Science.gov

Sample records for acrylic acid ester

  1. LC50 values for rats acutely exposed to vapors of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Oberly, R.; Tansy, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Acute exposure studies were conducted using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to obtain LC50/24 concentrations for the common esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The order of acute toxicity was determined to be methyl acrylate > ethyl acrylate > butyl acrylate > butyl methacrylate > methyl methacrylate > ethyl methacrylate. Four-hour daily exposures (excluding weekends) of young adult male rats to 110 ppm methyl acrylate in air over a period of 32 d failed to produce significant differences in body or tissue weights, blood chemistries, gross metabolic performance, and spontaneous small-intestinal motor activities when compared with a sham-exposed group.

  2. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of organofluorine esters of acrylic, methacrylic, and maleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'din, G.S.; Averbakh, K.O.; Lavygin, I.A.; Nekrasova, L.A.

    1985-12-01

    The authors synthesize and study the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates. The organofluorine esters are colorless liquids; their composition and structure were confirmed by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The results of studies of the dependence of the density, surface tension, and viscosity of these compounds on temperature are presented. The results revealed the influence of the length of the fluorocarbon chain on the combination of the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates, and also provided a method for estimating certain thermophysical characteristics of such compounds without recourse to experimental measurements.

  3. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and... ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  9. Highly efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of cyano-substituted acrylate esters for synthesis of chiral γ-lactams and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kong, Duanyang; Li, Meina; Wang, Rui; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2016-01-28

    A highly efficient and enantioselective synthesis of γ-lactams and γ-amino acids by Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation has been developed. Using the Rh-(S,S)-f-spiroPhos complex, under mild conditions a wide range of 3-cyano acrylate esters including both E and Z-isomers and β-cyano-α-aryl-α,β-unsaturated ketones were first hydrogenated with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) and high turnover numbers (TON up to 10,000). PMID:26661067

  10. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). 721.10526 Section 721.10526...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). 721.10526 Section 721.10526...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. TRPA1 is activated by direct addition of cysteine residues to the N-hydroxysuccinyl esters of acrylic and cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Sadofsky, Laura R; Boa, Andrew N; Maher, Sarah A; Birrell, Mark A; Belvisi, Maria G; Morice, Alyn H

    2011-01-01

    The nociceptor TRPA1 is thought to be activated through covalent modification of specific cysteine residues on the N terminal of the channel. The precise mechanism of covalent modification with unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds is unclear, therefore by examining a range of compounds which can undergo both conjugate and/or direct addition reactions we sought to further elucidate the mechanism(s) whereby TRPA1 can be activated by covalent modification. Calcium signalling was used to determine the mechanism of activation of TRPA1 expressed in HEK293 cells with a series of related compounds which were capable of either direct and/or conjugate addition processes. These results were confirmed using physiological recordings with isolated vagus nerve preparations. We found negligible channel activation with chemicals which could only react with cysteine residues via conjugate addition such as acrylamide, acrylic acid, and cinnamic acid. Compounds able to react via either conjugate or direct addition, such as acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, mesityl oxide, acrylic acid NHS ester, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid NHS ester, activated TRPA1 in a concentration dependent manner as did compounds only capable of direct addition, namely propionic acid NHS ester and hydrocinnamic acid NHS ester. These compounds failed to activate TRPV1 expressed in HEK293 cells or mock transfected HEK293 cells. For molecules capable of direct or conjugate additions, the results suggest for the first time that TRPA1 may be activated preferentially by direct addition of the thiol group of TRPA1 cysteines to the agonist carbonyl carbon of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds.

  3. Time-resolved EPR investigation of potential model systems for acrylate polymer main chain radicals based on esters of Kemp's tri-acid.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Gorelik, Elena V; Magnus-Aryitey, Damaris; Hill, Terence E; Forbes, Malcolm D E

    2009-05-14

    Methyl esters of Kemp's tri-acid and cyclohexanetricarboxylic acid are structurally similar to acrylate polymers, having the same functionalities and stereoregularities as poly(methylmethacrylate) and poly(methylacrylate), respectively. The photochemistry and free radicals from these model systems have been studied using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with laser flash photolysis at 248 nm. Chemically induced electron spin polarization from the triplet mechanism (net emission) is observed. Well-resolved spectra are obtained at all temperatures for the model system radicals, which are determined to be in the slow motion condition, that is, there is no interconversion of chair conformations. The temperature dependence of the spectra is minimal; some hyperfine lines shift as the temperature increases, but without much broadening. Density functional theory calculations are presented and discussed in support of the experimental data.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. Structure-activity relationships in the hydrolysis of acrylate and methacrylate esters by carboxylesterase in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T J; Witz, G

    1997-01-15

    Acrylate esters are important chemicals in the plastics industry, whose toxicity is theorized to involve alkylation of critical cellular nucleophiles via the Michael addition. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of acrylates may be a detoxification mechanism as the unsaturated acid produced is not electrophilic under physiological conditions. Using purified porcine liver carboxylesterase, the enzymatic hydrolysis of several acrylate esters was characterized to determine Km and Vmax values for each ester. The Km (microM) and Vmax (nmol/min) values observed for ethyl acrylate were 134 +/- 16 (S.D.) and 8.9 +/- 2.0, respectively. While the Km for ethyl methacrylate was not significantly different, the Vmax 5.5 +/- 2.5, was significantly lower compared with the corresponding value for ethyl acrylate. The Km and Vmax for butyl acrylate were 33.3 +/- 8.5 microM and 1.49 +/- 0.83 nmol/min, respectively, and the corresponding values for its alpha-methyl analog were not significantly different. The Km and Vmax for tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate were 39 +/- 15 microM and 2.9 +/- 1.0 nmol/min, respectively. The Vmax for ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 6.9 +/- 2.4 nmol/min, was significantly higher than that of the larger bifunctional ester tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, but the Km was not significantly different. These results indicate that alpha-methyl substitution appears to have a minor effect in the enzymatic hydrolysis of acrylates, and suggest that the relative toxicity of acrylates is not due to differences in carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis.

  9. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  10. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  11. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  12. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  13. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  14. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and holding food, including heating of prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging and holding food, including heating of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and holding food, including heating of prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and holding food, including heating of prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres prepared for the gastrointestinal tract using polyglycerol esters of fatty acids and a poly(acrylic acid) derivative.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Nagahara, N; Kashihara, T; Hirai, S; Toguchi, H

    1995-03-01

    Two types of polyglycerol ester of fatty acid (PGEF)-based microspheres were prepared: Carbopol 934P (CP)-coated microspheres (CPC-microspheres) and CP-dispersion microspheres (CPD-microspheres). Comparative studies on mucoadhesion were done with these microspheres and PGEF-based microspheres without CP (PGEF-microspheres). In an in vitro adhesion test, the CPD-microspheres adhered strongly to mucosa prepared from rat stomach and small intestine because each CP particle in the CPD-microsphere was hydrated and swelled with part of it remaining within the microsphere and part extending to the surface serving to anchor the microsphere to the mucus layer. The gastrointestinal transit patterns after administration of the CPD-microspheres and PGEF-microspheres to fasted rats were fitted to a model in which the microspheres are emptied from the stomach monoexponentially with a lag time and then transit through the small intestine at zero-order. Parameters obtained by curve fitting confirmed that the gastrointestinal transit time of the CPD-microspheres was prolonged compared with that of the PGEF-microspheres. MRT in the gastrointestinal tract was also prolonged after administration of the CPD-microspheres compared with that following the administration of the PGEF-microspheres.

  20. Esterification of acrylic acid with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarov, G.A.; Danov, S.M.; Logutov, V.I.; Obmelyukhina, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    The esterification of acrylic acid with methanol in the absence of catalysis by strong mineral acids has been studied. The esterification rate was estimated from the amount of methyl acrylate formed at the end of a definite time, and the reaction rate was found to be first order with respect to methanol and second order with respect to acrylic acid. Mathematical relationships in good agreement with experimental data were derived from the results of the kinetic studies.

  1. Constrained photophysics of partially and fully encapsulated charge transfer probe (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester inside cyclodextrin nano-cavities: Evidence of cyclodextrins cavity dependent complex stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-12-01

    The polarity sensitive intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) emission from (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) is found to show distinct changes once introduced into the nano-cavities of cyclodextrins in aqueous environment. Movement of the molecule from the more polar aqueous environment to the less polar, hydrophobic cyclodextrin interior is marked by the blue shift of the CT emission band with simultaneous fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission spectral changes on complexation with the α- and β-CD show different stoichiometries as observed from the Benesi-Hildebrand plots. Fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime measurements were performed to probe the different behaviors of MAPAME in aqueous α- and β-CD solutions.

  2. The reactivity of selected acrylate esters toward glutathione and deoxyribonucleosides in vitro: structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T J; Hayes, E P; Schwartz, C S; Witz, G

    1994-05-01

    Acrylate esters are alpha,beta-unsaturated esters used as plastic monomers whose toxicity may involve reaction with tissue nucleophiles via Michael addition. Structure-activity relationships for reactivity of selected esters with glutathione (GSH) and deoxyribonucleosides were investigated in the present studies. The esters investigated were methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate, tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. To compare their reactivities toward GSH, esters were incubated for up to 1 hr at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 with either GSH or red blood cells in phosphate-buffered saline followed by measurement of free thiol. In both systems acrylate electrophilic reactivity decreased with alpha-methyl substitution; however, the decrease in electrophilic reactivity was more evident in the cell-free system than in the red blood cell model. Increased alcohol chain length moderately affected the apparent second-order rate constant for the spontaneous reaction of acrylate esters with GSH, but did not affect potency relative to cellular GSH depletion. The apparent second-order rate constants of bifunctional esters are more than twice the rate constants of the much smaller monofunctional esters. Ethyl acrylate, a reactive acrylate ester based upon glutathione alkylation, has been designated a class 2B (suspect human) carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. To detect possible DNA alkylation by acrylate esters in vitro, ethyl acrylate was incubated with deoxyribonucleosides for up to 24 hr at pH 6.7 or 7.4 and 37 degrees C or up to 8 hr and 50 degrees C. HPLC analysis revealed no detectable adduct formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure.

  4. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  5. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  6. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  7. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  8. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  9. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  11. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  16. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  19. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  20. Synthesis, antitumor activity, and mechanism of action of 6-acrylic phenethyl ester-2-pyranone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sai; Chen, Lei; Yu, Miao; Cheng, Bao; Lin, Yongsheng; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2015-04-28

    Based on the scaffolds of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as well as bioactive lactone-containing compounds, 6-acrylic phenethyl ester-2-pyranone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against five tumor cell lines (HeLa, C6, MCF-7, A549, and HSC-2). Most of the new derivatives exhibited moderate to potent cytotoxic activity. Moreover, HeLa cell lines showed higher sensitivity to these compounds. In particular, compound showed potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 0.50-3.45 μM) against the five cell lines. Further investigation on the mechanism of action showed that induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phases in HeLa cells, and inhibited migration through disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, ADMET properties were also calculated in silico, and compound showed good ADMET properties with good absorption, low hepatotoxicity, and good solubility, and thus, could easily be bound to carrier proteins, without inhibition of CYP2D6. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that compounds with ortho-substitution on the benzene ring exhibited obviously increased cytotoxic potency. This study indicated that compound is a promising compound as an antitumor agent. PMID:25800703

  1. Synthesis, Antitumor Activity, and Mechanism of Action of 6-Acrylic Phenethyl Ester-2-pyranone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Sai; Chen, Lei; Yu, Miao; Cheng, Bao; Lin, Yongsheng; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the scaffolds of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as well as bioactive lactone-containing compounds, 6-acrylic phenethyl ester-2-pyranone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against five tumor cell lines (HeLa, C6, MCF-7, A549, and HSC-2). Most of the new derivatives exhibited moderate to potent cytotoxic activity. Moreover, HeLa cell lines showed higher sensitivity to these compounds. Particularly, compound 5o showed potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 0.50 – 3.45 μM) against the five cell lines. Further investigation on the mechanism of action showed that 5o induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phases in HeLa cells, and inhibited migration through disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, ADME properties were also calculated in silico, and compound 5o showed good ADMET properties with good absorption, low hepatotoxicity, and good solubility, and thus, could easily be bound to carrier proteins, without inhibition of CYP2D6. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that compounds with ortho-substitution on the benzene ring exhibited obviously increased cytotoxic potency. This study indicated that compound 5o is a promising compound as an antitumor agent. PMID:25800703

  2. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  3. Formation of acrylic acid from lactic acid in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. ); Jones, M. Jr. )

    1989-09-15

    Supercritical (SC) water is an unusual medium in which fast and specific heterolytic reactions can be conducted at temperatures as high as 400{degree}C. In supercritical water, lactic acid decomposes into gaseous and liquid products via three primary reaction pathways. Products of the acid-catalyzed heterolytic decarbonylation pathway are carbon monoxide, water, and acetaldehyde. Products of the homolytic, decarboxylation pathway are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and acetaldehyde. Products of the heterolytic, dehydration pathway are acrylic acid and water. The intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the {alpha}-hydroxyl by the carbonyl group of lactic acid, producing {alpha}-propiolactone as an unstable intermediate which subsequently rearranges to become the unsaturated acid, is a likely mechanism for acrylic acid formation, although an intramolecular E2 elimination initiated by attack of the carbonyl oxygen on a methyl hydrogen cannot be ruled out. Support for the former mechanism comes in part from the observed 100% relative yield of acrylic acid from {beta}-propiolactone in SC water.

