the base constituents. Polymer networks with tailorable glass transition, material modulus, water absorption etc. were developed and adhesion studies were performed to investigate the influence of temperature, viscoelastic effects, material modulus on the adhesion behavior of flat acrylate polymer surfaces. The knowledge base gained from these studies was utilized to better understand the fundamental mechanisms associated with adhesion behavior of patterned acrylate surfaces. Thermally

  17. Polymers for engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the world of engineering plastics. It discusses the polymers, their properties strengths and limitations. There are 11 chapters, organized so that each chapter builds on the knowledge of the previous material. Coverage includes important polymer concepts, such as molecular structure, bonding, morphology and molecular weight, and polymer properties, such as thermal expansion, thermal transition, electrical properties and viscoelasticity. Details are provided on methods of processing fabrication and on specific families of polymers. The general-purpose polymers are discussed, such as natural and synthetic rubbers, rayon, acrylic and alkyd coatings, polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). There's information on high-performance polymers - fibers, elastomers, and coatings. A thorough explanation of the characteristics and qualities of nylons, polyesters, polyimides, neoprene, silicones, polyurethanes and other polymers is given in the same section. Functional polymers with special properties, such as photoconductivity, electric conductivity, piezoelectricity, light sensitivity, and ion exchange; and polymers that are superior to general-purpose plastics, such as ABS, filled polypropylene, and glass-reinforced plastics, are also covered.

  18. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  19. Radiation grafting studies of acrylic acid onto cellulose triacetate membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzei, R. O.; Smolko, E.; Torres, A.; Tadey, D.; Rocco, C.; Gizzi, L.; Strangis, S.

    2002-05-01

    Polymer surface modifications were obtained by the application of radiation treatments, etching and grafting of acrylic acid monomers on different membranes of cellulose triacetate materials. Cellulose triacetate foils from pellet dissolution and commercial cellulose triacetate solid state nuclear track detector membranes were assayed. Irradiation with fission fragments from Cf-252 source to obtain a porous structure, 25 MeV proton beam and Co-60 γ-source to produce peroxides were employed in the experiments. The present work gives the grafting yield of AAc monomer onto CTA membranes as a function of diverse variables including irradiation parameters ( γ-dose, Cf-252 ff irradiation time, proton fluency and electronic energy loss (d E/d x) e), structural parameters (pore diameter and pore density, etching time and etching temperature) and grafting parameters (monomer and Mohr salt concentration, grafting time and grafting temperature).

  20. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  1. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may also have…

  2. Acrylate metathesis via the second-generation Grubbs catalyst: unexpected pathways enabled by a PCy3-generated enolate.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Gwendolyn A; Fogg, Deryn E

    2015-06-17

    The diverse applications of acrylate metathesis range from synthesis of high-value α,β-unsaturated esters to depolymerization of unsaturated polymers. Examined here are unexpected side reactions promoted by the important Grubbs catalyst GII. Evidence is presented for attack of PCy3 on the acrylate olefin to generate a reactive carbanion, which participates in multiple pathways, including further Michael addition, proton abstraction, and catalyst deactivation. Related chemistry may be anticipated whenever labile metal-phosphine complexes are used to catalyze reactions of substrates bearing an electron-deficient olefin. PMID:26030596

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  4. Quartz crystal microbalance and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy characterization of bisphenol A absorption in the poly(acrylate) thin films.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifeng; Morita, Shigeaki; Ye, Shen; Tanaka, Masaru; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2004-02-01

    The absorption process of bisphenol A (BPA) in a number of poly(acrylate) thin films, such as poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA), poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), has been investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) measurements. Both QCM and IRRAS measurements show that the BPA molecules absorb in PMEA, PEA, and PBMA thin films but not in PMMA thin film. The differences in the BPA absorption behavior are mainly attributed to the difference in the glass transition temperature (T(g)) between these polymers. This absorption behavior also depends on the BPA concentration and polymer film thickness. Furthermore, IRRAS characterization demonstrates that the hydrogen bonding is formed between the hydroxyl group in BPA and the carbonyl group in the poly(acrylate) thin films. BPA molecule absorbed in these polymer thin films can be removed by ethanol rinse treatment. By optimizing experimental conditions for the QCM electrode modified by PMEA thin film, detection limitation of approximately 1 ppb for BPA can be realized by the in situ QCM measurement. This method is expected to be a sensitive in situ detection way for trace BPA in the environmental study. PMID:14750877

  5. Polymer-based separations: Synthesis and application of polymers for ionic and molecular recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-based separations have utilized resins such as sulfonic, acrylic, and iminodiacetic acid resins and the XAD series. Selective polymeric reagents for reaction with a targeted metal ion were synthesized as polymers with two different types of functional groups, each operating on the ions through a different mechanism. There are 3 classes of DMBPs (dual mechanism bifunctional polymers). Research during this period dealing with metal ion recognition focused on two of these classes (reduction of metal ions to metal; selective complexation).

  6. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  11. Bioavailability and generic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S

    1976-01-01

    Although oral drug bioinequivalence has been attributed to a number of causes (excipients, dosage form, variation in dissolution time, and aging) less is known about bioavailability problems of topical medications in ophthalmology. Factors that can alter drug absorption from solutions (pH, partition coefficient, container impurities, contact time, etc.) are noted, and cases in which bioavailability problems should be considered as causes of therapeutic failure are discussed. Various attitudes representing pharmaceutical companies, the federal government, pharmacists, consumers and physicians toward the related problems of bioinequivalence and generic prescribing are examined. Techniques for in vivo and in vitro drug testing and for establishing uniform conditions of drug manufacture and storage can contribute to identification and minimization of bioavailability problems. A rational program based on a combination of such techniques could, ultimately, lead to establishment of the terms "generic equivalency" and "therapeutic equivalency" as synonymous. PMID:13505

  12. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  13. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  14. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ACRYLIC ACID MANUFACTURE; STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of acrylic acid. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide are emitted from various operations. Hydrocarbon emissions consist of acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone acrolein, acrylic acid, benzene, phenol, pr...

