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Sample records for acrylated epoxidized soybean

  1. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  2. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at −18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques. PMID:27251982

  3. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-06-02

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at -18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques.

  4. Thermodynamics of coil-hyperbranched poly(styrene-b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil) block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fang-Yi; Hohmann, Austin; Hernández, Nacú; Cochran, Eric

    Here we present the phase behavior of a new type of coil-hyperbranched diblock copolymer: poly(styrene- b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil), or PS-PAESO. PS-PAESO is an example of a biorenewable thermoplastic elastomer (bio-TPE). To date, we have shown that bio-TPEs can be economical commercial substitutes for their petrochemically derived analogues--such as poly(styrene- b-butadiene- b-styrene) (SBS)--in a range of applications including pressure sensitive adhesives and bitumen modification. From a polymer physics perspective, PS-PAESO is an interesting material in that it couples a linear coil-like block with a highly branched block. Thus in contrast to the past five decades of studies on linear AB diblock copolymers, coil-hyperbranched block copolymers are relatively unknown to the community and can be expected to deviate substantially from the standard ``universal'' phase behavior in the AB systems. To explore these new materials, we have constructed a library of PS-PAESO materials spanning a range of molecular weight and composition values. The phase transition behavior and the morphology information will be interpreted by isochronal temperature scanning in dynamic shear rheology, small angle X-ray scattering and the corresponding transmission electron microscopy.

  5. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  6. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723....723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is prepared by reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen...

  7. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  9. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  14. Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, (BF3•OEt2), in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (PESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scan...

  15. Application of hydrated and anhydrous fluroantimonic acids in the polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerizations of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were catalyzed by the superacids, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6•6H2O) and anhydrous fluroantimonic acid (HSbF6) using ethyl acetate solvent. This work was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers from renewable resources...

  16. Catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil by hydrated and anhydrous fluoroantimonic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by the super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), and the anhydrous form (HSbF6) in ethyl acetate was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (SA-RPESO and SAA-...

  17. Boron Trifluoride Catalized Ring-Opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differ...

  18. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, diff...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC SOAPS OBTAINED BY RING-OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was converted to a polysoap via a two-step synthetic procedure of catalytic ring-opening polymerization (PESO), followed by hydrolysis with a base (HPESO). Various molecular weights of PESO and HPESO were prepared by varying the reaction temperature and/or catalyst conc...

  20. "Green" films from renewable resources: properties of epoxidized soybean oil plasticized ethyl cellulose films.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Peng, Xinwen; Zhong, Linxin; Cao, Xuefei; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xueming; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2014-03-15

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), which is a biomass-derived resource, was first used as a novel plasticizer for ethyl cellulose (EC) film preparation. Surface morphologies, mechanical performances, thermal properties, oxygen and water vapor permeabilities of plasticized EC films were detected in detail to evaluate the plasticizing effect of ESO and explore the plastication mechanisms. Results showed that ESO was an effective plasticizer that outstripped conventional plasticizers, i.e. dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and triethyl citrate (TEC) in producing high-quality films. Especially, at plasticizer concentrations of 15-25%, ESO-EC films had preferable mechanical properties and better thermal stability, as well as non-flammability. In addition, the water vapor permeability of ESO-EC films was lower than that of traditional plasticized films. Their oxygen permeability was also remained in a low level. These outstanding performances were related to the relatively high molecular weight, hydrophobicity, chemical structure of ESO, and the intermolecular interactions between ESO and EC chains.

  1. [Determination of epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oil in wrapping film and cap sealing].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Shinji; Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-06-01

    A determination method was developed for epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), which are used as plasticizers and/or stabilizers, in wrapping film and cap sealings. The ESBO method reported by Castle et al. was improved. Samples were extracted with acetone-hexane (3: 7), transmethylated under alkaline conditions, then derivatized to the 1,3-dioxolanes and analyzed by GC/MS. The recoveries of spiked ESBO and ELO were between 92.6% and 104.4%. The determination limits were 0.01 mg/g for ESBO and 0.02 mg/g for ELO in the wrapping film, and 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the cap sealing. ESBO and ELO were surveyed in 10 samples each of wrapping film and cap sealings currently available on the Japanese market. ESBO was found at 34.7-82.8 mg/g in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping films and at 5.47-399 mg/g in cap sealings. ELO was detected at 8.6-11.4 mg/g in polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) wrapping films, and at 46.4 mg/g in a PVC wrapping film.

  2. Epoxidized soybean oil/ZnO biocomposites for soft tissue applications: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2014-10-08

    Biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposites comprising epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) as matrix, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as reinforcements, and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst have been successfully prepared via epoxidization of the double bonds of the vegetable oil, ultrasonication, and curing without the need for interfacial modifiers. Their morphology, water uptake, thermal, mechanical, barrier, tribological, and antibacterial properties have been investigated. FT-IR analysis revealed the existence of strong ESO-ZnO hydrogen-bonding interactions. The nanoparticles acted as mass transport barriers, hindering the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process and leading to higher thermal stability, and also reduced the water absorption and gas permeability of the bioresin. Significant improvements in the static and dynamic mechanical properties, such as storage and Young's moduli, tensile strength, toughness, hardness, glass transition, and heat distortion temperature, were attained on reinforcement. A small drop in the nanocomposite stiffness and strength was found after exposure to several cycles of steam sterilization or to simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological temperature. Extraordinary reductions in the coefficient of friction and wear rate were detected under both dry and SBF conditions, confirming the potential of these nanoparticles for improving the tribological performance of ESO. The nanocomposites displayed antimicrobial action against human pathogen bacteria with and without UV illumination, which increased progressively with the ZnO content. These sustainable, ecofriendly, and low-cost biomaterials are very promising for use in biomedical applications, like structural tissue engineering scaffolds.

  3. Biobased composites from cross-linked soybean oil and thermoplastic polyurethane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethane contribute to the adhesion of the blend compon...

  4. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  5. Fluoroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O) catalysis: The ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by a super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), in ethyl acetate was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (SA-RPESO) were characterized by using infrared (IR...

  6. Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil catalyzed by the superacid, Fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by the super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), in ethyl acetate was conducted. The resulting polymers, SA-RPESO, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetri...

  7. Transfer of the epoxidation of soybean oil from batch to flow chemistry guided by cost and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Kralisch, Dana; Streckmann, Ina; Ott, Denise; Krtschil, Ulich; Santacesaria, Elio; Di Serio, Martino; Russo, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Lucrezia; Linhart, Walter; Christian, Engelbert; Cortese, Bruno; de Croon, Mart H J M; Hessel, Volker

    2012-02-13

    The simple transfer of established chemical production processes from batch to flow chemistry does not automatically result in more sustainable ones. Detailed process understanding and the motivation to scrutinize known process conditions are necessary factors for success. Although the focus is usually "only" on intensifying transport phenomena to operate under intrinsic kinetics, there is also a large intensification potential in chemistry under harsh conditions and in the specific design of flow processes. Such an understanding and proposed processes are required at an early stage of process design because decisions on the best-suited tools and parameters required to convert green engineering concepts into practice-typically with little chance of substantial changes later-are made during this period. Herein, we present a holistic and interdisciplinary process design approach that combines the concept of novel process windows with process modeling, simulation, and simplified cost and lifecycle assessment for the deliberate development of a cost-competitive and environmentally sustainable alternative to an existing production process for epoxidized soybean oil.

  8. Trace detection of the chlorohydrins of epoxidized soybean oil in foodstuffs by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Suman, Michele; De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo

    2010-09-01

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is used as an authorized plasticizer and a stabilizer for plastic polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Recently, however, there has been a concrete effort devoted to its substitution for other plasticizers such as polyadipates. ESBO is exploited particularly in food closure gaskets for metal lids used to seal glass jars and bottles. The closure gaskets form an airtight seal necessary to prevent microbiological contamination. Thus, there are potential uses for food sterilization and storage. Additionally, the main pathway of PVC degradation involves the elimination of HCl, which can react with the epoxy groups of ESBO to give mono-, polychlorohydrins and/or other cyclic derivatives. The European Food Safety Authority noted that not enough analytical and toxicological data exist to express a formal opinion on the significance for the health effects of such derivatives. At present in the scientific literature, there are only a few indicative results of direct measurements of ESBO derivatives and there are no official analytical methods available for the determination of chlorohydrins directly from foodstuffs. This study presents the first example of the analysis of commercial food sauces for the detection of ESBO-chlorohydrins (as methyl esters). The results are obtained by a dedicated development of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. Sample preparation was based on the following main steps: organic extraction, transesterification and solid-phase extraction clean up. In particular, four isomers for 18-E-OHCl chlorohydrin and eight isomers for 18-2OHCl chlorohydrin were separated and identified. Different food sauces samples closed in glass jars with twist-off caps were subjected to qualitative determination, which yielded positive results for 18-E-OHCl, whereas no traces of 18-2OHCl were found.

  9. The effect of epoxidized soybean oil on mechanical and rheological properties of poly(butylene succinate)/lignin via vane extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanyu; Huang, Zhaoxia; Qu, Jinping; Meng, Cong

    2016-03-01

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) have been used as the compatilizer in the Poly (butylene succinate)/lignin (PBS/lignin) composites. Compatibilized composites were fabricated by a novel vane extruder (VE) which can generate global and dynamic elongational flow. The effects of ESO on the mechanical, rheological properties and morphology of PBS/lignin were studied. The results indicated that the use of ESO had plasticizing effect on the matrix PBS while the addition reduced tensile strength. From SEM micrographs it could be clearly observed that there was a better interfacial adhesion between lignin and matrix. Meanwhile, rheological tests showed the incorporation of ESO improved its Newtonian behavior and can enhance PBS's flexibility.

  10. Synthesis and properties of a novel bio-based polymer from modified soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.; Tang, Z. J.

    2017-02-01

    Maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) was prepared by acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleic anhydride. AESO were obtained by the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with acrylic acid as the ring-opening reagent. The polymer was prepared by MAESO react with styrene. The structures of the products were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and were consistent with the theoretical structures. Swelling experiment indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO. Thermal properties was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), indicating that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO, and thermal stability of polymer have a good correlation with the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties analysis presented that tensile strength and impact strength affected by epoxy value of ESO. With the increase of epoxy value, the tensile strength increase, while the impact strength decrease. The property of the polymer ranged from elastomer to plastic character depended on the functionality of the ESO.

  11. Migration analysis of epoxidized soybean oil and other plasticizers in commercial lids for food packaging by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Ferrer, C; Jimenez, A; Garrigos, M C

    2010-10-01

    A modification of the method of Castle et al. (J. Chromatogr. 1988: 437:274-280) for the analysis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is proposed to simplify the analysis and reduce the time and consumption of reagents. The proposed modifications, particularly the elimination of the internal standard, resulted in a simpler, faster and more economical method. A complete analytical validation, including evaluation of the main analytical parameters, such as detection and quantification limits, linearity, working range, precision, accuracy and selectivity, was carried out. The data demonstrated the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of ESBO in polymer matrices. A specific migration study for ESBO in different food simulants (fat and aqueous) was carried out by applying the method to poly(vinyl chloride) materials prepared with known amounts of ESBO, as well as some commercial lids. High levels of migration of ESBO into fat simulants were found. In the case of commercial lids, in addition to ESBO, some other plasticizers such as citrates, adipates and sebacates were found and quantified to establish their migration under different conditions of use.

  12. Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary vulnerability of soybean production to climate change is likely to be from the effects of drought, which may be exacerbated by high temperature events. Technological adaptation can likely take advantage of warming in some production areas and rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon ...

  13. Heptachlor epoxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Heptachlor epoxide ; CASRN 1024 - 57 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Stability effect of cholesterol-poly(acrylic acid) in a stimuli-responsive polymer-liposome complex obtained from soybean lecithin for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Simões, M G; Alves, P; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Simões, P N

    2017-04-01

    The development of polymer-liposome complexes (PLCs), in particular for biomedical applications, has grown significantly in the last decades. The importance of these studies comes from the emerging need in finding intelligent controlled release systems, more predictable, effective and selective, for applications in several areas, such as treatment and/or diagnosis of cancer, neurological, dermatological, ophthalmic and orthopedic diseases, gene therapy, cosmetic treatments, and food engineering. This work reports the development and characterization of a pH sensitive system for controlled release based on PLCs. The selected hydrophilic polymer was poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a cholesterol (CHO) end-group to improve the anchoring of the polymer into the lipid bilayer. The polymer was incorporated into liposomes formulated from soybean lecithin and stearylamine, with different stearylamine/phospholipid and polymer/phospholipid ratios (5, 10 and 20%). The developed PLCs were characterized in terms of particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, release profiles, and encapsulation efficiency. Cell viability studies were performed to assess the cytotoxic potential of PLCs. The results showed that the liposomal formulation with 5% of stearylamine and 10% of polymer positively contribute to the stabilization of the complexes. Afterwards, the carboxylic acid groups of the polymer present at the surface of the liposomes were crosslinked and the same parameters analyzed. The crosslinked complexes showed to be more stable at physiologic conditions. In addition, the release profiles at different pHs (2-12) revealed that the obtained complexes released all their content at acidic conditions. In summary, the main accomplishments of this work are: (i) innovative synthesis of cholesterol-poly(acrylic acid) (CHO-PAA) by ATRP; (ii) stabilization of the liposomal formulation by incorporation of stearylamine and CHO

  15. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  16. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  17. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  18. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOEpatents

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  19. Succinic anhydrides from epoxides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Rowley, John M.

    2013-07-09

    Catalysts and methods for the double carbonylation of epoxides are disclosed. Each epoxide molecule reacts with two molecules of carbon monoxide to produce a succinic anhydride. The reaction is facilitated by catalysts combining a Lewis acidic species with a transition metal carbonyl complex. The double carbonylation is achieved in single process by using reaction conditions under which both carbonylation reactions occur without the necessity of isolating or purifying the product of the first carbonylation.

  20. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  1. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. Epoxide-derived organosulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, A. N.; Woo, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-12-01

    Organosulfates (OS) are a significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material in the atmosphere. OS are typically surface-active, and have been suggested to cause surface tension depression in aerosols. Recent field studies suggest that epoxide-derived OS are the most abundant OS type in aerosols. Time-dependent surface tension measurements and Aerosol-CIMS characterization of two epoxides and their organosulfate products are shown. α-pinene oxide, derived from α-pinene, shows significant surface tension depression in H2O and ammonium sulfate. Results from cis-2,3-epoxybutane-1,4-diol (BEPOX), a butadiene-derived analog to isoprene-derived epoxydiols, are also shown. In addition, using GAMMA, a photochemical box model using coupled gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry developed in the McNeill laboratory, we show the dominance of epoxide-derived OS formation over other competing OS formation mechanisms, such as radical chemistry, under both high-NOx and low-NOx scenarios.

  4. Preparation of Soypolymers by Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxdized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (PESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scanning calorime...

  5. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Salih, Ashraf M; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-08-04

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.

  6. Characterization of novel soybean-oil-based thermosensitive amphiphilic polymers for drug delivery applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization, aggregation behavior, physical properties and drug-polymer interaction of novel soybean oil-based polymers i.e., hydrolyzed polymers of (epoxidized) soybean oil (HPESO), were studied. The surface tension method was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC). CMC w...

  7. Study of soybean oil-based polymers for controlled release anticancer drugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil-based polymers were prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil with Lewis acid catalyst. The formed polymers (HPESO) could be converted into hydrogels through hydrolysis. Characterization and viscoelastic properties of this soy hydrogel and application in contr...

  8. Molecular Interactions between a Novel Soybean Oil-Based Polymer and Doxorubicin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel soybean oil-based polymer, hydrolyzed polymers of epoxidized soybean oil (HPESO), was developed and investigated for drug delivery. This work was aimed at determining the molecular interactions between HPESO and doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug. Powder X-ray diffraction, ATR-FTIR and ...

  9. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  10. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  11. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  12. Similarities between catalase and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Qato, M; Whalen, R; Glomb, S

    1989-01-01

    Cytosolic epoxide hydrolase, measured as trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase activity, was isolated and purified from human and guinea pig liver cytosol. Antiserum to the guinea pig liver preparation reacted strongly with bovine liver catalase. We determined that this lack of selectivity of the antiserum was due to catalase contamination of the epoxide hydrolase preparation. We also determined that several commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with cytosolic epoxide hydrolase. Our human epoxide hydrolase preparation contained no detectable catalase contamination, yet antiserum to this protein also cross-reacted slightly with catalase, indicating some intrinsic similarity between the two enzymes. We conclude that catalase and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase contain some similar immunogenic epitopes, and we surmise that similarities between the subunits of these two enzymes may lead to their partial copurification. Functional similarities between the two enzymes are also demonstrated, as several compounds that inhibit catalase are also shown to inhibit cytosolic epoxide hydrolase activity in the same concentration range and rank order.

  13. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  14. Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture.

  15. Organocatalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of aziridines and epoxides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines and meso-epoxides with various nucleophiles by organocatalysis has emerged as a cutting-edge approach in recent years. This review summarizes the origin and recent developments of enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines and meso-epoxides in the presence of organocatalysts. PMID:24062828

  16. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas.

  17. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  18. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    performance. Reversible-addition fragmentation polymerization techniques were employed to create a new class of acrylic-alkyd hybrid materials. Medium and long oil alkyds made from the monoglyceride process using soybean oil, glycerol, and phthalic anhydride were modified with a RAFT chain transfer agent. The alkyd macro-RAFT agents were reached by end-capping a medium oil soya-based alkyd with a carboxy-functional trithiocarbonate. The alkyd macro-RAFT agents were then used to create acrylic-alkyd block structures by polymerizing different acrylic monomers, including both acrylates and methacrylates in the presence of the macro-RAFT agent and 2, 2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). Co-acrylic segments were reached by complete polymerization of one monomer followed by the addition of a second monomer and additional free radical initiator. The alkyds, macro-RAFT agents and, acrylic-alkyd blocks were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), FTIR, and 1H-NMR. Pseudo-first-order kinetics behavior and conversion vs. molecular weight plots show that the RAFT-mediated reaction afforded a more controlled process for the synthesis of acrylated-alkyd materials. Preliminary coatings tests showed that material properties of acrylated-alkyds achieved by RAFT polymerization exhibit good overall coatings properties including adhesion, gloss, hardness, and impact resistance.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1010 Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  4. Divergent Reactivity via Cobalt Catalysis: An Epoxide Olefination.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Megan L; Hume, Paul A; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-02-05

    Cobalt salts exert an unexpected and profound influence on the reactivity of epoxides with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide. In the presence of a cobalt catalyst, conditions for epoxide to an oxetane ring expansion instead deliver homoallylic alcohol products, corresponding to a two-carbon epoxide homologation/ring-opening tandem process. The observed reactivity change appears to be specifically due to cobalt salts and is broadly applicable to a variety of epoxides, retaining the initial stereochemistry. This transformation also provides operationally simple access to enantiopure homoallylic alcohols from chiral epoxides without use of organometallic reagents. Tandem epoxidation-homologation of aldehydes in a single step is also demonstrated.

  5. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  6. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  10. Alkene epoxidation employing metal nitro complexes

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, M.A.; Cheng, C.W.; Kelley, K.P.

    1982-07-15

    Process for converting alkenes to form epoxides utilizes transition metal nitro complexes of the formula: M(RCN)/sub 2/XNO/sub 2/ wherein M is palladium or platinum, R is an alkyl or aryl group containing up to 12 carbon atoms, and X is a monoanionic, monodentate ligand such as chlorine, optionally in the presence of molecular oxygen.

  11. Biotechnological production of enantiopure epoxides by enzymatic kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Jae

    2009-08-01

    Enantiopure epoxides are high value-added synthons for the production of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, as well as versatile fine chemicals and have broad scope of market demand for their applications. A major challenge in conventional organic synthesis is to generate such compounds in high enantiopurity with reasonable yield. Among possible chemical and biological technologies for enantiopure epoxide preparation, enzymatic kinetic resolution has been paid much attention with respect to its high enantioselectivity. Epoxide hydrolase (EH) has shown promising characteristics for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides and vicinal diols during enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic epoxides. EH is readily available from microbial resources thus it is being employed for biohydrolysis of a variety of epoxides. Recent technical progress in EH-catalyzed enantioselective hydrolysis is summarized in terms of exploration of novel EH, its functional improvement, high throughput assay, and preparative scale resolution process.

  12. Mechanics of Crack Growth in Epoxide Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    mind when considering the static G (arrest) values shown in Figure 3. Ic 9 First, Bascom et al 7 ’I 0 have elegantly demonstrated that for rubber ...in limited regions of the material. The diameter of the pores or channels in a craze is typically a few tens of nanometres and the void content is...about 40 to 60%. However, while there is definite proof for craze formation in rubber -modified epoxide 24 materials, the evidence for craze formation in

  13. Mutagenicity of chloroalkene epoxides in bacterial systems.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; McCoy, E C; Rosenkranz, H S; Van Duuren, B L

    1982-04-01

    6 alpha-chloroepoxides have been tested for in vitro activity in a variety of systems. The epoxides were cis- and trans-1-chloropropene oxide, cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide, trichloroethylene oxide and tetrachloroethylene oxide. The epoxides were assayed for mutagenicity in the absence of metabolic activation in S. typhimurium TA1535 and E. coli WP2 uvrA and for preferential inhibition of growth of DNA-repair-deficient E. coli. All 6 epoxides possessed DNA-modifying activity as evidenced by their ability to preferentially inhibit DNA polymerase-deficient E. coli. All of the test chemicals except trichloroethylene oxide were mutagenic for S. typhimurium and all except trichloroethylene oxide and tetrachloroethylene oxide were mutagenic for E. coli Wp2 uvrA. Cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene oxide were the most potent mutagens and DNA modifiers. For all cases, the cis isomers were more active than the corresponding trans isomers. alpha-Chloroepoxides are considered likely to be the active intermediates of the carcinogenic parent halo-olefins. These mutagenicity studies are considered relevant in assessing the carcinogenicity of the parent hydrocarbons.

  14. The electron-impact promoted fragmentation of aurone epoxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, B. A.; O'Sullivan, W. I.; Duffield, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The mass spectra of six aurone epoxides have been rationalized with the aid of high resolution mass spectrometry and metastable ion evidence. These compounds fragment in a well defined manner and mechanisms are proposed for the formation of their characteristic ions. Some similarity was observed between the mass spectra of 6-methoxyaurone epoxide (II), 4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-phenylcoumarin (VII) and 7-methoxyflavonol (IX). The possibility that VII and IX are intermediates in the fragmentation of epoxide II is discussed. Thermal rearrangement of aurone epoxide II was shown to yield the corresponding flavonol IX and coumarin VII.

  15. Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broshears, Williams C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    Epoxide chemistry is widely used in organic synthesis and regularly discussed in organic chemistry textbooks. An experiment to generate dimethyldioxirane in situ from acetone using Oxone is explained.

  16. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 63 FR 41279 - Acrylic Sheet From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Acrylic Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on acrylic sheet from Japan. SUMMARY: The... order on acrylic sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. 78 FR 55644 - Styrene, Copolymers with Acrylic Acid and/or Methacrylic Acid; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate, and its...

  2. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  3. Chiral Ketone and Iminium Catalysts for Olefin Epoxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, O. Andrea; Shi, Yian

    Organo-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation has received much attention in the past 30 years and significant progress has been made for various types of olefins. This review will cover the advancement made in the field of chiral ketone and chiral iminium salt-catalyzed epoxidations.

  4. Epoxides--is there a human health problem?

    PubMed Central

    Manson, M M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider whether epoxides represent a hazard to human health. Possible means of occupational and non-occupational exposure are discussed with reference to the production and uses of industrially important compounds and other epoxides, such as naturally occurring plant and fungal products. In addition to epoxides themselves, unsaturated compounds that may be metabolised in vivo to epoxides are included, since this appears to be a further important means of exposure. The toxicology, in particular carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, is discussed, along with a brief outline of the biochemistry such as metabolism, binding to cell constituents, and DNA repair mechanisms. The question of interactions between different epoxides in vivo is also raised. PMID:7004476

  5. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  6. Prediction of drug-drug interactions with carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide using a new in vitro assay for epoxide hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria; Bonnaillie, Pierre; Chanteux, Hugues

    2016-12-01

    1. Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug which is metabolized by CYP3A4 into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. This metabolite is then detoxified by epoxide hydrolase. As carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide has been associated with neurotoxicity, it is critical to identify whether a new antiepileptic drug has the potential to inhibit epoxide hydrolase and therefore increase carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide plasma levels. 2. In this study, an in vitro assay was developed to evaluate epoxide hydrolase activity by using carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide as probe substrate. The ability of this assay to predict drug-drug interactions (DDI) at the epoxide hydrolase level was also investigated. 3. To this aim, known inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase for which in vivo data are available were used. Firstly, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide hydrolase activity was determined in liver microsomes, cytosol and hepatocytes. Thereafter, the IC50 of epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (progabide, valproic acid, valpromide and valnoctamide) was determined in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Finally, prediction of AUC increase was performed using the in vitro data generated. 4. Interestingly, epoxide hydrolase activity was found to be much higher in human hepatocytes compared to liver microsomes/cytosol. Even though assessed on a limited number of compounds, this study demonstrated that the use of hepatocytes seems to be a more relevant model to assess and predict DDI at the epoxide hydrolase level.