  4. Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

    1987-10-01

    A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed. PMID:3429129

  5. Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

    1987-10-01

    A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  8. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl...

  9. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  10. Intercalation of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate into kaolinite and their in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yanfeng; Pan, Xiaobing; Jia, Xin; Wang, Xiaolong

    2007-02-01

    Novel nano-composites of poly (acrylic acid)-kaolinite were prepared, and intercalation and in situ polymerization were used in this process. The nano-composites were obtained by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium acrylate (AANa) intercalated into organo-kaolinite, which was obtained by refining and chemically modifying with solution intercalation step in order to increase the basal plane distance of the original clay. The modification was completed by using dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO)/methanol and potassium acetate (KAc)/water systems step by step. The materials were characterized with the help of XRD, FT-IR and TEM; the results confirmed that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) were intercalated into the interlamellar spaces of kaolinite, the resulting copolymer composites (CC0 : copolymer crude kaolinite composite, CC1 : copolymer DMSO kaolinite composite, CC2 : copolymer KAc kaolinite composite) of CC2 exhibited a lamellar nano-composite with a mixed nano-morphology, and partial exfoliation of the intercalating clay platelets should be the main morphology. Finally, the effect of neutralization degree on the intercalation behavior was also investigated.

  11. Tetrabutylammonium bromide media aza-Michael addition of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide to symmetrical fumaric esters and acrylic esters under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Imanzadeh, Gholamhassan; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Zamanloo, Mohammadreza; Mansoori, Yagoub

    2010-10-21

    The aza-Michael addition of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide with symmetrical fumaric esters has been performed efficiently in a solvent-free system at 100 °C and using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as a base in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB). The products were obtained in good to high yields within 2.5-7.0 h. This reaction worked well on linear alkyl fumarates and was not effective with nonlinear alkyl fumarates. Although the reaction was also applicable to acrylates such as n-butyl acrylate, methacrylates and crotonates were not suitable Michael acceptors for this reaction.

  12. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including..., safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty acids derived from these...

  13. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10685 - Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10685 Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid, mixed esters (PMN P-13-170) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  15. Acrylate ester-based monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography separation of triacylglycerols in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, M J; Vergara-Barberán, M; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2011-10-21

    A simple and reliable method for the evaluation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetable oils by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with UV-Vis detection, using octadecyl acrylate (ODA) ester-based monolithic columns, has been developed. The percentages of the porogenic solvents in the polymerization mixture, and the mobile phase composition, were optimized. The optimum monolith was obtained at the following ratios: 40:60% (wt/wt) monomers/porogens, 60:40% (wt/wt) ODA/1,3-butanediol diacrylate and 23:77% (wt/wt) 1,4-butanediol/1-propanol (14 wt% 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture). A satisfactory resolution between TAGs was achieved in less than 12 min with a 65:35 (v/v) acetonitrile/2-propanol mixture containing 5 mM ammonium acetate. The method was applied to the analysis of TAGs of vegetable oil samples. Using linear discriminant analysis of the CEC TAG profiles, the vegetable oils belonging to six different botanical origins (corn, extra virgin olive, hazelnut, peanut, soybean and sunflower) were correctly classified with an excellent resolution among all the categories.

  16. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  1. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Azhar, Saira; Mumtaz, Amara; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive compound of propolis extract. The literature search elaborates that CAPE possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. The principal objective of this review article is to sum up and critically assess the existing data about therapeutic effects of CAPE in different disorders. The findings elaborate that CAPE is a versatile therapeutically active polyphenol and an effective adjuvant of chemotherapy for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and diminishing chemotherapy-induced toxicities. PMID:24971312

  2. 40 CFR 721.10438 - Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.10438 Section 721.10438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10438 Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (PMN P-00-346) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10715 - Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10715 Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and..., dialkyl ester (PMN P-13-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10438 - Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.10438 Section 721.10438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10438 Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (PMN P-00-346) is subject to reporting under...

  5. Biosynthetic pathway for acrylic acid from glycerol in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenhua; Xu, Ying; Xian, Mo; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Acrylic acid is an important industrial feedstock. In this study, a de novo acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source glycerol was constructed in Escherichia coli. The acrylic acid was produced from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, and acrylyl-CoA. The acrylate production was improved by screening and site-directed mutagenesis of key enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase and chromosomal integration of some exogenous genes. Finally, our recombinant strain produced 37.7 mg/L acrylic acid under shaking flask conditions. Although the acrylate production is low, our study shows feasibility of engineering an acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source. Furthermore, the reasons for limited acrylate production and further strain optimization that should be performed in the future were also discussed. PMID:26782744

  6. A New Process for Acrylic Acid Synthesis by Fermentative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunelli, B. H.; Duarte, E. R.; de Toledo, E. C. Vasco; Wolf Maciel, M. R.; Maciel Filho, R.

    With the synthesis of chemical products through biotechnological processes, it is possible to discover and to explore innumerable routes that can be used to obtain products of high addes value. Each route may have particular advantages in obtaining a desired product, compared with others, especially in terms of yield, productivity, easiness to separate the product, economy, and environmental impact. The purpose of this work is the development of a deterministic model for the biochemical synthesis of acrylic acid in order to explore an alternative process. The model is built-up with the tubular reactor equations together with the kinetic representation based on the structured model. The proposed process makes possible to obtain acrylic acid continuously from the sugar cane fermentation.

  7. Precipitation polymerization of acrylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Romack, T.J.; Maury, E.E.; DeSimone, J.M.

    1995-02-13

    Increasing concern regarding the dissemination of chemical waste (both aqueous and organic) into their environment has prompted considerable interest in new technologies aimed at reducing current waste streams. Processes utilizing carbon dioxide in lieu of conventional solvents for chemical manufacturing and processing provide a viable route to achieving near-zero waste production for these important industries. The authors report the successful precipitation polymerization of acrylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at pressure ranging from 125 to 345 bar utilizing AIBN as a free radical initiator. Analyses by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that for the pressure range studied there is no appreciable effect on product molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, or particle size or morphology. In addition, effective molecular weight control was demonstrated for precipitation polymerizations of acrylic acid in CO{sub 2} through the use of ethyl mercaptan as a chain transfer agent.

  8. Polymerization of acrylic acid using atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, M.; Bashir, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper polymerization of acrylic acid was performed using non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology. The goal of this study is to deposit organic functional coatings for biomedical applications using a low cost and rapid growth rate plasma jet technique. The monomer solution of acrylic acid was vaporized and then fed into the argon plasma for coating. The discharge was powered using a laboratory made power supply operating with sinusoidal voltage signals at a frequency of 10 kHz. The optical emission spectra were collected in order to get insight into the plasma chemistry during deposition process. The coatings were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and growth rates analysis. A high retention of carboxylic functional groups of the monomer was observed at the surface deposited using this low power technique.

  9. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  10. Cellular Response to Linear and Branched Poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Whitty, Elizabeth G; Maniego, Alison R; Bentwitch, Sharon A; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Jones, Mark R; Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Poly(acrylic acid-co-sodium acrylate) (PNaA) is a pH-responsive polymer with potential in anticancer drug delivery. The cytotoxicity and intracellular effects of 3-arm star, hyperbranched and linear PNaA were investigated with L1210 progenitor leukemia cells and L6 myoblast cells. Free solution capillary electrophoresis demonstrated interactions of PNaA with serum proteins. In a 72 h MTT assay most PNaAs exhibited a IC50 between 7 and 14 mmol L(-1), showing that precipitation may be a sufficient purification for PNaA dilute solutions. Dialyzed 3-arm star and hyperbranched PNaA caused an increase in L6 cell viability, challenging the suitability of MTT as cytotoxicity assay for PNaA. Fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed merging of cellular lipids after exposure to PNaA, likely caused by serum starvation.

  11. Facile synthesis of acid-labile polymers with pendent ortho esters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Ji, Ran; Gao, Shi-Juan; Du, Fu-Sheng; Li, Zi-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a facile approach for preparation of acid-labile and biocompatible polymers with pendent cyclic ortho esters, which is based on the efficient and mild reactions between cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) and hydroxyl groups. Three CKAs, 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxane (EDO), 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxolane (EDL), and 2-ethylidene-4- methyl-1,3-dioxolane (EMD) were prepared from the corresponding cyclic vinyl acetals by catalytic isomerization of the double bond. The reaction of CKAs with different alcohols and diols was examined using trace of p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst. For the monohydroxyl alcohols, cyclic ortho esters were formed by simple addition of the hydroxyl group toward CKAs with ethanol showing a much greater reactivity than iso-propanol. When 1,2- or 1,3-diols were used to react with the CKAs, we observed the isomerized cyclic ortho esters besides the simple addition products. Biocompatible polyols, that is, poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were then modified with CKAs, and the degree of substitution of the pendent ortho esters can be easily tuned by changing feed ratio. Both the small molecule ortho esters and the CKA-modified polymers demonstrate the pH-dependent hydrolysis profiles, which depend also on the chemical structure of the ortho esters as well as the polymer hydrophobicity. PMID:22176024

  12. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10147 - Acrylate derivative of alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10147 Section 721.10147 Protection of Environment... alkoxysilylalkane ester and mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... ester and mixed metal oxides (PMN P-07-198) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  20. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids....

  1. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids....

  2. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  15. Direct fermentation route for the production of acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hun Su; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jiae; Choi, In Suk; Nam, Tae-Wook; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-11-01

    There have been growing concerns regarding the limited fossil resources and global climate changes resulting from modern civilization. Currently, finding renewable alternatives to conventional petrochemical processes has become one of the major focus areas of the global chemical industry sector. Since over 4.2 million tons of acrylic acid (AA) is annually employed for the manufacture of various products via petrochemical processes, this chemical has been the target of efforts to replace the petrochemical route by ecofriendly processes. However, there has been limited success in developing an approach combining the biological production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and its chemical conversion to AA. Here, we report the first direct fermentative route for producing 0.12 g/L of AA from glucose via 3-HP, 3-HP-CoA, and Acryloyl-CoA, leading to a strain of Escherichia coli capable of directly producing acrylic acid. This route was developed through extensive screening of key enzymes and designing a novel metabolic pathway for AA. PMID:26319589

  16. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto polyamide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Chahira; Marais, Stéphane; Roudesli, Sadok

    2007-04-01

    The grafting of acrylic acid (AA) monomer (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd COOH) on polyamide 6.6 monofilaments (PA 6.6) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator was carried out in order to enhance the hydrophilic nature of fibers. The grafting rate depends on the AA concentration, the BPO concentration, the time and the temperature of reaction. The best conditions for optimum rate of grafting were obtained with a AA concentration of 0.5 M, a BPO concentration of 0.03 M, a reaction temperature of T = 85 °C and a reaction time of 120 mn. The fiber surface has been investigated by many experimental techniques of characterization such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), calorimetric analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. The effect of grafting of acrylic acid onto PA 6.6 fibers on their moisture and mechanical resistances was analyzed from water sorption and elongation at break measurements. The analysis of the experimental data shows clearly the efficiency of the grafting reaction used, leading to a significant increase of the hydrophilic character of the PA 6.6 surface.

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  18. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  19. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  20. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  4. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  5. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar; Spivey, James Jerry; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  6. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  7. Spectral filters based on ethylene/acrylic acid copolymer ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.O.; Walkup, C.M.; Hagen, W.F.; Jessop, E.S.

    1988-09-01

    We are investigating the possibility of utilizing ionomers as inexpensive, easily replaced optical filters for applications in large fusion lasers as well as high average power solid state lasers. To this end we have synthesized a number of other derivatives of the ethylene/acrylic acid (EAA) copolymer system. Specifically, we prepared several ionomers at nominal 3 wt. % metal ion concentration, including Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Ce(III), by reacting aqueous solutions of metal acetates or nitrates with aqueous ammonia dispersions (1) of EAA as described previously. The products were compression molded into thin optically clear films under the above-described conditions. A gel was formed in a similar reaction with samarium (III) nitrate. Accordingly, the samarium ionomer was synthesized by a melt phase reaction between the EAA resin and the metal nitrate. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Swelling behaviors of porous lignin based poly (acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanli; Sun, Yajie; Fu, Yujie; Fang, Guizhen; Yan, Xingru; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-11-01

    Supramolecular cross-linked porous lignin based poly (acrylic acid) [LBPAA] was lab-synthesized by copolymerizing lignin grafted N, N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (LM) and acrylic acid. LBPAA successfully acted as a water retention agent with salt resistance and biodegradation for agricultural applications. Lignin was found to improve its swelling behaviors with higher water retention, fast swelling and de-swelling rates. The salt tolerance was stronger in the case of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) [60 wt% PAA/40 wt% LM], i.e., 145.79 g·g(-1) higher than PAA at 0.09 mM KCl solution. The effect of ion charges on the LBPAA swelling ratio was greater than that of ionic radius. The weight loss of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) was 5.47%, 4.96%, and 4.56% in the soil of Tangshan, Harbin, and Sian, respectively. The soil moisture content and clay content were observed to decrease gradually with increasing the burial time. The biodegradation test of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) composite exhibited different bacterial colony forming units (CFU), the soil of Tangshan was 2.0 × 10(3) CFU·g(-1) soil, 7.0 × 10(3) CFU·g(-1) soil for Harbin, and 6.10 × 10(4) CFU·g(-1) soil for Sian. However, the organic matter contents in the soils did not have significant changes (Tangshan 6.21 mg·g(-1), Harbin 0.61 mg·g(-1), and Sian 0.405 mg·g(-1)). PMID:27587327

  9. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, K.; Okada, T.; Sakurada, I.