  15. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH THREE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeation tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) to better understand the permeation behavior of multifunctional acrylate compounds. he test...

  16. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  17. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension using hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Chen, M C

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-phenoxyethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (poly(PHEA-co-AA)), have been synthesized and characterized by Ubbelohde type viscometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The shear thinning Non-Newtonian fluid behavior of their aqueous solution and the dependence on pH and hydrophobic group contents were found through apparent viscosity and rheological property investigating. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension was evaluated through visible absorbance data. Decolourization performance of hydrophobically associated polymer indicates two times better than that of PAA. The quantitative relationship was mainly studied. PMID:21866762

  18. Effects of crosslinking, prestrain, and dielectric filler on the electromechanical response of a new silicone and comparison with acrylic elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuequn; Wissler, M.; Jaehne, B.; Breonnimann, Rolf; Kovacs, Gabor

    2004-07-01

    Silicone and acrylic elastomers have received increased attention as dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP) materials for actuator technology. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a new class of silicones (DC3481) and to compare it with acrylic elastomers. The influence of various types of hardeners, hardener concentration, prestrain and high dielectric organic fillers was studied by mechanical, electrical and electromechanical experiments. Furthermore the temperature dependence and the viscoelastic properties were investigated. The results show that by changing type and concentration of hardener, the Young's modulus can be varied. In order to increase the dielectric constant, the silicone was blended with organic materials. Compared to acrylic elastomers, this new class of silicone elastomers has the advantage of a constant stiffness over a wide range of temperature and a lower viscosity that results in a higher response speed of the actuator.

  19. A density functional study on dielectric properties of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuska, Henna; Arola, Eero; Kortelainen, Tommi; Rantala, Tapio T.; Kannus, Kari; Valkealahti, Seppo

    2011-04-01

    Influence of acrylic acid grafting of isotactic polypropylene on the dielectric properties of the polymer is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, both in the molecular modeling and three-dimensional (3D) bulk periodic system frameworks. In our molecular modeling calculations, polarizability volume, and polarizability volume per mass which reflects the permittivity of the polymer, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gap, one of the important measures indicating the electrical breakdown voltage strength, were examined for oligomers with various chain lengths and carboxyl mixture ratios. When a polypropylene oligomer is grafted with carboxyl groups (cf. acrylic acid), our calculations show that the increase of the polarizability volume α' of the oligomer is proportional to the increase of its mass m, while the ratio {{α^ ' } { α^ ' } m} decreases from the value of a pure polymer when increasing the mixture ratio. The decreasing ratio of {{α^ ' } {α^ ' } m} under carboxyl grafting indicates that the material permittivity might also decrease if the mass density of the material remains constant. Furthermore, our calculations show that the HOMO-LUMO gap energy decreases by only about 15% in grafting, but this decrease seems to be independent on the mixture ratio of carboxyl. This indicates that by doping polymers with additives better dielectric properties can be tailored. Finally, using the first-principles molecular DFT results for polarizability volume per mass in connection with the classical Clausius-Mossotti relation, we have estimated static permittivity for acrylic acid grafted polypropylene, assuming the structural density keeping constant under grafting. The computed permittivity values are in a qualitative agreement with the recent experiments, showing increasing tendency of the permittivity as a function of the grafting composition. In order to validate our molecular DFT based approach, we have also carried out extensive three

  20. A density functional study on dielectric properties of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Ruuska, Henna; Arola, Eero; Kortelainen, Tommi; Rantala, Tapio T; Kannus, Kari; Valkealahti, Seppo

    2011-04-01

    Influence of acrylic acid grafting of isotactic polypropylene on the dielectric properties of the polymer is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, both in the molecular modeling and three-dimensional (3D) bulk periodic system frameworks. In our molecular modeling calculations, polarizability volume, and polarizability volume per mass which reflects the permittivity of the polymer, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gap, one of the important measures indicating the electrical breakdown voltage strength, were examined for oligomers with various chain lengths and carboxyl mixture ratios. When a polypropylene oligomer is grafted with carboxyl groups (cf. acrylic acid), our calculations show that the increase of the polarizability volume α' of the oligomer is proportional to the increase of its mass m, while the ratio α'/m decreases from the value of a pure polymer when increasing the mixture ratio. The decreasing ratio of α'/m under carboxyl grafting indicates that the material permittivity might also decrease if the mass density of the material remains constant. Furthermore, our calculations show that the HOMO-LUMO gap energy decreases by only about 15% in grafting, but this decrease seems to be independent on the mixture ratio of carboxyl. This indicates that by doping polymers with additives better dielectric properties can be tailored. Finally, using the first-principles molecular DFT results for polarizability volume per mass in connection with the classical Clausius-Mossotti relation, we have estimated static permittivity for acrylic acid grafted polypropylene, assuming the structural density keeping constant under grafting. The computed permittivity values are in a qualitative agreement with the recent experiments, showing increasing tendency of the permittivity as a function of the grafting composition. In order to validate our molecular DFT based approach, we have also carried out extensive three-dimensional bulk periodic first

  1. Teaching polymers to fold

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, R.S. )

    1992-12-10

    A new method is presented for predicting folding pathways of polymers. The folding pathway is described as a generic program or sequence of logical steps of such a form that a computer can carry them out to produce a folded structure. A genetic (GA) is used to learn specific sequences or folding pathways that carry a denatured conformation into a target final conformation. The method is demonstrated on a model 2-dimensional polymer for which the global energy minimum is known. The GA learns a program that will fold a denatured polymer into its global energy minimum conformation. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  2. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare a scan from 10.5 microns...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  11. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014... nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell acrylate based latex and study of its reactive blends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  2. Hydrocarbon soluble polymer complexes useful as viscosifiers in fracturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, L.P.; Newlove, J.C.; Peiffer, D.G.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1986-10-07