  7. Carcinogenicity and mechanistic insights on the behavior of epoxides and epoxide-forming chemicals.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Ronald L

    2002-12-01

    Many epoxides and their precursors are high production volume chemicals that have major uses in the polymer industry and as intermediates in the manufacture of other chemicals. Several of these chemicals were demonstrated to be carcinogenic in laboratory animal studies conducted by the Ramazzini Foundation (e.g., vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, styrene, styrene oxide, and benzene) and by the National Toxicology Program (e.g., ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, chloroprene, acrylonitrile, glycidol, and benzene). The most common sites of tumor induction were lung, liver, harderian gland, and circulatory system in mice; Zymbal's gland and brain in rats; and mammary gland and forestomach in both species. Differences in cancer outcome among studies of epoxide chemicals may be related to differences in study design (e.g., dose, duration, and route of exposure; observation period; animal strains), as well as biological factors affecting target organ dosimetry of the DNA-reactive epoxide (toxicokinetics) and tissue response (toxicodynamics). N7-Alkylguanine, N1-alkyladenine, and cyclic etheno adducts, as well as K-ras and p53 mutations, have been detected in animals and/or workers exposed to several of these chemicals. The classifications of these chemical carcinogens by IARC and NTP are based on animal and human data and results of mechanistic studies. Reducing occupational and environmental exposures to these chemicals will certainly reduce human cancer risks.

  8. Hydrolysis of the 2',3'-allylic epoxides of allylbenzene, estragole, eugenol, and safrole by both microsomal and cytosolic epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Qato, M K; Guenthner, T M

    1992-01-01

    2',3'-Allylic epoxide derivatives of allylbenzene and its analogs estragole, eugenol, and safrole were synthesized, and their enzymatic conversion to dihydrodiols by cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolases was examined. All four epoxides were good substrates for both epoxide hydrolases, with Michaelis constants in the low micromolar range. Two putatively selective inhibitors of cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolases, trichloropropylene oxide and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, were used to inhibit the hydrolysis of these allylic epoxides. Minimal selectivity toward either hydrolase was seen with either inhibitor, suggesting that the "selectivity" of these inhibitors is highly substrate-dependent. The susceptibilities of these epoxides to rapid hydrolysis by both epoxide hydrolases may explain their low genotoxic potencies in vivo.

  9. Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisseau, Christophe; Goodrow, Marvin H.; Dowdy, Deanna; Zheng, Jiang; Greene, Jessica F.; Sanborn, James R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    1999-08-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of trans-stilbene oxide, which is active as the epoxide, but reduce cytotoxicity of leukotoxin, which is activated by epoxide hydrolase to its toxic diol. They also reduce toxicity of leukotoxin in vivo in mice and prevent symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome. These potent inhibitors may be valuable tools for testing hypotheses of involvement of diol and epoxide lipids in chemical mediation in vitro or in vivo systems.

  10. Synthesis and reactivity of coumarin 3,4-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Born, S L; Rodriguez, P A; Eddy, C L; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1997-11-01

    Coumarin is used widely as a fragrance constituent and is administered clinically in the treatment of certain lymphedemas and malignancies. Although toxicity occurs only rarely in humans treated clinically with high-dose coumarin, it is well established that coumarin is hepatotoxic in the rat. This species difference in susceptibility to toxicity reflects the disparate metabolic processes occurring in humans and rodents. In humans, coumarin is converted extensively via cytochrome P450 2A6 to the nontoxic 7-hydroxycoumarin metabolite. In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxidation is thought to predominate in rodent species, resulting in the formation of several potentially toxic metabolites. Coumarin epoxide is thought to be highly unstable and has not been isolated synthetically or as a microsomal product. To address this issue, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was synthesized, and its stability and fate have been determined. Coumarin 3,4-epoxide was prepared by reacting coumarin with dimethyldioxirane. The epoxide was stable in organic solvents and survived conditions required for analysis by gas chromotography. Its structure was confirmed via 1H-NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-infrared spectroscopy (GC-MS-IR). In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was unstable in aqueous solution, converting within 20 sec to a ring-opened compound. Using GC-MS-IR analysis, the single coumarin 3,4-epoxide product was identified as o-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (o-HPA). Although other investigators have suggested that 3-hydroxycoumarin is an intermediate in o-HPA formation from coumarin 3,4-epoxide, we have demonstrated that 3-hydroxycoumarin, incubated in an aqueous system or with liver microsomal proteins, does not form o-HPA. Thus, the results of the present work establish that coumarin 3,4-epoxide can be synthesized and that o-HPA, which has previously been shown to be a prominent coumarin metabolite in rat liver microsomal incubations, is formed directly from coumarin 3,4-epoxide. These

  11. Diversity and Biocatalytic Potential of Epoxide Hydrolases Identified by Genome Analysis†

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, Bert; Kingma, Jaap; Arand, Michael; Wubbolts, Marcel G.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2006-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the biodegradation of organic compounds and are potentially useful in enantioselective biocatalysis. An analysis of various genomic databases revealed that about 20% of sequenced organisms contain one or more putative epoxide hydrolase genes. They were found in all domains of life, and many fungi and actinobacteria contain several putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding genes. Multiple sequence alignments of epoxide hydrolases with other known and putative α/β-hydrolase fold enzymes that possess a nucleophilic aspartate revealed that these enzymes can be classified into eight phylogenetic groups that all contain putative epoxide hydrolases. To determine their catalytic activities, 10 putative bacterial epoxide hydrolase genes and 2 known bacterial epoxide hydrolase genes were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The production of active enzyme was strongly improved by fusion to the maltose binding protein (MalE), which prevented inclusion body formation and facilitated protein purification. Eight of the 12 fusion proteins were active toward one or more of the 21 epoxides that were tested, and they converted both terminal and nonterminal epoxides. Four of the new epoxide hydrolases showed an uncommon enantiopreference for meso-epoxides and/or terminal aromatic epoxides, which made them suitable for the production of enantiopure (S,S)-diols and (R)-epoxides. The results show that the expression of epoxide hydrolase genes that are detected by analyses of genomic databases is a useful strategy for obtaining new biocatalysts. PMID:16597997

  12. Immunohistochemical study of epoxide hydrolase induced by trichloroethylene in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, T.; Hobara, T.; Ogino, K.; Takemoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Imamura, A.; Koshiro, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Sakai, T.

    1987-10-01

    Epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolation of potentially toxic, electrophilic epoxides that are often generated during cytochrome P-450 catalyzed monooxigenation, forming the corresponding transdihydrodiols. It is well-known that trichloroethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidase systems to trichloroethylene oxide, which decomposes to other metabolites. As trichloroethylene is an epoxide, epoxide hydrolase is suspected to catalyze the hydrolation of trichloroethylene oxide. No reports have appeared about the relationship between trichloroethylene and epoxide hydrolase. In this report, the authors studied the effect of trichloroethylene on epoxide hydrolase immunohistochemically.

  13. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  14. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  15. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    SciTech Connect

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic...) Identity. For the purpose of this section, n-alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers are copolymers obtained...

  17. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as... prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) The acrylate ester copolymer is a...

  18. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  19. Monolithic F-16 Uniform Thickness Stretched Acrylic Canopy Transparency Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Thermoforming Finite Strain Analysis Finite Element Modeling Mooney Formulation Tensile Testing Acrylic Material Properties F-16 Transparency Thinning Uniform...OF ACRYLIC TENSILE SPECIMEN ...... 8 MARC ANALYSIS OF ACRYLIC HEMISPHERE ............ 12 IV ACRYLIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES AT THERMOFORMING TEMPERATURES...properties (necessary for finite element stress analysis work) were generated at temperatures in the range of thermoforming . A finite element code

  20. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  1. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  2. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  3. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  4. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  6. Poly(meth)acrylate-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica

    2013-12-05

    Poly(meth)acrylate coatings for pharmaceutical applications were introduced in 1955 with the launch of EUDRAGIT(®) L and EUDRAGIT(®) S, two types of anionic polymers. Since then, by introducing various monomers into their polymer chains and thus altering their properties, diverse forms with specific characteristics have become available. Today, poly(meth)acrylates function in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and/or release the drug in a time-controlled manner. This article reviews the properties of various poly(meth)acrylates and discusses formulation issues as well as application possibilities.

  7. New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with bromine-containing monomer.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M

    2008-07-01

    Bromine-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the bromine-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of bromine-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque.

  8. Asymmetric catalysis of epoxide ring-opening reactions.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, E N

    2000-06-01

    The discovery of the metal salen-catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening (ARO) of epoxides is chronicled. A screening approach was adopted for the identification of catalysts for the addition of TMSN(3) to meso-epoxides, and the chiral (salen)CrN(3) complex was identified as optimal. Kinetic and structural studies served to elucidate the mechanism of catalysis, which involves cooperative activation of both epoxide and azide by two different metal centers. Covalently linked bimetallic complexes were constructed on the basis of this insight, and shown to catalyze the ARO with identical enantioselectivity but 1-2 orders of magnitude greater reactivity than the monomeric analogues. Extraordinarily high selectivity is observed in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides using the (salen)CrN(3)/TMSN(3) system. A search for a practical method for the kinetic resolution reaction led to the discovery of highly enantiomer-selective hydrolytic ring-opening using the corresponding (salen)Co(III) catalyst. This system displays extraordinary substrate generality, and allows practical access to enantiopure terminal epoxides on both laboratory and industrial scales.

  9. EVALUATION OF AN ACRYLATE TERPOLYMER, POLYURETHANE COMPOSITE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Composite films consisting of a flexible acrylate terpolymer substrate and an outer layer of poly (ester-urethane) elastomer were prepared and evaluated for use in cosmetic glove applications. (Author)

  10. Lithium BINOL Phosphate Catalyzed Desymmetrization of meso-Epoxides with Aromatic Thiols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A highly enantioselective method for desymmetrization of meso-epoxides using thiols is reported. This is the first example of epoxide activation achieved using metal BINOL phosphates. The reaction has a broad scope in terms of epoxide substrates and aromatic thiol nucleophiles. The resulting β-hydroxyl sulfides are obtained in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:25317934

  11. Formation of furan fatty alkyl esters from their bis-epoxide fatty esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epoxidation of vegetable oils and consecutive epoxide ring-opening reaction is a widely investigated path for producing biobased lubricants and polymers. The reaction mechanism and products are considered well-studied and known. In the current study, the reactions of epoxidized alkyl soyate with fou...

  12. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  13. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: Gene structure, expression and deletion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts epoxides to their corresponding diols through the addition of a water molecule. sEH readily hydrolyzes lipid signaling molecules, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), epoxidized lipids produced from arachidonic acid by the action of cytochrome p450s. Through its metabolism of the EETs and other lipid mediators, sEH contributes to the regulation of vascular tone, nociception, angiogenesis and the inflammatory response. Because of its central physiological role in disease states such as cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, hypertension, and pain sEH is being investigated as a therapeutic target. This review begins with a brief introduction to sEH protein structure and function. sEH evolution and gene structure are then discussed before human small nucleotide polymorphisms and mammalian gene expression are described in the context of several disease models. The review ends with an overview of studies that have employed the sEH knockout mouse model. PMID:23701967

  14. Epoxidation of propylene dimers and isomerization of mixtures obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrev, D.M.; Kurtev, K.S.

    1988-05-10

    Mixtures of hexenes are obtained in the dimerization of propylene on a Ziegler catalyst. By the epoxidation of this mixture by organic peroxides, followed by isomerization of the oxides, C/sub 6/ ketones, which are used as solvents, can be obtained. The hexenes were obtained by dimerization of propylene in the presence of a Ni(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/-P(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/-(C/sub 3/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/AlCl catalytic system. The epoxidation was carried with technical grade isopropylbenzyl hydroperoxide (IPBHP). MoO/sub 2/(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/ was used as the catalyst. The relative rates of epoxidation of different isomers contained in the dimeric fraction, with respect to 2-methyl-1-pentene, was determined by means of competing reactions.

  15. Reinforcing polymer composites with epoxide-grafted carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiren; Liang, Richard; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck

    2008-02-27

    An in situ functionalization method was used to graft epoxide onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and improve the integration of SWNTs into epoxy polymer. The characterization results of Raman, FT-IR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) validated the successful functionalization with epoxide. These functionalized SWNTs were used to fabricate nanocomposites, resulting in uniform dispersion and strong interfacial bonding. The mechanical test demonstrated that, with only 1 wt% loading of functionalized SWNTs, the tensile strength of nanocomposites was improved by 40%, and Young's modulus by 60%.These results suggested that efficient load transfer has been achieved through epoxide-grafting. This investigation provided an efficient way to improve the interfacial bonding of multifunctional high-performance nanocomposites for lightweight structure material applications.

  16. Chemical Stress Cracking of Acrylic Fibers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    nitrile groups (similar to the "prefatory reaction" in pyrolysis of acrylic fibers), followed immediately by N- chlorination and7 chain scission...cyclization of nitrile groups (similar to the "prefatory reaction" in pyrolysis of acrylic fibers), followed immediately by N- chlorination and chain scission...present experiments were conducted at the boil, slightly greater than 100 C. The decomposition products-- chlorine , chlorate, plus oxygen originating

  17. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  18. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  19. Multicomponent linchpin couplings. Reaction of dithiane anions with terminal epoxides, epichlorohydrin, and vinyl epoxides: efficient, rapid, and stereocontrolled assembly of advanced fragments for complex molecule synthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Pitram, Suresh M; Boldi, Armen M; Gaunt, Matthew J; Sfouggatakis, Chris; Moser, William H

    2003-11-26

    The development, application, and advantages of a one-flask multicomponent dithiane linchpin coupling protocol, over the more conventional stepwise addition of dithiane anions to electrophiles leading to the rapid, efficient, and stereocontrolled assembly of highly functionalized intermediates for complex molecule synthesis, are described. Competent electrophiles include terminal epoxides, epichlorohydrin, and vinyl epoxides. High chemoselectivity can be achieved with epichlorohydrin and vinyl epoxides. For vinyl epoxides, the steric nature of the dithiane anion is critical; sterically unencumbered dithiane anions afford S(N)2 adducts, whereas encumbered anions lead primarily to SN2' adducts. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the SN2' process occurs via syn addition to the vinyl epoxide. Integration of the multicomponent tactic with epichlorohydrin and vinyl epoxides permits the higher-order union of four and five components.

  20. Protein profile of mature soybean seeds and prepared soybean milk.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-10-08

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is economically the most important bean in the world, providing a wide range of vegetable proteins. Soybean milk is a colloidal solution obtained as water extract from swelled and ground soybean seeds. Soybean proteins represent about 35-40% on a dry weight basis and they are receiving increasing attention with respect to their health effects. However, the soybean is a well-recognized allergenic food, and therefore, it is urgent to define its protein components responsible for the allergenicity in order to develop hypoallergenic soybean products for sensitive people. The main aim of this work was the characterization of seed and milk soybean proteome and their comparison in terms of protein content and specific proteins. Using a shotgun proteomics approach, 243 nonredundant proteins were identified in mature soybean seeds.

  1. Lutein epoxide cycle, more than just a forest tale

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the ubiquitous violaxanthin (V) cycle and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle. Both involve the light induced de-epoxidation of an epoxidated xanthophyll (V or Lx) and the epoxidation back in the dark. Evolutionary trends and function of the Lx cycle are still not clear. Up to nowadays, significant amounts of Lx have been found in several unrelated taxa, but it is a character almost exclusive from woody plants (except in the case of the parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa). We have found an exception to this pattern in Cucumis sativus L., which showed high concentrations of Lx. Since Lx cycle was operative in leaves and cotyledons of this species and Lx concentration were much higher in cotyledons than in leaves, we speculate a role for the early stages of development. To date, this species is the first herbaceous non-parasitic species with operative Lx cycle. Since this species can be much more easily and rapidly grown and investigated than woody plants, these data can open new horizons and new lines of investigation for Lx cycle. PMID:19794858

  2. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: ALCOHOL OXIDATION AND OLEFIN EPOXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasound-assisted Organic Synthesis: Alcohol Oxidation and Olefin Epoxidation

    Unnikrishnan R Pillai, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie , Vasudevan Namboodiri, Quiming Zhao, Juluis Enriquez
    U.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. , Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone: 513-569-773...

  3. Hydrolytic and aminolytic kinetic resolution of terminal bis-epoxides.

    PubMed

    Bredihhina, Jevgenia; Villo, Piret; Andersons, Kārlis; Toom, Lauri; Vares, Lauri

    2013-03-15

    Hydrolytic and aminolytic kinetic resolution of terminal bis-epoxides catalyzed by (salen)Co(III) complexes affords epoxy-diols and N-protected epoxy-amino alcohols with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivity and good yields. An operationally simple procedure gives instant access to valuable building blocks containing two remote stereocenters in highly enantioenriched form.

  4. Novel microbial epoxide hydrolases for biohydrolysis of glycidyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kotik, Michael; Brichac, Jiri; Kyslík, Pavel

    2005-12-06

    Microbial isolates from biofilters and petroleum-polluted bioremediation sites were screened for the presence of enantioselective epoxide hydrolases active towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether, benzyl glycidyl ether, and allyl glycidyl ether. Out of 270 isolated strains, which comprised bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, four were selected based on the enantioselectivities of their epoxide hydrolases determined in biotransformation reactions. The enzyme of Aspergillus niger M200 preferentially hydrolyses (S)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether to (S)-3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol with a relatively high enantioselectivity (the enantiomeric ratio E is about 30 at a reaction temperature of 28 degrees C). Epoxide hydrolases of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa M002 and Rhodococcus fascians M022 hydrolyse benzyl glycidyl ether with relatively low enantioselectivities, the former reacting predominantly with the (S)-enantiomer, the latter preferring the (R)-enantiomer. Enzymatic hydrolysis of allyl glycidyl ether by Cryptococcus laurentii M001 proceeds with low enantioselectivity (E=3). (R)-tert-Butyl glycidyl ether with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of over 99%, and (S)-3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol with an ee-value of 86% have been prepared on a gram-scale using whole cells of A. niger M200. An enantiomeric ratio of approximately 100 has been determined under optimised biotransformation conditions with the partially purified epoxide hydrolase from A. niger M200. The regioselectivity of this enzyme was determined to be total for both (S)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether and (R)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF METABOLICALLY STABLE INHIBITORS OF MAMMALIAN MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) plays a significant role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as polyaromatic toxicants. Additionally, polymorphism studies have underlined a potential role of this enzyme in relation to a number of diseases, such as emphysema, spontaneous abortion, eclampsia ...

  6. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Diketopiperazine Bis-α,β-Epoxides

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Shin; Grote, Amy L.; Koide, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized diketopiperazines (a.k.a. dioxopiperazines) are an important class of molecules in medicinal chemistry and material science. Herein we report a diastereoselective synthesis of diketopiperazine bis-α,β-epoxides via the oxidation of exocyclic olefins. Although six diastereomers may be formed by this approach, only one or two of them were observed. PMID:21250704

  7. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2016-07-12

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  9. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Sim, Lai Har; Winie, Tan; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin

    2015-08-01

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO4 causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO2 in ENR/LiClO4 system, a remarkable Tg elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO2 loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  10. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan; Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  11. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  12. Synthesis and self-assembly behavior of a biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer nanomicelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lixia; Bian, Longchun; Zhao, Mimi; Lei, Jingxin; Wang, Jiliang

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel amphiphilic biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer (SBC) prepared by grafting hydrophilic and biocompatible hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) polymeric segments onto the natural hydrophobic soybean oil chains. FTIR, H1-NMR, and GPC measurements have been used to investigate the molecular structure of the obtained SBC macromolecules. Self-assembly behaviors of the prepared SBC in aqueous solution have also been extensively evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared SBC nanocarrier with the size range of 40 to 80 nm has a potential application in the biomedical field.

  13. Identification and characterization of a new epoxide hydrolase from mouse liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Oesch, F

    1983-12-25

    A new microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH2) has been identified and characterized. This enzyme has properties which distinguish it from previously described cytosolic (cEH) or membrane-bound (mEH1) epoxide hydrolases. The enzyme is an integral microsomal protein which is not dissociated from the membrane by repeated washing, high ionic strength salt, or chaotropic agent solutions, or by sonication. It is very different from the normally described microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH1) as shown by its different substrate specificity and kinetic properties and by immunological criteria. In contrast to the hitherto described microsomal epoxide hydrolase, mEH1, the new enzyme effectively catalyzes the hydration of transdisubstituted oxiranes such as trans-stilbene oxide and trans-beta-ethyl styrene oxide and has no appreciable activity toward benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide. It is also structurally distinct, in that it does not cross-react with antibodies raised against the normally described microsomal epoxide hydrolase mEH1. This newly described microsomal epoxide hydrolase probably represents an important factor in the control of reactive epoxides; its location in the membrane ensures access to lipophilic epoxides generated by membrane-bound monooxygenases, and its substrate specificity is such that it can hydrolyze epoxides poorly metabolized by the previously described microsomal epoxide hydrolase.

  14. Modeling Epoxidation of Drug-like Molecules with a Deep Machine Learning Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drug toxicity is frequently caused by electrophilic reactive metabolites that covalently bind to proteins. Epoxides comprise a large class of three-membered cyclic ethers. These molecules are electrophilic and typically highly reactive due to ring tension and polarized carbon–oxygen bonds. Epoxides are metabolites often formed by cytochromes P450 acting on aromatic or double bonds. The specific location on a molecule that undergoes epoxidation is its site of epoxidation (SOE). Identifying a molecule’s SOE can aid in interpreting adverse events related to reactive metabolites and direct modification to prevent epoxidation for safer drugs. This study utilized a database of 702 epoxidation reactions to build a model that accurately predicted sites of epoxidation. The foundation for this model was an algorithm originally designed to model sites of cytochromes P450 metabolism (called XenoSite) that was recently applied to model the intrinsic reactivity of diverse molecules with glutathione. This modeling algorithm systematically and quantitatively summarizes the knowledge from hundreds of epoxidation reactions with a deep convolution network. This network makes predictions at both an atom and molecule level. The final epoxidation model constructed with this approach identified SOEs with 94.9% area under the curve (AUC) performance and separated epoxidized and non-epoxidized molecules with 79.3% AUC. Moreover, within epoxidized molecules, the model separated aromatic or double bond SOEs from all other aromatic or double bonds with AUCs of 92.5% and 95.1%, respectively. Finally, the model separated SOEs from sites of sp2 hydroxylation with 83.2% AUC. Our model is the first of its kind and may be useful for the development of safer drugs. The epoxidation model is available at http://swami.wustl.edu/xenosite. PMID:27162970

  15. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  2. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  3. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  5. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  6. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  7. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  8. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  15. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  19. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  20. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  1. Sunflowers versus soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.D.C.

    1980-10-01

    While both soybeans and sunflowers provide oil and protein, sunflowers offer the higher potential yield of oil per hectare. Research to modify vegetable oils to improve their fuel properties is suggested, particularly on improving the characteristics of the oil as a fuel for diesel engines.

  2. Stainless steel mesh-acrylic cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Tysvaer, A T; Hovind, K H

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-four steel mesh-acrylic plates have been used for repair of skull defects in 1970-73. Three plates had to be removed due to complications, two due to infection and one due to an allergic reaction. The plate is easy to mould, strong, and light. The cosmetic results are excellent.

  3. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2805 Acrylate ester. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an...

  4. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity toward the bacteria Vibrio fischeri of organic narcotics and epoxides: structural alerts for epoxide excess toxicity.