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual γ-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 {kcal}/{mol} between 20 and 60°C and 10 {kcal}/{mol} between 60 and 80°C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70°C, show maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130°C and then breaks off at 136°C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt such as sodium and calcium, the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300°C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and its metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption, however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. The sodium salt of 15% graft shows the same level of moisture regain as cotton. The AA-grafted PE filament and its metallic salts can be dyed with cationic dyes even at 1% graft. Tensile properties of PE filament is impaired neither by grafting nor by conversion to metallic salts.

  10. Novel synthesis of steryl esters from phytosterols and amino Acid.

    PubMed

    Pang, Min; Jiang, Shaotong; Cao, Lili; Pan, Lijun

    2011-10-12

    The feasibility of esterification of phytosterol with the amino acid l-glutamic acid was established. The influence of various organic solvents was investigated, and n-butanol was selected as an ideal solvent for phytosteryl esters synthesis with l-glutamic acid. The reaction conditions were further optimized by orthogonal experiments, and a 92.3% degree of esterification was obtained when optimum conditions were used. FT-IR spectral, GC-MS, and NMR analyses were adopted to determine the steryl esters of l-glutamic acid. The FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of ester bonds in the phytosteryl esters with l-glutamic acid, and on the basis of the detailed mass spectrography analysis, GC-MS and NMR offered an efficient and reliable way to confirm the steryl esters. This novel synthesis approach of phytosteryl esters with amino acid supplied a promising alternative to the substrate on esterification of phytosterols and thus can be readily applied to further studies of functional food ingredients of phytosteryl esters.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  15. FTIR gas-phase kinetic study on the reactions of some acrylate esters with OH radicals and Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Gallego-Iniesta, M P; Taccone, R; Martín, M P; Cabañas, B; Salgado, M S

    2014-10-01

    Acrylate esters are α,β-unsaturated esters that contain vinyl groups directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. These compounds are widely used in the production of plastics and resins. Atmospheric degradation processes of these compounds are currently not well understood. The kinetics of the gas phase reactions of OH radicals with methyl 3-methylacrylate and methyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate were determined using the relative rate technique in a 50 L Pyrex photoreactor using in situ FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature (298 ± 2 K) and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8 Torr) with air as the bath gas. Rate coefficients obtained were (in units cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (3.27 ± 0.33) × 10(-11) and (4.43 ± 0.42) × 10(-11), for CH3CH═CHC(O)OCH3 and (CH3)2CH═CHC(O)OCH3, respectively. The same technique was used to study the gas phase reactions of hexyl acrylate and ethyl hexyl acrylate with OH radicals and Cl atoms. In the experiments with Cl, N2 and air were used as the bath gases. The following rate coefficients were obtained (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k3 (CH2═CHC(O)O(CH2)5CH3 + Cl) = (3.31 ± 0.31) × 10(-10), k4(CH2═CHC(O)OCH2CH(CH2CH3)(CH2)3CH3 + Cl) = (3.46 ± 0.31) × 10(-10), k5(CH2═CHC(O)O(CH2)5CH3 + OH) = (2.28 ± 0.23) × 10(-11), and k6(CH2═CHC(O)OCH2CH(CH2CH3)(CH2)3CH3 + OH) = (2.74 ± 0.26) × 10(-11). The reactivity increased with the number of methyl substituents on the double bond and with the chain length of the alkyl group in -C(O)OR. Estimations of the atmospheric lifetimes clearly indicate that the dominant atmospheric loss process for these compounds is their daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. In coastal areas and in some polluted environments, Cl atom-initiated degradation of these compounds can be significant, if not dominant. Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) index and global warming potential (GWP) were also calculated, and it was concluded that these compounds have significant MIR values, but they do

  16. FTIR gas-phase kinetic study on the reactions of some acrylate esters with OH radicals and Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Gallego-Iniesta, M P; Taccone, R; Martín, M P; Cabañas, B; Salgado, M S

    2014-10-01

    Acrylate esters are α,β-unsaturated esters that contain vinyl groups directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. These compounds are widely used in the production of plastics and resins. Atmospheric degradation processes of these compounds are currently not well understood. The kinetics of the gas phase reactions of OH radicals with methyl 3-methylacrylate and methyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate were determined using the relative rate technique in a 50 L Pyrex photoreactor using in situ FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature (298 ± 2 K) and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8 Torr) with air as the bath gas. Rate coefficients obtained were (in units cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (3.27 ± 0.33) × 10(-11) and (4.43 ± 0.42) × 10(-11), for CH3CH═CHC(O)OCH3 and (CH3)2CH═CHC(O)OCH3, respectively. The same technique was used to study the gas phase reactions of hexyl acrylate and ethyl hexyl acrylate with OH radicals and Cl atoms. In the experiments with Cl, N2 and air were used as the bath gases. The following rate coefficients were obtained (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k3 (CH2═CHC(O)O(CH2)5CH3 + Cl) = (3.31 ± 0.31) × 10(-10), k4(CH2═CHC(O)OCH2CH(CH2CH3)(CH2)3CH3 + Cl) = (3.46 ± 0.31) × 10(-10), k5(CH2═CHC(O)O(CH2)5CH3 + OH) = (2.28 ± 0.23) × 10(-11), and k6(CH2═CHC(O)OCH2CH(CH2CH3)(CH2)3CH3 + OH) = (2.74 ± 0.26) × 10(-11). The reactivity increased with the number of methyl substituents on the double bond and with the chain length of the alkyl group in -C(O)OR. Estimations of the atmospheric lifetimes clearly indicate that the dominant atmospheric loss process for these compounds is their daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. In coastal areas and in some polluted environments, Cl atom-initiated degradation of these compounds can be significant, if not dominant. Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) index and global warming potential (GWP) were also calculated, and it was concluded that these compounds have significant MIR values, but they do

  17. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  18. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  19. Preparation and recovery of methacrylic acid and its esters

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, P.J.; Hite, J.R.

    1986-07-15

    This patent describes a process for the vapor phase catalytic oxydehydrogenation of isobutyric acid or its esters to form methacrylic acid or its esters wherein the gaseous product is condensed and purified. The improvement described here consists of adding to the gaseous product at or about the point of its condensation from 1 to 6000 ppm of a surfactant material selected from the group consisting of an anionic a cationic and non-ionic surfactant.

  20. Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-05-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.

  1. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  2. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  3. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  4. Branched Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids Are Preferred Substrates of the MODY8 Protein Carboxyl Ester Lipase.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Matthew J; Kamat, Siddhesh S; Parsons, William H; Homan, Edwin A; Maher, Tim; Peroni, Odile D; Syed, Ismail; Fjeld, Karianne; Molven, Anders; Kahn, Barbara B; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-08-23

    A recently discovered class of endogenous mammalian lipids, branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), possesses anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we identified and validated carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a pancreatic enzyme hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters and other dietary lipids, as a FAHFA hydrolase. Variants of CEL have been linked to maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8 (MODY8), and to chronic pancreatitis. We tested the FAHFA hydrolysis activity of the CEL MODY8 variant and found a modest increase in activity as compared with that of the normal enzyme. Together, the data suggest that CEL might break down dietary FAHFAs. PMID:27509211

  5. Synthesis and characterization of amylose grafted poly(acrylic acid) and its application in ammonia adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Yu, Haojie; Wang, Li; Abdin, Zain-Ul; Yang, Xinpeng; Wang, Junhua; Zhou, Weidong; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Xiao

    2016-11-20

    Amylose grafted poly(acrylic acid) (Am-g-PAA) was synthesized by graft copolymerization of amylose with acrylic acid. The structure of Am-g-PAA was confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectra. The morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of amylose and Am-g-PAA were investigated by SEM, XRD and TGA, respectively. The highest degree of substitution (DS) of carboxyl group was 1.96 which was obtained after reacted for 1h at 60°C. Acrylic acid to anhydroglucose mole ratio for DS was 19.81. It was found that a large number of carboxyl groups were grafted on the backbone of amylose. It was also found that ammonia adsorption capacity of amylose increased by grafting poly(acrylic acid) on the backbone of amylose. PMID:27561514

  6. Synthesis and self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zicheng; Ono, Robert J.; Wu, Zong-Quan; Bielawski, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    A modular and convenient synthesis of ethynyl end functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) in high purity is reported; this material facilitated access to poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) which self-assembled into hierarchical structures.

  7. Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, N. H.; Dessouki, A. M.; Khalil, F. H.

    A study has been made for the preparation of membranes by the direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polypropylene (PP) films. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. The effect of different solvents such as benzene, methanol/water mixture, isopropanol/water mixture, dimethyl formalide and distilled water on the swelling and grafting process of AAc onto PP films was investigated. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) and ferric chloride were used as inhibitors to minimize the homopolymerization of AAc and the suitable concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 1.0 and 1.5 wt% for Mohr's salt and ferric chloride, respectively. Also, the effect of monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was investigated. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 1.1 order. This grafting system proceeded by diffusion controlled process. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behavior, gel determination, mechanical and electrical properties were also investigated. It was found that the grafted membranes possess good hydrophilic properties which may make them promising in some practical applications.

  8. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  9. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules. PMID:25669583

  10. Controlled Transdermal Iontophoresis by Polypyrrole/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chansai, Phithupha; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-03-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system delivers a drug into a body at desired site and rate. The conductive polymer-hydrogel blend between polypyrrole (PPy) doped with anionic drug and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were developed as a matrix/carrier of drug for the transdermal drug delivery in which the characteristic releases depend on the electrical field applied. The PAA films and their blend films were prepared by solution casting using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinking agent. A mechanical blending of PPy particles and PAA matrix was then carried out. Drug diffusions in the blended PPy/PAA hydrogel and the non-blended one were investigated and determined by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell with an acetate buffer, pH 5.5, at 37 0C, for a period of 48 hours to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. Amounts of the released drug were measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The diffusion coefficient of drug was determined through the Higuchi equation via different conditions, with and without an electric field. Moreover, thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the polypyrrole and drug-loaded polypyrrole were investigated by means of the thermogravimetric analysis and by using a two-point probe meter, respectively.

  11. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  12. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid... conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid, and fatty acids conforming with §...

  13. Fragrance material review on carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  14. Effects of high-melting methyl esters on crystallization properties of fatty acid methyl ester mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. The most common form of biodiesel in the United States are fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, canola, and used cooking oils, waste greases, and tallow. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on th...

  15. Hemocompatibility of Chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) Grafted Polyurethane Tubing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Tomczyk, Nancy; Kandel, Judith; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The activation and adhesion of platelets or whole blood exposed to chitosan (CH) grafted surfaces is used to evaluate the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. The biomaterial surfaces are polyurethane (PU) tubes grafted with an inner poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and an outer CH or quaternary ammonium modified CH (CH-Q) brush. The CH, CH-Q and PAA grafted layers were characterized by ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy. Material wear tests demonstrate that CH (CH-Q) is stably grafted onto PU tubes upon exposure to saline solution for 7 days. Using quartz-crystal microbalances with dissipation (QCM-D), in-situ adsorption of blood plasma proteins on CH and CH-Q compared to a silicon oxide control was measured. The QCM-D results showed that the physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on CH-Q and CH surfaces is softer and more viscous than the protein layer on the SiO2 surface. The CH-Q layer thus has the weakest interaction with plasma proteins. Whole blood and platelet adhesion was reduced by ~92% on CH-Q, which showed the weakest interaction with plasma protein but more viscous adsorbed plasma protein layer, compared to SiO2. Last, to examine the biologic response of platelets and neutrophils to biomaterial surfaces, CH (CH-Q)/PAA, PAA and PU tubes were tested using a Chandler Loop apparatus as an ex vivo model and flow cytometry. The blood adhesion and biologic response results showed that CH and CH-Q reduced adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils and improved hemocompatibility relative to other surfaces (PU and PAA). Our studies demonstrated that the properties of physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on biomaterial surfaces correlates with blood coagulation on biomaterial surfaces. PMID:24349719

  16. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

    2000-10-01

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

  17. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharide fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2013-03-01

    Amphiphilic oligo- and polysaccharides (e.g. polysaccharide alkyl or alkyl-aryl esters) form a new class of polymers with exceptional properties. They function as polymeric surfactants, whilst maintaining most of the properties of the starting polymeric material such as emulsifying, gelling, and film forming properties combined with partial water solubility or permeability. At present carbohydrate fatty acid esters are generally obtained by chemical methods using toxic solvents and organic and inorganic catalysts that leave residual traces in the final products. Enzymatic reactions offer an attractive alternative route for the synthesis of polysaccharide esters. In this review the state of the art of enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharides fatty esters has been described.