    A process is described for fracturing a subterranean formation surrounding a gas or oil well which comprises injecting into the subterranean formation under hydraulic pressure a fluid comprising about 0.01 to about 25 weight percent of a water insoluble polymer complex dissolved in a solvent system comprising a nonpolar organic liquid. The polymer complex comprises the interaction product of a metal neutralized sulfonated polymer and an amine containing polymer. The sulfonate content of the sulfonated polymer is about 4 meq. per 100 grams of polymer to about 100 meq. per 100 gram of polymer and the basic nitrogen content of the amine containing polymer is about 4 meq. per 100 gram of polymer to about 500 meq. per 100 gram of polymer. The organic liquid is selected from the group consisting of paraffinic hydrocarbons, naphthenic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic aliphatic ethers, aliphatic ethers and organic aliphatic esters and mixtures thereof. The amine containing polymer is a copolymer of vinyl-pyridine with other vinyl monomers which are selected from the group consisting of acrylates, methacrylates, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, N-alkylacrylamide and N-alkylmethacrylamides and mixtures thereof, the acrylates or methacrylates, etc. having from about 6 to about 26 carbon atoms.

  3. Thiol-vinyl systems as shape memory polymers and novel two-stage reactive polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Devatha P.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this research was to formulate, characterize and tailor the reaction methodologies and material properties of thiol-vinyl systems to develop novel polymer platforms for a range of engineering applications. Thiol-ene photopolymers were demonstrated to exhibit several advantageous characteristics for shape memory polymer systems for a range of biomedical applications. The thiol-ene shape memory polymer systems were tough and flexible as compared to the acrylic control systems with glass transition temperatures between 30 and 40 °C; ideal for actuation at body temperature. The thiol-ene polymers also exhibited excellent shape fixity and a rapid and distinct shape memory actuation response along with free strain recoveries of greater than 96% and constrained stress recoveries of 100%. Additionally, two-stage reactive thiol-acrylate systems were engineered as a polymer platform technology enabling two independent sets of polymer processing and material properties. There are distinct advantages to designing polymer systems that afford two distinct sets of material properties -- an intermediate polymer that would enable optimum handling and processing of the material (stage 1), while maintaining the ability to tune in different, final properties that enable the optimal functioning of the polymeric material (stage 2). To demonstrate the range of applicability of the two-stage reactive systems, three specific applications were demonstrated; shape memory polymers, lithographic impression materials, and optical materials. The thiol-acrylate reactions exhibit a wide range of application versatility due to the range of available thiol and acrylate monomers as well as reaction mechanisms such as Michael Addition reactions and free radical polymerizations. By designing a series of non-stoichiometeric thiol-acrylate systems, a polymer network is initially formed via a base catalyzed 'click' Michael addition reaction. This self-limiting reaction results in a Stage 1

  4. Electron-beam induced RAFT-graft polymerization of poly(acrylic acid) onto PVDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasselli, M.; Betz, N.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores for the first time the post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization on solid substrate using reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) mechanism. Radiation-induced graft polymerization onto polymers is a potentially interesting technique to create easily new materials from highly resistant polymers, e.g. surface graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) improves its surface properties without losing its excellent mechanical properties. As a consequence of the radical nature of the polymerization processes it is difficult to control molecular weight of grafted chains, and therefore design and standardize the properties of the final product. RAFT polymerization is a suitable method to obtain monodisperse polymers. The ability of the RAFT agents to control the polymer chain length could be an interesting approach to improve the grafted polymers obtained by post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization technique. In this way, graft polymerization of AA onto electron-beam irradiated α-PVDF was performed using trithiocarbonic acid bis(1-phenylethyl) ester as a RAFT agent to control the radical polymerization. We studied several grafting parameters such as solvent, monomer concentration and grafting time in order to achieve a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer onto PVDF surface. Acetic acid was found to be the best solvent for many reasons, as to drive graft polymerization mainly to the polymer surface, complete solubility and stability of all reactants. Hydrolysis of PAA chains was also studied in order to remove the trithiocarbonate functionality from the grafted polymer. A mild chemical condition was achieved in order to have thiol groups that were detected onto the modified PVDF by specific enzymatic reaction.

  5. Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Mendieta, Irasema; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Castaño, Víctor M

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition of Candida albicans on denture resins could play a significant role in preventing the development of denture stomatitis. The safety of a new dental material with antifungal properties was analyzed in this work. Methods Poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] discs and PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs were formulated, with the commercial acrylic resin, Nature-CrylTM, used as a control. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay). Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles. Results The results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs significantly reduce adherence of C. albicans and do not affect metabolism or proliferation. They also appear not to cause genotoxic damage to cells. Conclusion The present work has developed a new biocompatible antifungal PMMA denture base material. PMID:22969297

  6. Real-time monitoring of graphene oxide reduction in acrylic printable composite inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porro, S.; Giardi, R.; Chiolerio, A.

    2014-06-01

    This work reports the electrical characterization of a water-based graphene oxide/acrylic composite material, which was directly inkjet printed to fabricate dissipative patterns. The graphene oxide filler, which is strongly hydrophilic due to its heavily oxygenated surface and can be readily dispersed in water, was reduced by UV irradiation during photo-curing of the polymeric matrix. The concurrent polymerization of the acrylic matrix and reduction of graphene oxide filler was demonstrated by real-time resistance measurements during UV light irradiation. The presence of graphene filler allowed decreasing the resistance of the pure polymeric matrix by nearly five orders of magnitude. This was explained by the fact that clusters of reduced graphene oxide inside the polymer matrix act as preferential pathways for the mobility of charge carriers, thus leading to an overall decrease of the material's resistance.