    PubMed

    Blaschke, Ulrike; Paschke, Albrecht; Rensch, Ines; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2010-12-20

    The acute and chronic bacterial toxicity of 34 organic compounds comprising 19 baseline narcotics and 15 epoxides has been determined with regard to 30-min bioluminescence and 24-h growth inhibition in terms of EC50 (effective concentration 50%) values employing Vibrio fischeri. For the narcotics, linear regression of log EC50 on log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient) yields r2 (squared correlation coefficient) and rms (root-mean-square error) values of 0.95 and 0.44 (30-min), and 0.94 and 0.34 (24-h), respectively. Employing the resultant baseline narcosis models, toxicity enhancement (Te) values were derived as a ratio of narcosis-predicted over experimental EC50 for the epoxides. For seven aliphatic epoxides, log Te was below 1 in both assays, indicating narcosis-range toxicity with regard to 30-min bioluminescence and 24-h growth inhibition. Concerning eight nonaliphatic epoxides, log Te values up to 2.4 were observed, reflecting excess toxicity through an enhanced electrophilic reactivity of the compounds. Here, however, the intercorrelation between both assays was very low (r2 = 0.09). The results are discussed in terms of electronic substituent effects activating an SN2-type epoxide reaction with nucleophilic protein sites and side-chain activation offering alternative electrophile-nucleophile reaction routes at side-chain sites, leading to respective structural alerts as indicators of excess toxicity. Surprisingly, 30-min bioluminescence appears to be slightly more sensitive to chemical stress than 24-h growth, which holds both for baseline narcotics and for most of the epoxides. This is also reflected by effective narcosis doses 50%, ED50, of 7.1 mmol/kg (30-min) and 7.7 mmol/kg (24-h) estimated from narcosis theory. Keeping in mind the different end points (bioluminescence vs growth) involved, this finding demonstrates that chronic toxicity is not always more sensitive than acute toxicity, calling for analyses with regard to further respective

  6. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes composites modified by epoxidized natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Yang, Shuyan; Du, Mingliang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    The reinforcement effects of halloysite nanotubes on styrene-butadiene rubber and the modification effect of epoxidized natural rubber on styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes composites were studied. The structure, morphology and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes composites before and after the incorporation of epoxidized natural rubber were investigated. The results indicated that epoxidized natural rubber can promote the dispersion and orientation of halloysite nanotubes in styrene-butadiene rubber matrix at nanoscale and strengthen interfacial combination between halloysite nanotubes and styrene-butadiene rubber by the formation of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds between epoxidized natural rubber and halloysite nanotubes. Consequently epoxidized natural rubber can improve the mechanical properties of the vulcanizates of styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes composites. Besides epoxidized natural rubber can decrease the rolling resistance of the vulcanizates and increase the wet grip property of the vulcanizates.

  7. Asymmetric catalysis with water: efficient kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by means of catalytic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, M; Larrow, J F; Kakiuchi, F; Jacobsen, E N

    1997-08-15

    Epoxides are versatile building blocks for organic synthesis. However, terminal epoxides are arguably the most important subclass of these compounds, and no general and practical method exists for their production in enantiomerically pure form. Terminal epoxides are available very inexpensively as racemic mixtures, and kinetic resolution is an attractive strategy for the production of optically active epoxides, given an economical and operationally simple method. Readily accessible synthetic catalysts (chiral cobalt-based salen complexes) have been used for the efficient asymmetric hydrolysis of terminal epoxides. This process uses water as the only reagent, no added solvent, and low loadings of a recyclable catalyst (<0.5 mole percent), and it affords highly valuable terminal epoxides and 1, 2-diols in high yield with high enantiomeric enrichment.

  8. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; ...

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  9. Efficient enzymatic acrylation through transesterification at controlled water activity.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mathias; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2008-04-15

    Enzymatic acrylation is a process of potentially strong interest to the chemical industry. Direct esterification involving acrylic acid is unfortunately rather slow, with inhibition phenomena appearing at high acid concentrations. In the present study the acrylation of 1-octanol catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was shown to be as much as an order of magnitude faster when ethyl acrylate served as the donor of the acrylic group. Water activity is a key parameter for optimizing the rate of ester synthesis. The optimum water activity for the esterification of octanol by acrylic acid was found to be 0.75, that for its esterification by propionic acid to be 0.45 and the transesterification involving ethyl acrylate to be fastest at a water activity of 0.3. The reasons for these differences in optimum water activity are discussed in terms of enzyme specificity, substrate solvation, and mass transfer effects.

  10. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  11. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Purba, Endang R; Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) contributes to cell growth, but the contribution of sEH to embryonic development is not well understood. In this study, Xenopus sEH cDNA was isolated from embryos of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus sEH was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified. The epoxide hydrolase and phosphatase activities of purified sEH were investigated. The Xenopus sEH did not show phosphatase activity toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate or several lysophosphatidic acids although it had EH activity. The amino acid sequence of Xenopus sEH was compared with that reported previously. We found amino acid substitutions of the 29th Thr to Asn and the 146th Arg to His and prepared a sEH mutant (N29T/H146R), designed as mutant 1. Neither wild-type sEH nor mutant 1 had phosphatase activity. Additional substitution of the 11th Gly with Asp was found by comparison with human sEH which has phosphatase activity, but the Xenopus sEH mutant G11D prepared as mutant 2 did not have phosphatase activity. The epoxide hydrolase activity of sEH seemed to be similar to that of human sEH, while Xenopus sEH did not have phosphatase activity toward several substrates that human sEH metabolizes.

  13. Nickel-Catalyzed Regiodivergent Opening of Epoxides with Aryl Halides: Co-Catalysis Controls Regioselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Weix, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxides are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, but have rarely been employed in cross-coupling reactions. We report that bipyridine-ligated nickel can mediate the addition of functionalized aryl halides, a vinyl halide, and a vinyl triflate to epoxides under reducing conditions. For terminal epoxides, the regioselectivity of the reaction depends upon the co-catalyst employed. Iodide co-catalysis results in opening at the less hindered position via an iodohydrin intermediate. Titanocene co-catalysis results in opening at the more hindered position, presumably via TiIII-mediated radical generation. 1,2-Disubstituted epoxides are opened under both conditions to form predominantly the trans product. PMID:24341892

  14. Cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolases are immunologically distinguishable from each other in the rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Hammock, B D; Vogel, U; Oesch, F

    1981-04-10

    Antibodies raised to homogeneous rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase were used to distinguish microsomal epoxide hydrolase from epoxide hydrolase of cytosolic origin in mice and rats. Using double diffusion analysis in agarose gels, we show that anti-rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase forms a single precipitin line with solubilized microsomes from rat and mouse liver, but no reaction is seen with the corresponding cytosolic fractions. Rat or mouse microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity (using benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide as substrate) can be completely precipitated out of solubilized preparations by the antibody, which is equipotent against rat and mouse microsomal epoxide hydrolase. No precipitation of cytosolic hydrolase activity (using trans-beta-ethyl styrene oxide as substrate) is seen with any concentration of the antibody tested. Thus, in the case of microsomal epoxide hydrolase, extensive immunological cross-reactivity exists between the two species, rat and mouse. In contrast, no cross-reactivity is detectable between cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, even when enzymes from the same species are compared. We conclude that microsomal and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase activities represent distinct and immunologically non-cross-reactive protein species.

  15. Direct observation of enantiomer discrimination of epoxides by chiral salen complexes using ENDOR.

    PubMed

    Fallis, Ian A; Murphy, Damien M; Willock, David J; Tucker, Richard J; Farley, Robert D; Jenkins, Robert; Strevens, Robert R

    2004-12-08

    Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the weak enantioselective binding between chiral salen complexes [VO(1)] ((R,R)- and (S,S)-vanadyl N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalcylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine) and chiral epoxides (e.g., (R)-/(S)-propylene epoxide, 5) in frozen (10 K) solution. Differences in epoxide binding by enatiomers of [VO(1)] was evidenced by changes to the 1H epoxide derived peaks in the ENDOR spectra, such that (R,R)-[VO(1)] + (R)-5 and (R,R)-[VO(1)] + (S)-5 yield noticeably different spectra. These changes were assigned to the small structural differences between the diastereomeric metal-epoxide adducts. Simulation of the spectra revealed differences in the VO...1Hepoxide distances for the diastereomeric pairs, which was confirmed by a complementary set of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. While the epoxide molecule is very weakly coordinated, ENDOR measurements of the racemic complex in racemic epoxide nevertheless indicated the preferential coordination of the (R)-5 to (R,R)-[VO(1)] (likewise (S)-(5) to (S,S)-[VO(1)]), which is favored over the binding of (S)-5 epoxide to (R,R)-[VO(1)] (and likewise (R)-5 epoxide to (S,S)-[VO(1)]). This demonstrates the unique power of the ENDOR technique to resolve weak chiral interactions for which EPR spectroscopy alone lacks sufficient resolution.

  16. Acrylate in Phaeocystis colonies does not affect the surrounding bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordkamp, D. J. B.; Gieskes, W. W. C.; Gottschal, J. C.; Forney, L. J.; van Rijssel, M.

    2000-08-01

    Acrylate accumulates to concentrations of 1.3-6.5 mM in the mucus of Phaeocystis colonies and may have an effect on the surrounding bacterial community, either as an inhibitor or as a carbon source. Both in the field and in the laboratory, effects of acrylate on bacterial growth and on its consumption were investigated. During a Phaeocystis bloom, acrylate-consuming bacteria were found to be present (1% of total number counted by microscopy) and a 5-fold increase of the number of these bacteria was observed after the Phaeocystis bloom (4.9% of the total number counted by microscopy). Acrylate consumption rates were higher in filtered (≤20 μm) seawater samples than in unfiltered samples, indicating that particles larger than 20 μm, mostly Phaeocystis colonies, caused a reduction in the rate of acrylate consumption. This was not found when axenic Phaeocystis was added to an acrylate-consuming bacterium (strain AC-2) that had been isolated from the highest MPN dilution from field samples. Furthermore, we could not find a decrease in growth rates of the total bacterial community or of isolated strains in the presence of high acrylate concentrations (≤10 mM). In co-cultures of Phaeocystis and strain AC-2 we observed that the production of acrylate was not affected by the bacterium and that the consumption of acrylate by strain AC-2 was not affected by the presence of Phaeocystis. Acrylate concentrations in the mucous layer of the Phaeocystis colonies in those co-cultures were high (6.7-7.7 mM) and comparable with acrylate concentrations in the mucous layer of axenic Phaeocystis colonies. Acrylate seems to be sorbed to the mucus matrix of the colony and diffusion of acrylate out of this mucus matrix appears to be slow. Upon disruption of the colony skin acrylate was immediately solubilised from the mucus matrix.

  17. Biosynthesis, isolation, and NMR analysis of leukotriene A epoxides: substrate chirality as a determinant of the cis or trans epoxide configuration[S

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Zheng, Yuxiang; Boeglin, William E.; Brash, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT)A4 and closely related allylic epoxides are pivotal intermediates in lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways to bioactive lipid mediators that include the leukotrienes, lipoxins, eoxins, resolvins, and protectins. Although the structure and stereochemistry of the 5-LOX product LTA4 is established through comparison to synthetic standards, this is the exception, and none of these highly unstable epoxides has been analyzed in detail from enzymatic synthesis. Understanding of the mechanistic basis of the cis or trans epoxide configuration is also limited. To address these issues, we developed methods involving biphasic reaction conditions for the LOX-catalyzed synthesis of LTA epoxides in quantities sufficient for NMR analysis. As proof of concept, human 15-LOX-1 was shown to convert 15S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15S-HPETE) to the LTA analog 14S,15S-trans-epoxy-eicosa-5Z,8Z,10E,12E-tetraenoate, confirming the proposed structure of eoxin A4. Using this methodology we then showed that recombinant Arabidopsis AtLOX1, an arachidonate 5-LOX, converts 5S-HPETE to the trans epoxide LTA4 and converts 5R-HPETE to the cis epoxide 5-epi-LTA4, establishing substrate chirality as a determinant of the cis or trans epoxide configuration. The results are reconciled with a mechanism based on a dual role of the LOX nonheme iron in LTA epoxide biosynthesis, providing a rational basis for understanding the stereochemistry of LTA epoxide intermediates in LOX-catalyzed transformations. PMID:23242647

  18. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  19. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F; Mueller, André N; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  20. Cycloolefin effect in cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soon; Seo, Dong Chul; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Sang Wok; Kim, Sang Jin; Shin, Dae Hyeon; Shin, Jin Bong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2008-11-01

    One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low transmittance in COMA type copolymer most researchers were interested in developing of (meth)acryl type copolymer again for ArF photoresist. On the other hand, we have studied various polymer platforms suitable ArF photoresist except for meth(acryl) type copolymer. As a result of this study we had developed ROMA type polymers and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymers. Among the polymers cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer has many attractions such as etch roughness, resist reflow which needs low glass transition temperature and solvent solubility. In this study, we intend to find out cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer characteristics compared with (meth)acryl copolymer. And, we have tried to find out any differences between acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate type copolymer with various evaluation results. As a result of this study we are going to talk about the reason that the resist using acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer show good pattern profile while acrylate type copolymer show poor pattern profile. We also intend to explain the role of cycloolefin as a function of molecular weight variation and substitution ratio variation of cycloolefin in cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate resin.One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting.

  2. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  3. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase modulates inflammation and autophagy in obese adipose tissue and liver: role for omega-3 epoxides.

    PubMed

    López-Vicario, Cristina; Alcaraz-Quiles, José; García-Alonso, Verónica; Rius, Bibiana; Hwang, Sung H; Titos, Esther; Lopategi, Aritz; Hammock, Bruce D; Arroyo, Vicente; Clària, Joan

    2015-01-13

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an emerging therapeutic target in a number of diseases that have inflammation as a common underlying cause. sEH limits tissue levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxides derived from omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by converting these antiinflammatory mediators into their less active diols. Here, we explored the metabolic effects of a sEH inhibitor (t-TUCB) in fat-1 mice with transgenic expression of an omega-3 desaturase capable of enriching tissues with endogenous omega-3 PUFA. These mice exhibited increased CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP2U1 expression and abundant levels of the omega-3-derived epoxides 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic (19,20-EDP) in insulin-sensitive tissues, especially liver, as determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In obese fat-1 mice, t-TUCB raised hepatic 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP levels and reinforced the omega-3-dependent reduction observed in tissue inflammation and lipid peroxidation. t-TUCB also produced a more intense antisteatotic action in obese fat-1 mice, as revealed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Notably, t-TUCB skewed macrophage polarization toward an antiinflammatory M2 phenotype and expanded the interscapular brown adipose tissue volume. Moreover, t-TUCB restored hepatic levels of Atg12-Atg5 and LC3-II conjugates and reduced p62 expression, indicating up-regulation of hepatic autophagy. t-TUCB consistently reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress demonstrated by the attenuation of IRE-1α and eIF2α phosphorylation. These actions were recapitulated in vitro in palmitate-primed hepatocytes and adipocytes incubated with 19,20-EDP or 17,18-EEQ. Relatively similar but less pronounced actions were observed with the omega-6 epoxide, 14,15-EET, and nonoxidized DHA. Together, these findings identify omega-3 epoxides as important regulators of inflammation and autophagy in insulin-sensitive tissues and postulate sEH as a druggable target in metabolic

  4. Multiple Internal Reflections in Acrylic Triangle Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Setiawan, D.; Purwanto, H.; Yunianto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental study of light propagation in acrylic triangle waveguides has been studied theoretically and experimentally aimed to obtain a light cone which can tunnel and bring the light to a certain place. Numerical aperture of light cones which have a length of 7 cm but different cross-section area have been measured using he-Ne laser (λ=632 nm) and the results were compared to those obtained theoretically and no significant different was observed.

  5. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  6. Modeling the free radical polymerization of acrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Hakan; Salman, Seyhan; Tüzün, Nurcan Şenyurt; Avci, Duygu; Aviyente, Viktorya

    Acrylates have gained importance because of their ease of conversion to high-molecular-weight polymers and their broad industrial use. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a well-known monomer for free radical polymerization, but its α-methyl substituent restricts the chemical modification of the monomer and therefore the properties of the resulting polymer. The presence of a heteroatom in the methyl group is known to increase the polymerizability of MMA. Methyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (MHMA), methyl α-methoxymethylacrylate (MC1MA), methyl α-acetoxymethylacrylate (MAcMA) show even better conversions to high-molecular-weight polymers than MMA. In contrast, the polymerization rate is known to decrease as the methyl group is replaced by ethyl in ethyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (EHMA) and t-butyl in t-butyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (TBHMA). In this study, quantum mechanical tools (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in order to understand the mechanistic behavior of the free radical polymerization reactions of acrylates. The polymerization rates of MMA, MHMA, MC1MA, MAcMA, EHMA, TBHMA, MC1AN (α-methoxymethyl acrylonitrile), and MC1AA (α-methoxymethyl acrylic acid) have been evaluated and rationalized. Simple monomers such as allyl alcohol (AA) and allyl chloride (AC) have also been modeled for comparative purposes.

  7. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl‐Stabilised Ammonium Ylide‐Mediated Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The key factors for carbonyl‐stabilised ammonium ylide‐mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine‐based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions. PMID:27381752

  8. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  9. Inversion of product selectivity in an enzyme-inspired metallosupramolecular tweezer catalyzed epoxidation reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Ulmann, Pirmin A.; Braunschweig, Adam B.; Lee, One-Sun; Wiester, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a heteroligated, hemilabile PtII–P,S tweezer coordination complex that combines a chiral Jacobsen–Katsuki MnIII-salen epoxidation catalyst with an amidopyridine receptor, which leads to an inversion of the major epoxide product compared to catalysts without a recognition group. PMID:20448966

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides

    The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  11. Asymmetric Epoxidation: A Twinned Laboratory and Molecular Modeling Experiment for Upper-Level Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational…

  12. UV-curable polyurethane acrylate coatings with different acrylate monomers as reactive diluents

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeth, B.; Gerard, J.F.; Pascault, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two series of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) based on polycaprolactone (PCL), tetraxylylene diisocyanate (TMXDI), and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) or hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were studied. These ones were considered with different acrylates as reactive diluents. The effect of the chemical nature and functionality of the reactive diluents on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties (DMS) was investigated. From a thermodynamic point of view, the PUA seem to display a one phase structure by DMS. Nevertheless, the statistic heterogeneities due to the use of three monomers or more can explain the Tg values and the mechanical relaxations of the PUA. The Tg-onset of the PUA is slightly influenced by the nature of the reactive diluents but is dependent on the Tg of the oligomer confirming the description of the structure using a clusters model. The same conclusions could be done from the dynamic mechanical spectra of the PUA sandwiched and UV-cured between two glass plates.

  13. Structure-Potency Relationships for Epoxides in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur; Api, Anne Marie

    2017-02-20

    Epoxides are known or proposed to be involved in skin sensitization in various ways. Some are encountered directly, and others have been shown to be formed abiotically and metabolically from various unsaturated chemicals. They can react as SN2 electrophiles. To date no quantitative mechanistic models (QMMs) are known for skin sensitization potency of this subcategory of SN2 electrophiles. Here we have considered the reaction mechanistic chemistry of epoxides and combined published experimental kinetic data (rate constants k for reaction with a cysteine-based peptide) together with calculated hydrophobicity data (logP) to derive a QMM correlating potency in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), expressed as EC3, with a relative alkylation index (RAI, calculated as logk + 0.4 logP). The QMM equation, pEC3 = 2.42(±0.26) RAI + 4.04 (±0.25), n = 9, R(2) = 0.928, R(2)(adj) = 0.917, F = 90, s = 0.18, fits the data well, with one positive outlier. The outlier can be rationalized by its exhibiting an alert for oxidation of an amine moiety to give, in this case, the highly reactive glycidaldehyde. The epoxide QMM predicts the potency of a nonepoxide SN2 electrophile (predicted EC3, 0.48%; observed EC3, 0.5%), which suggests that it could form the basis for a more general H-polar SN2 QMM that could be a valuable tool in skin sensitization risk assessment for this quite extensive and structurally diverse reaction mechanistic domain.

  14. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  15. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  16. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  17. Detoxication of the 2',3'-epoxide metabolites of allylbenzene and estragole. Conjugation with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1994-01-01

    The enzymatic detoxication in vitro of the 2',3'-epoxide derivatives of allylbenzene and estragole was examined, and the relative rates of enzymatic glutathione conjugation and epoxide hydrolysis were compared with those for styrene 1',2'-oxide. HPLC was used to determine the amounts of dihydrodiol and glutathione conjugate metabolites formed by cell extracts from several sources. Although some differences among species were observed, in general, the rates of epoxide inactivation by both pathways are similar. We conclude that one explanation for the apparent lack of genotoxicity of these allylic epoxides in vivo may be their rapid metabolic inactivation by both glutathione S-transferases and epoxide hydrolases, which occur to approximately equal degrees in vitro.

  18. Direct epoxidation in Candida antarctica lipase B studied by experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Svedendahl, Maria; Carlqvist, Peter; Branneby, Cecilia; Allnér, Olof; Frise, Anton; Hult, Karl; Berglund, Per; Brinck, Tore

    2008-10-13

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is a promiscuous serine hydrolase that, besides its native function, catalyzes different side reactions, such as direct epoxidation. A single-point mutant of CALB demonstrated a direct epoxidation reaction mechanism for the epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes by hydrogen peroxide in aqueous and organic solution. Mutation of the catalytically active Ser105 to alanine made the previously assumed indirect epoxidation reaction mechanism impossible. Gibbs free energies, activation parameters, and substrate selectivities were determined both computationally and experimentally. The energetics and mechanism for the direct epoxidation in CALB Ser105Ala were investigated by density functional theory calculations, and it was demonstrated that the reaction proceeds through a two step-mechanism with formation of an oxyanionic intermediate. The active-site residue His224 functions as a general acid-base catalyst with support from Asp187. Oxyanion stabilization is facilitated by two hydrogen bonds from Thr40.

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of opioid receptor with morphine-7,8-oxide (morphine epoxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Takayanagi, I.; Shibata, R.; Miyata, N.; Hirobe, M.

    1982-05-01

    The opioid receptor mediating inhibitory action of morphine in the electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum was irreversibly photoinactivated by morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Morphine epoxide (up to 3 X 10(-5) M) did not influence the responses of rat vas deferens (epsilon-receptor) or rabbit vas deferens (kappa-receptor) to electrical stimulation. Effective concentrations of morphine epoxide were much lower in the guinea pig ileum (mu-receptor) than in the mouse vas deference (delta-receptor). The inhibitory action of (Met)-enkephalin on the twitch responses of the rat vas deferens and mouse vas deferens to electrical stimulation were not influenced after irradiation in the presence of morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Therefore, morphine epoxide is probably a useful probe for photoaffinity labeling of the mu-receptor in vitro.

  20. Catalysts for CO2/epoxide ring-opening copolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Trott, G.; Saini, P. K.; Williams, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes and reviews recent progress in the development of catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides. The copolymerization is an interesting method to add value to carbon dioxide, including from waste sources, and to reduce pollution associated with commodity polymer manufacture. The selection of the catalyst is of critical importance to control the composition, properties and applications of the resultant polymers. This review highlights and exemplifies some key recent findings and hypotheses, in particular using examples drawn from our own research. PMID:26755758

  1. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  2. Soybean aphids making their summer appearance early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two small, soft-bodied insects have begun showing up in South Dakota soybean. One is the soybean aphid, and the other is a mealybug. Soybean aphids are yellow to yellow/green and are usually found feeding on the underside of leaves. Incidence of soybean aphid has been a bit higher than typical fo...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  18. Selective inhibition and selective induction of multiple microsomal epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M

    1986-03-01

    The inhibition in vitro and induction in vivo of microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase have been studied. This microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity is distinguishable from the previously well-defined microsomal arene oxide hydrolase by a number of catalytic criteria. Two substituted chalcone oxides, 4-phenylchalcone oxide and 4'-phenylchalcone oxide, are potent inhibitors of microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase, but have no apparent activity against benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase. Conversely, compounds that are potent inhibitors of benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase, including styrene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, and trichloropropene oxide, inhibit microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase only at very high (millimolar) concentrations. The chalcone oxides inhibit microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase noncompetitively, and have micromolar or nanomolar affinity constants for the enzyme. Attempts were made to induce microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase in vivo. Compounds that induced microsomal benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase levels in mice did not simultaneously induce trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase levels. Clofibrate was an exception; it induced levels of both enzymes to a small but statistically significant degree. The two microsomal hydrolase activities have, therefore, very different catalytic sites and appear to be under separate genetic control. 4-Phenylchalcone oxide and 4'-phenylchalcone oxide are selective inhibitors of microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase and may prove to be very useful in assessing the involvement of this enzyme in the metabolism of endogenous or xenobiotic epoxides.