  19. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles. PMID:24928058

  20. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles.

  1. Alkyl esters of gallic acid as anticancer agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Claudriana; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2013-02-01

    The current review presents the antitumoral properties of gallic acid and its ester derivatives. Numerous studies have indicated that the alkyl esters are more effective against tumor cell lines than gallic acid, and that this activity is related to their hydrophobic moiety. All related studies have shown that the antitumor activity is interconnected to the induction of apoptosis by different mechanisms and it depends on the cell type. The results presented in this review may help to emphasize that these compounds could be promising as a new alternative for the treatment of cancer, either alone or in combination with other antitumor drugs to potentiate their effects.

  2. Modeling the hydrolysis of perfluorinated compounds containing carboxylic and phosphoric acid ester functions and sulfonamide groups.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2010-01-01

    Temperature-dependent rate constants were estimated for the acid- and base-catalyzed and neutral hydrolysis reactions of perfluorinated telomer acrylates (FTAcrs) and phosphate esters (FTPEs), and the S(N)1 and S(N)2 hydrolysis reactions of fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs). Under some environmental conditions, hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs could be rapid (half-lives of several years in marine systems and as low as several days in some landfills) and represent a dominant portion of their overall degradation. Abiotic hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs may be a significant contributor to current environmental loadings of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Polymeric FTAcrs are expected to be hydrolyzed more slowly, with estimated half-lives in soil and natural waters ranging between several centuries to several millenia absent additional surface area limitations on reactivity. Poor agreement was found between the limited experimental data on FTPE hydrolysis and computational estimates, requiring more detailed experimental data before any further modeling can occur on these compounds or their perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanol phosphate ester (PFSamPE) analogs. FTIs are expected to have hydrolytic half-lives of about 130 days in most natural waters, suggesting they may be contributing to substantial FTOH and PFCA inputs in aquatic systems. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFSams) appear unlikely to undergo abiotic hydrolysis at the S-N, C-S, or N-C linkages under environmentally relevant conditions, although potentially facile S-N hydrolysis via intramolecular catalysis by ethanol and acetic acid amide substituents warrants further investigation. PMID:20390888

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  4. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  5. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  6. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  7. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  8. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  9. Synthesis of a novel acrylated abietic acid-g-bacterial cellulose hydrogel by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abeer, Muhammad Mustafa; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Pandey, Manisha; Martin, Claire

    2014-09-22

    Acrylated abietic acid (acrylated AbA) and acrylated abietic acid-grafted bacterial cellulose pH sensitive hydrogel (acrylated AbA-g-BC) were prepared by a one-pot synthesis. The successful dimerization of acrylic acid (AA) and abietic acid (AbA) and grafting of the dimer onto bacterial cellulose (BC) was confirmed by 13C solid state NMR as well as FT-IR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed characteristic peaks for AbA and BC; further, there was no effect of increasing amorphous AA content on the overall crystallinity of the hydrogel. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a glass transition temperature of 80°C. Gel fraction and swelling studies gave insight into the features of the hydrogel, suggesting that it was suitable for future applications such as drug delivery. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed an interesting interpenetrating network within the walls of hydrogel samples with the lowest levels of AA and gamma radiation doses. Cell viability test revealed that the synthesized hydrogel is safe for future use in biomedical applications.

  10. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN P-90... incorporated into a polymer matrix with the level of residual monomer below 0.1 percent. (2) The significant... chemical for more than 10 min/h. At a minimum, a chemical protective apron is required for any...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN P-92... incorporated into a polymer matrix with the level of residual monomer below 0.1 percent. (2) The significant... substance for more than 10 min/h. At a minimum, a chemical protective apron is required for any...

  12. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... (honeydew and cantaloupe), papaya, peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling....

  13. Fumaric acid esters: an alternative systemic treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ameen, M; Russell-Jones, R

    1999-09-01

    We report the successful clearance of severe chronic plaque psoriasis following treatment with fumaric acid esters (FAE) in two patients who had failed previous systemic therapy. FAE is gaining increasing acceptance for the treatment of psoriasis in countries such as Germany and the Netherlands, but at present remains unlicensed in Britain.

  14. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR...

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...

  16. Evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction process for separating acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E T; Moraes, E B; Machado, A B; Maciel Filho, R; Wolf-Maciel, M R

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method universal quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  17. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from ˜320 to ˜800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction (˜80%) and very high EDS (˜800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  18. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  19. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  20. Cements containing syringic acid esters -- o-ethoxybenzoic acid and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Brauer, G M; Stansbury, J W

    1984-02-01

    Fissure caries is reduced when syringic acid is incorporated into a cariogenic diet of rats. It was therefore of interest to synthesize n-hexyl and 2-ethylhexyl syringate and to evaluate the properties of cements with these compounds as ingredients. Liquids containing the esters dissolved in o-ethoxybenzoic acid (EBA) - when mixed with powders made up from zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, and hydrogenated rosin - hardened in from four to nine min. Properties of the cements were determined, when possible, according to ANSI/ADA specification tests. Depending on the powder-liquid ratio employed, we obtained compositions with varying physical properties desirable for different dental applications. The syringate cements, compared with the commonly used ZOE materials, have improved compressive and tensile strength, lower water solubility, do not inhibit polymerization, and are compatible with acrylic monomers. These cements pass, and mostly greatly exceed, the requirements for ZOE-type restorative materials. They also bond significantly to resins, composites, and non-precious metals. The bond strength is somewhat less than that of n-hexyl vanillate-EBA cement, but greatly exceeds the adhesion to various substrates of ZOE luting agents. Cements containing n-hexyl syringate were somewhat brittle. Best results were obtained with liquid compositions containing 5% 2-ethylhexyl syringate, 7% n-hexyl vanillate, and 88% EBA, which yielded non-brittle materials. These cements, because of the syringate ingredient, may possess caries-reducing properties. Thus, perhaps in conjunction with fluoride additives, they would be useful as insulating bases, pulp capping agents, root canal sealers, soft tissue packs, or intermediate restoratives.

  1. Fatty acid ethyl esters: current facts and speculations.

    PubMed

    Laposata, M

    1999-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) play a role in ethanol-induced organ damage and may serve as long-term markers of ethanol intake. This report summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicity of FAEE, the enzymes associated with FAEE synthesis, FAEE as fatty acid supplements, the in vivo degradation of orally ingested FAEE and FAEE as markers of ethanol intake. A list of major unanswered questions in each of these categories is also included.

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activity of cinnamic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Tawata, S; Taira, S; Kobamoto, N; Zhu, J; Ishihara, M; Toyama, S

    1996-05-01

    Cinnamic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were isolated from pineapple stems (Ananas comosus var. Cayenne). Twenty-four kinds of esters were prepared from these acids, alcohols and the components of Alpinia. Isopropyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (11) and butyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (12) were found to have almost the same effectiveness in antifungal activity against Pythium sp. at 10 ppm as that of the commercial fungicide iprobenfos (kitazin P).

  3. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  4. Adjustable degradation properties and biocompatibility of amorphous and functional poly(ester-acrylate)-based materials.

    PubMed

    Undin, Jenny; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-07-14

    Tuning the properties of materials toward a special application is crucial in the area of tissue engineering. The design of materials with predetermined degradation rates and controlled release of degradation products is therefore vital. Providing a material with various functional groups is one of the best ways to address this issue because alterations and modifications of the polymer backbone can be performed easily. Two different 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane/glycidyl methacrylate-based (MDO/GMA) copolymers were synthesized with different feed ratios and immersed into a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and in deionized water at 37 °C for up to 133 days. After different time intervals, the molecular weight changes, mass loss, pH, and degradation products were determined. By increasing the amount of GMA functional groups in the material, the degradation rate and the amount of acidic degradation products released from the material were decreased. As a result, the composition of the copolymers greatly affected the degradation rate. A rapid release of acidic degradation products during the degradation process could be an important issue for biomedical applications because it might affect the biocompatibility of the material. The cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated using a MTT assay. These tests indicated that none of the materials demonstrated any obvious cytotoxicity, and the materials could therefore be considered biocompatible.

  5. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  15. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  16. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be safely used...

  17. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  18. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10555 - Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10555 Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical... acid nonyl ester, branched and linear (PMN P-06-370; CAS No. 670241-72-2) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10555 - Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10555 Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical... acid nonyl ester, branched and linear (PMN P-06-370; CAS No. 670241-72-2) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  18. Poly(acrylic acid) to induce competitive crystallization of a theophylline/oxalic acid cocrystal and a theophylline polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jisun; Kim, Il Won

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric additives to induce competitive crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds were explored. A cocrystal of theophylline and oxalic acid was used as a model system, and poly(acrylic acid), poly(caprolactone), and poly(ethylene glycol) were the additives. The cocrystal formation was selectively hindered with addition of poly(acrylic acid). First the size of the cocrystals were reduced, and eventually the cocrystallization was inhibited to generate neat theophylline crystals. The theophylline crystals were of a distinctively different crystal structure from known polymorphs, based on powder X-ray diffraction. They were also obtained in nanoscale size, when millimeter-scale crystals formed without poly(acrylic acid). Polymeric additives that could form specific interactions with crystallizing compounds seem to be useful tools for the phase and size control of pharmaceutical crystals.

  19. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  1. Stable plasma-deposited acrylic acid surfaces for cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Detomaso, Loredana; Gristina, Roberto; Senesi, Giorgio S; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro

    2005-06-01

    Continuous and modulated glow discharges were used to deposit thin films from acrylic acid vapors. Different deposition regimes were investigated, and their effect on chemical composition, morphology and homogeneity of the coatings, as well as on their stability in water and resistance to sterilization. Stable films were utilized in cell adhesion experiments with human fibroblasts. PMID:15626431

  2. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  3. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  4. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  5. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    PubMed

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  6. Changes in Esters of Fatty Acids of Rhizopus arrhizus During Germination and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hess, S. L.; Weber, D. J.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1972-01-01

    Natural esters of fatty acids of Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer increased during the first 48 hr of growth. During the 48- to 72-hr period, there was a shift in concentration from the methyl esters to the ethyl esters of fatty acids. PMID:5079078

  7. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester stearyl palmitate or...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3020 - Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylpropyl ester. 721.3020 Section 721.3020 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3020 Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester. (a) Chemical... ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester (PMN P-85-680; CAS No. 690-83-5) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10542 - Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.10542 Section 721.10542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10542 Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester (PMN P-03-624; CAS No. 1731-79-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10542 - Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.10542 Section 721.10542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10542 Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester (PMN P-03-624; CAS No. 1731-79-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  6. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and Affects Retinoid Turnover*

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Lass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis. PMID:27354281

  7. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  8. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  9. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and Affects Retinoid Turnover.

    PubMed

    Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O; Taschler, Ulrike; Zierler, Kathrin A; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Kratky, Dagmar; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2016-08-19

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis. PMID:27354281

  10. Characterization of carotenoid fatty acid esters from the peels of the persimmon Diospyros kaki.

    PubMed

    Hitaka, Yuki; Nakano, Ai; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Manabe, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Hideaki; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Separation and structural determination of the chloroform-soluble components obtained from the peels of the persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were performed. β-Carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin mono-myristic acid ester, zeaxanthin di-myristic acid ester, the latter two of which were accompanied by a small amount of palmitoleic acid in the fatty acid moiety, and oleanolic acid were identified. Among these components, the mono-fatty acid ester of β-cryptoxanthin and the di-fatty acid ester of zeaxanthin were characterized for the first time.

  11. Stereoselective formation of trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters by the acid-mediated elimination of α-hydroxyboronate esters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K; McIntosh, Melissa L; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P; Clark, Timothy B

    2014-08-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction to obtain alkenes of known geometry. PMID:24915498

  12. Stereoselective formation of trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters by the acid-mediated elimination of α-hydroxyboronate esters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K; McIntosh, Melissa L; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P; Clark, Timothy B

    2014-08-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction to obtain alkenes of known geometry.

  13. Cu(I)-catalyzed (11)C carboxylation of boronic acid esters: a rapid and convenient entry to (11)C-labeled carboxylic acids, esters, and amides.

    PubMed

    Riss, Patrick J; Lu, Shuiyu; Telu, Sanjay; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Pike, Victor W

    2012-03-12

    Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl). PMID:22308017

  14. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  16. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  17. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio. PMID:27514871

  18. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio.

  19. Waveguide CP-FTMW and millimeter wave spectra of s-cis- and s-trans-acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Shipman, S. T.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    The millimeter wave spectrum of acrylic acid (CH2dbnd CHsbnd COOH), the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, was measured and analyzed from 130 to 360 GHz. Additional measurements from 18 to 26.5 GHz were also made using a waveguide CP-FTMW spectrometer. More than 4000 rotational lines were assigned to s-cis- and s-trans-acrylic acid in their ground vibrational states leading to precise determination of rotational, quartic and first complete set of sextic centrifugal distortion constants. New laboratory data of acrylic acid were then used to search for its spectral features in Orion KL, Sgr B2, and W51 molecular clouds. An upper limit to the column density of acrylic acid in Orion KL is provided.