  7. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers' perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  8. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-22

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  9. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  11. Clarification of the blood compatibility mechanism by controlling the water structure at the blood-poly(meth)acrylate interface.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Mochizuki, Akira

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) exhibited excellent blood compatibility, although it has a simple chemical structure. Since then, we have been investigating the reasons for its blood compatibility. In this short review, we consider the reasons for this compatibility by comparing the structure of water in hydrated PMEA to the water structure of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(meth)acrylate analogs as reference polymers. The hydrated water in PMEA could be classified into three types; free water (or freezing water), freezing-bound water (or intermediate water), and non-freezing water (or non-freezing-bound water). We found that hydrated PMEA possessed a unique water structure, observed as cold crystallization of water in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Cold crystallization is interpreted as ice formation at low temperature, an attribute of freezing-bound water in PMEA. The cold crystallization peak was observed for hydrated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA), and newly synthesized poly(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethyl acrylate), as well as various proteins and polysaccharides, which are well-known biocompatible polymers. On the other hand, cold crystallization of water was not observed in hydrated PHEMA and PMEA analogous polymers, which do not show excellent blood compatibility. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that freezing-bound water, which prevents the biocomponents from directly contacting the polymer surface or non-freezing water on the polymer surface, plays an important role in the excellent blood compatibility of PMEA. PMID:20699056

  12. 40 CFR 721.405 - Polyether acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether acrylate. 721.405 Section 721.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...) The significant new uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1),...

  13. Worn down nails after acrylic nail removal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Timothy P; Morrison, Brian W; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Worn-down nail syndrome is a nail disorder characterized by thinning of the distal nail plate caused by repetitive chemical or mechanical trauma. We present a previously undescribed source of worn-down nail syndrome caused by trauma from nail filing after acrylic nail removal. PMID:25612131

  14. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Structure-toxicity relationships of acrylic monomers.

    PubMed Central

    Autian, J

    1975-01-01

    Esters of acrylic acid, in particular methyl methacrylate, have wide applications in a number of industrial and consumer products, forming very desirable nonbreakable glass-like materials. In dentistry, the monomers are used to prepare dentures and a variety of filling and coating materials for the teeth. Surgeons utilize the monomers to prepare a cement which helps anchor prosthetic devices to bone. Special types of acrylic monomers such as the cyano derivatives have found a useful application as adhesive materials. Most of the acrylic acid esters are volatile substances and can produce various levels of toxicity if inhaled. A large number of workers thus exposed to the vapors of these esters can develop clinical symptoms and signs of toxicity. This paper will discuss the toxicity of a large number of acrylic esters, and will attempt to show structure-activity relationships where such data are available. General comments will also be made as to the potential health hazards this variety of esters may present to selected segments of the population. PMID:1175551

  16. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  17. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  18. UV-curable acrylated coating from epoxidized palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurliyana Abd; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-09-01

    The properties of coating film prepared from the incorporation of acrylated palm oil (EPOLA) in commercial epoxy acrylate have been studied. A series of different amount of EPOLA was mixed with commercial epoxy acrylate. The blended acrylates passed through UV light to produce a non-tacky film. The conversion of acrylate double bond was monitored by FTIR. The effect of EPOLA concentration onto coated films were investigated by determination of the pendulum hardness and gel content. The higher the amount of EPOLA, the lower the pendulum hardness and the gel content but to a level acceptable for usage in the high-end applications.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  1. Control of anchoring of nematic fluids at polymer surfaces created by in situ photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2005-05-12

    In situ photopolymerization of alkyl acrylate monomers in the presence of a nematic fluid provides a cellular matrix of liquid crystalline droplets in which the chemical structure of the encapsulating polymer exerts control over the alignment (anchoring) of the liquid crystalline molecules. Control is obtained by variation of the alkyl side chains and through copolymerization of two dissimilar monofunctional acrylates. For example, among a series of poly(methylheptyl acrylate)s, the 1-methylheptyl analogue prefers planar anchoring of a nematic (TL205) over the temperature range studied. However, the polymers of other methylheptyl side chains display a homeotropic-to-planar anchoring thermal transition temperature similar to that of the n-heptyl analogue. Copolymerization of two monofunctional acrylates with opposing tendencies of aligning liquid crystal leads to tunability of anchoring behavior over a wide temperature range. The broad anchoring transitions we observed provide a way of achieving highly tilted anchoring. PMID:16852050

  2. Generic image matching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongjie T.

    1992-05-01

    The generic imaging matching system (GIMS) provides an optimal systematic solution to any problem of color image processing in printing and publishing that can be classified as or modeled to the generic image matching problem defined. Typical GIMS systems/processes include color matching from different output devices, color conversion, color correction, device calibration, colorimetric scanner, colorimetric printer, colorimetric color reproduction, and image interpolation from scattered data. GIMS makes color matching easy for the user and maximizes operational flexibility allowing the user to obtain the degree of match wanted while providing the capability to achieve the best balance with respect to the human perception of color, color fidelity, and preservation of image information and color contrast. Instead of controlling coefficients in a transformation formula, GIMS controls the mapping directly in a standard device-independent color space, so that color can be matched, conceptually, to the highest possible accuracy. An optimization algorithm called modified vector shading was developed to minimize the matching error and to perform a 'near-neighborhood' gamut compression. An automatic error correction algorithm with a multidirection searching procedure using correlated re-initialization was developed to avoid local minimum failures. Once the mapping for color matching is generated, it can be utilized by a multidimensional linear interpolator with a small look-up-table (LUT) implemented by either software, a hardware interpolator or a digital-signal-processor.