  19. Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have biotechnological potential in chiral chemistry. We report the cloning, purification, enzymatic activity, and conformational analysis of the TrEH gene from Trichoderma reesei strain QM9414 using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The EH gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, resulting in a molecular mass of 38.2kDa. The enzyme presents an optimum pH of 7.2, and it is highly active at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50°C and thermally inactivated at 70°C (t1/2=7.4min). The Michaelis constants (Km) were 4.6mM for racemic substrate, 21.7mM for (R)-(+)-styrene oxide and 3.0mM for (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The kcat/Km analysis indicated that TrEH is enantioselective and preferentially hydrolyzes (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The conformational stability studies suggested that, despite the extreme conditions (high temperatures and extremely acid and basic pHs), TrEH is able to maintain a considerable part of its regular structures, including the preservation of the native cores in some cases. The recombinant protein showed enantioselectivity that was distinct from other fungus EHs, making this protein a potential biotechnological tool.

  20. Peripheral FAAH and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors are synergistically antinociceptive.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Wagner, Karen; Morisseau, Christophe; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-07-01

    We need better medicines to control acute and chronic pain. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) catalyze the deactivating hydrolysis of two classes of bioactive lipid mediators--fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) and epoxidized fatty acids (EpFAs), respectively--which are biogenetically distinct but share the ability to attenuate pain responses and inflammation. In these experiments, we evaluated the antihyperalgesic activity of small-molecule inhibitors of FAAH and sEH, administered alone or in combination, in two pain models: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in mice and streptozocin-induced allodynia in rats. When administered separately, the sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidine-4-yl)urea (TPPU) and the peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitor URB937 were highly active in the two models. The combination TPPU plus URB937 was markedly synergistic, as assessed using isobolographic analyses. The results of these experiments reveal the existence of a possible functional crosstalk between FAEs and EpFAs in regulating pain responses. Additionally, the results suggest that combinations of sEH and FAAH inhibitors might be exploited therapeutically to achieve greater analgesic efficacy.

  1. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Bing; Rueter, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  2. CRYSTALLINE SOYBEAN TRYPSIN INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the general properties of crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. The soy inhibitor is a stable protein of the globulin type of a molecular weight of about 24,000. Its isoelectric point is at pH 4.5. It inhibits the proteolytic action approximately of an equal weight of crystalline trypsin by combining with trypsin to form a stable compound. Chymotrypsin is only slightly inhibited by soy inhibitor. The reaction between chymotrypsin and the soy inhibitor consists in the formation of a reversibly dissociable compound. The inhibitor has no effect on pepsin. The inhibiting action of the soybean inhibitor is associated with the native state of the protein molecule. Denaturation of the soy protein by heat or acid or alkali brings about a proportional decrease in its inhibiting action on trypsin. Reversal of denaturation results in a proportional gain in the inhibiting activity. Crystalline soy protein when denatured is readily digestible by pepsin, and less readily by chymotrypsin and by trypsin. Methods are given for measuring trypsin and inhibitor activity and also protein concentration with the aid of spectrophotometric density measurements at 280 mµ. PMID:19873496

  3. Improved Acrylic Systems for Rapid Runway Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Concrete * Fast-Setting Concrete N Acrylic Polymer Research * 1 k UST mACV lC@ea. ON -- -0 - OW. 00....Y d*Ip OF 40 domb) The objectives of this...available to the general public, including foreign nationals. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. DANIEL J. PIERRE, Capt...resins. The aggregate and resin might be premixed for placement or (as in the research reported herein) the cap might be formed by percolation of liquid

  4. Ocean Engineering Studies. Volume 1. Acrylic Submersibles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    the tie rods is larger than the forces applied to the hatch system P ..eYe during lifting, the joints in the acrylic plastic hull will never be...and MI L- P -21 I 05C materials. 22 elastomeric spacers to _______ allow free contraction . of the hull under pressure topper cape ring u~.Chairs...to tie rods Clearance between fi..forrgdyatce and hull to allow free con. to support frame traction of bull under p ensur *oft support frame rigidly

  5. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  6. Exported Epoxide Hydrolases Modulate Erythrocyte Vasoactive Lipids during Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalmia, Varun K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythrocytes are reservoirs of important epoxide-containing lipid signaling molecules, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs function as vasodilators and anti-inflammatory modulators in the bloodstream. Bioactive EETs are hydrolyzed to less active diols (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids) by epoxide hydrolases (EHs). The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects host red blood cells (RBCs) and exports hundreds of proteins into the RBC compartment. In this study, we show that two parasite epoxide hydrolases, P. falciparum epoxide hydrolases 1 (PfEH1) and 2 (PfEH2), both with noncanonical serine nucleophiles, are exported to the periphery of infected RBCs. PfEH1 and PfEH2 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and they hydrolyzed physiologically relevant erythrocyte EETs. Mutations in active site residues of PfEH1 ablated the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze an epoxide substrate. Overexpression of PfEH1 or PfEH2 in parasite-infected RBCs resulted in a significant alteration in the epoxide fatty acids stored in RBC phospholipids. We hypothesize that the parasite disruption of epoxide-containing signaling lipids leads to perturbed vascular function, creating favorable conditions for binding and sequestration of infected RBCs to the microvascular endothelium. PMID:27795395

  7. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  9. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins... and acrylic acid, with the greater part of the polymer being composed of acrylamide units. (2) Sodium... sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, with the greater part of the polymer being composed...

  10. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  13. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  14. Hydration of arene and alkene oxides by epoxide hydrase in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kapitulnik, J; Levin, W; Morecki, R; Dansette, P M; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1977-02-01

    The comparative hydration of styrene 7,8-oxide, octene 1,2-oxide, naphthalene 1,2-oxide, phenanthrene 9,10-oxide, benzo[a]anthracene 5,6-oxide, 3-methylcholanthrene 11,12-oxide, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene 5,6-oxide, and benzo[a, 7,8-, 9,10-, and 11,12-oxides to their respective dihydrodiols was investigated in microsomes from nine human autopsy livers. The substrate specificity of the epoxide hydrase in human liver microsomes was very similar to that of the epoxide hydrase in rat liver microsomes. Phenanthrene 9,10-oxide was the best substrate for the human and rat epoxide hydrases and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene 5,6-oxide and benzo[a-a)pyrene 11, 12-oxide were the poorest substrates. Plotting epoxide hydrase activity obtained with one substrate against epoxide hydrase activity for another substrate for each of the nine human livers revealed excellent correlations for all combinations of the 11 substrates studied (r = 0.87 to 0.99). The data suggest the presence in human liver of a single epoxide hydrase with broad substrate specificity. However, the results do not exclude the possible presence in human liver of several epoxide hydrases that are under similar regulatory control. These results suggest the need for further investigation to determine whether there is a safe epoxide of a drug whose in vivo metabolism is predictive of the capacity of different individuals to metabolize a wide variety of epoxides of drugs and environmental chemicals.

  15. Mechanism of olefin epoxidation in the presence of a titanium-containing zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danov, S. M.; Krasnov, V. L.; Sulimov, A. V.; Ovcharova, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the nature of a solvent on the liquid-phase epoxidation of olefins with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide over a titanium-containing zeolite is studied. Butanol-1, butanol-2, propanol-1, isopropanol, methanol, ethanol, water, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, isobutanol, and tert-butanol are examined as solvents. A mechanism of olefin epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide in an alcohol medium over a titanium-containing zeolite is proposed. Epoxidation reactions involving hydrogen peroxide and different olefins are studied experimentally.

  16. First-Principles Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Methyl trans-3-Hexenoate Epoxidation by HO2.

    PubMed

    Cagnina, S; Nicolle, A; de Bruin, T; Georgievskii, Y; Klippenstein, S J

    2017-03-09

    The design of innovative combustion processes relies on a comprehensive understanding of biodiesel oxidation kinetics. The present study aims at unraveling the reaction mechanism involved in the epoxidation of a realistic biodiesel surrogate, methyl trans-3-hexenoate, by hydroperoxy radicals using a bottom-up theoretical kinetics methodology. The obtained rate constants are in good agreement with experimental data for alkene epoxidation by HO2. The impact of temperature and pressure on epoxidation pathways involving H-bonded and non-H-bonded conformers was assessed. The obtained rate constant was finally implemented into a state-of-the-art detailed combustion mechanism, resulting in fairly good agreement with engine experiments.

  17. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay.

  18. Reactive compatibilization of PBT/ABS blends by methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate terpolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Wesley Raymond

    The impact resistance of poly(butylene terephthalate), PBT, has been improved by blending with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymers, ABS, as a minor dispersed phase; however, extensive coarsening of the dispersed phase in the blends occurs under certain heat fabrication conditions. The incorporation of certain reactive polymers (compatibilizers) that are miscible with the styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) matrix of ABS should result in more stable morphologies. Terpolymers of methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), ethyl acrylate, MGE, are effective as reactive compatibilizers for blends of PBT with SAN and ABS materials. The epoxide groups of MGE react with the carboxyl endgroups of PBT to form a MGE-g-PBT graft copolymer at the PBT/SAN interface to provide improved SAN or ABS dispersion, morphological stability, and a broadening of the melt processing window. Additionally, compatibilization produces large improvements in the low temperature fracture toughness of PBT/ABS blends; however, the toughness depends on the order of mixing blend components due to crosslinking reactions involving the epoxide groups of MGE catalyzed by residual acids present in some emulsion-made ABS materials. The PBT, ABS, and MGE type, content, and composition have been examined to evaluate their effects on the mechanical and morphological properties of PBT/ABS blends. Additionally, the effects of different processing conditions have been examined. High PBT melt viscosity is desirable for improving ABS dispersion and low temperature toughness of the blends. Generally, ABS materials with a high rubber content and low melt viscosity are desirable for toughening PBT. Moderate amounts of GMA in the blend were found to significantly improve blend properties. Melt blending can be performed using a variety of equipment; however, a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder is the most effective for producing blends with excellent properties. The fracture properties of PBT

  19. Epoxidation reactions of unsaturated fatty esters with potassium peroxomonosulfate.

    PubMed

    Lie Ken Jie, M S; Pasha, M K

    1998-06-01

    Epoxidation of the double bond in methyl oleate, octadec-11E-en-9-ynoate, ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadec-9Z-enoate), iso-ricinoleate (9-hydroxy-octadec-12Z-enoate), and 12-oxo-octadec-9Z-enoate with potassium peroxomonosulfate (oxone, 2 KHSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) in the presence of trifluoroacetone or methyl pyruvate gave the corresponding monoepoxy derivatives. Reaction of Oxone with methyl linoleate and octadeca-9Z,11E-dienoate furnished the corresponding diepoxystearate derivative. Methyl 9,12-dioxo-octadec-10Z-enoate was obtained when a C18 furanoid fatty ester (methyl 9,12-epoxy-9,11-octadecadienoate) was treated with Oxone. The yield of these reactions was very high (85-99%), and the epoxy derivatives were readily isolated by solvent extraction. The products were identified by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P

    2004-06-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) recycles reduced vitamin K, which is used subsequently as a co-factor in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in blood coagulation enzymes. VKORC1, a subunit of the VKOR complex, has recently been shown to possess this activity. Here, we show that VKORC1 is a member of a large family of predicted enzymes that are present in vertebrates, Drosophila, plants, bacteria and archaea. Four cysteine residues and one residue, which is either serine or threonine, are identified as likely active-site residues. In some plant and bacterial homologues the VKORC1 homologous domain is fused with domains of the thioredoxin family of oxidoreductases. These might reduce disulfide bonds of VKORC1-like enzymes as a prerequisite for their catalytic activities.

  1. Cesium promotion in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Gorin, Craig F; Madix, Robert J

    2010-01-20

    The adsorption of a small amount of cesium on Ag(110) redirects the partial oxidation products of styrene from phenylacetaldehyde and phenylketene to styrene oxide. The cesium stabilizes the oxametallacycle intermediate and hinders its transformation to the intermediate that leads to the other products. Cesium does not appear to create any electronic effects on the bonding of the intermediates. Low coverages of cesium induce a (1 x 2) missing-row reconstruction of the entire clean Ag(110) surface and a (3 x 5) surface oxide structure on the cesium-reconstructed Ag(110) surface. This (3 x 5)-ordered surface oxide is superimposed on the Ag(111) microfacets produced by the cesium-induced reconstruction, which leads to selectivity and reactivity very similar to those of the extended (111) surface. These studies provide insight into the microscopic origins of the structural effects of cesium in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

  2. Characteristics of polyaniline cobalt supported catalysts for epoxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established.

  3. Characteristics of Polyaniline Cobalt Supported Catalysts for Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established. PMID:24701183

  4. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  5. Ab initio study of acrylate polymerization reactions: methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate propagation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinrui; Pfaendtner, Jim; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2008-07-24

    The kinetic parameters of the free radical propagation of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate have been calculated using quantum chemistry and transition state theory. Multiple density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to calculate the activation energy, and it was found that MPWB1K/6-31G(d,p) yields results that are in very good agreement with experimental data. To obtain values of the kinetic parameters that were in the best agreement with experimental data, low frequencies were treated using a one-dimensional internal rotor model. Chain length effects were also explored by examining addition reactions of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric radicals to monomer for both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate. The results show that the values for the addition of the trimeric radical to monomer are closest to experimental data. The kinetic parameters that were calculated using a continuum description of the monomer as a solvent were not significantly different from the vacuum results.

  6. Detoxication strategy of epoxide hydrolase-the basis for a novel threshold for definable genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Oesch, Franz; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Arand, Michael

    2004-01-01

    From our recent work on the three-dimensional structure of epoxide hydrolases we theoretically deduced the likelihood of a two-step catalytic mechanism that we and others have subsequently experimentally confirmed. Analysis of the rate of the two steps by us and by others show that the first step-responsible for removal of the reactive epoxide from the system-works extraordinarily fast (typically three orders of magnitude faster than the second step), sucking up the epoxide like a sponge. Regeneration of the free enzyme (the second step of the catalytic mechanism) is slow. This becomes a toxicological problem only at doses of the epoxide that titrate the enzyme out. Our genotoxicity work shows that indeed this generates a practical threshold below which no genotoxicity is observed. This shows that-contrary to old dogma-practical thresholds exist for definable genotoxic carcinogens.

  7. A Computational Study of Acid Catalyzed Aerosol Reactions of Atmospherically Relevant Epoxides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epoxides are important intermediates of atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Their subsequent reactions in the particle phase lead to the production of organic compounds detected in ambient aerosols. We apply density functional theory to determine the important kinetic factors that ...

  8. The Role of Long Chain Fatty Acids and Their Epoxide Metabolites in Nociceptive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karen; Vito, Steve; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid derived mediators contribute to inflammation and the sensing of pain. The contributions of omega-6 derived prostanoids in enhancing inflammation and pain sensation are well known. Less well explored are the opposing anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the omega-6 derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Far less has been described about the epoxidized metabolites derived from omega-3 long chain fatty acids. The epoxide metabolites are turned over rapidly with enzymatic hydrolysis by the soluble epoxide hydrolase being the major elimination pathway. Despite this, the overall understanding of the role of lipid mediators in the pathology of chronic pain is growing. Here we review the role of long chain fatty acids and their metabolites in alleviating both acute and chronic pain conditions. We focus specifically on the epoxidized metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 long chain fatty acids as well as a novel strategy to modulate their activity in vivo. PMID:25240260

  9. Poly(monothiocarbonate)s from the Alternating and Regioselective Copolymerization of Carbonyl Sulfide with Epoxides.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Zhang, Xing-Hong; Darensbourg, Donald J

    2016-10-18

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an air pollutant that causes acid rain, ozonosphere damage, and carbon dioxide (CO2) generation. It is a heterocumulene and structural analogue of CO2. Relevant to organic synthesis, it is a source of C═O or C═S groups and thus an ideal one-carbon (C1) building block for synthesizing sulfur-containing polymers through the similar route of CO2 copolymerization. In contrast, traditional synthesis of sulfur-containing polymers often involves the condensation of thiols with phosgene and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic thiocarbonates that are generally derived from thiols and phosgene; thus, COS/epoxide copolymerization is a "greener" route to supplement or supplant current processes for the production of sulfur-containing polymers. This Accounts highlights our efforts on the discovery of the selective formation of poly(monothiocarbonate)s from COS with epoxides via heterogeneous zinc-cobalt double metal cyanide complex (Zn-Co(III) DMCC) and homogeneous (salen)CrX complexes. The catalytic activity and selectivity of Zn-Co(III) DMCC for COS/epoxide copolymerization are similar to those for CO2/epoxide copolymerization. (salen)CrX complexes accompanied by onium salts exhibited high activity and selectivity for COS/epoxide copolymerization under mild conditions, affording copolymers with >99% monothiocarbonate units and high tail-to-head content up to 99%. By way of contrast, these catalysts often show moderate or low activity for CO2/epoxide copolymerization. Of note, a specialty of COS/epoxide copolymerization is the occurrence of an oxygen-sulfur exchange reaction (O/S ER), which may produce carbonate and dithiocarbonate units. O/S ER, which are induced by the metal-OH bond regenerated by chain transfer reactions, can be kinetically inhibited by changing the reaction conditions. We provide a thorough mechanistic understanding of the electronic/steric effect of the catalysts on the regioselectivity of COS copolymerization. The

  10. Synthesis and Characteristics of Radiation Curable Polyurethanes Containing Pendant Acrylate Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-09

    the mechanical properties of electron beam . cured acrylated polyester urethanes based on toluene diisocyanate(TDI) and hydroxyethyl - methacrylate ( HEMA ...acrylate or methacrylate pendant groups are can- didates for radiation sensitive solid polymers since the acrylate groups may undergo crosslinking...acrylate com- 4ponents. Toluene diisocyanate - hydroxyethylmethacrylate (TDI- HEMA ) or isophorone diisocyanate - hydroxylethylmethacrylate (IPDI-HEHA

  11. Chloroplast Ultrastructure, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Pigment Composition in Chilling-Stressed Soybeans 1

    PubMed Central

    Musser, Robert L.; Thomas, Shirley A.; Wise, Robert R.; Peeler, Thomas C.; Naylor, Aubrey W.

    1984-01-01

    Shoots of 16-day-old soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ransom) were chilled to 10°C for 7 days and monitored for visible signs of damage, ultrastructural changes, perturbations in fluorescence of chlorophyll (Chl), and quantitative changes in Chl a and b and associated pigments. Precautions were taken to prevent the confounding effects of water stress. A technique for the separation of lutein and zeaxanthin was developed utilizing a step gradient with the high performance liquid chromatograph. Visible losses in Chl were detectable within the first day of chilling, and regreening did not occur until the shoots were returned to 25°C. Ultrastructurally, unstacking of chloroplast grana occurred, and the envelope membranes developed protrusions. Furthermore, the lipids were altered to the point that the membranes were poorly stabilized by a glutaraldehyde/osmium double-fixation procedure. Chl fluorescence rates were greatly reduced within 2 hours after chilling began and returned to normal only after rewarming. The rapid loss of Chl that occurred during chilling was accompanied by the appearance of zeaxanthin and a decline in violaxanthin. Apparently a zeaxanthin-violaxanthin epoxidation/de-epoxidation cycle was operating. When only the roots were chilled, no substantial changes were detected in ultrastructure, fluorescence rates, or pigment levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663504

  12. Chemical Reaction of Soybean Flavonoids with DNA: A Computational Study Using the Implicit Solvent Model

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Hassan H.; Mavri, Janez; Repič, Matej; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Wahab, Habibah A.

    2012-01-01

    Genistein, daidzein, glycitein and quercetin are flavonoids present in soybean and other vegetables in high amounts. These flavonoids can be metabolically converted to more active forms, which may react with guanine in the DNA to form complexes and can lead to DNA depurination. We assumed two ultimate carcinogen forms of each of these flavonoids, diol epoxide form and diketone form. Density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods were used to study the reaction thermodynamics between active forms of flavonoids and DNA guanine. Solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevin dipoles method of Florian and Warshel were used to calculate the hydration free energies. Activation free energy for each reaction was estimated using the linear free energy relation. Our calculations show that diol epoxide forms of flavonoids are more reactive than the corresponding diketone forms and are hence more likely flavonoid ultimate carcinogens. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein show comparable reactivity while quercetin is less reactive toward DNA. PMID:22408390

  13. A domino ring-opening/epoxidation of 1,2-dioxines.

    PubMed

    Greatrex, Ben W; Taylor, Dennis K; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2004-04-02

    When allowed to react with alkaline hydrogen peroxide, monocyclic 1,2-dioxines ring-open to their isomeric gamma-hydroxyenone intermediates which are rapidly epoxidized to afford trans-4-hydroxy-2,3-epoxyketones in 21-81% yield. In the case of meso-1,2-dioxines, Co(II) complex catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening of the 1,2-dioxine may be employed to furnish enantioenriched epoxides

  14. Hydroxyl-Substituted Ladder Polyethers via Selective Tandem Epoxidation/Cyclization Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Czabaniuk, Lara C.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    A new and highly selective method for the synthesis of hydroxyl-substituted tetrahydropyrans is described. This method utilizes titanium(IV) iso-propoxide and diethyl tartrate to perform a diastereoselective epoxidation followed by in situ epoxide activation and highly selective endo-cyclization to form the desired tetrahydropyran ring. The HIJ ring fragment of the marine ladder polyether yessotoxin was synthesized using this two-stage tactic that proceeds with high efficiency and excellent regioselectivity. PMID:25647091

  15. Mechanistic investigation leads to a synthetic improvement in the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars P C; Stevenson, Christian P; Blackmond, Donna G; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2004-02-11

    The mechanism of the hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of terminal epoxides was investigated by kinetic analysis using reaction calorimetry. The chiral (salen)Co-X complex (X = OAc, OTs, Cl) undergoes irreversible conversion to (salen)Co-OH during the course of the HKR and thus serves as both precatalyst and cocatalyst in a cooperative bimetallic catalytic mechanism. This insight led to the identification of more active catalysts for the HKR of synthetically useful terminal epoxides.

  16. Hydroxyl-substituted ladder polyethers via selective tandem epoxidation/cyclization sequence.

    PubMed

    Czabaniuk, Lara C; Jamison, Timothy F

    2015-02-20

    A new and highly selective method for the synthesis of hydroxyl-substituted tetrahydropyrans is described. This method utilizes titanium(IV) isopropoxide and diethyl tartrate to perform a diastereoselective epoxidation followed by in situ epoxide activation and highly selective endo-cyclization to form the desired tetrahydropyran ring. The HIJ ring fragment of the marine ladder polyether yessotoxin was synthesized using this two-stage tactic that proceeds with high efficiency and excellent regioselectivity.

  17. Opening of Aryl-Substituted Epoxides to form Quaternary Stereogenic Centers: Synthesis of (−)-Mesembrine

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; He, Yigang

    2011-01-01

    Cycloalkanones are easily converted into aryl-substituted cyclic alkenes by the addition of an aryl Grignard reagent followed by dehydration. These alkenes are good substrates for asymmetric epoxidation. We have found that the addition of allylic and benzylic Grignard reagents can occur preferentially at the benzylic position of the derived epoxides, to give the quaternary stereogenic center. This approach led to a short synthesis of the nanomolar serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (−)-mesembrine. PMID:16149803

  18. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  19. Flexible, stretchable electroadhesives based on acrylic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duduta, Mihai; Wood, Robert J.; Clarke, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Controllable adhesion is a requirement for a wide variety of applications including robotic manipulation, as well as locomotion including walking, crawling and perching. Electroadhesives have several advantages such as reversibility, low power consumption and controllability based on applied voltage. Most demonstrations of electroadhesive devices rely on fairly rigid materials, which cannot be stretched reversibly, as needed in some applications. We have developed a fast and reliable method for building soft, stretchable electroadhesive pads based on acrylic elastomers and electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The devices produced were tested pre-deformation and in a stretched configuration. The adhesive force was determined to be in the 0.1 - 3.0 N/cm2 range, depending on the adhering surface. The electroadhesive devices were integrated with pre-stretched dielectric elastomer actuators to create a device in which the adhesion force could be tuned by changes in either the applied voltage or total area.

  20. Registration of three soybean germplasm lines resistant to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.]. Development of rust resistant lines is one objective of many soybean breeding programs. Three soybean germplasm lines esignated as TGx 1987-76F (Reg. No. xxx, PI 6577...

  1. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  2. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Thomas; Erpelding, Michael; Schmid, Josef; Chin, Andrew; Sammons, Rhea; Rockafellow, Erin

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  3. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated acrylate salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2014-09-09

    A method for synthesizing a deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1), the method comprising: (i) deuterating a propiolate compound of Formula (2) to a methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in the presence of a base and D.sub.2O: and (ii) reductively deuterating the methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in a reaction solvent in the presence of deuterium gas and a palladium-containing catalyst to afford the deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1). The resulting deuterated acrylate compounds, derivatives thereof, and polymers derived therefrom are also described.