  20. [Enantioseparation of 2-phenylcarboxylic acid esters by capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Bian, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives are important intermediates for preparing 2-arylcarboxylic acids, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In order to separate 2-phenylcarboxylic acid ester enantiomers by capillary gas chromatography (CGC), 2, 6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin were used as CGC chiral stationary phases, separately, and their enantioseparation abilities to enantiomers of methyl 2-phenylbutanoate, ethyl 2-phenylbutanoate, isopropyl 2-phenylbutanoate, methyl 2-phenylpropionate and cyclopentyl 2-phenylpropionate were examined. It was found that methyl 2-phenylbutanoate, methyl 2-phenylpropionate and cyclopentyl 2-phenylpropionate were successfully separated by using 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin as CGC chiral stationary phases, respectively. The enantiomer separation abilities of 2, 6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin to the three pairs of 2-phenylcarboxylic acid esters tested are superior to those of 2, 6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin. PMID:27319170

  1. Superabsorbent biphasic system based on poly(lactic acid) and poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Pandini, Stefano; Baldi, Francesco; Bignotti, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    In this research work, biocomposites based on crosslinked particles of poly(acrylic acid), commonly used as superabsorbent polymer (SAP), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were developed to elucidate the role of the filler (i.e., polymeric crosslinked particles) on the overall physico-mechanical behavior and to obtain superabsorbent thermoplastic products. Samples prepared by melt-blending of components in different ratios showed a biphasic system with a regular distribution of particles, with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 μm, within the PLLA polymeric matrix. The polymeric biphasic system, coded PLASA i.e. superabsorbent poly(lactic acid), showed excellent swelling properties, demonstrating that cross-linked particles retain their superabsorbent ability, as in their free counterparts, even if distributed in a thermoplastic polymeric matrix. The thermal characteristics of the biocomposites evidence enhanced thermal stability in comparison with neat PLLA and also mechanical properties are markedly modified by addition of crosslinked particles which induce regular stiffening effect. Furthermore, in aqueous environments the particles swell and are leached from PLLA matrix generating very high porosity. These new open-pore PLLA foams, produced in absence of organic solvents and chemical foaming agents, with good physico-mechanical properties appear very promising for several applications, for instance in tissue engineering for scaffold production.

  2. Antifungal activity of 4-substituted crotonic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Gawiak, D E

    1976-08-01

    Twenty-three 4-substituted crotonic acid esters were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For the analogues of the methyl ester containing substituents in the 4 position, the following order of fungitoxicity was observed: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than CH3S greater than CH3O greater than F=H. Of the homologues of the esters of the 4-iodo and 4-bromo compounds which included methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, and n-hexyl, ethyl 4-iodocrotonate was most toxic to the four fungi at pH 7.0 in the presence of 10% beef serum (C. albicans, 18mug/ml, A. niger, 40 mug/ml, M. mucedo, 5 mug/ml, T. mentagrophytes, 4 mug/ml). It is believed that the mechanism of fungitoxicity is due, in part, to a nucleophilic reaction involving SH-containing compounds. This is based on the correlation of fungitoxicity with the order of leaving groups in the nucleophilic reaction and the protection against the toxicity of the test compounds to the fungi by cysteine and glutathione.

  3. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3770 Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  19. Nanoparticles of Block Ionomer Complexes from Double Hydrophilic Poly(acrylic acid)- b-poly(ethylene oxide)- b-poly(acrylic acid) Triblock Copolymer and Oppositely Charged Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiping; Sun, Yuelong; Liu, Xinxing; Tong, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The novel water-dispersible nanoparticles from the double hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid)- b-poly(ethylene oxide)- b-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA- b-PEO- b-PAA) triblock copolymer and oppositely charged surfactant dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) were prepared by mixing the individual aqueous solutions. The structure of the nanoparticles was investigated as a function of the degree of neutralization (DN) by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DSL), ζ-potential measurement, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The neutralization of the anionic PAA blocks with cationic DTAB accompanied with the hydrophobic interaction of alkyl tails of DTAB led to formation of core-shell nanoparticles with the core of the DTAB neutralized PAA blocks and the shell of the looped PEO blocks. The water-dispersible nanoparticles with negative ζ-potential were obtained over the DN range from 0.4 to 2.0 and their sizes depended on the DN. The looped PEO blocks hindered the further neutralization of the PAA blocks with cationic DTAB, resulting in existence of some negative charged PAA- b-PEO- b-PAA backbones even when DN > 1.0. The spherical and ellipsoidal nature of these nanoparticles was observed with AFM.

  20. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    PubMed

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization. PMID:16333511

  1. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  2. Ultrafine metal particles immobilized on styrene/acrylic acid copolymer particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Hisashi; Hamamoto, Shiro; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Hajime

    1995-04-01

    Ultrafine metal particles immobilized on styrene/acrylic acid copolymer fine particles were produced by reducing the copolymer particles-metal ion complexes or refluxing an ethanol solution of metal ions in the presence of copolymer particles. The size of metal particles formed by reduction of the complex is smaller than that by reflux of the metal ion solution and depends on the amount of metal ions immobilized.

  3. A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside and a new quinic acid methyl ester from Patrinia villosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Fen; Ma, Hong-Mei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Xiang, Zheng; Feng, Qing-Mei; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2016-10-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside (1) and a new quinic acid methyl ester (2) were isolated from Patrinia villosa, together with another two known compounds chlorogenic acid n-butyl ester (3), 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (4). Their structures were established using 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and comparing with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. PMID:27156969

  4. A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside and a new quinic acid methyl ester from Patrinia villosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Fen; Ma, Hong-Mei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Xiang, Zheng; Feng, Qing-Mei; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2016-10-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside (1) and a new quinic acid methyl ester (2) were isolated from Patrinia villosa, together with another two known compounds chlorogenic acid n-butyl ester (3), 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (4). Their structures were established using 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and comparing with spectroscopic data reported in the literature.

  5. A Convenient, General Synthesis of 1,1-Dimethylallyl Esters as Protecting Groups for Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Minoo; Lipton, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Carboxylic acids were converted in high yield to their 1,1-dimethylallyl (DMA) esters in two steps. Palladium-catalyzed deprotection of DMA esters was shown to be compatible with tert-butyl, benzyl and Fmoc protecting groups, and Fmoc deprotection could be carried out selectively in the presence of DMA esters. DMA esters were also shown to be resistant to nucleophilic attack, suggesting that they will serve as alternatives to tert-butyl esters when acidic deprotection conditions need to be avoided. PMID:15816730

  6. A convenient, general synthesis of 1,1-dimethylallyl esters as protecting groups for carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Minoo; Lipton, Mark A

    2005-04-14

    [reaction: see text] Carboxylic acids were converted in high yield to their 1,1-dimethylallyl (DMA) esters in two steps. Palladium-catalyzed deprotection of DMA esters was shown to be compatible with tert-butyl, benzyl, and Fmoc protecting groups, and Fmoc deprotection could be carried out selectively in the presence of DMA esters. DMA esters were also shown to be resistant to nucleophilic attack, suggesting that they will serve as alternatives to tert-butyl esters when acidic deprotection conditions need to be avoided.

  7. Adsorption of methyl violet in aqueous solutions by poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şolpan, D.; Duran, S.; Saraydin, D.; Güven, O.

    2003-02-01

    In this study, Acrylamide(AAm)/Acrylic Acid(AAc) monomer mixtures which contain different quantities of acrylic acid have been irradiated to form hydrogels with γ-radiation. Acrylamide/Acrylic Acid (AAm/AAc) monomer mixtures which contain 15%, 20%, 30% AAm and irradiated with 8.0 kGy were used for swelling and diffusion studies in water and solutions of methyl violet. Diffusions of water and methyl violet within the hydrogels were found to be non-Fickian in character. In experiments on the adsorption of methyl violet, Type-S adsorption was found. Poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogel adsorbed methyl violet, while poly(AAm) hydrogel did not adsorb any dye. (Δ H) Heat of adsorption, (Δ G) Free energy of adsorption, (Δ S) Entropy of adsorption were calculated. These results show that poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels can be used as a sorbent for water pollutants such as dyes and treatment of these organic contaminants from wastewater.

  8. Preparation and characterization of poly(acrylic acid)-hydroxyethyl cellulose graft copolymer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S

    2012-10-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) hydroxyethyl cellulose [poly(AA)-HEC] graft copolymer was prepared by polymerizing acrylic acid (AA) with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) using potassium bromate/thiourea dioxide (KBrO(3)/TUD) as redox initiation system. The polymerization reaction was carried out under a variety of conditions including concentrations of AA, KBrO(3) and TUD, material to liquor ratio and polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was monitored by withdrawing samples from the reaction medium and measuring the total conversion. The rheological properties of the poly(AA)-HEC graft copolymer were investigated. The total conversion and rheological properties of the graft copolymer depended on the ratio of KBrO(3) to TUD and on acrylic acid concentration as well as temperature and material to liquor ratio. Optimum conditions of the graft copolymer preparation were 30 mmol KBrO(3) and 30 mmol TUD/100g HEC, 100% AA (based on weight of HEC), duration 2h at temperature 50 °C using a material to liquor ratio of 1:10. PMID:22840022

  9. Thermal preparation of chitosan-acrylic acid superabsorbent: optimization, characteristic and water absorbency.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huacai; Wang, Senkang

    2014-11-26

    Chitosan-acrylic acid superabsorbent polymer was successfully prepared by the thermal reaction without using initiator and crosslinker in air. The effects of some reaction variables on the water absorbency of this polymer were investigated by orthogonal tests, and the optimal conditions were described. The influences of temperature, time, ratio of the reactants and neutralization degree of acrylic acid on the reaction were further studied. These polymers were also prepared in nitrogen atmosphere and by using a radical initiator and compared against thermal reaction obtained polymers. The structures of the polymers were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XRD, (13)C NMR and elemental analyses. The results showed that the thermal reaction product of acrylic acid with chitosan might form N-carboxyethyl grafted and amide-linked polymer and this product could absorb water 644 times its own dry weight. The possible mechanism for the thermal reaction was further suggested. The purpose of this research was to explore the friendly synthesized method of the superabsorbent. PMID:25256488

  10. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  11. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms. PMID:16461689

  12. Influence of ozone and paracetic acid disinfection on adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paracetic acid (PAA) and ozone disinfection on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of silicone-based resilient liners to acrylic resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty dumbbell shaped heat-polymerized acrylic resins were prepared. From the mid segment of the specimens, 3 mm of acrylic were grinded off and separated parts were reattached by resilient liners. The specimens were divided into 2 control (control1, control7) and 4 test groups of PAA and ozone disinfection (PAA1, PAA7, ozone1 and ozone7; n=10). While control groups were immersed in distilled water for 10 min (control1) and 7 days (control7), test groups were subjected to PAA (16 g/L) or ozone rich water (4 mg/L) for 1 cycle (10 min for PAA and 60 min for ozone) per day for 7 days prior to tensile tests. Measurements of the TBS were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS Adhesive strength of Mollosil decreased significantly by application of ozone disinfection. PAA disinfection had no negative effect on the TBS values of Mollosil and Molloplast B to acrylic resin. Single application of ozone disinfection did not have any negative effect on TBS values of Molloplast B, but prolonged exposure to ozone decreased its adhesive strength. CONCLUSION The adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic was not adversely affected by PAA disinfection. Immersion in ozonated water significantly decreased TBS of Mollosil. Prolonged exposure to ozone negatively affects adhesion of Molloplast B to denture base materials. PMID:27555898

  13. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  18. Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/Pluronic L121 mixed micelles improve the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanli; Li, Yanli; Ge, Jianjun; Li, Na; Li, Ling-Bing

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study is to synthesize a thiolated Pluronic copolymer, Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine copolymer, to construct a mixed micelle system with the Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine copolymer and Pluronic L121 (PL121) and to evaluate the potential of these mixed micelles as an oral drug delivery system for paclitaxel. Compared with Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine micelles, drug-loading capacity of Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/PL121 mixed micelles was increased from 0.4 to 2.87%. In vitro release test indicated that Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/PL121 mixed micelles exhibited a pH sensitivity. The permeability of drug-loaded micelles in the intestinal tract was studied with an in situ perfusion method in rats. The presence of verapamil and Pluronic both improved the intestinal permeability of paclitaxel, which further certified the inhibition effect of thiolated Pluronic on P-gp. In pharmacokinetic study, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→∞) of paclitaxel-loaded mixed micelles was four times greater than that of the paclitaxel solution (p < 0.05). In general, Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/PL121 micelles were proven to be a potential oral drug delivery system for paclitaxel.

  19. Mass spectrometry of polycyclic tetracarboxylic ('ARN') acids and tetramethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Paul A; Smith, Benjamin E; Rowland, Steven J

    2010-11-15

    Polycyclic C(80) tetracarboxylic (so-called 'ARN') acids are found as calcium salts in deposits which form in certain oilfield pipelines and equipment. Characterisation of these acids is important for improving the prediction and hence avoidance or minimisation of oilfield deposition problems. Although several of the acids have been isolated and characterised (as regioisomeric mixtures) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometric methods are likely to be much more useful for the routine analysis of oils and deposits containing the acids. A publication summarising the mass spectra of the purified acids and major derivatives might thus be a very useful source of reference for scientists and technologists studying these unusual compounds. We now report the characterisation of several of the purified acids and of the tetramethyl esters by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in both positive ion and negative ion modes, by multistage ESI-MS with a suggested rationalisation of the ions produced, by positive ion atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), and by positive ion electron ionisation (EI)-MS. Tentative identifications of C(80) acyclic, mono-, bi- and tricylic tetraacids and the δ(13)C isotope values of a mixture of the semi-pure acids determined by MS are also reported for the first time.