  3. Solid phase graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto thermoplastics and their use as blend compatibilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Srinivas

    This research work is an extension of some of the earlier work done on the development of solid phase grafting technique to graft various monomers onto polymers as well as postulation of the usefulness of the graft copolymers thus synthesized. Polystyrene grafted with acrylic acid, previously developed in bench scale, was synthesized in pilot-plant scale batches. Process parameter studies on the grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene and developmental studies on the grafting of maleic anhydride onto polystyrene were also done. Polymers grafted with polar molecules such as maleic anhydride and acrylic acid have been used to compatibilize immiscible blends of polar and non-polar polymers. On the same note, the applicability of the solid phase graft copolymers as blend compatibilizers were investigated and their performance was compared to commercially available compatibilizers. Solid phase graft copolymerization process is a technique to synthesize graft copolymers. Some of its salient features are use of minimal solvent to conduct the reaction and easy equipment modification. It is a low pressure and low temperature process. This technique provides a viable alternative to the environmentally hazardous, and time consuming conventional process currently in use. Hence, development of this technique could be beneficial not only to the plastics industry, but also to mankind. Also, this technique provides a low-cost and extremely easy method to develop graft copolymers such as acrylic acid functionalized polymers that are rapidly gaining popularity as blend compatibilizers and polymer reinforcing agents. A study that proves the potential of these solid phase graft copolymers as good blend compatibilizers for industrially important immiscible polymers will develop interest in the industries about this grafting process. The free radical solid phase graft copolymerization process was carried in a modified Brabender-type mixer fitted with specially designed blades to

  4. PREPARATION OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS OF POLY(STYRENE) AND POLY(T-BUTYL ACRYLATE) OF VARIOUS MOLECULAR WEIGHTS AND ARCHITECTURES BY ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Block copolymers of polystyrene and poly(t-butyl acrylate) were prepared using atom transfer radical polymerization techniques. These polymers were synthesized with a CuBr/N,N,N,N40 CFR 721.465 - Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Release to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., tight-fitting respirator equipped with N100 (if oil aerosols absent), R100, or P100 filters (either half... Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters; powered air-purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece (either half- or full-face) and HEPA filters; and supplied-air respirator operated in...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- or full-face); powered air-purifying respirator equipped with a loose-fitting hood or helmet and High... facepiece (either half- or full-face) and HEPA filters; and supplied-air respirator operated in pressure... half- or full-face). (ii) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per site is calculated after wastewater treatment. (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of...). Where primary, secondary, and tertiary waste treatment will occur, or treatment in a lined...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per site is calculated after wastewater treatment. (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of...). Where primary, secondary, and tertiary waste treatment will occur, or treatment in a lined...

  9. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    CGBA, a facility developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Space Center, allows a variety of sophisticated bioprocessing research to be performed using a common device. The Fluids Processing Apparatus is essentially a microgravity test tube that allows a variety of complex investigations to be performed in space. This is a glass barrel containing several chambers separated by rubber stoppers. Eight FPAs are placed together in a Group Activation Pack (GAP), which allows all of the research to be started simultaneously by turning a single crank. Eight GAPs, or similar-sized payloads, can be stored in a single CGBA temperature controlled locker, which now uses motor drives to automatically turn the cranks to start and stop experiments. On STS-95, research efforts cover eight major areas that will benefit Earth-based products ranging from the production of pharmaceuticals to fish hatcheries.

  10. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  11. Generic names in Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Jing; Rossman, Amy Y; Aoki, Takayuki; Chuma, Izumi; Crous, Pedro W; Dean, Ralph; de Vries, Ronald P; Donofrio, Nicole; Hyde, Kevin D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Talbot, Nicholas J; Tharreau, Didier; Tosa, Yukio; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Zonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The order Magnaporthales comprises about 200 species and includes the economically and scientifically important rice blast fungus and the take-all pathogen of cereals, as well as saprotrophs and endophytes. Recent advances in phylogenetic analyses of these fungi resulted in taxonomic revisions. In this paper we list the 28 currently accepted genera in Magnaporthales with their type species and available gene and genome resources. The polyphyletic Magnaporthe 1972 is proposed for suppression, and Pyricularia 1880 and Nakataea 1939 are recommended for protection as the generic names for the rice blast fungus and the rice stem rot fungus, respectively. The rationale for the recommended names is also provided. These recommendations are made by the Pyricularia/Magnaporthe Working Group established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). PMID:27433445

  12. Precipitation-Redispersion of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles with Poly(acrylic acid): Toward Stable Dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal,A.; Lalatonne, Y.; Berret, J.; Morvan, M.

    2005-01-01

    We exploit a precipitation-redispersion mechanism for complexation of short chain polyelectrolytes with cerium oxide nanoparticles to extend their stability ranges. As synthesized, cerium oxide sols at pH 1.4 consist of monodisperse cationic nanocrystalline particles having a hydrodynamic diameter of 10 nm and a molecular weight of 400 000 g mol{sup -1}. We show that short chain uncharged poly(acrylic acid) at low pH when added to a cerium oxide sols leads to macroscopic precipitation. As the pH is increased, the solution spontaneously redisperses into a clear solution of single particles with an anionic poly(acrylic acid) corona. The structure and dynamics of cerium oxide nanosols and their hybrid polymer-inorganic complexes in solution are investigated by static and dynamic light scattering, X-ray scattering, and chemical analysis. Quantitative analysis of the redispersed sol gives rise to an estimate of 40-50 polymer chains per particle for stable suspension. This amount represents 20% of the mass of the polymer-nanoparticle complexes. This complexation adds utility to the otherwise unstable cerium oxide dispersions by extending the range of stability of the sols in terms of pH, ionic strength, and concentration.