  4. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  5. Epoxidation of Short-Chain Alkenes by Resting-Cell Suspensions of Propane-Grown Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ching T.; Patel, Ramesh; Laskin, Allen I.; Barnabe, Nancy; Barist, Irene

    1983-01-01

    Sixteen new cultures of propane-utilizing bacteria were isolated from lake water from Warinanco Park, Linden, N.J. and from lake and soil samples from Bayway Refinery, Linden, N.J. In addition, 19 known cultures obtained from culture collections were also found to be able to grow on propane as the sole carbon and energy source. In addition to their ability to oxidize n-alkanes, resting-cell suspensions of both new cultures and known cultures grown on propane oxidize short-chain alkenes to their corresponding 1,2-epoxides. Among the substrate alkenes, propylene was oxidized at the highest rate. In contrast to the case with methylotrophic bacteria, the product epoxides are further metabolized. Propane and other gaseous n-alkanes inhibit the epoxidation of propylene. The optimum conditions for in vivo epoxidation are described. Results from inhibition studies indicate that a propane monooxygenase system catalyzes both the epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions. Experiments with cell-free extracts show that both hydroxylation and epoxidation activities are located in the soluble fraction obtained after 80,000 × g centrifugation. PMID:16346338

  6. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-02-01

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  7. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  8. Soybean, a promising health source.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein, it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fibre and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. The interest in this legume has increased because of its functional components. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fibre. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.

  9. Diseases of Soybean and Their Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is the sole domesticated member of the approximately 20 known Glycine spp. It is the most important oilseed crop worldwide. FAO has estimated that 180.4 x 106 t soybeans were produced on 79.7 x 106 ha worldwide in 2001-2003. An average loss of global soybean production due to disease has bee...

  10. Tilling to detect induced mutations in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world’s protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations...

  11. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics.

  12. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  13. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  14. Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers for cement fluid loss control

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, L.F.; McElfresh, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers are considered as effective fluid loss control additives in a wide range of oil well cements. Unlike HEC based fluid loss aditives, these copolymers can be used with calcium chloride accelerator without significantly influencing fluid loss control. Another advantage of the copolymers is that the amount of fluid loss for a given concentration of polymer remains relatively constant over a wide range of temperatures. The use of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers has generally been restricted to wells below 60 degree C BHCT. Above that temperature chemical changes in the copolymer often lead to retardation of the cement. This paper presents data related to the use of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers as fluid loss control agents in oil well cementing. A comparison of these polymers with HEC based fluid loss control additives is made. In addition, data related to the cause of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymer retarding effects is presented. 4 refs.

  15. Thermophysical properties of fluorinated acrylate homopolymers: Mixing and phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, F.; Saidi, S.; Guittard, F.; Geribaldi, S.

    2002-06-01

    The thermophysical properties of fluorinated acrylate homopolymers are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical microscopy and discussed in terms of relative lengths of the fluorinated chain and the hydrocarbon spacer between the acrylate moiety and the fluorinated chain. These compounds exhibit an intrinsic microphase-separation (Isotropic+Isotropic morphology) occurring between the fluorinated chains and the acrylate polymer backbone. It is shown that the enthalpy of mixing is a function of the length of the lateral fluorocarbon chains. The thermophysical behaviour of these materials may be regarded as demixed systems exhibiting an Upper Critical Solution Temperature. The photopolymerization process of one of the monomer is studied by isothermal photocalorimetry. High acrylate double-bond conversion and fast curing rates were obtained thus demonstrating the promising use of these materials for coating and film processing applications using UV-curing techniques.

  16. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

  17. Epoxidation Activities of Human Cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 enzymes epoxidize unsaturated substrates, but this activity has not been described for the steroid hydroxylases. Physiologic steroid substrates, however, lack carbon–carbon double bonds in the parts of the pregnane molecules where steroidogenic hydroxylations occur. Limited data on the reactivity of steroidogenic P450s toward olefinic substrates exist, and the study of occult activities toward alternative substrates is a fundamental aspect of the growing field of combinatorial biosynthesis. We reasoned that human P450c17 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, CYP17A1), which 17- and 16α-hydroxylates progesterone, might catalyze the formation of the 16α,17-epoxide from 16,17-dehydroprogesterone (pregna-4,16-diene-3,20-dione). CYP17A1 catalyzed the novel 16α,17-epoxidation and the ordinarily minor 21-hydroxylation of 16,17-dehydroprogesterone in a 1:1 ratio. CYP17A1 mutation A105L, which has reduced progesterone 16α-hydroxylase activity, gave a 1:5 ratio of epoxide:21-hydroxylated products. In contrast, human P450c21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase, CYP21A2) converted 16,17-dehydroprogesterone to the 21-hydroxylated product and only a trace of epoxide. CYP21A2 mutation V359A, which has significant 16α-hydroxylase activity, likewise afforded the 21-hydroxylated product and slightly more epoxide. CYP17A1 wild-type and mutation A105L do not 21- or 16α-hydroxylate pregnenolone, but the enzymes 21-hydroxylated and 16α,17-epoxidized 16,17-dehydropregnenolone (pregna-5,16-diene-3β-ol-20-one) in 4:1 or 12:1 ratios, respectively. Catalase and superoxide dismutase did not prevent epoxide formation. The progesterone epoxide was not a time-dependent, irreversible CYP17A1 inhibitor. Our substrate modification studies have revealed occult epoxidase and 21-hydroxylase activities of CYP17A1, and the fraction of epoxide formed correlated with the 16α-hydroxylase activity of the enzymes. PMID:25386927

  18. Impact of Stereochemistry on Ligand Binding: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Epoxide-Based HIV Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabio; Berti, Federico; Campaner, Pietro; Fanfoni, Lidia; Demitri, Nicola; Olajuyigbe, Folasade M; De March, Matteo; Geremia, Silvano

    2014-09-11

    A new pseudopeptide epoxide inhibitor, designed for irreversible binding to HIV protease (HIV-PR), has been synthesized and characterized in solution and in the solid state. However, the crystal structure of the complex obtained by inhibitor-enzyme cocrystallization revealed that a minor isomer, with inverted configuration of the epoxide carbons, has been selected by HIV-PR during crystallization. The structural characterization of the well-ordered pseudopeptide, inserted in the catalytic channel with its epoxide group intact, provides deeper insights into inhibitor binding and HIV-PR stereoselectivity, which aids development of future epoxide-based HIV inhibitors.

  19. Fabrication of interim acrylic resin removable partial dentures with clasps.

    PubMed

    Reitz, P V; Weiner, M G

    1978-12-01

    An orderly sequence of steps for construction of an interim acrylic resin partial denture has been presented. The technique allows the dentist to fabricate an effective restoration that has a definite path of insertion and removal that can be placed in the patient's mouth with little time spent on adjustment and correction. This technique may be used with heat- or cold-curing acrylic resin.

  20. Poly(meth)acrylates obtained by cascade reaction.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Dragos; Keul, Helmut; Moeller, Martin

    2011-04-04

    Preparation, purification, and stabilization of functional (meth)acrylates with a high dipole moment are complex, laborious, and expensive processes. In order to avoid purification and stabilization of the highly reactive functional monomers, a concept of cascade reactions was developed comprising enzymatic monomer synthesis and radical polymerization. Transacylation of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with different functional alcohols, diols, and triols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and glycerol) in the presence of Novozyme 435 led to functional (meth)acrylates. After the removal of the enzyme by means of filtration, removal of excess (meth)acrylate and/or addition of a new monomer, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate the (co)polymerization via free radical (FRP) or nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP) resulted in poly[(meth)acrylate]s with predefined functionalities. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as ionic repeating units were assembled within the copolymer. The transacylation of MA and MMA with diols and triols carried out under mild conditions is an easy and rapid process and is suitable for the preparation of sensitive monomers.

  1. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  2. Final Report: Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Surface Oxametallacycles - Connections to Heterogeneous Olefin Epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Barteau

    2009-09-15

    This project has aimed at the rational design of catalysts for direct epoxidation of olefins. This chemistry remains one of the most challenging problems in heterogeneous catalysis. Although the epoxidation of ethylene by silver catalysts to form ethylene oxide (EO) has been practiced for decades, little progress has been made in expanding this technology to other products and processes. We have made significant advances through the combination of surface science experiments, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, and catalytic reactor experiments, toward understanding the mechanism of this reaction on silver catalysts, and to the rational improvement of selectivity. The key has been our demonstration of surface oxametallacycle intermediates as the species that control reaction selectivity. This discovery permits the influence of catalyst promoters on selectivity to be probed, and new catalyst formulations to be developed. It also guides the development of new chemistry with potential for direct epoxidation of more complex olefins. During the award period we have focused on 1. the formation and reaction selectivity of complex olefin epoxides on silver surfaces, and 2. the influence of co-adsorbed oxygen atoms on the reactions of surface oxametallacycles on silver, and 3. the computational prediction, synthesis, characterization and experimental evaluation of bimetallic catalysts for ethylene epoxidation. The significance of these research thrusts is as follows. Selective epoxidation of olefins more complex than ethylene requires suppression of not only side reactions available to the olefin such as C-H bond breaking, but it requires formation and selective ring closure of the corresponding oxametallacycle intermediates. The work carried out under this grant has significantly advanced the field of catalyst design from first principles. The combination of computational tools, surface science, and catalytic reactor experiments in a single laboratory has few

  3. Epoxide-mediated differential packaging of Cif and other virulence factors into outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ballok, Alicia E; Filkins, Laura M; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a number of secreted bacterial proteins, including phospholipases, alkaline phosphatase, and the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Previously, Cif, an epoxide hydrolase, was shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by epoxides, which serve as ligands of the repressor, CifR. Here, we tested whether epoxides have an effect on Cif levels in OMVs. We showed that growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of specific epoxides but not a hydrolysis product increased Cif packaging into OMVs in a CifR-independent fashion. The outer membrane protein, OprF, was also increased under these conditions, but alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly altered. Additionally, we demonstrated that OMV shape and density were affected by epoxide treatment, with two distinct vesicle fractions present when cells were treated with epibromohydrin (EBH), a model epoxide. Vesicles isolated from the two density fractions exhibited different protein profiles in Western blotting and silver staining. We have shown that a variety of clinically or host-relevant treatments, including antibiotics, also alter the proteins packaged in OMVs. Proteomic analysis of purified OMVs followed by an analysis of transposon mutant OMVs yielded mutants with altered vesicle packaging. Finally, epithelial cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the vesicles formed in the presence of EBH, suggesting that this epoxide alters the function of the OMVs. Our data support a model whereby clinically or host-relevant signals mediate differential packaging of virulence factors in OMVs, which results in functional consequences for host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Patulin biosynthesis: Epoxidation of toluquinol and gentisyl alcohol by particulate preparations from Penicillium patulum

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, J.W.; Light, R.J. )

    1989-11-14

    A crude extract that catalyzes the epoxidation of toluquinol and gentisyl alcohol was isolated from cultures of Penicillium patulum. About 60% of the activity sedimented from crude extract upon centrifugation at 105000g for 2 h, and at 30000g for 30 min after precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate and resuspension in buffer. The quinone epoxide phyllostine, a product of gentisyl alcohol epoxidation, has previously been shown to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of patulin and was shown to be further converted to neopatulin by the extract. The epoxide product of toluquinol, desoxyphyllostine (2-methyl-5,6-epoxy-1,4-benzoquinone), has not been reported previously from fungal cultures. Its structure was confirmed by GC-mass spectrometry and proton and {sup 13}C NMR. Its CD spectrum showed the same shape and signs as that of phyllostine, indicating that it too is an enzymatic product with a similar absolute configuration. Whereas chemical epoxidation of toluquinone and gentisly quinone occurs with hydrogen peroxide, the enzymatic epoxidation utilized oxygen and the hydroquinone. The epoxidation was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and {rho}-(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonic acid and by degassing with nitrogen, but no inhibition was observed with KCN, catalase, or CO. The apparent K{sub m}'s were similar for the two substrates with both substrates showing inhibition at 1.0 mM. The rate of desoxyphyllostine formation was more than 10 times that of phyllostine formation at equivalent substrate concentrations. Gentisaldehyde was not a substrate for the enzyme. The epoxidase was induced in late fermentor cultures of P. patulum with the same kinetics as m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, another enzyme associated with the induction of patulin biosynthesis.

  5. Highly selective hydrolytic kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides catalyzed by chiral (salen)Co(III) complexes. Practical synthesis of enantioenriched terminal epoxides and 1,2-diols.

    PubMed

    Schaus, Scott E; Brandes, Bridget D; Larrow, Jay F; Tokunaga, Makoto; Hansen, Karl B; Gould, Alexandra E; Furrow, Michael E; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2002-02-20

    The hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of terminal epoxides catalyzed by chiral (salen)Co(III) complex 1 x OAc affords both recovered unreacted epoxide and 1,2-diol product in highly enantioenriched form. As such, the HKR provides general access to useful, highly enantioenriched chiral building blocks that are otherwise difficult to access, from inexpensive racemic materials. The reaction has several appealing features from a practical standpoint, including the use of H(2)O as a reactant and low loadings (0.2-2.0 mol %) of a recyclable, commercially available catalyst. In addition, the HKR displays extraordinary scope, as a wide assortment of sterically and electronically varied epoxides can be resolved to > or = 99% ee. The corresponding 1,2-diols were produced in good-to-high enantiomeric excess using 0.45 equiv of H(2)O. Useful and general protocols are provided for the isolation of highly enantioenriched epoxides and diols, as well as for catalyst recovery and recycling. Selectivity factors (k(rel)) were determined for the HKR reactions by measuring the product ee at ca. 20% conversion. In nearly all cases, k(rel) values for the HKR exceed 50, and in several cases are well in excess of 200.

  6. Effects of selective genetic introgression from wild soybean to soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding in the U.S. currently relies on a narrow genetic base in which more than half of the genetic contribution, calculated by pedigree analysis, comes from only 5 ancestral lines. For decades, but more intensely in recent years, efforts have been made ...

  7. Discovery of enantioselectivity of urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Manoj; Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Boggu, PullaReddy; Venkateswararao, Eeda; Jalani, Hitesh B; Kim, Nam-Doo; Lee, Seul Ki; Jeon, Jang Su; Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-19

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and inflammation. Although many urea derivatives are known as sEH inhibitors, the enantioselectivity of the inhibitors is not highlighted in spite of the stereoselective hydrolysis of EETs by sEH. In an effort to explore the importance of enantioselectivity in the urea scaffold, a series of enantiomers with the stereocenter adjacent to the urea nitrogen atom were prepared. The selectivity of enantiomers of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl)-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureas showed wide range differences up to 125 fold with the low IC50 value up to 13 nM. The S-configuration with planar phenyl and small alkyl groups at α-position is crucial for the activity and selectivity. However, restriction of the free rotation of two α-groups with indan-1-yl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl moiety abolishes the selectivity between the enantiomers, despite the increase in activity up to 13 nM. The hydrophilic group like sulfonamido group at para position of 3-phenylpropyl motif of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea improves the activity as well as enantiomeric selectivity. All these ureas are proved to be specific inhibitor of sEH without inhibition against mEH.

  8. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of anthraquinone components from Aloe.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Jang Hoon; Li, Wei; Jo, A Reum; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-15

    Aloe is a short-stemmed succulent herb widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and as raw material in cosmetics and heath foods. In this study, we isolated and identified two new anthraquinone derivatives, aloinoside C (6) and aloinoside D (7), together with six known compounds from an aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were evaluated. Compounds 1-8 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 4.1±0.6 to 41.1±4.2 μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-8 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 6 and 8 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2-5 and 7 were the mixed-type. Molecular docking increases our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of all compounds. These results demonstrate that compounds 1-8 from Aloe are potential sEH inhibitors.

  9. A2E-epoxides damage DNA in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit A2E-epoxide formation.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Janet R; Vollmer-Snarr, Heidi R; Zhou, Jilin; Jang, Young P; Jockusch, Steffen; Itagaki, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Koji

    2003-05-16

    The autofluorescent pigments that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells with aging and in some retinal disorders have been implicated in the etiology of macular degeneration. The major constituent is the fluorophore A2E, a pyridinium bisretinoid. Light-exposed A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelium exhibits a propensity for apoptosis with light in the blue region of the spectrum being most damaging. Efforts to understand the events precipitating the death of the cells have revealed that during irradiation (430 nm), A2E self-generates singlet oxygen with the singlet oxygen in turn reacting with A2E to generate epoxides at carbon-carbon double bonds. Here we demonstrate that A2E-epoxides, independent of singlet oxygen, exhibit reactivity toward DNA with oxidative base changes being at least one of these lesions. Mass spectrometry revealed that the antioxidants vitamins E and C, butylated hydroxytoluene, resveratrol, a trolox analogue (PNU-83836-E), and bilberry extract reduce A2E-epoxidation, whereas single cell gel electrophoresis and cell viability studies revealed a corresponding reduction in the incidence of DNA damage and cell death. Vitamin E, a lipophilic antioxidant, produced a more pronounced decrease in A2E-epoxidation than vitamin C, and treatment with both vitamins simultaneously did not confer additional benefit. Studies in which singlet oxygen was generated by endoperoxide in the presence of A2E revealed that vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, resveratrol, the trolox analogue, and bilberry reduced A2E-epoxidation by quenching singlet oxygen. Conversely, vitamin C and ginkgolide B were not efficient quenchers of singlet oxygen under these conditions.

  10. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  11. Reactions of epoxide monomers in food simulants used to test plastics for migration.

    PubMed

    Philo, M R; Damant, A P; Castle, L

    1997-01-01

    The reactions of four epoxides used as monomers for food contact plastics were studied in the food simulants distilled water, 15% aqueous ethanol, 3% aqueous acetic acid and olive oil. Loss of the parent substance and formation of products was monitored to establish the transformation products to be expected in each simulant following migration testing of plastics. Each epoxide was stable in olive oil but suffered extensive loss in the three aqueous simulants. Reaction half-lives were from < 1 to 10 h in aqueous acetic acid, 25-63 h in distilled water, and 33-87 h in aqueous ethanol simulant. Hydrolysis to the diol was the main reaction pathway. Epoxide ring opening in aqueous ethanol simulant gave the diol and also the diol monoethyl ether. It is concluded that, for aqueous simulants and by implication for most foods, testing plastics against specific migration limits for epoxides is not likely to give reliable results due to their reactivity. The present EC mode of control for these reactive monomers, via compositional limits in food contact plastics, is more practical since the hydrolysis products are less toxic than the parent epoxide.

  12. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    SciTech Connect

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  13. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H2SO4 as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H2O2 with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was -58.81°C to -17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  14. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  15. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  16. Separation of soybean saponins from soybean meal by a technology of foam fractionation and resin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianxing; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Guo, Shenghao; Kang, Shufang

    2016-05-18

    Foam fractionation and resin adsorption were used to recover soybean saponins from the industrial residue of soybean meal. First, a two-stage foam fractionation technology was studied for concentrating soybean saponins from the leaching liquor. Subsequently, resin adsorption was used to purify soybean saponins from the foamate in foam fractionation. The results showed that the enrichment ratio, the recovery percentage, and the purity of soybean saponins by using the two-stage foam fractionation technology could reach 4.45, 74%, and 67%, respectively. After resin adsorption and desorption, the purity of soybean saponins in the freeze-dried powder from the desorption solution was 88.4%.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial polyurethane coatings made from soybean oil functionalized with dimethylphenylammonium iodide and hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2013-06-01

    Preparation of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from novel functional soybean oil was considered in this work. First, epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) as a low price and widely available renewable resource raw material was subjected to the reaction with aniline using an ionic liquid as a green catalyst. The intermediate phenylamine containing polyol (SAP) was then methylated by reaction with methyl iodide to produce a polyol (QAP) with pendant dimethylphenylammonium iodide groups. To regulate the physical and mechanical properties as well as biological characteristics of final coatings, QAP was mixed with different portions of a similar soybean oil-based polyol (MSP) without quaternary ammonium groups. The mixtures were reacted with isophorone diisocyanate to produce crosslinked polyurethane coatings. Evaluation of viscoelastic properties by DMA method revealed single phase structure with Tg in the range of 50-82°C. Stress-strain analysis of the prepared polyurethanes showed initial modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break in the ranges of 13-299 MPa, 4.5-13.8 MPa, and 16-109%, respectively. Additionally, the coatings showed good adherence to aluminum and PVC substrates. The solvent extracted samples showed excellent biocompatibility as determined by monitoring L929 fibroblast cells morphology and MTT assay. Meanwhile, very promising antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria with bacterial reduction in the range of 83-100% was observed.

  18. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05) high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01) and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01). Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score) of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  19. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  3. Epoxidation of alkenes through oxygen activation over a bifunctional CuO/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Ravasio, Nicoletta; Zaccheria, Federica; Psaro, Rinaldo; Evangelisti, Claudio

    2013-03-07

    The epoxidation of alkenes was carried out over a CuO/Al(2)O(3) catalyst using cumene as an oxygen carrier, through a one-pot reaction, giving high conversion and selectivity with different substrates. Trans-β-methylstyrene gave the corresponding epoxide in 95% yield after 3 h.

  4. Large deformation micromechanics of particle filled acrylics at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunel, Eray Mustafa

    The main aim of this study is to investigate stress whitening and associated micro-deformation mechanism in thermoformed particle filled acrylic sheets. For stress whitening quantification, a new index was developed based on image histograms in logarithmic scale of gray level. Stress whitening levels in thermoformed acrylic composites was observed to increase with increasing deformation limit, decreasing forming rate and increasing forming temperatures below glass transition. Decrease in stress whitening levels above glass transition with increasing forming temperature was attributed to change in micro-deformation behavior. Surface deformation feature investigated with scanning electron microscopy showed that source of stress whitening in thermoformed samples was a combination of particle failure and particle disintegration depending on forming rate and temperature. Stress whitening level was strongly correlated to intensity of micro-deformation features. On the other hand, thermoformed neat acrylics displayed no surface discoloration which was attributed to absence of micro-void formation on the surface of neat acrylics. Experimental damage measures (degradation in initial, secant, unloading modulus and strain energy density) have been inadequate in describing damage evolution in successive thermoforming applications on the same sample at different levels of deformation. An improved version of dual-mechanism viscoplastic material model was proposed to predict thermomechanical behavior of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions. Simulation results and experimental results were in good agreement and failure of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions ar low forming temperatures were succesfully predicted based on entropic damage model. Particle and interphase failure observed in acrylic composites was studied in a multi-particle unit cell model with different volume fractions. Damage evolution due to particle failure and interphase failure was simulated

  5. Soluble epoxide hydrolase limits mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases metabolise arachidonic acid (AA) into four different biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers. Three of the EETs (i.e., 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET) are rapidly hydrolysed by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Here, we investigated the role of sEH in nociceptive processing during peripheral inflammation. Results In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that sEH is expressed in medium and large diameter neurofilament 200-positive neurons. Isolated DRG-neurons from sEH-/- mice showed higher EET and lower DHET levels. Upon AA stimulation, the largest changes in EET levels occurred in culture media, indicating both that cell associated EET concentrations quickly reach saturation and EET-hydrolyzing activity mostly effects extracellular EET signaling. In vivo, DRGs from sEH-deficient mice exhibited elevated 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET-levels. Interestingly, EET levels did not increase at the site of zymosan-induced inflammation. Cellular imaging experiments revealed direct calcium flux responses to 8,9-EET in a subpopulation of nociceptors. In addition, 8,9-EET sensitized AITC-induced calcium increases in DRG neurons and AITC-induced calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sciatic nerve axons, indicating that 8,9-EET sensitizes TRPA1-expressing neurons, which are known to contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Supporting this, sEH-/- mice showed increased nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation during zymosan-induced inflammation and 8,9-EET injection reduced mechanical thresholds in naive mice. Conclusion Our results show that the sEH can regulate mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation by inactivating 8,9-EET, which sensitizes TRPA1-expressing nociceptors. Therefore we suggest that influencing the CYP450 pathway, which is actually highly considered to treat cardiovascular diseases, may cause pain side effects. PMID:21970373

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: a novel therapeutic target in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenri; Koerner, Ines P; Noppens, Ruediger; Grafe, Marjorie; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Morisseau, Christophe; Luria, Ayala; Hammock, Bruce D; Falck, John R; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2009-01-01

    The P450 eicosanoids epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are produced in brain and perform important biological functions, including protection from ischemic injury. The beneficial effect of EETs, however, is limited by their metabolism via soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition is protective against ischemic brain damage in vivo by a mechanism linked to enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF). We determined expression and distribution of sEH immunoreactivity (IR) in brain, and examined the effect of sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE) on CBF and infarct size after experimental stroke in mice. Mice were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of AUDA-BE (10 mg/kg) or vehicle at 30 mins before 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or at reperfusion, in the presence and absence of P450 epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH). Immunoreactivity for sEH was detected in vascular and non-vascular brain compartments, with predominant expression in neuronal cell bodies and processes. 12-(3-Adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester was detected in plasma and brain for up to 24 h after intraperitoneal injection, which was associated with inhibition of sEH activity in brain tissue. Finally, AUDA-BE significantly reduced infarct size at 24 h after MCAO, which was prevented by MS-PPOH. However, regional CBF rates measured by iodoantipyrine (IAP) autoradiography at end ischemia revealed no differences between AUDA-BE- and vehicle-treated mice. The findings suggest that sEH inhibition is protective against ischemic injury by non-vascular mechanisms, and that sEH may serve as a therapeutic target in stroke. PMID:17440491

  7. Increased silver activity for direct propylene epoxidation via subnanometer size effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y.; Mehmood, F.; Lee, S.; Greeley, J. P.; Lee, B.; Seifert, S.; Winans, R. E.; Elam, J. E.; Meyer, R. J.; Redfern, P. C.; Teschner, D.; Schlogl, R.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Vajda, S.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Fritz-Haber Inst. der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; Yale Univ.