  20. Novel fatty acid methyl esters from the actinomycete Micromonospora aurantiaca

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Hilke; Riclea, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Summary The volatiles released by Micromonospora aurantiaca were collected by means of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC–MS. The headspace extracts contained more than 90 compounds from different classes. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) comprised the major compound class including saturated unbranched, monomethyl and dimethyl branched FAMEs in diverse structural variants: Unbranched, α-branched, γ-branched, (ω−1)-branched, (ω−2)-branched, α- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−2)-branched, and γ- and (ω−3)-branched FAMEs. FAMEs of the last three types have not been described from natural sources before. The structures for all FAMEs have been suggested based on their mass spectra and on a retention index increment system and verified by the synthesis of key reference compounds. In addition, the structures of two FAMEs, methyl 4,8-dimethyldodecanoate and the ethyl-branched compound methyl 8-ethyl-4-methyldodecanoate were deduced from their mass spectra. Feeding experiments with isotopically labelled [2H10]leucine, [2H10]isoleucine, [2H8]valine, [2H5]sodium propionate, and [methyl-2H3]methionine demonstrated that the responsible fatty acid synthase (FAS) can use different branched and unbranched starter units and is able to incorporate methylmalonyl-CoA elongation units for internal methyl branches in various chain positions, while the methyl ester function is derived from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). PMID:22238549

  1. epsilon-Aminocaproic acid esters as transdermal penetration enhancing agents.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, P; Hrabálek, A; Semecký, V

    1993-07-01

    The synthesis of epsilon-aminocaproic acid esters is described. Two representative members from a group of five of the 1-alkyl homologues synthetized as flexible analogues of 1-alkylazacyclohepatanone derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their effectiveness on the transport of theophylline through the excised human cadaver skin in comparison with Azone. The 1-octyl- and 1-dodecyl-epsilon-aminocaproic acid esters (OCEAC and DDEAC) show excellent penetration enhancement. Donor samples contained 2.5% theophylline and 1% enhancers tested in three different vehicles. Fluxes of theophylline were increased with OCEAC about 19 times from olive oil, 45 times from water, and about 38 times from water-propylene glycol (3:2) vehicle toward controls (with DDEAC about 17, 39, and 35 times, respectively) and they were markedly higher than Azone under the given conditions. Acute LD50's (i.p. in mice) of OCEAC (DDEAC) were 245 mg/kg (352 mg/kg), with a slightly lower toxicity than Azone. OCEAC and DDEAC did not exhibit acute dermal irritation in vivo on rabbits at a 5% concentration in white petrolatum.

  2. 2-Fatty acrylic acids: new highly derivatizable lipophilic platform molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the incorporation of an alpha-methylene unit into fatty acid skeletons. Since the new olefin is conjugated with the carboxylate, it is susceptible to 1,4- (Michael) additions. We have used multifunctional thiols and amines for additions at the methylene. The resulting products ...

  3. Phase Transition of Poly(acrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) Core-shell Nanogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-bing; Zhou, Jian-feng; Ye, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    A series of poly(acrylic acid) macromolecular chain transfer agents with different molecular weights were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography. Multiresponsive core-shell nanogels were prepared by dispersion polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water using these poly(potassium acrylate) macro-RAFT agents as the electrosteric stabilizer. The size of the nanogels decreases with the amount of the macro-RAFT agent, indicating that the surface area occupied by per polyelectrolyte group is a critical parameter for stabilizing the nanogels. The volume phase transition and the zeta potentials of the nanogels in aqueous solutions were studied by dynamic light scattering and zetasizer analyzer, respectively.

  4. Synthesis, Evaluation of Anticancer Activity and QSAR Study of Heterocyclic Esters of Caffeic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hajmohamad Ebrahim Ketabforoosh, Shima; Amini, Mohsen; Vosooghi, Mohsen; Shafiee, Abbas; Azizi, Ebrahim; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppresses the growth of transformed cells such as human breast cancer cells, hepatocarcinoma , myeloid leukemia, colorectal cancer cells, fibrosarcoma, glioma and melanoma. A group of heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid was synthesized using Mitsunobu reaction and the esters were subjected to further structural modification by electrooxidation of the catechol ring of caffeic acid esters in the presence of sodium benzenesulfinate and sodium toluensulfinate as nucleophiles. Both heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid and their arylsulfonyl derivatives were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HeLa, SK-OV-3, and HT-29 cancer cell lines. HeLa cells showed the highest sensitivity to the compounds and heterocyclic esters with no substituent on catechol ring showed better activity compared to their substituted counterparts. QSAR studies reemphasized the importance of molecular shape of the compounds for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24523750

  5. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  6. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  7. Structure and Proton Conductivity in Mixtures of Poly(acrylic acid) and Imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Chang; Griffin, Philip J.; Winey, Karen I.; University of Pennsylvania Team

    2015-03-01

    Proton conductivity in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) typically involves water, which requires that during operation the humidity of the PEM be carefully controlled. In contrast, anhydrous protic polymer membranes promote proton transport by incorporating heterocyclic molecules, such as imidazole and its derivatives, into acid-containing polymers. In this work, we explore the interplay between nanoscale-structure and proton conduction of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blended at varying compositions with 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (EMI). We present the glass transition temperature from differential scanning calorimetry, morphology characterization from X-ray scattering, and proton conductivity from electrical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  9. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-12-02

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  10. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  11. Intramolecular interactions in ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids and their catechol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Borys, Krzysztof M.; Czerwińska, Karolina; Gierczyk, Błażej; Jakubczyk, Michał; Madura, Izabela D.; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Tomecka, Ewelina

    2013-12-01

    Catechol esters of ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids have been synthesized and characterized by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with the data for the parent acids. The influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the properties of the boronic acids has been discussed. The 17O NMR data for the boronic esters proved that there are no O → B interactions in the investigated compounds. This fact is connected with weak Lewis acidity of the parent acids and their low sugars' receptors activity. Crystal structure of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid catechol ester was determined.

  12. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  13. Determining Phthalic Acid Esters Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shen, L.; Yang, F.; Han, F.; Hu, P.; Song, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is applied for determining phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in standard materials. We reported the THz transmission spectrum in the frequency range of 0.2 to 2.0 THz for three PAEs: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP). The study provided the refractive indices and absorption features of these materials. The absorption spectra of three PAEs were simulated by using Gaussian software with Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For pure standard PAEs, the values of the refractive indices changed between 1.50 and 1.60. At 1.0 THz, the refractive indices were 1.524, 1.535, and 1.563 for DINP, DEHP, and DBP, respectively. In this experiment different concentrations of DBP were investigated using THz-TDS. Changes were measured in the low THz frequency range for refractive indices and characteristic absorption. The results indicated that THz-TDS is promising as a new method in determining PAEs in many materials. The results of this study could be used to support the practical application of THz-TDS in quality detection and food monitoring. In particular, this new technique could be used in detecting hazardous materials and other substances present in wine or foods.

  14. Radiation synthesis of eco-friendly water reducing sulfonated starch/acrylic acid hydrogel designed for cement industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rehim, H. A.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Diaa, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Starch was treated with chlorosulfonic acid to obtain sulfonated starch. Acrylic acid/sulfonated starch semi-interpenetrated network IPN of different compositions was prepared using ionizing radiation. Swelling of prepared IPNs at different environmental conditions was studied. The possible use of sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN as a water-retarding agent in the cement industry was investigated. ζ-potential measurements were used to determine the stability of the colloidal cement—SS/AA and cement -poly-naphthalene sulfonic acid (SNF) water retarding mixtures. Sulfonated starch/acrylic acid water-retarding property was influenced by hydrogel concentration and composition. Sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN admixture has a great effect on the cement initial setting time. Using 2% of SS/AA or SNF resulted in an increase in initial setting time by 2 and 1 h respectively, if compared with native cement initial setting time. The results showed that the synthetic commercial super-plasticizers could be replaced by an eco-friendly water-retarding sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN in the cement industry.

  15. Mechanistic approaches on the antibacterial activity of poly(acrylic acid) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Walkner, Sarah; Hild, Sabine; Hassel, Achim Walter; Weber, Hedda Katrin; Paulik, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The availability of polymeric antimicrobially active surfaces, which are mainly based on cationic surface effects, is limited. We have previously reported the discovery that, in addition to cationic surfaces, anionic surfaces based on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) copolymers have a bactericidal effect. In this study, poly(styrene)-poly(acrylic acid)-diblock copolymers (PS-b-PAA) are used to describe the major variables causing the material to have a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in aqueous suspensions. Upon contact with water, the surface structure of the copolymer changes, the pH value decreases, and the PAA-block migrates toward the surface. Systematically modified antimicrobial tests show that the presence of acid-form PAA provides maximum antimicrobial activity of the material in slightly acidic conditions, and that an ion-exchange effect is the most probable mechanism. Antimicrobially inactive counter-ions inhibit the bactericidal activity of the copolymers, but the material can be regenerated by treatment with acids. PMID:25543987

  16. Salicylic acid-releasing polyurethane acrylate polymers as anti-biofilm urological catheter coatings.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Paul J; Koepsel, Richard R; Stoodley, Paul; Min, Ke; Harper, Alan; Murata, Hironobu; Donfack, Joseph; Hortelano, Edwin R; Ehrlich, Garth D; Russell, Alan J

    2012-05-01

    Biofilm-associated infections are a major complication of implanted and indwelling medical devices like urological and venous catheters. They commonly persist even in the presence of an oral or intravenous antibiotic regimen, often resulting in chronic illness. We have developed a new approach to inhibiting biofilm growth on synthetic materials through controlled release of salicylic acid from a polymeric coating. Herein we report the synthesis and testing of a ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate polymer composed, in part, of salicyl acrylate, which hydrolyzes upon exposure to aqueous conditions, releasing salicylic acid while leaving the polymer backbone intact. The salicylic acid release rate was tuned by adjusting the polymer composition. Anti-biofilm performance of the coatings was assessed under several biofilm forming conditions using a novel combination of the MBEC Assay™ biofilm multi-peg growth system and bioluminescence monitoring for live cell quantification. Films of the salicylic acid-releasing polymers were found to inhibit biofilm formation, as shown by bioluminescent and GFP reporter strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Urinary catheters coated on their inner lumens with the salicylic acid-releasing polymer significantly reduced biofilm formation by E. coli for up to 5 days under conditions that simulated physiological urine flow.

  17. Mechanistic approaches on the antibacterial activity of poly(acrylic acid) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Walkner, Sarah; Hild, Sabine; Hassel, Achim Walter; Weber, Hedda Katrin; Paulik, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The availability of polymeric antimicrobially active surfaces, which are mainly based on cationic surface effects, is limited. We have previously reported the discovery that, in addition to cationic surfaces, anionic surfaces based on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) copolymers have a bactericidal effect. In this study, poly(styrene)-poly(acrylic acid)-diblock copolymers (PS-b-PAA) are used to describe the major variables causing the material to have a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in aqueous suspensions. Upon contact with water, the surface structure of the copolymer changes, the pH value decreases, and the PAA-block migrates toward the surface. Systematically modified antimicrobial tests show that the presence of acid-form PAA provides maximum antimicrobial activity of the material in slightly acidic conditions, and that an ion-exchange effect is the most probable mechanism. Antimicrobially inactive counter-ions inhibit the bactericidal activity of the copolymers, but the material can be regenerated by treatment with acids.

  18. Complexes of polyadenylic acid and the methyl esters of amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaled, M. A.; Mulins, D. W., Jr.; Swindle, M.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study of amino acid methyl esters binding to polyadenylic acid supports the theory that the genetic code originated through weak but selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides. NMR, insoluble complex analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy are used to illustrate a correlation between the hydrophybicities of A amino acids and their binding constants, which, beginning with the largest, are in the order of Phe (having nominally a hydrophobic AAA anticodon), Ile, Leu, Val and Gly (having a hydrophilic anticodon with no A). In general, the binding constants are twice the values by Reuben and Polk (1980) for monomeric AMP, which suggests that polymer amino acids are interacting with only one base. No real differences are found betwen poly A binding for free Phe, Phe methyl ester or Phe amide, except that the amide value is slightly lower.

  19. [The effect of terephthalic acid and film made from polyterephthalic acid esters on water soluble vitamins].

    PubMed

    Steiner, I

    1990-12-01

    Terephthalic acid is used for the production of polyterephthalic acid esters for foils that are applied for cooking, roasting, and baking; it is able to migrate as a monomer into foodstuffs. The effect of sodium terephthalate on vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and ascorbic acid at different conditions (variation of time and temperature); effects of a foil made of polyterephthalic acid esters was also tested. Thiamin and riboflavin are stabilized by sodium terephthalate while pyridoxine is decomposed faster, especially at higher temperatures. The tests of thiamin and riboflavin in the foils show similar results, whereas the losses of pyridoxine were not so high compared with the tests where sodium terephthalate had been added. Ascorbic acid is protected, too, by sodium terephthalate, except with long heating periods at a temperature of 220 degrees C.