  13. Aggregation of poly(acrylic acid)-containing elastin-mimetic copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Bradford A.; Blanco, Marco A.; Jia, Xinqiao; Roberts, Christopher J.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-peptide conjugates were produced via the copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition of poly(tert butyl acrylate) (PtBA) and elastin-like peptides. An azide-functionalized polymer was produced via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) followed by conversion of bromine end groups to azide groups. Subsequent reaction of the polymer with a bis-alkyne-functionalized, elastin-like peptide proceeded with high efficiency, yielding di- and tri-block conjugates, which after deprotection, yielded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-based diblock and triblock copolymers. These conjugates were solubilized in dimethyl formamide, and titration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) induced aggregation. The presence of polydisperse spherical aggregates was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, a coarse-grained molecular model was designed to reasonably capture inter- and intramolecular interactions for the conjugates and its precursors. This model was used to assess the effect of the different interacting molecular forces on the conformational thermodynamic stability of the copolymers. Our results indicated that the PAA’s ability to hydrogen-bond with both itself and the peptide is the main interaction for stabilizing the diblocks and triblocks and driving their self-assembly, while interactions between peptides are suggested to play only a minor role on the conformational and thermodynamic stability of the conjugates. PMID:25611563

  14. Precision synthesis of bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomer by RAFT polymerization of itaconic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kotaro; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Nagai, Kanji; Kamigaito, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based polymer materials from renewable resources have recently become a growing research focus. Herein, a novel thermoplastic elastomer is developed via controlled/living radical polymerization of plant-derived itaconic acid derivatives, which are some of the most abundant renewable acrylic monomers obtained via the fermentation of starch. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerizations of itaconic acid imides, such as N-phenylitaconimide and N-(p-tolyl)itaconimide, and itaconic acid esters, such as di-n-butyl itaconate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) itaconate, are examined using a series of RAFT agents to afford well-defined polymers. The number-average molecular weights of these polymers increase with the monomer conversion while retaining relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. Based on the successful controlled/living polymerization, sequential block copolymerization is subsequently investigated using mono- and di-functional RAFT agents to produce block copolymers with soft poly(itaconate) and hard poly(itaconimide) segments. The properties of the obtained triblock copolymer are evaluated as bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomers. PMID:24243816

  15. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  16. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; van der Merwe, N A; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-03-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  17. Hybrid resist systems based on α-substituted acrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sundberg, Linda K.; Bozano, Luisa; Lofano, Elizabeth M.; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Terui, Yoshiharu; Fujiwara, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    Classical electron-beam resists such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Nippon Zeon's ZEP function as high resolution and low roughness positive resists on the basis of radiation induced main chain scission to reduce the molecular weight while chemical amplification resists utilized in device manufacturing function on the basis of acidcatalyzed deprotection to change the polarity. In an attempt to increase the resolution and reduce the line roughness of chemical amplification resists, we prepared copolymers that undergo radiation induced main chain scission and acidcatalyzed deprotection. In another word, we wanted to increase the sensitivity of the PMMA resist by incorporating the acid-catalyzed deprotection mechanism in polymers that undergo main chain scission, maintaining the high resolution and low roughness of PMMA. To synthesize such hybrid resist polymers, we selected α-substituted acrylates and α- substituted styrenes. The former included methyl methacrylate (MMA), t-butyl methacrylate (TBMA), methyl α- fluoroacrylate (MFA), t-butyl α-fluoroacrylate (TBFA), and t-butyl α-trifluoromethylacrylate (TBTFMA) and the latter α-methylstyrene (αMEST), α-methyleneindane (αMEIN), and α-methylenetetralin (αMETL). The α-substituted tbutyl acrylic esters were copolymerized with the methyl esters and also with α-substituted styrenic monomers using 2, 2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN). Hybrid resists were formulated by adding a photochemical acid generator and a base quencher to the copolymers and developers were selected by studying the dissolution behavior of unexposed and 254 nm exposed resist films using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). In addition to the difference in the imaging mechanism, PMMA and ZEP differ from the chemical amplification resists in developers; organic solvent vs. aqueous base. We were interested in looking also into the influence of the developer on the lithographic performance. Contrast curves were generated by exposing

  18. Study on monomer suitability toward the template in molecularly imprinted polymer: An ab initio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Rai, Garima

    2012-03-01

    Study of monomer-template interactions in molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is inevitable to comprehend best selectivity at the molecular level in pre-polymer solution. In the present work, binding energies of tryptophan, an amino acid template, complexed with different monomers were computed using second order Moller Plesset theory (MP2) at 6-311++g** level in gas phase. This helped in recommending a generic MIP, suitable for the selective and sensitive diagnosis of tryptophan, in clinical setting as disease biomarker, at primitive level. The tryptophan is an important biomarker owing to its highly regulated physiological process in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and pellagra like diseases. Frequency calculations were performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP employing 6-31+g (2d, 2p) level including thermal and entropy corrections. The monomer, p-nitrophenyl acrylate (2 mol), was adjudged having giving best binding score for the complexation at ground state with tryptophan (1 mol) for MIP development.

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of carboxylated cobalt-containing nanocomposite ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytsihovskaya, S. A.; Sokolov, M. E.; Panyushkin, V. T.; Gromov, P. Yu.; Shcherbina, A. A.; Matveev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    We have used ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the effect of the concentration of cobalt nanoparticles (5-9 nm) incorporated into ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers (monomer ratios 100:1 and 10:1) on the magnitude of the resonant field in ferromagnetic resonance and on the effective magnetization of thin-film samples of these nanocomposite polymer materials. The cobalt nanoparticles were obtained by thermolysis of Co2(CO)8 in 5% solutions of the indicated copolymers in toluene. From the solutions obtained, we prepared films of thickness 1 μm on aluminum substrates.