    2010-04-09

    Production of the industrial chemical propylene oxide is energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with direct propylene epoxidation by molecular oxygen have not resolved these problems because of substantial formation of carbon dioxide. We found that unpromoted, size-selected Ag{sub 3} clusters and {approx}3.5-nanometer Ag nanoparticles on alumina supports can catalyze this reaction with only a negligible amount of carbon dioxide formation and with high activity at low temperatures. Density functional calculations show that, relative to extended silver surfaces, oxidized silver trimers are more active and selective for epoxidation because of the open-shell nature of their electronic structure. The results suggest that new architectures based on ultrasmall silver particles may provide highly efficient catalysts for propylene epoxidation.

  8. Increased Silver Activity for Direct Propylene Epoxidation via Subnanometer Size Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y.; Mehmood, Faisal; Lee, Sang Soo; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Soenke; Winans, R. E.; Elam, J. W.; Meyer, R. J.; Redfern, Paul C.; Teschner, D.; Schlogl, Robert; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Vajda, S.

    2010-04-09

    Production of the industrial chemical propylene oxide is energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with direct propylene epoxidation by molecular oxygen have not resolved these problems because of substantial formation of carbon dioxide. We found that unpromoted, size-selected Ag3 clusters and ~3.5-nanometer Ag nanoparticles on alumina supports can catalyze this reaction with only a negligible amount of carbon dioxide formation and with high activity at low temperatures. Density functional calculations show that, relative to extended silver surfaces, oxidized silver trimers are more active and selective for epoxidation because of the open-shell nature of their electronic structure. The results suggest that new architectures based on ultrasmall silver particles may provide highly efficient catalysts for propylene epoxidation.

  9. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Tadross, Pamela M.; Lu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class. PMID:25045188

  10. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Tadross, Pamela M; Lu, Zhe; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2014-07-08

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class.

  11. Inhibiting an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Protects CFTR.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; Hammock, Bruce D; Morisseau, Christophe; Madden, Dean R

    2015-08-17

    Opportunistic pathogens exploit diverse strategies to sabotage host defenses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the CFTR inhibitory factor Cif and thus triggers loss of CFTR, an ion channel required for airway mucociliary defense. However, the mechanism of action of Cif has remained unclear. It catalyzes epoxide hydrolysis, but there is no known role for natural epoxides in CFTR regulation. It was demonstrated that the hydrolase activity of Cif is strictly required for its effects on CFTR. A small-molecule inhibitor that protects this key component of the mucociliary defense system was also uncovered. These results provide a basis for targeting the distinctive virulence chemistry of Cif and suggest an unanticipated role of physiological epoxides in intracellular protein trafficking.

  12. Epoxidized natural rubber toughened aqueous resole type liquefied EFB resin: Physical and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Umar Adli; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    A preliminary study on the reaction between aqueous resole type resinified liquefied palm oil empty fruit bunches fibres (RLEFB) with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) is carried out at different ratio of phenol to EFB (P:EFB). Resole type phenolic resin is prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst with the ratio of liquefied EFB (LEFB) to formaldehyde (LEFB:F) of 1:1.8. 50% epoxidation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) is used to react with resole resin by mixing with ENR with aqueous resole resin. The cured resin is characterized with FT-IR and SEM. Aqueous system have been found to be unsuitable medium in the reaction between resin and ENR. This system produced a highly porous product when RLEFB/ENR resin is cured.

  13. Enantioselective epoxidation with chiral MN(III)(salen) catalysts: kinetic resolution of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Adam, W; Humpf, H U; Roschmann, K J; Saha-Möller, C R

    2001-08-24

    A set of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols rac-2 has been epoxidized by chiral Mn(salen*) complexes 1 as the catalyst and iodosyl benzene (PhIO) as the oxygen source. Whereas one enantiomer of the allylic alcohol 2 is preferentially epoxidized to give the threo- or cis-epoxy alcohol 3 (up to 80% ee) as the main product (dr up to >95:5), the other enantiomer of 2 is enriched (up to 53% ee). In the case of 1,1-dimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalen-2-ol (2c), the CH oxidation to the enone 4c proceeds enantioselectively and competes with the epoxidation. The absolute configurations of the allylic alcohols 2 and their epoxides 3 have been determined by chemical correlation or CD spectroscopy. The observed diastereo- and enantioselectivities in the epoxidation reactions are rationalized in terms of a beneficial interplay between the hydroxy-directing effect and the attack along the Katsuki trajectory.

  14. A simple and effective catalytic system for epoxidation of aliphatic terminal alkenes with manganese(II) as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kam-Piu; Wong, Wing-Leung; Lam, Kin-Ming; Lai, Cheuk-Piu; Chan, Tak Hang; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2008-01-01

    A simple catalytic system that uses commercially available manganese(II) perchlorate as the catalyst and peracetic acid as the oxidant is found to be very effective in the epoxidation of aliphatic terminal alkenes with high product selectivity at ambient temperature. Many terminal alkenes are epoxidised efficiently on a gram scale in less than an hour to give excellent yields of isolated product (>90 %) of epoxides in high purity. Kinetic studies with some C9-alkenes show that the catalytic system is more efficient in epoxidising terminal alkenes than internal alkenes, which is contrary to most commonly known epoxidation systems. The reaction rate for epoxidation decreases in the order: 1-nonene>cis-3-nonene>trans-3-nonene. ESI-MS and EPR spectroscopic studies suggest that the active form of the catalyst is a high-valent oligonuclear manganese species, which probably functions as the oxygen atom-transfer agent in the epoxidation reaction.

  15. Asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols catalyzed by vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic Acid complex.

    PubMed

    Noji, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Uechi, Yuria; Kikuchi, Asami; Kondo, Hisako; Sugiyama, Shigeo; Ishii, Keitaro

    2015-03-20

    A vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic acid (BBHA) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols is described. The optically active binaphthyl-based ligands BBHA 2a and 2b were synthesized from (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid and N-substituted-O-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-protected hydroxylamines via a one-pot, three-step procedure. The epoxidations of 2,3,3-trisubstituted allylic alcohols using the vanadium complex of 2a were easily performed in toluene with a TBHP water solution to afford (2R)-epoxy alcohols in good to excellent enantioselectivities.

  16. Synthesis of Marine Polycyclic Polyethers via Endo-Selective Epoxide-Opening Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Vilotijevic, Ivan; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed biosynthetic pathways to ladder polyethers of polyketide origin and oxasqualenoids of terpenoid origin share a dramatic epoxide-opening cascade as a key step. Polycyclic structures generated in these biosynthetic pathways display biological effects ranging from potentially therapeutic properties to extreme lethality. Much of the structural complexity of ladder polyether and oxasqualenoid natural products can be traced to these hypothesized cascades. In this review we summarize how such epoxide-opening cascade reactions have been used in the synthesis of ladder polyethers and oxasqualenoid natural products. PMID:20411125

  17. Enantioselective epoxidation of non-functionalized alkenes using carbohydrate based salen-Mn(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Zhao, Jiquan; Zhao, Dongmin

    2007-02-05

    Three new salen ligands with carbohydrate moieties were prepared from a salicylaldehyde derivative obtained by reaction of 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose with 3-tert-butyl-5-(chloro-methyl)-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde. These ligands were coordinated with Mn(III) to give three chiral salen-Mn(III) complexes. The complexes were characterized and employed in the asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized alkenes. Catalytic results showed that although there are no chiral groups on the diimine bridge, these complexes had some enantioselectivity, which indicates the carbohydrate moiety has an asymmetric inducing effect in the epoxidation reaction.

  18. The selection reaction of homogeneous catalyst in soy-epoxide hydroxylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvistia Firdaus, Flora

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxylation reaction of soy-epoxide has resulted soy-polyol; a prepolymeric material for polyurethane. The conversion and selectivity of soy-epoxide butanol based to hydroxylation was found higher than soy-ethylene glycol (EG) based. These reactions were performed by sulfur acid which commonly known as homogeneous catalyst. Conversion and selectivity of homogeneous catalyst compared to bentonite; a heteregeneous catalyst was lower as in fact the mixtures were more viscous. The catalysis were significantly effected to cell morphology. Foams were conducted by heterogeneous catalyst resulted an irregular form of windows while homogeneous catalyst are more ordered.

  19. Miscibility study of hexanoyl chitosan in blend with epoxidized natural rubber by viscometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Asheila; Chan, C. H.; Muhammad, F. H.; Winie, Tan

    2015-08-01

    Miscibility of blends of hexanoyl chitosan and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% epoxidation level (ENR25) was investigated by dilute solution viscometry (DSV). Experimental results obey the Huggins' equation in the concentration range under investigation. Intrinsic viscosities are found to vary linearly with blend composition. The difference between experimental and ideal Huggins coefficients, κ =K12-√{K1ṡK2 } is proposed to evaluate the miscibility behavior of the blends. Negative deviations from the ideal behavior indicated immiscibility between hexanoyl chitosan and ENR25.

  20. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  1. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1).

  2. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by acrylic monomer in a denture.

    PubMed

    Koutis, D; Freeman, S

    2001-08-01

    A 71-year-old edentulous man developed a severely painful red mouth at sites of contact with a new denture. Patch testing showed allergy to samples of the denture material and to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Patch testing to methyl methacrylate was negative. Prolonged boiling of the denture resulted in reversal of his symptoms and samples of this fully cured denture material produced negative patch tests. While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms. Material safety data sheets are unreliable in providing information regarding the type of acrylate present in the material. Hence, patch testing should be performed with a battery of acrylate allergens as well as with small samples of the denture material.

  3. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  4. First report of soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Ohio soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV), a newly discovered tospovirus that infects soybean, was first described as widespread in a number of southern and midwestern states, but so far has not been reported in Ohio. Here we describe its occurrence in six different soybean leaf samples collect...

  5. Identification and molecular mapping of two soybean aphid resistance genes in soybean PI 587732

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] continues to be plagued by the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura: SA) in North America. New soybean resistance sources are needed to combat the four identified SA biotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of SA resistance in PI 58...

  6. Gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible soybean lines infected with soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Information about the molecular basis of soybean–SCN interactions is needed to assist future development of effective management tools against this pathogen. Toward this end, soybean transcript abundance was measured using th...

  7. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Acrylic Resin Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Seema S.; M.R., Dhakshaini; Gujjari, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discolouration of artificial teeth, which hampers aesthetics, is one of the negative effects of cigarette smoking. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the colour stability of commercially available acrylic resin teeth needs to be evaluated for clinical success and to ascertain as to which brand has superior properties. Material and Methods: Three commercially available acrylic teeth were evaluated, after division into Group A (Premadent), Group B (Astra), and Group C (Sanyo- Dent). Selected brands were subdivided as study group and control group. Each set of acrylic resin teeth were stored in artificial saliva at 37±1°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours of immersion, the colour measurement of each tooth (T0) was performed. Second colour measurements were done after 21 days (T21) of exposure to cigarette smoke for study group and after immersion in artificial saliva for control group. All data was statistically analyzed by using Repeated Measures ANOVA and Two-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: Group A showed least total colour change on exposure to cigarette smoke, followed by Group B and Group C had the highest total colour change. In control group, after immersion in artificial saliva, a slight increase in total colour change was observed for all groups, which was clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Group A (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was more colour stable and more resistant to the discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke, followed by Group B (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth). Group C (Non-crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was least colour stable and most susceptible to discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:24179942

  8. Colour Stability of Heat and Cold Cure Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Sivakumar, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Materials and Methods: Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. Results: The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. Conclusion: ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes. PMID:25738078

  9. The creep behavior of acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Sadiku, E R; Biotidara, F O

    1996-01-01

    The creep behavior of acrylic dental base resins, at room temperature and at different loading conditions, has been examined. The behaviors of these resins are similar to that of "commercial perspex" at room temperature over a period of 1000 seconds. The pseudo-elastic moduli of the blends of PMMA VC show a significant increase compared with PMMA alone. The addition of the PVC powder to the heat-cured acrylic resin increased the time-dependent elastic modulus. This increase in elastic modulus is advantageous in the production of denture based resins of improv mechanical properties.

  10. Lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction on acrylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R

    2013-04-19

    A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.

  11. Investigation of the role of the 2',3'-epoxidation pathway in the bioactivation and genotoxicity of dietary allylbenzene analogs.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Luo, G

    2001-03-07

    The genotoxic potential of naturally occurring allylbenzene analogs, including safrole, eugenol, estragole, and others, has been examined in many studies over the past 30 years. It has been established that these compounds are subject to biotransformation in the liver, which can lead to the formation of reactive electrophilic intermediates. The major route of bioactivation is via hydroxylation of the 1' carbon atom of the allylic side chain. We have synthesized 2',3'- (allylic) epoxide derivatives of allylbenzene, estragole eugenol and safrole, and have used them to characterize the genotoxic potential of epoxidation at the allylic double bond for allylbenzene and its naturally occurring analogs. In order to assert that this pathway has the potential for genotoxicity, it is necessary to demonstrate (1) that epoxide metabolites of these compounds are capable of forming covalent adducts with DNA bases; and (2) that these epoxide metabolites are actually formed in vivo. We have demonstrated that allylic epoxides derived from allylbenzene and estragole are capable of forming covalent adducts with all four deoxyribonucleotides in vitro and, in the case of deoxyguanosine, form at least four different adducts. We also deduce, from evidence obtained using the isolated perfused rat liver, that formation of potentially genotoxic 2',3' epoxide metabolites occurs readily in vivo, but that these metabolites are rapidly further metabolized to less toxic dihydrodiol or glutathione conjugates. We conclude that 2',3' epoxide metabolites of allylbenzene analogs are formed in vivo and that these epoxides are sufficiently reactive to facilely form covalent bonds with DNA bases. Epoxide formation at the allylic double bond represents, therefore, a potentially genotoxic bioactivation pathway for allylbenzene analogs. However, comparison of the relative kinetics of epoxide metabolism and epoxide formation suggests that a wide margin of protection from DNA covalent adduct formation exists

  12. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl... section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  4. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics.

  5. Tensile bond strength between auto-polymerized acrylic resin and acrylic denture teeth treated with MF-MA solution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effect of chemical surface treatment using methyl formate-methyl acetate (MF-MA) solution on the tensile bond strength between acrylic denture teeth and auto-polymerized acrylic resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy maxillary central incisor acrylic denture teeth for each of three different brands (Yamahachi New Ace; Major Dent; Cosmo HXL) were embedded with incisal edge downwards in auto-polymerized resin in polyethylene pipes and ground with silicone carbide paper on their ridge lap surfaces. The teeth of each brand were divided into seven groups (n=10): no surface treatment (control group), MF-MA solution at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) for 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 120 seconds, 180 seconds, and MMA for 180 seconds. Auto-polymerized acrylic resin (Unifast Trad) was applied to the ground surface and polymerized in a pressure cooker. A tensile strength test was performed with a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Dunnett T3 test (α=.05). RESULTS The surface treatment groups had significantly higher mean tensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P<.05) when compared within the same brand. Among the surface treatment groups of each brand, there were no significantly different tensile bond strengths between the MF-MA groups and the MMA 180 second group (P>.05), except for the Yamahachi New Ace MF-MA 180-second group (P<.05). CONCLUSION 15-second MF-MA solution can be an alternative chemical surface treatment for repairing a denture base and rebonding acrylic denture teeth with auto-polymerized acrylic resin, for both conventional and cross-linked teeth. PMID:27555897

  6. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  7. Recyclable polyurea-microencapsulated Pd(0) nanoparticles: an efficient catalyst for hydrogenolysis of epoxides.

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V; Mitchell, Claire; Pears, David; Ramarao, Chandrashekar; Yu, Jin-Quan; Zhou, Wuzong

    2003-11-27

    [reaction: see text] Pd nanoparticles (approximately 2 nm in size) microencapsulated in polyurea is an efficient and recyclable catalyst for reductive ring-opening hydrogenolysis of epoxides, using either HCOOH/Et(3)N or H(2) as a hydrogen donor.

  8. A new efficient iron catalyst for olefin epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mikhalyova, Elena A; Makhlynets, Olga V; Palluccio, Taryn D; Filatov, Alexander S; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V

    2012-01-18

    A new aminopyridine ligand derived from bipiperidine (the product of full reduction of bipyridine, bipy) coordinates to iron(II) in a cis-α fashion, yielding a new selective catalyst for olefin epoxidation with H(2)O(2) under limiting substrate conditions.

  9. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  10. Jacobsen protocols for large-scale epoxidation of cyclic dienyl sulfones: application to the (+)-pretazettine core.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, G Reza; du Jourdin, Xavier Mollat; Fuchs, Philip L

    2012-05-18

    A Jacobsen epoxidation protocol using H2O2 as oxidant was designed for the large-scale preparation of various epoxy vinyl sulfones. A number of cocatalysts were screened, and pH control led to increased reaction rate, higher turnover number, and improved reliability.

  11. Characterization of multiple epoxide hydrolase activities in mouse liver nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M

    1986-10-01

    A nuclear envelope-associated epoxide hydrolase in mouse liver that hydrates trans-stilbene oxide has been identified and characterized. This epoxide hydrolase is distinct from the enzyme in nuclear envelopes that hydrates benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide and other arene oxides. This distinction was demonstrated by the criteria of pH optima, response to specific inhibitors in vitro, and precipitation by specific antibodies. The new epoxide hydrolase had a pH optimum of 6.8, was poorly inhibited by trichloropropene oxide, was potently inhibited by 4-phenylchalcone oxide, and did not bind to antiserum against benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase. This nuclear enzyme is similar in many of its properties to cytosolic and microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolases and may be nuclear envelope-bound form of these other epoxide hydrolases. It differed from these other trans-stilbene oxide hydrolases in that its affinities for both trans-stilbene oxide (measured as apparent Km) and 4-phenylchalcone oxide (measured as I50) were 4- to 20-fold lower than those of either the cytosolic or microsomal forms.

  12. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  13. Catalytic epoxidation activity of keplerate polyoxomolybdate nanoball toward aqueous suspension of olefins under mild aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rezaeifard, Abdolreza; Haddad, Reza; Jafarpour, Maasoumeh; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2013-07-10

    Catalytic efficiency of a sphere-shaped nanosized polyoxomolybdate {Mo132} in the aerobic epoxidation of olefins in water at ambient temperature and pressure in the absence of reducing agent is exploited which resulted good-to-high yields and desired selectivity.

  14. Engineering of an epoxide hydrolase for efficient bioresolution of bulky pharmaco substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xu-Dong; Yuan, Shuguang; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Xu, Jian-He; Zhou, Jiahai

    2014-01-01

    Optically pure epoxides are essential chiral precursors for the production of (S)-propranolol, (S)-alprenolol, and other β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs. Although the enzymatic production of these bulky epoxides has proven difficult, here we report a method to effectively improve the activity of BmEH, an epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus megaterium ECU1001 toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether, the precursor of (S)-propranolol, by eliminating the steric hindrance near the potential product-release site. Using X-ray crystallography, mass spectrum, and molecular dynamics calculations, we have identified an active tunnel for substrate access and product release of this enzyme. The crystal structures revealed that there is an independent product-release site in BmEH that was not included in other reported epoxide hydrolase structures. By alanine scanning, two mutants, F128A and M145A, targeted to expand the potential product-release site displayed 42 and 25 times higher activities toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether than the wild-type enzyme, respectively. These results show great promise for structure-based rational design in improving the catalytic efficiency of industrial enzymes for bulky substrates. PMID:25331869

  15. Iron(II)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Epoxidation of Trisubstituted α,β-Unsaturated Esters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan

    2015-01-01

    An asymmetric epoxidation of trisubstituted α,β-unsaturated esters is described. The oxidation utilizes a pseudo-C2-symmetric iron(II) catalyst [Fe(L*)2(CH3CN)(OTf)](OTf) and peracetic acid as oxidant, yielding the α,β-epoxyesters in high enantiomeric purity (up to 99% ee). PMID:26146482

  16. (Salen)Mn(III) Catalyzed Asymmetric Epoxidation Reactions by Hydrogen Peroxide in Water: A Green Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ballistreri, Francesco Paolo; Gangemi, Chiara M. A.; Pappalardo, Andrea; Tomaselli, Gaetano A.; Toscano, Rosa Maria; Trusso Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective epoxidation reactions of some chosen reactive alkenes by a chiral Mn(III) salen catalyst were performed in H2O employing H2O2 as oxidant and diethyltetradecylamine N-oxide (AOE-14) as surfactant. This procedure represents an environmentally benign protocol which leads to e.e. values ranging from good to excellent (up to 95%). PMID:27420047

  17. Thermal behavior of epoxidized cardanol diethyl phosphate as novel renewable plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel plasticizer, epoxidized cardanol diethyl phosphate (ECEP), based on cardanol was synthesized. Chemical structure of ECEP was characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance(13C NMR) spectroscopy. Effects of ECEP sub...

  18. Signature motifs identify an Acinetobacter Cif virulence factor with epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bridges, Andrew A; Ballok, Alicia E; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Cady, Kyle C; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2014-03-14

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii ("aCif"). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog ("aCifR") and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections.

  19. Surprising unreactivity of cholesterol-5,6-epoxides towards nucleophiles[S

    PubMed Central

    Paillasse, Michael R.; Saffon, Nathalie; Gornitzka, Heinz; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; de Medina, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We recently established that drugs used for the treatment and the prophylaxis of breast cancers, such as tamoxifen, were potent inhibitors of cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase (ChEH), which led to the accumulation of 5,6α-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6α-EC) and 5,6β-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6β-EC). This could be considered a paradox because epoxides are known as alkylating agents with putative carcinogenic properties. We report here that, as opposed to the carcinogen styrene-oxide, neither of the ECs reacted spontaneously with nucleophiles. Under catalytic conditions, 5,6β-EC remains unreactive whereas 5,6α-EC gives cholestan-3β,5α-diol-6β-substituted compounds. These data showed that 5,6-ECs are stable epoxides and unreactive toward nucleophiles in the absence of a catalyst, which contrasts with the well-known reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic epoxides. These data rule out 5,6-EC acting as spontaneous alkylating agents. In addition, these data support the existence of a stereoselective metabolism of 5,6α-EC. PMID:22285872

  20. Formation of furan fatty alkyl esters from their bis-epoxide fatty esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactions of epoxidized alkyl soyate with four different alcohols: ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, benzyl alcohol, in the presence of Bronsted acid catalyst, were investigated. Products that were not reported in prior studies of similar reactions were found. These were furan fatty acid a...

  1. Formation of furan fatty alkyl esters from their bis-epoxide fatty esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactions of epoxidized alkyl soyate with four different alcohols: ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, and benzyl alcohol were investigated in the presence of Bronsted acid catalyst. Products not reported in prior studies of similar reactions were found. These were furan fatty acid alkyl est...

  2. INTERACTION OF BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE WITH SVAO MINICHROMOSOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Gamper, Howard B.; Yokota, Hisao A.; Bartholomew, James C.