  20. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  5. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... resins are prepared by the reaction of trimellitic anhydride with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol...

  6. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... food labeling as the alternate common or usual name for the ingredient diacetyl tartaric acid esters of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1101 Section 184.1101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. Synthesis and characteristics of an aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Cui, Da-Fu; Zhang, You-Shang

    2004-06-01

    An aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond. The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature. In this analogue, the hydrogen of amide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond. However, the product was not sweet, showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond. The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C, O, N and H atoms are in the same plane. The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond, resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  12. Electrochemical investigations of 3-(3-thienyl) acrylic acid protected nanoclusters and planar gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, R G; Kavitha, A L; Berchmans, Sheela; Yegnaraman, V

    2007-06-01

    Formation of self assembled monolayers on gold surface by thiols and disulphides is a well known phenomenon and extensive research work has been carried out in this area with envisaged applications in the area of sensors, molecular electronics, lithography, device fabrication using bottom-up approach, etc. Recently, it has been established that thiophene molecules can self assemble on gold surface due to Au-S interactions. 3-(3-thienyl) acrylic acid, a bifunctional ligand is used in this work to form self-assembled monolayers on planar gold surfaces (two dimensional assemblies) and to prepare monolayer protected gold nano clusters (three-dimensional assemblies). The electron transfer blocking properties of the two-dimensional monolayers were evaluated by using standard redox probes like ferrocyanide anions and Ruthenium hexamine cations. The functionalisation of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional assemblies has been carried out with ferrocene carboxylic acid and the functionalised monolayers were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry. The formation of thienyl acrylic acid protected nanoclusters has been verified by TEM and surface plasmon resonance absorption. It has been observed that when thiophene based ligands are used as stabilizers for the formation of metal nanoparticles, they tend to aggregate as a result of pi-pi interactions between adjacent thiophene ligands. In this case it is found that aggregation is prevented. The substituent at the thiophene ring hinders pi-pi interactions. The quantised nature of electrochemical charging of these nanoparticles has been demonstrated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which exhibit peak like features (coulomb's staircase). This work also explores the possibility of using 3-(3-thienyl) acrylic acid as building blocks or spacers on planar and colloidal gold surfaces for potential applications in the field of sensors and devices.

  13. Green chromatography determination of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Carlos Molina; Alayón, Andrea Brito; García Rodríguez, María Teresa; Jiménez Abizanda, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Francisco Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a green, simple and rapid chromatographic methodology for separation and determination of a group of 13 fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) by using a capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The method was successfully applied for the determination of FAMEs in biodiesel samples from commercial and waste cooking oils, synthesized by homogeneous catalysis. Detection and quantification limits were in the μg L(-1) level. Direct injection of sample solution was compared with solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction procedures, giving similar results. The lower analysis time represent considerable improvement compared with other papers. The described methodology is especially suitable for process control applications. The samples analysed showed total contents of FAMEs higher than 96.5%, which verifies the European regulations. PMID:25666201

  14. Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

    We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

  15. Energy-rich glyceric acid oxygen esters - Implications for the origin of glycolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; Hsu, Victor

    1990-01-01

    The apparent Gibbs free energy change (GFEC) of hydrolysis (pH 7) of the 2- and 3-O-glyceroyl esters of 2- and 3-O-L-glyceroyl-L-glyceric acid methyl ester were measured at 25 C. The 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters were found to be 'energy-rich' with GFEC values of -9.1 kcal/mol and -7.8 kcal/mol, respectively. This result indicates that the analogous 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters of polyglyceric acid are also energy-rich and, therefore, could have acted as an energy source for primitive phosphoanhydride synthesis.

  16. [Development of the determination methods of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols in fat-rich foods].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Wu, Shaoming; Li, Nan; Lü, Huadong; Fu, Wusheng

    2013-02-01

    Fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols are a kinds of newly emerged food contaminants, especially 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters that have been detected in many foodstuffs such as infant formula and edible oils at relatively high levels. Based on the Tolerable Dose Intake (TDI) of 3-MCPD, the intake of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD esters may cause the health risk to human beings. The researches for the analysis of 3-MCPD esters have been carried out in some institutes abroad, but there were only a few in China. This paper reviews the methods for the determination of 3-MCPD esters in fat-rich foods, including the extraction, hydrolysis, the derivatization of 3-MCPD esters, the total amount of 3-MCPD esters and the amounts of monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  2. Grafting acrylic acid onto polypropylene by reactive extrusion with pre-irradiated PP as initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chuanlun; Shi, Qiang; Li, Lili; Zhu, Lianchao; Yin, Jinghua

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the modification of polypropylene (PP) with acrylic acid (AA) by reactive extrusion using pre-irradiated PP (rPP) as initiator was investigated. It was found the relatively high graft degree (Gd) and slight degradation of modified PP was obtained when 20 wt% rPP was used. This result can be explained in terms of effective concentration of free radicals. Compared with the neat PP, the modified PP showed the high-notched impact strength and improved adhesion of PP to polar substrate. This technique is of potential industrial interest for PP modification.

  3. Surface component distribution in a vanadium-molybdenum oxide catalyst for making acrylic acid from acrolein

    SciTech Connect

    Zazhigalov, V.A.; Kholyavenko, K.M.

    1986-11-01

    A scanning electron microscope and microprobe analyzer have been used to examine the surfaces of vanadium-molybdenum catalysts on aerosil. It is found that the phase VMo/sub 3/O/sub 11/ is formed, which is dispersed on the SiO/sub 2/. MoO/sub 3/ crystals of various shapes occur at the surface of the dispersed phase. It is suggested that this catalyst is highly active in oxidizing acrolein to acrylic acid because of the presence of VMo/sub 3/O/sub 11/.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of copolymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone with acrylic acid. Article 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, R.Z.; Sakhibov, A.D.; Akhmedzhanov, R.I.; Aliev, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the pharmacokinetics of the copolymers of n-vinyl-pyrrolidone (I) with acrylic acid (II) (copolymer III) using the radioactive isotope /sup 125/I. In experiments on mice, they studied the distribution of a copolymer of I with II (/sup 125/I-III) in the organism of the animals. The content of /sup 125/I-III and its possible radioactive metabolites in the blood and organs of mice after a single intravenous administration of the given preparation is shown. The radioactivity of organs after butanol extraction is presented.

  5. Thermal destruction of copolymers of polypropylene glycol maleate with acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkeev, M. Zh.; Sarsenbekova, A. Zh.; Tazhbaev, E. M.; Figurinene, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    The results from thermogravimetric and kinetic studies of copolymers of polypropylene glycol maleate with acrylic acid at different molar ratios are presented. The results from conventional thermogravimetric studies are used to determine kinetic characteristics of the process of thermal decomposition, i.e., activation energy and pre-exponential factors. These parameters are determined in three ways: the Achar, Freeman-Carroll, and Sharp-Wentworth methods. Activation energies calculated using all the three methods confirm the dependence of the destruction process on the ratio of components in a synthesized copolymer. It is shown that the obtained values of the activation energies and thermodynamic characteristics allow us to predict a copolymer's composition.

  6. Synthesis of carboxymethylcellulose/acrylic acid hydrogels with superabsorbent properties by radiation-initiated crosslinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Tamás; Borsa, Judit; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation from aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and acrylic acid (AAc) with varying CMC:AAc ratio. By partially replacing the CMC with AAc the gelation increased and led to a higher gel fraction and lower water uptake. Moreover, the gelation required significantly milder synthesis conditions. Decreasing both the dose and the solute concentration in the presence of AAc led to gels with higher gel fraction and higher degree of swelling compared to pure CMC gels. Increasing the AAc content up to 10% proved to be very effective, while very high AAc content (over 50%) hindered the gelation process.

  7. Lewis acid promoted ruthenium(II)-catalyzed etherifications by selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids/esters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Topf, Christoph; Cui, Xinjiang; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-04-20

    Ethers are of fundamental importance in organic chemistry and they are an integral part of valuable flavors, fragrances, and numerous bioactive compounds. In general, the reduction of esters constitutes the most straightforward preparation of ethers. Unfortunately, this transformation requires large amounts of metal hydrides. Presented herein is a bifunctional catalyst system, consisting of Ru/phosphine complex and aluminum triflate, which allows selective synthesis of ethers by hydrogenation of esters or carboxylic acids. Different lactones were reduced in good yields to the desired products. Even challenging aromatic and aliphatic esters were reduced to the desired products. Notably, the in situ formed catalyst can be reused several times without any significant loss of activity.

  8. Lewis acid promoted ruthenium(II)-catalyzed etherifications by selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids/esters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Topf, Christoph; Cui, Xinjiang; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-04-20

    Ethers are of fundamental importance in organic chemistry and they are an integral part of valuable flavors, fragrances, and numerous bioactive compounds. In general, the reduction of esters constitutes the most straightforward preparation of ethers. Unfortunately, this transformation requires large amounts of metal hydrides. Presented herein is a bifunctional catalyst system, consisting of Ru/phosphine complex and aluminum triflate, which allows selective synthesis of ethers by hydrogenation of esters or carboxylic acids. Different lactones were reduced in good yields to the desired products. Even challenging aromatic and aliphatic esters were reduced to the desired products. Notably, the in situ formed catalyst can be reused several times without any significant loss of activity. PMID:25728921

  9. Development of a Method for the N-Arylation of Amino Acid Esters with Aryl Triflates.

    PubMed

    King, Sandra M; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-08-19

    A general method for the N-arylation of amino acid esters with aryl triflates is described. Both α- and β-amino acid esters, including methyl, tert-butyl, and benzyl esters, are viable substrates. Reaction optimization was carried out by design of experiment (DOE) analysis using JMP software. The mild reaction conditions, which use t-BuBrettPhos Pd G3 or G4 precatalyst, result in minimal racemization of the amino acid ester. This method is the first synthetic application of the t-BuBrettPhos Pd G4 precatalyst. Mechanistic studies show that the observed erosion in enantiomeric excess is due to racemization of the amino acid ester starting material and not of the product. PMID:27498618

  10. Aliphatic amidase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34: Purification, characterization and application in synthesis of acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Neerja; Kumar, Vijay; Sharma, Nirmal Kant; Thakur, Shikha; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-01-01

    An intracellular aliphatic amide degrading inducible amidase produced by Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 was characterized and acrylic acid synthesis from acrylamide was carried out using whole cell amidase. A bioprocess was developed at 50 ml fed batch reaction using 400 mM acrylamide feeding at an interval of 30 min resulted in the production of 4 g acrylic acid with volumetric and catalytic productivity of 80 g/l and 19 g/g/h respectively. The amidase of this organism had molecular weight of 40 kDa and was purified to 8.5 fold with 8% yield. This enzyme was active within the temperature range of 30 to 60 °C, with optimum temperature 45 °C and pH 7.5. The Vmax, Km, and kcat of purified amidase were calculated as 250 U/mg protein, 4.5 mM, and 166 sec-1 for acrylamide. The enzyme showed tolerance to metal chelating agent (EDTA) and was strongly inhibited by heavy metal ions Hg2+, Ag2+, Cu2+ and Co2+. R. rhodochrous PA-34 amidase preferentially hydrolyzed small aliphatic toxic amide such as acrylamide. Thus, the amidase of R. rhodochrous PA-34 is promising biocatalyst for the synthesis of industrially important acids and biodegradation of toxic amides. PMID:26667322

  11. pH- and Electro-Responsive Properties of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(acrylic acid-grad-styrene) Brushes Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borisova, O V; Billon, L; Richter, R P; Reimhult, E; Borisov, O V

    2015-07-14

    We report on the synthesis of novel pH- and electro-responsive polyelectrolyte brushes from a gold substrate by direct one-step nitroxide-mediated polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) or copolymerization of AA and styrene (S). In the latter case, amphiphilic brushes of block-gradient copolymers PAA-b-(PAA-grad-PS) comprising one PAA block and one block with the gradient sequence of AA and S were obtained. The block-gradient copolymers are initiated from the surface by the start of the PAA block. The brushes were characterized by XPS and ellipsometry. (1)H NMR confirmed the gradient sequence of the PAA-grad-PS copolymer block. The pH- and electro-responsive properties of the brushes were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in combination with electrochemistry. This method provides evidence of swelling of the PAA brushes proportional to the contour length of the chains at elevated pH, whereas the response functions of the block-gradient copolymers are more complex and point to intermolecular aggregation in the brush at low pH. Monitoring of the changes in resonance frequency and dissipation of the QCM-D also demonstrates that application of negative voltage to the substrate leads to swelling of the brush; application of a positive voltage provokes only a transient collapse of the brush in proportion to the applied voltage. PMID:26070329

  12. pH- and Electro-Responsive Properties of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(acrylic acid-grad-styrene) Brushes Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borisova, O V; Billon, L; Richter, R P; Reimhult, E; Borisov, O V

    2015-07-14

    We report on the synthesis of novel pH- and electro-responsive polyelectrolyte brushes from a gold substrate by direct one-step nitroxide-mediated polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) or copolymerization of AA and styrene (S). In the latter case, amphiphilic brushes of block-gradient copolymers PAA-b-(PAA-grad-PS) comprising one PAA block and one block with the gradient sequence of AA and S were obtained. The block-gradient copolymers are initiated from the surface by the start of the PAA block. The brushes were characterized by XPS and ellipsometry. (1)H NMR confirmed the gradient sequence of the PAA-grad-PS copolymer block. The pH- and electro-responsive properties of the brushes were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in combination with electrochemistry. This method provides evidence of swelling of the PAA brushes proportional to the contour length of the chains at elevated pH, whereas the response functions of the block-gradient copolymers are more complex and point to intermolecular aggregation in the brush at low pH. Monitoring of the changes in resonance frequency and dissipation of the QCM-D also demonstrates that application of negative voltage to the substrate leads to swelling of the brush; application of a positive voltage provokes only a transient collapse of the brush in proportion to the applied voltage.