  1. The Relationship Between Water Structure and Blood Compatibility in Poly(2-methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Shingo; Kusakari, Miho; Watahiki, Shogo; Oikawa, Masahiko; Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Six types of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) analogues were synthesized and the water structure in the hydrated polymers was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hydrated PMEA analogues exhibited the different amounts of intermediate water. Non-thrombogenicity evaluation was performed on PMEA analogues for platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Platelet adhesion was suppressed on PMEA analogues. In addition, the protein adsorption and deformation were suppressed by increasing the amount of intermediate water. This study demonstrates that the amount of intermediate water might play a key role in expressing the blood compatibility of polymeric materials. PMID:26017931

  2. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  3. Fatigue crack propagation at polymer adhesive interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Delamination of polymer adhesive interfaces often occurs due to slow crack growth under either monotonic or cyclic loading. The author`s previous research showed that moisture-assisted crack growth at epoxy/glass and epoxy acrylate/glass interfaces under monotonic loading was directly related to the applied energy release rate and relative humidity and that cyclic loading could enhance crack growth. The purpose of the present research is to compare crack growth along epoxy acrylate/glass and epoxy/PMMA interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading.

  4. Aluminum nanoparticle/acrylate copolymer nanocomposites for dielectric elastomers with high dielectric constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Suki N.; Niu, Xiaofan; Liu, Chao; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers are useful for large-strain actuation and energy harvesting. Their application has been limited by their low dielectric constants and consequently high driving voltage. Various fillers with high dielectric constants have been incorporated into different elastomer systems to improve the actuation strain, force output and energy density of the compliant actuators and generators. However, agglomeration may happen in these nanocomposites, resulting in a decrease of dielectric strength, an increase of leakage current, and in many instances the degree of enhancement of the dielectric constant. In this work, we investigated aluminum nanoparticles as nanofillers for acrylate copolymers. This metallic nanoparticle was chosen because the availability of free electrons could potentially provide an infinite value of dielectric constant as opposed to dielectric materials including ferroelectric nanocrystals. Moreover, aluminum nanoparticles have a self-passivated oxide shell effectively preventing the formation of conductive path. The surfaces of the aluminum nanoparticles were functionalized with methacrylate groups to assist the uniform dispersion in organic solutions and additionally enable copolymerization with acrylate copolymer matrix during bulk polymerization, and thus to suppress large range drifting of the nanoparticles. The resulting Al nanoparticle-acrylate copolymer nanocomposites were found to exhibit higher dielectric constant and increased stiffness. The leakage current under high electric fields were significantly lower than nanocomposites synthesized without proper nanoparticle surface modification. The dielectric strengths of the composites were comparable with the pristine polymers. In dielectric actuation evaluation, the actuation force output and energy specific work density were enhanced in the nanocomposites compared to the pristine copolymer.

  5. Thiomers: Influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid) on efflux pump inhibition.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Vjera; Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugates on the permeation of sulforhodamine 101 and penicillin G. acting as substrates for multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 efflux pump. Poly(acrylic acids) of 2 kDa, 100 kDa, 250 kDa, 450 kDa and 3000 kDa were conjugated with cysteine. The thiol group content of all these polymers was in the range from 343.3 ± 48.4 μmol/g to 450.3 ± 76.1 μmol/g. Transport studies were performed on rat small intestine mounted in Ussing-type chambers. Since 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid) showed the highest permeation enhancing effect, additionally thiolated 250 kDa polyacrylates displaying 157.2 μmol/g, 223.0 ± 18.1 and 355.9 μmol/g thiol groups were synthesized in order to investigate the influence of thiol group content on the permeation enhancement. The permeation of sulforhodamine was 3.93- and 3.85-fold improved using 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugate exhibiting 355.9 ± 39.5 μmol/g and 223.0 ± 18.1 μmol/g thiol groups. Using the same conjugates the permeation of penicillin G was 1.70- and 1.59-fold improved, respectively. The study demonstrates that thiolated poly(acrylic acid) inhibits Mrp2 mediated transport and that the extent of inhibition depends on the molecular mass and degree of thiolation of the polymer. PMID:26238816

  6. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation. PMID:27410383

  7. UV-curable polyurethane acrylate coatings with different acrylate monomers as reactive diluents

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeth, B.; Gerard, J.F.; Pascault, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two series of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) based on polycaprolactone (PCL), tetraxylylene diisocyanate (TMXDI), and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) or hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were studied. These ones were considered with different acrylates as reactive diluents. The effect of the chemical nature and functionality of the reactive diluents on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties (DMS) was investigated. From a thermodynamic point of view, the PUA seem to display a one phase structure by DMS. Nevertheless, the statistic heterogeneities due to the use of three monomers or more can explain the Tg values and the mechanical relaxations of the PUA. The Tg-onset of the PUA is slightly influenced by the nature of the reactive diluents but is dependent on the Tg of the oligomer confirming the description of the structure using a clusters model. The same conclusions could be done from the dynamic mechanical spectra of the PUA sandwiched and UV-cured between two glass plates.