    1980-03-01

    SV40 minichromosomes were reacted with (+)7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy- 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BaP diol epoxide). Low levels of modification (< 5 DNA adducts/minichromosome) did not detectably alter the structure of the minichromosomes but high levels (> 200 DNA adducts/minichromosome) led to extensive fragmentation. Relative to naked SV40 DNA BaP diol epoxide induced alkylation and strand scission of minichromosomal DNA was reduced or enhanced by factors of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. The reduction in covalent binding was attributed to the presence of histones, which competed with DNA for the hydrocarbon and reduced the probability of BaP diol epoxide intercalation by tightening the helix. The enhancement of strand scission was probably due to the catalytic effect of histones on the rate of S-elimination at apurinic sites, although an altered adduct profile or the presence of a repair endonuclease were not excluded. Staphylococcal nuclease digestion indicated that BaP dial epoxide randomly alkylated the minichromosomal DNA. This is in contrast to studies with cellular chromatin where internucleosomal DNA was preferentially modified. Differences in the minichromosomal protein complement were responsible for this altered susceptibility.

  3. Assessment of rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase as a marker of hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kizer, D E; Clouse, J A; Ringer, D P; Hanson-Painton, O; Vaz, A D; Palakodety, R B; Griffin, M J

    1985-05-15

    The influence of eleven xenobiotics on the activity and amount of hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase was determined. Activity was assayed using three different substrates after rats were fed, throughout 3 weeks, diets containing one of six hepatocarcinogens, viz. 2-acetylaminofluorene, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4'-fluoro-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, thioacetamide, aflatoxin B1 and ethionine. Five hepatocarcinogens induced activity 4- to 10-fold; ethionine was relatively ineffective as an inducer. Two non-carcinogenic analogues of hepatocarcinogens, viz. fluorene and p-aminoazobenzene, caused no appreciable increase in enzyme activity, but phenobarbital, barbital and 1-naphthylisothiocyanate induced activity 2- to 3-fold. All eleven xenobiotics increased the amount of microsomal epoxide hydrolase 2- to 9-fold when examined immunochemically using either a radial diffusion assay or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase activity was not appreciably elevated by feeding ten of the xenobiotics, suggesting that inductions were not owing to toxicity. Using ELISA, microsomal epoxide hydrolase was detected in post-microsomal (PM) supernatant fractions from control rat liver, thus confirming an earlier report by Gill et al. [Carcinogenesis 3, 1307 (1982)]. The eleven xenobiotics induced the amount of ELISA-detectable antigen in PM supernatant fractions by 3- to 34-fold. Longer centrifugation of PM supernatant fractions yielded a pellet fraction that contained 92 +/- 1.2% of the ELISA-detectable antigen irrespective of the xenobiotic regimen. Relationships between xenobiotic induction of microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity and amount and hepatocarcinogenesis are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of an Epoxide Carbonylation Catalyst: Exploration of Contemporary Chemistry for Advanced Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzler, Yutan D. Y. L.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    A class of highly active, well-defined compounds for the catalytic carbonylation of epoxides and aziridines to beta-lactones and beta-lactams are introduced. The synthesis of one of the catalysts involves a simple imine condensation to form the ligand followed by air-sensitive metalation and salt metathesis steps.

  5. The strained sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene as a probe for the solvent-assisted epoxidation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Bart; Neirinckx, Alexander; De Cooman, Luc; Hermans, Ive; De Vos, Dirk

    2014-04-04

    In our attempt to synthesize β-caryophyllene oxide in food-compatible conditions, we observed the uncatalyzed and highly selective epoxidation of β-caryophyllene, a strained bicyclic sesquiterpene, in ethanol with aqueous H2 O2 under radical-suppressing conditions without the addition of a catalyst. The unusual reactivity of β-caryophyllene allowed us to use it as a probe for the mechanism of the solvent-assisted epoxidation in a wide range of organic solvents. A kinetic study was performed to investigate the epoxidation mechanism; an excellent correlation was found between the observed epoxidation rates in different solvents and the Abraham's hydrogen bond formation parameters of these solvents. By means of computational analysis, it was found that the main role of the solvent consists of the stabilization of the elongated OO bond of H2 O2 in the transition state through hydrogen-bond donation to the leaving OH moiety of H2 O2 . α-Humulene was found to possess similar reactivity as β-caryophyllene whereas isocaryophyllene-the unstrained isomer of β-caryophyllene-was unreactive.

  6. EPOXIDATION OF SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The commodity-scale epoxidation of several organic molecules has been carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STTr) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Process Intensification, a...

  7. On the interaction between supercritical CO2 and epoxides combining infrared absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations.

    PubMed

    Foltran, Stéphanie; Méreau, Raphaël; Tassaing, Thierry

    2011-05-28

    The nature and strength of the interactions occurring between epoxides and CO(2) have been investigated by combining infrared spectroscopy with quantum chemistry calculations. A series of infrared absorption experiments on four model epoxide molecules highly diluted in supercritical CO(2) have been performed at constant temperature T = 40 °C for various CO(2) pressures varying from 1 to 30 MPa. Then, we carried out a theoretical analysis based on quantum chemistry calculations using Density Functional Theory (B3PW91 and CAM-B3LYP) and ab initio (MP2) computational methods. A very good agreement between experimental and calculated vibrational frequency shifts of the epoxide ring vibrations group was obtained using the CAM-B3LYP functional, hence validating the calculated optimized geometries of the epoxide-CO(2) complexes. Whatever the epoxide considered, CO(2) is found to be on average above the oxygen atom of the epoxy ring and interacts with the carbon atom of CO(2) through a Lewis acid-Lewis base type of interaction. The substituents on the epoxide ring are found to influence the stability of the epoxide-CO(2) complexes mainly because of the partial charge on the oxygen atom that is sensitive to the nature of the substituent.

  8. Soybeans Ameliolate Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Eun; Ahn, Soo Kyung; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun; Park, Seung Hwa; Yoon, Bang Bu

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent and serious complications of diabetes mellitus. Soybeans have been shown to reduce urinary albumin excretion and total cholesterol in non-diabetic patients with nephrotic syndrome. However, reports focusing specifically on diabetic nephropathy are scarce and the available results are inconsistent. It was reported that soybean consumption reduced urinary protein excretion in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy, whereas it was found to elicit an increase in urinary protein excretion when soybeans were consumed by type 2 diabetic patients. This study aims to investigate the effects of soybean in diabetic nephropathy, particularly the effects of consuming soybeans on the histopathology of diabetic nephropathy, using aquaporin (AQP) and osteopontin (OPN) expression as diagnostic markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: control, diabetic with red chow diet and diabetic with soybean diet. For histological examination, the expression of OPN and AQP, renal function and hemoglobin A1c were evaluated at the end of the study. Improvements in glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were demonstrated in the diabetic rat group given a soybean diet. OPN and AQP expression were suppressed in the kidney specimens of diabetic rats with the soybean diet. In conclusion, soybeans may prevent the weight loss and morphological disruption of the kidney associated with diabetes mellitus. Soybeans also may improve glycemic control. It seems likely that long-term control of blood glucose levels using a soybean diet could prevent the progression of diabetes mellitus, and therefore, nephropathy could be prevented. PMID:18955330

  9. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens.

  10. Interactions of sodium montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen H; Dennis, Gary R; Milev, Adriyan S; Kannangara, G S Kamali; Wilson, Michael A; Lamb, Robert N

    2005-10-15

    The chemical-structural modifications of the natural clay sodium montmorillonite during interaction with poly(acrylic acid) were studied mainly by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Samples of modified montmorillonite were prepared from the reaction of sodium montmorillonite ( approximately 0.5 g) and an aqueous solution of poly(acrylic acid) (pH approximately 1.8, 50 g) at varying temperatures. X-ray diffraction indicated that the montmorillonite interlayer space ( approximately 13 A), formed by regular stacking of the silicate layers (dimension approximately 1x1000 nm), expanded to approximately 16 A as the reaction was carried out at room temperature and at 30 degrees C. At 60 degrees C, the interlayer space further expanded to approximately 20 A. The results of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicated that poly(acrylic acid) molecules exchange sodium ions on the surface of the silicate layers. These combined results allowed development of a reaction model that explains the dependency of the interlayer expansion with temperature. Information concerning the surface chemical reactions and systematic increases in the interlayer distances is particularly useful if montmorillonite and poly(acrylic acid) are to be used for formation of nanocomposite materials.

  11. Mid-infrared laser ablation of intraocular acrylic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Ablation rates measurements with free-running Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) were performed in hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses. We studied the role of water in the laser ablation mechanisms by using hydrophilic lenses with different concentrations of H II0 and D II0. A mathematical model simulated the experimental results.

  12. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a mixture of polyethylene and one or more olefin copolymers, in such proportions that the ethyl acrylate... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene...

  13. JKR studies of adhesion with model acrylic elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, K.R.; Ahn, D.

    1996-12-31

    Acrylic elastomers are widely used in coating applications because of their inherent thermal stability, oil resistance and adhesive properties. These same features make acrylic elastomers attractive for fundamental studies of polymer adhesion. This endeavor has been simplified recently by the development of techniques for producing monodisperse acrylic homopolymers and block copolymers from anionically synthesized parent polyacrylates, thus allowing precise microstructural control of adhering surfaces. In terms of the adhesion measurement itself, an adhesion test based upon the theory of Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR), henceforth referred to as the JKR technique, is well suited for probing the molecular origins of adhesion in elastomeric systems. This technique is quite practical, and minimizes the sample volume to reduce bulk viscoelastic losses. Further, the JKR technique permits testing at very low crack velocities, where interfacial effects are unobscured by bulk effects. In this paper, the authors report the results of JKR adhesion tests between poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PNBA) elastomers and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The latter is employed as a control substrate because its inertness and low surface energy (relative to metallic or silicon based surfaces) are conducive to the creation of reproducible solid surfaces.

  14. Humidity-responsive starch-poly (methyl acrylate) films.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blown films prepared from starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers plasticized with urea and water display shrinkage at relative humidities greater than 50%. Shrinkage at relative humidities below approximately 75% is strongly correlated with the urea/starch weight ratio, which controls the eq...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  16. Acrylic acid and electric power cogeneration in an SOFC reactor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baofeng; Wang, Jibo; Chu, Wenling; Yang, Weishen; Lin, Liwu

    2009-04-21

    A highly efficient catalyst, MoV(0.3)Te(0.17)Nb(0.12)O, used for acrylic acid (AA) production from propane, was used as an anodic catalyst in an SOFC reactor, from which AA and electric power were cogenerated at 400-450 degrees C.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure.

  18. Sensitization capacity of acrylated prepolymers in ultraviolet curing inks tested in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B

    1981-01-01

    One commonly used prepolymer in ultraviolet (UV) curing inks is epoxy acrylate. Of 6 men with dermatitis contracted from UV-curing inks, 2 had positive patch test reaction to epoxy acrylate. None reacted to the chemically related bisphenol A dimethacrylate. The sensitization capacity of epoxy acrylate and bisphenol A dimethacrylate performed with the "Guinea pig maximization test" (GPM) shows epoxy acrylate to be an extreme sensitizer and bisphenol A dimethacrylate a moderate sensitizer. Cross-reaction between the two substances occurs. The epoxy resin oligomer MW 340 present in the epoxy acrylate also sensitized some animals.

  19. Dysregulation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Lipidomic Profiles in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Pei-an Betty; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; German, J. Bruce; Van Zeeland, Ashley; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Berrettini, Wade; Halmi, Katherine Ann; Schork, Nicholas; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kaye, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. AN tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because Epoxide Hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN, and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared to controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment. PMID:25824304

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of styrene epoxidation by chlorite: role of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica K; Rajput, Jonathan; Richardson, David E

    2014-07-07

    An investigation of the kinetics and mechanism for epoxidation of styrene and para-substituted styrenes by chlorite at 25 °C in the pH range of 5-6 is described. The proposed mechanism in water and water/acetonitrile includes seven oxidation states of chlorine (-I, 0, I, II, III, IV, and V) to account for the observed kinetics and product distributions. The model provides an unusually detailed quantitative mechanism for the complex reactions that occur in mixtures of chlorine species and organic substrates, particularly when the strong oxidant chlorite is employed. Kinetic control of the reaction is achieved by the addition of chlorine dioxide to the reaction mixture, thereby eliminating a substantial induction period observed when chlorite is used alone. The epoxidation agent is identified as chlorine dioxide, which is continually formed by the reaction of chlorite with hypochlorous acid that results from ClO produced by the epoxidation reaction. The overall stoichiometry is the result of two competing chain reactions in which the reactive intermediate ClO reacts with either chlorine dioxide or chlorite ion to produce hypochlorous acid and chlorate or chloride, respectively. At high chlorite ion concentrations, HOCl is rapidly eliminated by reaction with chlorite, minimizing side reactions between HOCl and Cl2 with the starting material. Epoxide selectivity (>90% under optimal conditions) is accurately predicted by the kinetic model. The model rate constant for direct reaction of styrene with ClO2(aq) to produce epoxide is (1.16 ± 0.07) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) for 60:40 water/acetonitrile with 0.20 M acetate buffer. Rate constants for para substituted styrenes (R = -SO3(-), -OMe, -Me, -Cl, -H, and -NO2) with ClO2 were determined. The results support the radical addition/elimination mechanism originally proposed by Kolar and Lindgren to account for the formation of styrene oxide in the reaction of styrene with chlorine dioxide.

  1. Pilot scale production, characterization, and optimization of epoxidized vegetable oil-based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monono, Ewumbua Menyoli

    Novel epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) resins perform much better than other vegetable oil-based resins; thus, they are of current interest for commercial scale production and for a wide range of applications in coatings and polymeric materials. However, no work has been published that successfully scaled-up the reaction above a 1 kg batch size. To achieve this goal, canola oil was first epoxidized at a 300 g scale to study the epoxidation rate and thermal profile at different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition rates, bath temperatures, and reaction times. At least 83% conversion of double bonds to oxirane was achieved by 2.5 h, and the reaction temperature was 8-15 °C higher than the water bath temperature within the first 30-40 min of epoxidation. A 38 L stainless steel kettle was modified as a reactor to produce 10 kg of ESS. Twenty 7-10 kg batches of ESS were produced with an overall 87.5% resin yield and > 98% conversion after batch three. The conversion and resin quality were consistent across the batches due to the modifications on the reaction that improved mixing and reaction temperature control within 55-65 oC. The total production time was reduced from 8 to 4 days due to the fabrication of a 40 L separatory funnel for both washing and filtration. A math model was developed to optimize the epoxidation process. This was done by using the Box-Behnken design to model the conversion at various acetic acid, H2O2, and Amberlite ratios and at various reaction temperatures and times. The model had an adjusted R2 of 97.6% and predicted R2 of 96.8%. The model showed that reagent amounts and time can be reduced by 18% without compromising the desired conversion value and quality.

  2. Trigger factor assisted folding of the recombinant epoxide hydrolases identified from C. pelagibacter and S. nassauensis.

    PubMed

    Saini, Priya; Wani, Shadil Ibrahim; Kumar, Ranjai; Chhabra, Ravneet; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh; Sareen, Dipti

    2014-12-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs), are enantioselective enzymes as they catalyze the kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides into the corresponding enantiopure vicinal diols, which are useful precursors in the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical compounds. Here, we have identified and cloned two putative epoxide hydrolase genes (cpeh and sneh) from marine bacteria, Candidatus pelagibacter ubique and terrestrial bacteria, Stackebrandtia nassauensis, respectively and overexpressed them in pET28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The CPEH protein (42kDa) was found to be overexpressed as inactive inclusion bodies while SNEH protein (40kDa) was found to form soluble aggregates. In this study, the recombinant CPEH was successfully transformed from insoluble aggregates to the soluble and functionally active form, using pCold TF vector, though with low EH activity. To prevent the soluble aggregate formation of SNEH, it was co-expressed with GroEL/ES chaperone and was also fused with trigger factor (TF) chaperone at its N-terminus. The TF chaperone-assisted correct folding of SNEH led to a purified active EH with a specific activity of 3.85μmol/min/mg. The pure enzyme was further used to biocatalyze the hydrolysis of 10mM benzyl glycidyl ether (BGE) and α-methyl styrene oxide (MSO) with an enantiomeric excess of the product (eep) of 86% and 73% in 30 and 15min, respectively. In conclusion, this is the first report about the heterologous expression of epoxide hydrolases using TF as a molecular chaperone in pCold TF expression vector, resulting in remarkable increase in the solubility and activity of the otherwise improperly folded recombinant epoxide hydrolases.

  3. Discrete metal-based catalysts for the copolymerization of CO2 and epoxides: discovery, reactivity, optimization, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Coates, Geoffrey W; Moore, David R

    2004-12-10

    Most synthetic polymers are made from petroleum feedstocks. Given the non-renewable nature of these materials, there is increasing interest in developing routes to polymeric materials from renewable resources. In addition, there is a growing demand for biodegradable polymeric materials. Polycarbonates made from CO(2) and epoxides have the potential to meet these goals. Since the discovery of catalysts for the copolymerization of CO(2) and epoxides in the late 1960's by Inoue, a significant amount of research has been directed toward the development of catalysts of improved activity and selectivity. Reviewed here are well-defined catalysts for epoxide-CO(2) copolymerization and related reactions.

  4. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max) genome sequencing project began as an interagency project with the DOE’s Joint Genome Institute providing the production sequencing throughput with the NSF and USDA funded groups providing genomic resources and soybean expertise to the project (Jackson et al, 2006). The go...

  5. Quantitative genetics in soybean: Is dominance important?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybeans, dominance is generally considered to be non-existent or of little importance. Because genetic variation due to dominance dissipates rapidly with inbreeding, dominance would presumably not be useful in breeding soybean cultivars which are highly inbred. Yet, there is evidence for hetero...

  6. Response of soybean pathogens to glyceollin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to recognize pathogens and respond biochemically to prevent or inhibit pathogen invasion and colonization in plant cells is an active disease resistance response in plants. The involvement of soybean phytoalexin glyceollin in defense responses to the soybean pathogens Diaporthe phaseolor...

  7. Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyurethane Acrylates for UV Curable Coating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi Na; Kang, Young Soo; Oh, Sun Wha; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Moon, Myung Jun

    The single hydroxyl-terminated urethane acrylate oligomers were synthesized from 2-mercaptoethanol (2-MEOH), alkyl (methyl, butyl, and 2-ethylhexyl) acrylate, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator), with dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. 2-MEOH was used as a functional chain transfer agent. Poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers were obtained by the reaction of single hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylates and 2-isocyanatoethyl acrylate. They were characterized by NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, rheometer, and DSC. Because poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers have lower Tg and viscosity than hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylate oligomers (HTPAO) non-containing urethane groups, they can be used for ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings, inks, and adhesives.

  9. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  10. Efficacy of inorganic compounds against soybean aphid, laboratory tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations by soybean aphids can reduce the yield of soybeans, and the efficacies of various compounds need evaluation for soybean aphid control. Efficacy of various inorganic compounds was compared to that of a water check and conventional insecticides in two growth-chamber tests. Soybean test ...

  11. Pathogenic Variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infecting Soybean in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust is an important disease in Nigeria and many other soybean-producing countries world-wide. To determine the geographical distribution of soybean rust in Nigeria, soybean fields were surveyed in the Derived Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna, and Southern Guinea Savanna agroecological zones...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  18. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  2. Genome-wide association mapping of soybean aphid resistance traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid is the most damaging insect pest of soybean in the Upper Midwest and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., Rag genes) has been documented in some soybean lines at chromosomes 6, 7, 13, and 16, but more sources of resistance are needed. Genome-wide ass...

  3. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Michelle; Hill, Curtis B; Voegtlin, David J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-12-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive insect pests on soybeans in the United States. One method for managing this pest is through host plant resistance. Since its arrival in 2000, 4 aphid biotypes have been identified that are able to overcome soybean aphid resistance (Rag) genes. A soybean aphid isolate collected from Moline, Illinois readily colonized soybean plants with the soybean aphid resistance gene Rag2, unlike biotypes 1 and 2, but similar to soybean aphid biotype 3. Two no-choice experiments compared the virulence of the Moline isolate with biotype 3. In both experiments, differences in aphid population counts were not significant (P > 0.05) on soybean genotypes LD08-12957a (Rag2) and LD11-5413a (Rag2), but the aphid counts for the Moline isolate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the aphid counts for the biotype 3 isolate on the soybean genotypes Dowling (Rag1), LD05-16611 (Rag1), LD11-4576a (Rag1), and PI 567598B (rag1b and rag3). The Moline isolate was a variant of aphid biotype 3, which is the first report showing that soybean aphid isolates classified as the same biotype, based on virulence against specific Rag genes, can differ in aggressiveness or ability to colonize specific host genotypes.

  4. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  5. 40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide emission reduction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... constant, 1/hr. t = Time, hours. Note: This equation assumes a first order reaction with respect to epoxide... concentration in the vapor space using Raoult's Law or another appropriate phase equilibrium equation and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide emission reduction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... constant, 1/hr. t = Time, hours. Note: This equation assumes a first order reaction with respect to epoxide... concentration in the vapor space using Raoult's Law or another appropriate phase equilibrium equation and...

  7. A mechanistic study into the epoxidation of carboxylic acid and alkene in a mono, di-acylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuping; Tang, Qingyun; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-05-01

    More and more industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes are finding increasing use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized vegetable oils have recently found applications as plasticizers and additives for PVC production. We report here an unusual activity of the Malassezia globosa lipase (SMG1) that is able to catalyze epoxidation of alkenes. SMG1 catalyzes formation of peroxides from long chain carboxylic acids that subsequently react with double bonds of alkenes to produce epoxides. The SMG1 is selective towards carboxylic acids and active also as a mutant lacking hydrolase activity. Moreover we present previously unobserved mechanism of catalysis that does not rely on acyl-substrate complex nor tetrahedral intermediate. Since SMG1 lipase is activated by allosteric change upon binding to the lipophilic-hydrophilic phase interface we reason that it can be used to drive the epoxidation in the lipophilic phase exclusively.

  8. Epoxide pathways improve model predictions of isoprene markers and reveal key role of acidity in aerosol formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene significantly contributes to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States where biogenic hydrocarbons mix with anthropogenic emissions. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model is updated to predict isoprene aerosol from epoxides produced under both ...

  9. A Standard Greenhouse Method for Assessing Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance in Soybean: SCE08 (Standardized Cyst Evaluation 2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is distributed throughout the soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production areas of the United States and Canada. SCN remains the most economically important pathogen of soybean in North America; the most recent estimate of soybean yield...

  10. Wavelength Shifters and Interactions of EDTA with Acrylic & LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Yuvraj; SNO+ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA had negligible effects on the Young's Modulus of acrylic. EDTA is also slightly soluble in LAB, but can be completely removed by rinsing with water. Additionally, the study of the light yield and alpha/beta timing profiles of two wavelength shifters - bisMSB and perylene - is critical to determining which should be added to the 0 νββ isotope (tellurium) LAB cocktail. Small-scale results hint that perylene might be better, but this is being confirmed with larger-scale tests. The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA

  11. In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Toxicological Evaluations of Perillaldehyde 8,9-Epoxide, a Derivative of Perillyl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Amaral, Ricardo Guimarães; Dória, Grace Anne Azevedo; Fonseca, Cecília Santos; da Silva, Tayane Kayane Mariano; Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcante; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; do Nascimento, Lázaro Gomes; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the high cytotoxicity of p-menthane derivatives against human tumor cells. In this study, the substance perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, a p-menthane class derivative obtained from (S)-(−)-perillyl alcohol, was selected in order to assess antitumor activity against experimental sarcoma 180 tumors. Toxicological effects related to the liver, spleen, kidneys and hematology were evaluated in mice submitted to treatment. The tumor growth inhibition rate was 38.4%, 58.7%, 35.3%, 45.4% and 68.1% at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, perillyl alcohol and 25 mg/kg/day for 5-FU intraperitoneal treatments, respectively. No toxicologically significant effect was found in liver and kidney parameters analyzed in Sarcoma 180-inoculated mice treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. Histopathological analyses of the liver, spleen, and kidneys were free from any morphological changes in the organs of the animals treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. In conclusion, the data suggest that perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide possesses significant antitumor activity without systemic toxicity for the tested parameters. By comparison, there was no statistical difference for the antitumor activity between perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide and perillyl alcohol. PMID:26742032

  12. Theoretical determination of molecular structure and conformation. 18. On the formation of epoxides during the ozonolysis of alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, D.; Bock, C.W.