  8. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  9. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  10. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  11. Generic Optimization Program

    1998-07-01

    GenOpt is a generic optimization program for nonlinear, constrained optimization. For evaluating the objective function, any simulation program that communicates over text files can be coupled to GenOpt without code modification. No analytic properties of the objective function are used by GenOpt. ptimization algorithms and numerical methods can be implemented in a library and shared among users. Gencpt offers an interlace between the optimization algorithm and its kernel to make the implementation of new algorithmsmore » fast and easy. Different algorithms of constrained and unconstrained minimization can be added to a library. Algorithms for approximation derivatives and performing line-search will be implemented. The objective function is evaluated as a black-box function by an external simulation program. The kernel of GenOpt deals with the data I/O, result sotrage and report, interlace to the external simulation program, and error handling. An abstract optimization class offers methods to interface the GenOpt kernel and the optimization algorithm library.« less

  12. Dispersion Morphology of Poly(methyl acrylate)/Silica Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    D Janes; J Moll; S Harton; C Durning

    2011-12-31

    Nearly monodisperse poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) and spherical SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP, d = 14 {+-} 4 nm) were co-cast from 2-butanone, a mutually good solvent and a displacer of adsorbed PMA from silica. The effects of NP content and post-casting sample history on the dispersion morphology were found by small-angle X-ray scattering supplemented by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the X-ray results show that cast and thermally annealed samples exhibited a nearly random particle dispersion. That the same samples, prior to annealing, were not well-dispersed is indicative of thermodynamic miscibility during thermal annealing over the range of NP loadings studied. A simple mean-field thermodynamic model suggests that miscibility results primarily from favorable polymer segment/NP surface interactions. The model also indicates, and experiments confirm, that subsequent exposure of the composites to the likely displacer ethyl acetate results in entropic destabilization and demixing into NP-rich and NP-lean phases.

  13. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polymerized copolymer of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to... Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose Mineral oil Paraffin wax Potassium hydroxide Potassium...

  14. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  15. Contributions of polymers to bentonite and saponite fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Panfil, D.J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1991-02-01

    Polymers have been used in drilling fluids for many years. However, the confusion surrounding the use of polymers in the oil field has severely limited their effectiveness. Many oilfield workers simply put all polymers in the same category without regard to the many differences that exist among them. Homopolymers and copolymers of acrylic acid and a copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride are found to have profound effects on the rheological and filtration properties of clay-based fluids up to 300{degrees}F. These contributions of the polymers are greatly diminished when the clay/polymer fluids were autoclaved at 400{degrees}F. Thus, the effects of these polymers are expected to be negligible at and above 400{degrees}F. Homo- and co-polymers of acrylic acid with molecular weights below 5000 almost eliminate the anomalous viscosity rise of the bentonite fluids at temperatures between 250--450{degrees}F. A homopolymer of acrylic acid with a molecular weight of 60,000 and a co-polymer of styrene and maleic anhydride with very high molecular weight further enhances the anomalous viscosity rise of the bentonite fluid. The original viscosity profile of the saponite fluid is characterized with a high initial viscosity up to 200{degrees}F which is followed by a steep thinning at higher temperatures. The addition of homo- and co-polymer of acrylic acid causes a complete reversal in the fluid viscosity. They become thin at lower temperatures (up to 250{degrees}F) and experience a sudden viscosity rise at higher temperatures. All the above polymers greatly improve the filtration losses of the fluids at room temperatures as indicated by the API test. The filtration tests at high pressure and high temperatures were inconclusive due to the frequent blow-outs that occur during the tests.

  16. Chitosan and functionalized acrylic nanoparticles as the precursor of new generation of bio-based antibacterial films.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Saeid; Mahdavian, Ali Reza; Sanei, Mahmood; Abdollahi, Amin

    2016-02-01

    This study represents a new method for preparation of acrylic/chitosan films with antibacterial activity and non-toxic properties through an environmental friendly process containing a water-base acrylic resin and chitosan as an abundant natural polymer. Functional and positively charged acrylic particles based on butyl acrylate (BA)-methyl methacrylate (MMA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) terpolymer were prepared with layered structure via semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of epoxy functional groups and size distribution of particles were evaluated by DLS and SEM as well. Films were prepared through mixing of chitosan solution and the prepared latex for the first time. SEM and EDX analyses revealed that chitosan has been distributed through the polymeric matrix uniformly. TGA data showed that introducing chitosan increases the maximum degradation temperature. It was found that the obtained films including positively charged chitosan reveal enhanced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus areus and Escherichia coli. Also cytotoxicity analysis shows reasonable non-toxic behavior of the obtained composite films. PMID:26652342

  17. Generic Substitution Issues: Brand-generic Substitution, Generic-generic Substitution, and Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs

    PubMed Central

    PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of generic drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of generic substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of generic substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of generic medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191

  18. The proprietary/generic debate

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Many of the different attitudes to the prescribing of drugs by proprietary or generic name are based on biased information from the pharmaceutical industry. A plea is made for a more scientific approach to the problem by doctors. PMID:19790798

  19. Adhesion and proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells on poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate).

    PubMed

    Kitakami, Erika; Aoki, Makiko; Sato, Chikako; Ishihata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells obtained from extracted teeth are a potential cell source for tissue engineering. We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is highly biocompatible with human blood cells. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of PDL cells on PMEA and other types of polymers to design an appropriate scaffold for tissue engineering. PDL cells adhered and proliferated on all investigated polymer surfaces except for poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-co-(n-butyl methacrylate)]. The initial adhesion of the PDL cells on PMEA was comparable with that on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition, the PDL cells on PMEA spread well and exhibited proliferation behavior similar to that observed on PET. In contrast, platelets hardly adhered to PMEA. PMEA is therefore expected to be an excellent scaffold for tissue engineering and for culturing tissue-derived cells in a blood-rich environment. PMID:25165689

  20. Adhesion and Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells on Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Makiko; Sato, Chikako; Ishihata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells obtained from extracted teeth are a potential cell source for tissue engineering. We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is highly biocompatible with human blood cells. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of PDL cells on PMEA and other types of polymers to design an appropriate scaffold for tissue engineering. PDL cells adhered and proliferated on all investigated polymer surfaces except for poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-co-(n-butyl methacrylate)]. The initial adhesion of the PDL cells on PMEA was comparable with that on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition, the PDL cells on PMEA spread well and exhibited proliferation behavior similar to that observed on PET. In contrast, platelets hardly adhered to PMEA. PMEA is therefore expected to be an excellent scaffold for tissue engineering and for culturing tissue-derived cells in a blood-rich environment. PMID:25165689