    1986-06-11

    The reaction of carbonyl oxide (CH/sub 2/OO) and ethylene has been investigated by ab initio techniques. According to theoretical results, carbonyl oxide can act as an oxygen-transfer agent, thus leading to epoxide and aldehyde: C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ + CH/sub 2/OO ..-->.. CH/sub 2/OCH/sub 2/ + CH/sub 2/O. The calculated transition-state energies of the various epoxidation modes are 4-8 kcal/mol, which are comparable to activation energies of cycloaddition (cycloreversion) reactions encountered in the ozonolysis of alkenes. Epoxidation of alkene by carbonyl oxide is best described as a S/sub N/2 reaction on the terminal oxygen atom of carbonyl oxide. The preferred collision mode of the O-transfer reaction can be rationalized on the basis of frontier orbital interactions. Apart from epoxidation, carbonyl oxide can add to ethylene, yielding 1,2-dioxolane. The energy requirements of the cycloaddition are equivalent to those of the epoxidation. However, 1,2-dioxolanes will only be observed under normal ozonolysis conditions if the excess energy generated in the cycloaddition reaction is readily dissipated. Otherwise, 1,2-dioxolanes will immediately decompose, again yielding, among other products, epoxides.

  13. Soybean canopy reflectance modeling data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous mathematical models of the interaction of radiation with vegetation canopies have been developed over the last two decades. However, data with which to exercise and validate these models are scarce. During three days in the summer of 1980, experiments are conducted with the objective of gaining insight about the effects of solar illumination and view angles on soybean canopy reflectance. In concert with these experiment, extensive measurements of the soybean canopies are obtained. This document is a compilation of the bidirectional reflectance factors, agronomic, characteristics, canopy geometry, and leaf, stem, and pod optical properties of the soybean canopies. These data sets should be suitable for use with most vegetation canopy reflectance models.

  14. Polymerization of acrylic acid using atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, M.; Bashir, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper polymerization of acrylic acid was performed using non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology. The goal of this study is to deposit organic functional coatings for biomedical applications using a low cost and rapid growth rate plasma jet technique. The monomer solution of acrylic acid was vaporized and then fed into the argon plasma for coating. The discharge was powered using a laboratory made power supply operating with sinusoidal voltage signals at a frequency of 10 kHz. The optical emission spectra were collected in order to get insight into the plasma chemistry during deposition process. The coatings were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and growth rates analysis. A high retention of carboxylic functional groups of the monomer was observed at the surface deposited using this low power technique.

  15. Reversible opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with diabetic retinopathy and chronic myelogenous leukemia had phacoemulsification cataract removal and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (Akreos MI-60) implantation in both eyes. One month after surgery, significant IOL opacity and severe cystoid macular edema were observed in both eyes. After bilateral intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) to control macular edema, central clearing of the IOL opacity was observed in both eyes. Two months after the injection, the IOL opacity had almost disappeared from both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of early postoperative bilateral IOL opacity in a hydrophilic acrylic IOL cleared after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injection. The role of anti-VEGF therapy in clearing IOL opacification requires further investigation.

  16. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  17. Epoxidation of 1-Octene with hydrogen peroxide aqueous catalyzed by titania supported sulfonated coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhadi, Mukhamad

    2017-02-01

    Titania supported sulfonated coal was created as heterogeneous catalyst for epoxidation of 1-octene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant at room temperature. The catalysts were prepared from coal that was sulfonated with H2SO4 (97%) and impregnated 7.2%wt with titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti(PrO)4). All catalysts coal (C), CS, Ti(7.2)-CS and Ti(7.2)-CSC were characterized by FTIR. The catalytic performance was tested for epoxidation of 1-octene with H2O2 aqueous as oxidant. It is found that Ti(7.2)-CS possessed the best catalytic performance and it gave the highest 1,2 epoxyoctene 322 µmol.

  18. Block Copolymerization of Lactide and an Epoxide Facilitated by a Redox Switchable Iron-Based Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Biernesser, Ashley B; Delle Chiaie, Kayla R; Curley, Julia B; Byers, Jeffery A

    2016-04-18

    A cationic iron(III) complex was active for the polymerization of various epoxides, whereas the analogous neutral iron(II) complex was inactive. Cyclohexene oxide polymerization could be "switched off" upon in situ reduction of the iron(III) catalyst and "switched on" upon in situ oxidation, which is orthogonal to what was observed previously for lactide polymerization. Conducting copolymerization reactions in the presence of both monomers resulted in block copolymers whose identity can be controlled by the oxidation state of the catalyst: selective lactide polymerization was observed in the iron(II) oxidation state and selective epoxide polymerization was observed in the iron(III) oxidation state. Evidence for the formation of block copolymers was obtained from solubility differences, GPC, and DOSY-NMR studies.

  19. From epoxidized linseed oil to bioresin: an overall approach of epoxy/anhydride cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Pin, Jean-Mathieu; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Mija, Alice

    2015-04-13

    Biorenewable resources can be used as green monomers to design tailored structures for formulations that can play an important role as functional materials. The choice of optimal structures depends on the targeted properties and applications. This work focuses on the elaboration of biobased materials with toughened mechanical properties based on epoxidized linseed oil. This result was obtained by an overall approach of cross-linking process, that is, starting with the optimal choice of hardeners and finally favoring the side reactions of polymerization. Therefore, the anionic alternating copolymerization of epoxide with mono- and dianhydrides was investigated to tailor the parameters that led to maximal conversions and properties. The obtained highly cross-linked networks perform well, as demonstrated by good impact strengths, high glass transition temperatures, and excellent thermal stability, which opens up the possibility of using these emergent materials for industrial applications.

  20. Ladder Polyether Synthesis via Epoxide-Opening Cascades Directed by a Disappearing Trimethylsilyl Group

    PubMed Central

    Heffron, Timothy P.; Simpson, Graham L.; Merino, Estibaliz; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxide-opening cascades offer the potential to construct complex polyether natural products expeditiously and in a manner that emulates the biogenesis proposed for these compounds. Herein we provide a full account of our development of a strategy that addresses several important challenges of such cascades. The centerpiece of the method is a trimethylsilyl (SiMe3) group that serves several purposes and leaves no trace of itself by the time the cascade has come to an end. The main function of the SiMe3 group is to dictate the regioselectivity of epoxide opening. This strategy is the only general method of effecting endo-selective cascades under basic conditions. PMID:20302314

  1. CO2 copolymers from epoxides: catalyst activity, product selectivity, and stereochemistry control.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Bing; Ren, Wei-Min; Wu, Guang-Peng

    2012-10-16

    The use of carbon dioxide as a carbon source for the synthesis of organic chemicals can contribute to a more sustainable chemical industry. Because CO(2) is such a thermodynamically stable molecule, few effective catalysts are available to facilitate this transformation. Currently, the major industrial processes that convert CO(2) into viable products generate urea and hydroxybenzoic acid. One of the most promising new technologies for the use of this abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic renewable resource is the alternating copolymerization of CO(2) and epoxides to provide biodegradable polycarbonates, which are highly valuable polymeric materials. Because this process often generates byproducts, such as polyether or ether linkages randomly dispersed within the polycarbonate chains and/or the more thermodynamically stable cyclic carbonates, the choice of catalyst is critical for selectively obtaining the expected product. In this Account, we outline our efforts to develop highly active Co(III)-based catalysts for the selective production of polycarbonates from the alternating copolymerization of CO(2) with epoxides. Binary systems consisting of simple (salen)Co(III)X and a nucleophilic cocatalyst exhibited high activity under mild conditions even at 0.1 MPa CO(2) pressure and afforded copolymers with >99% carbonate linkages and a high regiochemical control (∼95% head-to-tail content). Discrete, one-component (salen)Co(III)X complexes bearing an appended quaternary ammonium salt or sterically hindered Lewis base showed excellent activity in the selectively alternating copolymerization of CO(2) with both aliphatic epoxides and cyclohexene oxide at high temperatures with low catalyst loading and/or low pressures of CO(2). Binary or one-component catalysts based on unsymmetric multichiral Co(III) complexes facilitated the efficient enantioselective copolymerization of CO(2) with epoxides, providing aliphatic polycarbonates with >99% head-to-tail content. These

  2. Copolymerization of CO2 and epoxides catalyzed by metal salen complexes.

    PubMed

    Darensbourg, Donald J; Mackiewicz, Ryan M; Phelps, Andrea L; Billodeaux, Damon R

    2004-11-01

    The design of efficient metal catalysts for the selective coupling of epoxides and carbon dioxide to afford completely alternating copolymers has made significant gains over the past decade. Hence, it is becoming increasingly clear that this "greener" route to polycarbonates has the potential to supplement or supplant current processes for the production of these important thermoplastics, which involve the condensation polymerization of diols and phosgene or organic carbonates. On the basis of the experiences in our laboratory, this Account summarizes our efforts at optimizing (salen)CrIIIX catalysts for the selective formation of polycarbonates from alicyclic and aliphatic epoxides with CO2. An iterative catalyst design process is employed in which the salen ligand, initiator, cocatalyst, and reaction conditions are systematically varied, with the reaction rates and product selectivity being monitored by in situ infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide with silica-immobilized homogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yasumasa; Kiyosu, Takahiro; Mori, Goro; Choi, Jun-Chul; Fukaya, Norihisa; Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Yasuda, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-09

    Quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts have been prepared for the selective synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide, demonstrating the effects of immobilizing the homogeneous catalysts on silica. The cycloaddition of sulfur dioxide to various epoxides was conducted under solvent-free conditions at 100 °C. The quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts produced cyclic sulfites in high yields (79-96 %) that are comparable to those produced by the homogeneous catalysts. The functionalized silica catalysts could be separated from the product solution by filtration, thereby avoiding the catalytic decomposition of the cyclic sulfite products upon distillation of the product solution. Heterogenization of a homogeneous catalyst by immobilization can, therefore, improve the efficiency of the purification of crude reaction products. Despite a decrease in catalytic activity after each recycling step, the heterogeneous pyridine-functionalized silica catalyst provided high yields after as many as five recycling processes.

  4. Corrosion inhibition of reinforcing steel by using acrylic latex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.X.; Lin, W.W.; Ceng, S.A.; Zhang, J.Q.

    1998-05-01

    Acrylic latex was introduced into steel-reinforcing steel concrete as concrete admixtures or rebar coatings in order to prevent corrosion of steel reinforcements. The results showed that applying the latex by both methods took effect in different ways, while the latter was more noticeable. The corrosion prevention mechanism and the surface state of the steel rebar were also explored, based on which suggestions for enhancing the corrosion-resistant ability were made.

  5. Superselective Embolization in Posttraumatic Priapism with Glubran 2 Acrylic Glue

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Spinelli, Alessio; Konda, Daniel Reale, Carlo Andrea; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2004-09-15

    Two patients with posttraumatic priapism underwent transcatheter embolization using microcoils, resulting in temporary penile detumescence and an apparent resolution of the artero-venous fistula. In both cases, priapism recurred 24 hours after the procedure and was successfully treated through selective transcatheter embolization of the nidus using acrylic glue (Glubran 2). The patients showed complete recovery of sexual activity within 30 days from the procedure and persistent exclusion of the artero-venous fistula after a 12-month follow-up.

  6. Acrylic strengthened casts for removable partial denture for occlusion equilibration.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suk; Saglik, Berna

    2011-09-01

    A removable partial denture (RPD) remount cast must resist wear or breakage, present a rigid surface, and ensure a solid support for an accurate equilibration of the occlusion for a RPD. This article describes a procedure of processing a thin layer of tooth colored acrylic resin over the dental plaster to present wear- and fracture-resistant incisal/occlusal surfaces without involving a third material.

  7. Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Randolph, J H; Parker, G R; Coffey, R D; Laurent, K M; Armstrong, C L; Mikel, W B; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2002-03-01

    Dehulled soybean meal prepared from genetically modified, herbicide (glyphosate)-tolerant Roundup Ready soybeans containing the CP4 EPSPS protein and near-isogenic conventional soybeans were assessed in an experiment with growing-finishing pigs. The soybeans were grown in the yr 2000 under similar agronomic conditions except that the Roundup Ready soybeans were sprayed with Roundup herbicide. Both were processed at the same plant. The composition of the two types of soybeans and the processed soybean meal were similar. Corn-soybean meal diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal and fortified with minerals and vitamins were fed to 100 cross-bred pigs from 24 to 111 kg BW. Diets contained approximately 0.95% lysine initially and were reduced to 0.80 and 0.65% lysine when pigs reached 55 and 87 kg BW, respectively. There were 10 pens (five pens of barrows and five pens of gilts) per treatment with five pigs per pen. All pigs were scanned at 107 kg mean BW and all barrows were killed at the end of the test for carcass measurements and tissue collection. Rate and efficiency of weight gain, scanned backfat and longissimus area, and calculated carcass lean percentage were not different (P > 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal. Gilts gained slower, but they were more efficient and leaner (P < 0.05) than barrows. Responses to the type of soybean meal were similar for the two sexes with no evidence of a diet x sex interaction for any of the traits. In most instances, carcass traits of barrows were similar for the two types of soybean meal. Longissimus muscle samples from barrows fed conventional soybean meal tended (P = 0.06) to have less fat than those fed Roundup Ready soybean meal, but water, protein, and ash were similar. Sensory scores of cooked longissimus muscles were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. The results indicate that Roundup Ready soybean meal is essentially equivalent in composition and

  8. Acrylic microspheres-based optosensor for visual detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nur Syarmim Mohamed; Tan, Ling Ling; Heng, Lee Yook; Chong, Kwok Feng; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam

    2016-09-15

    A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6 μm up to 1.8 μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100 ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples.

  9. Dichlorodioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes bearing oxygen-donor ligands as olefin epoxidation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tânia S M; Gomes, Ana C; Lopes, André D; Lourenço, João P; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Pillinger, Martyn; Gonçalves, Isabel S

    2015-08-21

    Treatment of the solvent adduct [MoO2Cl2(THF)2] with either 2 equivalents of N,N-dimethylbenzamide (DMB) or 1 equivalent of N,N'-diethyloxamide (DEO) gave the dioxomolybdenum(vi) complexes [MoO2Cl2(DMB)2] () and [MoO2Cl2(DEO)] (). The molecular structures of and were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both complexes present a distorted octahedral geometry and adopt the cis-oxo, trans-Cl, cis-L configuration typical of complexes of the type [MoO2X2(L)n], with either the monodentate DMB or bidentate DEO oxygen-donor ligands occupying the equatorial positions trans to the oxo groups. The complexes were applied as homogeneous catalysts for the epoxidation of olefins, namely cis-cyclooctene (Cy), 1-octene, trans-2-octene, α-pinene and (R)-(+)-limonene, using tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant. In the epoxidation of Cy at 55 °C, the desired epoxide was the only product and turnover frequencies in the range of ca. 3150-3200 mol molMo(-1) h(-1) could be reached. The catalytic production of cyclooctene oxide was investigated in detail, varying either the reaction temperature or the cosolvent. Complexes and were also applied in liquid-liquid biphasic catalytic epoxidation reactions by using an ionic liquid of the type [C4mim][X] (C4mim = 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium; X = NTf2, BF4 or PF6] as a solvent to immobilise the metal catalysts. Recycling for multiple catalytic runs was achieved without loss of activity.

  10. Cholesterol-5,6-epoxides: chemistry, biochemistry, metabolic fate and cancer.

    PubMed

    Poirot, Marc; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine

    2013-03-01

    In the nineteen sixties it was proposed that cholesterol might be involved in the etiology of cancers and cholesterol oxidation products were suspected of being causative agents. Researchers had focused their attention on cholesterol-5,6-epoxides (5,6-ECs) based on several lines of evidence: 1) 5,6-ECs contained an oxirane group that was supposed to confer alkylating properties such as those observed for aliphatic and aromatic epoxides. 2) cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase (ChEH) was induced in pre-neoplastic lesions of skin from rats exposed to ultraviolet irradiations and ChEH was proposed to be involved in detoxification processes like other epoxide hydrolases. However, 5,6-ECs failed to induce carcinogenicity in rodents which ruled out a potent carcinogenic potential for 5,6-ECs. Meanwhile, clinical studies revealed an anomalous increase in the concentrations of 5,6β-EC in the nipple fluids of patients with pre-neoplastic breast lesions and in the blood of patients with endometrious cancers, suggesting that 5,6-ECs metabolism could be linked with cancer. Paradoxically, ChEH has been recently shown to be totally inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of tamoxifen (Tam), which is one of the main drugs used in the hormonotherapy and the chemoprevention of breast cancers. These data would suggest that the accumulation of 5,6-ECs could represent a risk factor, but we found that 5,6-ECs were involved in the induction of breast cancer cell differentiation and death induced by Tam suggesting a positive role of 5,6-ECs. These observations meant that the biochemistry and the metabolism of 5,6-ECs needed to be extensively studied. We will review the current knowledge and the future direction of 5,6-ECs chemistry, biochemistry, metabolism, and relationship with cancer.

  11. Salen-complex-mediated formation of cyclic carbonates by cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides.

    PubMed

    Decortes, Antonello; Castilla, Ana M; Kleij, Arjan W

    2010-12-17

    Metal complexes of salen ligands are an important class of compounds, and they have been widely studied in the past. Among their successful catalytic applications, the synthesis of cyclic carbonates by the coupling reaction of epoxides with CO(2) has received increased attention; this is mostly due to the importance of using a greenhouse gas as a feedstock for the synthesis of useful molecules. Herein the most relevant past and present research surrounding this topic is presented.

  12. Chiral Co(III)(salen)-catalysed hydrolytic kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chun Rim; Choo, Dong Joon; Shim, Woo Ho; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang-gi; Song, Choong Eui

    2003-05-07

    In the chiral Co(III)(salen)-catalysed HKR of racemic epoxides, in the presence of ionic liquids, Co(II)(salen) complex is oxidised without acetic acid to catalytically active Co(III)(salen) complex during reaction and, moreover, this oxidation state is stabilised against reduction to Co(II) complex which enables the reuse of the recovered catalyst for consecutive reactions without extra reoxidation.

  13. Exploring dual electrophiles in peptide-based proteasome inhibitors: carbonyls and epoxides.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bo-Tao; de Bruin, Gerjan; Verdoes, Martijn; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Marel, Gijs A; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2014-08-14

    Peptide epoxyketones are potent and selective proteasome inhibitors. Selectivity is governed by the epoxyketone dual electrophilic warhead, which reacts with the N-terminal threonine 1,2-amino alcohol uniquely present in proteasome active sites. We studied a series of C-terminally modified oligopeptides featuring adjacent electrophiles based on the epoxyketone warhead. We found that the carbonyl moiety in the natural warhead is essential, but that the adjacent epoxide can be replaced by a carbonyl, though with considerable loss of activity.

  14. Chiral epoxide production using mycobacterium solubilized in a water-in-oil microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Prichanont; Leak; Stuckey

    2000-07-01

    The application of many biotransformation processes is limited because the substrates/products are poorly water soluble, can be further metabolized, or are inhibitory. Hence non-aqueous media (e.g. two-phase systems, low water environments) are being examined to determine whether they can be used to overcome these problems. One novel approach is to encapsulate whole cells in water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions (reverse micelles). In this study we have investigated the influence of key system parameters on system stability and epoxidation activity of Mycobacterium M156 cells in reverse micelles comprised of a mixture of Tween 85 and Span 80 (10-20 w%, with an hydrophilic/lipophilic balance [HLB] of 10 and a weight ratio of Tween 85 to Span 80 = 5.7) in n-hexadecane. It was found that the minimum allyl phenyl ether (APE) concentration required in the bulk hexadecane solvent phase for epoxidation to occur was 15 mM, whereas the minimum molar ratio of water to surfactant (W(0)) was 35. The optimum epoxidation rate achieved was 3.8 nmol/mg dwt-min with an APE concentration of 50 mM, and a W(0) of 50, with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of 86%. However, epoxidation was found to terminate approximately 3 h after initiation, and the causes for this were postulated to be either: the deleterious effect of the solvent on the Mycobacteria; inactivation of the energy generating system; an insufficient energy supply, or; the instability of the monooxygenase enzyme. It was concluded that on balance emulsion systems are not an economically viable system for producing phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE).

  15. The stability of the three transmembrane and the four transmembrane human vitamin K epoxide reductase models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2016-04-01

    The three transmembrane and the four transmembrane helix models are suggested for human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). In this study, we investigate the stability of the human three transmembrane/four transmembrane VKOR models by employing a coarse-grained normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. Based on the analysis of the mobility of each transmembrane domain, we suggest that the three transmembrane human VKOR model is more stable than the four transmembrane human VKOR model.

  16. Association of DDT and heptachlor epoxide in human blood with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2015-01-01

    Six organochlorine pesticides and pesticide metabolites in human blood were tested to determine their relationships with diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted, n=2992, population estimate=133,088,752). The six chemicals were p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and heptachlor epoxide. In this research, total diabetes included diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥6.5%), and nephropathy was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. The pesticide p,p'-DDT and pesticide metabolite heptachlor epoxide were significantly associated with total diabetes with nephropathy, with odds ratios of 2.08 (95% CI 1.06-4.11) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.05-2.93), respectively. Organochlorine pesticides are thought to act through the constitutive androstane receptor/pregnane X receptor disease pathway, but this is not well established. When p,p'-DDT and heptachlor epoxide were both elevated, the odds ratio for diabetic nephropathy was 2.76 (95% CI 1.31-5.81), and when six of six organochlorine pesticides and pesticide metabolites, were elevated, the odds ratio for diabetic nephropathy was 3.00 (95% CI 1.08-8.36). The differences in the odds ratios for these groups appear to be due to differences in the mean heptachlor epoxide concentration of each category. Organochlorine pesticides and pesticide metabolites are known to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic or antiandrogenic activity. The constitutive androstane receptor/pregnane X receptor pathway is thought to interact with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway, and the associations noted may be due to that interaction.

  17. Monolithic Nickel (II) Oxide Aerogels Using an Organic Epoxide: The Importance of the Counter Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

    2004-01-13

    The synthesis and characterization of nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials prepared using the epoxide addition method is described. The addition of the organic epoxide propylene oxide to an ethanolic solution of NiCl{sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O resulted in the formation of an opaque light green monolithic gel and subsequent drying with supercritical CO{sub 2} gave a monolithic aerogel material of the same color. This material has been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results indicate that the nickel (II) oxide aerogel has very low bulk density (98 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx}98 %porous)), high surface area (413 m{sup 2}/g), and has a particulate-type aerogel microstructure made up of very fine spherical particles with an open porous network. By comparison, a precipitate of Ni{sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4} is obtained when the same preparation is attempted with the common Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O salt as the precursor. The implications of the difference of reactivity of the two different precursors are discussed in the context of the mechanism of gel formation via the epoxide addition method. The synthesis of nickel (II) oxide aerogel, using the epoxide addition method, is especially unique in our experience. It is our first example of the successful preparation of a metal oxide aerogel using a metal divalent metal ion and may have implications for the application of this method to the preparation of aerogels or nanoparticles of other divalent metal oxides. To our knowledge this is the first report of a monolithic pure nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials.

  18. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; Mudiyanselage, K.; Rykov, S.; Senanayake, S. D.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Liu, P.; Stacchiola, D. J.; Chen, J. G.

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  19. Complex Cure Kinetics of the Hydroxyl-Epoxide Reaction in DGEBA Epoxy Hardened with Diethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancipink, Windy; McCoy, John; Kropka, Jamie; Celina, Mathias

    The curing of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A Epoxy (Epon 828) with diethanolamine (DEA) involves a fast amine-epoxide reaction followed by a slower hydroxyl-epoxide reaction. At curing temperatures below 100°C, the time scales of these two reactions are well separated, and the hydroxyl addition can be studied as an ''isolated'' reaction. The hydroxyl-epoxide reaction is of great interest due to the complex kinetics involved, which are brought about by competing reactions. The reaction kinetics are believed to be tertiary amine catalyzed and are well fit to a modified form of the Kamal-type equation. Here we study the complex long term reaction kinetics at various temperatures, by using isothermal modulated differential scanning calorimetry, micro calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200.

    PubMed

    Kotik, Michael; Kyslík, Pavel

    2006-02-01

    Purification of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been achieved using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography, in conjunction with two additional chromatographic steps employing hydroxylapatite, and Mimetic Green. The enzyme was purified 186-fold with a yield of 15%. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 77 kDa under native conditions and 40 kDa under denaturing conditions, implying a dimeric structure of the native enzyme. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be 4.0 by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity with highest specificities towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether, para-nitrostyrene oxide, benzyl glycidyl ether, and styrene oxide. Enantiomeric ratios of 30 to more than 100 were determined for the hydrolysis reactions of 4 epoxidic substrates using the purified enzyme at a reaction temperature of 10 degrees C. Product inhibition studies suggest that the enzyme is able to differentiate to a high degree between the (R)-diol and (S)-diol product of the hydrolysis reaction with tert-butyl glycidyl ether as the substrate. The highest activity of the enzyme was at 42 degrees C and a pH of 6.8. Six peptide sequences, which were obtained by cleavage of the purified enzyme with trypsin and mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic peptides, show high similarity with corresponding sequences originated from the epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger LCP 521.