  13. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations.

  14. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  6. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  7. Relative oral bioavailability of glycidol from glycidyl fatty acid esters in rats.

    PubMed

    Appel, Klaus E; Abraham, Klaus; Berger-Preiss, Edith; Hansen, Tanja; Apel, Elisabeth; Schuchardt, Sven; Vogt, Carla; Bakhiya, Nadiya; Creutzenberg, Otto; Lampen, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    In order to quantify the relative bioavailability of glycidol from glycidyl fatty acid esters in vivo, glycidyl palmitoyl ester and glycidol were orally applied to rats in equimolar doses. The time courses of the amounts of glycidol binding to hemoglobin as well as the excretion of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl mercapturic acids were determined. The results indicate that glycidol is released from the glycidyl ester by hydrolysis and rapidly distributed in the organism. In relation to glycidol, there was only a small timely delay in the binding to hemoglobin for the glycidol moiety released from the ester which may be certainly attributed to enzymatic hydrolysis. In both cases, however, an analogous plateau was observed representing similar amounts of hemoglobin binding. With regard to the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids, also similar amounts of dihydroxypropyl mercapturic acids could be detected. In an ADME test using a virtual double tag (³H, ¹⁴C) of glycidyl palmitoyl ester, a diverging isotope distribution was detected. The kinetics of the ¹⁴C-activity reflected the kinetics of free glycidol released after hydrolysis of the palmitoyl ester. In view of this experimental data obtained in rats, it is at present justified for the purpose of risk assessment to assume complete hydrolysis of the glycidyl ester in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, assessment of human exposure to glycidyl fatty acid ester should be regarded as an exposure to the same molar quantity of glycidol.

  8. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  9. Multielement crystalline and pseudocrystalline oxides as efficient catalysts for the direct transformation of glycerol into acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chieregato, Alessandro; Soriano, M Dolores; García-González, Ester; Puglia, Giuseppe; Basile, Francesco; Concepción, Patricia; Bandinelli, Claudia; López Nieto, José M; Cavani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol surplus from biodiesel synthesis still represents a major problem in the biofuel production chain. Meanwhile, those in the acrylic acid market are looking for new processes that are able to offer viable alternatives to propylene-based production. Therefore, acrylic acid synthesis from glycerol could be an effective solution to both issues. Among the viable routes, one-pot synthesis theoretically represents the most efficient process, but it is also highly challenging from the catalyst design standpoint. A new class of complex W--Mo--V mixed-oxide catalysts, which are strongly related to the hexagonal tungsten bronze structure, able to directly convert glycerol into acrylic acid with yields of up to 51 % are reported. PMID:25488515

  10. Synthesis of some glucose-fatty acid esters by lipase from Candida antarctica and their emulsion functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangzi; Lamsal, Buddhi P

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters' pelleted surface increased as the hydrophobicity increased. Glucose esters' and commercial sucrose esters' functionality as emulsifiers were compared. Glucose esters delayed, but did not prevent coalescence, because the oil droplets diameter doubled during 7days. Sucrose esters prevented coalescence during 7days since the droplets diameter did not have significant change. PMID:27507510

  11. Influence of Glyoxal on Preparation of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Blend Film.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Yoon, Soon-Do; Lee, Ju-Heon; Lee, In-Hwa

    2015-08-01

    The preparation of a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/glyoxal film (PVA = poly(vinyl alcohol); PAA = poly(acrylic acid)) with high tensile strength and hydrophobic properties by using the crosslinking reaction for OH group removal is reported herein. PAA was selected as a crosslinking agent because the functional carboxyl group in each monomer unit facilitates reaction with PVA. The OH groups on unreacted PVA were removed by the addition of glyoxal to the PVA/PAA solution. The chemical properties of the PVA/PAA films were investigated using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and the thermal properties of the PVA/PAA/glyoxal films were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. A tensile strength of 48.6 N/mm2 was achieved at a PVA/PAA ratio of 85/15 for the PVA/PAA film. The tensile strength of the cross-linked PVA/PAA/glyoxal film (10 wt% glyoxal) was increased by 55% relative to the pure PVA/PAA (85/15) film. The degree of swelling (DS) and solubility (S) of the 10 wt% (PVA/PAA = 85/15, wt%) film added 10 wt% glyoxal were 1.54 and 0.6, respectively. PMID:26369179

  12. Rheology and adhesion of poly(acrylic acid)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels as biocompatible adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shen, Muxian; Li, Li; Sun, Yimin; Xu, Jun; Guo, Xuhong; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2014-02-18

    Biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) consisting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and nanosized clay (Laponite) were successfully synthesized by in situ free-radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solutions of Laponite. The obtained NC gels were uniform and transparent. Their viscosity, storage modulus G', and loss modulus G″ increased significantly upon increasing the content of Laponite and the dose of AA, while exhibiting a maximum with increasing the neutralization degree of AA. They showed tunable adhesion by changing the dose of Laponite and monomer as well as the neutralization degree of AA, as determined by 180° peel strength measurement. The maximal adhesion was shown when reaching a balance between cohesion and fluidity. A homemade Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) instrument was employed to study the surface adhesion behavior of the NC gels. The combination of peel strength, rheology, and JKR measurements offers the opportunity of insight into the mechanism of adhesion of hydrogels. The NC gels with tunable adhesion should be ideal candidates for dental adhesive, wound dressing, and tissue engineering. PMID:24460239

  13. Topological characterization of a bacterial cellulose-acrylic acid polymeric matrix.

    PubMed

    Halib, N; Mohd Amin, M C I; Ahmad, I; Abrami, M; Fiorentino, S; Farra, R; Grassi, G; Musiani, F; Lapasin, R; Grassi, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the micro- and nano-topological organization of a hydrogel, constituted by a mixture of bacterial cellulose and acrylic acid, and intended for biomedical applications. The presence of acrylic acid promotes the formation of two interpenetrated continuous phases: the primary "pores phase" (PP) containing only water and the secondary "polymeric network phase" (PNP) constituted by the polymeric network swollen by the water. Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF NMR), rheology, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and release tests were used to determine the characteristics of the two phases. In particular, we found that this system is a strong hydrogel constituted by 81% (v/v) of PP phase the remaining part being occupied by the PNP phase. Pores diameters span in the range 10-100 μm, the majority of them (85%) falling in the range 30-90 μm. The high PP phase tortuosity indicates that big pores are not directly connected to each other, but their connection is realized by a series of interconnected small pores that rend the drug path tortuous. The PNP is characterized by a polymer volume fraction around 0.73 while mesh size is around 3 nm. The theoretical interpretation of the experimental data coming from the techniques panel adopted, yielded to the micro- and nano-organization of our hydrogel. PMID:24932712

  14. Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber for the removal of dye and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Agarwal, Shilpi; Singh, Prerna; Pathania, Deepak

    2013-10-15

    Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber was utilized for the removal of methylene blue and metal ions from the water system using batch process. The grafted sample used was found to demonstrate a maximum grafting efficiency of 90.8% under concentrations of 0.432×10(-3) mol/L, temperature of 35 °C, time of 60 min and pH of 7.0 respectively. The remarkable improvement in thermal properties of the grafted sample was observed. The formation of new bands in FTIR spectra of grafted sample confirmed the grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulosic fiber. The maximum adsorption capacity of dye onto adsorbent was observed to be 62.15 mg g(-1) at 175 min. A maximum removal of 45.8% was observed for Mg(2+) as compared to other metal ions. High values of correlation coefficient for methylene blue (0.995) and metal ions such as Mg(2+) (0.996), Ni(2+) (0.995), Zn(2+) (0.996) confirmed the applicability of Langmuir isotherm that assumed a monolayer coverage and uniform activity distribution on the adsorbent surface.

  15. Characterization of thin-film deposition in a pulsed acrylic acid polymerizing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, Sergey A.; Bradley, James W.; Fotea, Catalin; Zelzer, Mischa; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2007-07-15

    In this study, thin-film deposition in a pulsed rf polymerizing discharge (13.56 MHz) struck in acrylic acid has been investigated by mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. The experiment was conducted at a fixed acrylic acid pressure of 1.3 Pa and 'on' pulse duration of 0.1 ms, whereas the 'off' time was varied between 0 and 20 ms. The rf input power in the 'on' time and gas flow rate were varied between 10 and 50 W and 1.5 and 4.8 sccm (sccm denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively. These changes of the discharge conditions resulted in large-scale progressive variations in film and gas-phase plasma composition. In particular, the -COOH functionality of the monomer was increasingly retained in the plasma-generated thin films as the duty cycle was lowered (i.e., with lowered time-averaged powers). The monomer retention reached its maximum value of 66% for 'off' times exceeding 5 ms, when the discharge was operating in the power-deficient regime. The results show that the film deposition rate is a strong function of the monomer flow rate, whereas -COOH retention is correlated to the amount of unfragmented monomer in the plasma, controlled by the applied power.

  16. Precipitation-Redispersion of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles with Poly(acrylic acid): Toward Stable Dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal,A.; Lalatonne, Y.; Berret, J.; Morvan, M.

    2005-01-01

    We exploit a precipitation-redispersion mechanism for complexation of short chain polyelectrolytes with cerium oxide nanoparticles to extend their stability ranges. As synthesized, cerium oxide sols at pH 1.4 consist of monodisperse cationic nanocrystalline particles having a hydrodynamic diameter of 10 nm and a molecular weight of 400 000 g mol{sup -1}. We show that short chain uncharged poly(acrylic acid) at low pH when added to a cerium oxide sols leads to macroscopic precipitation. As the pH is increased, the solution spontaneously redisperses into a clear solution of single particles with an anionic poly(acrylic acid) corona. The structure and dynamics of cerium oxide nanosols and their hybrid polymer-inorganic complexes in solution are investigated by static and dynamic light scattering, X-ray scattering, and chemical analysis. Quantitative analysis of the redispersed sol gives rise to an estimate of 40-50 polymer chains per particle for stable suspension. This amount represents 20% of the mass of the polymer-nanoparticle complexes. This complexation adds utility to the otherwise unstable cerium oxide dispersions by extending the range of stability of the sols in terms of pH, ionic strength, and concentration.

  17. Pure short-chain glycerol fatty acid esters and glycerylic cyclocarbonic fatty acid esters as surface active and antimicrobial coagels protecting surfaces by promoting superhydrophilicity.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Romain; Alignan, Marion; Giacinti, Géraldine; Renaud, François N R; Raymond, Bernard; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2012-01-01

    Pure glycerol fatty acid esters and glycerylic cyclocarbonic fatty acid esters have an amphiphilic structure, giving these biomolecules a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties. Physico-chemical properties depend on chain lengths, odd or even carbon numbers on the chain, and glyceryl or cyclocarbonic polar heads. The spectrum of melting-point values for these molecules is large. Surface-activity is very important and through determination of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), some fatty-acid esters are considered as solvo-surfactant biomolecules. Coupling these self-aggregation and crystallization properties, superhydrophilic surfaces were obtained. An efficient durable water repellent coating of various metallic and polymeric surfaces was allowed. Moreover, these fatty acid esters promoting superhydrophilicity showed biological activity against Gram positive, Gram negative, and yeast-like micro-organisms. Such surfaces coated by self-assembled fatty acid esters in a stable coagel state present a novel solution to surface-contamination risks from pathogen proliferation.

  18. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10378 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. 721.10378 Section 721.10378 Protection of Environment..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10378 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. 721.10378 Section 721.10378 Protection of Environment..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10378 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. 721.10378 Section 721.10378 Protection of Environment..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl...

  5. The assignment of the configuration for α-hydroxy acid esters using a CEC strategy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ruixue; Lin, Lili; Zhang, Yuheng; Wu, Wangbin; Lu, Yan; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    A simple and efficient (1)H NMR method for determining the absolute configuration of chiral α-hydroxy acid esters using a competing enantioselective conversion (CEC) strategy was developed. The α-hydroxy acid esters were acylated in the presence of Feng's chiral N,N'-dioxide-scandium(iii) complex, and the faster reaction was identified when one enantiomer of the chiral α-hydroxy acid ester was treated with both enantiomers of the ligand by NMR analysis of the reaction mixture without further purification. A mnemonic is presented to aid the assignment of the absolute configuration of the substrates. PMID:27189590

  6. MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Part 4: Addressing the problem of poor stability due to photoisomerization of an acrylic acid moiety.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Kuru, Noriko; Ohtsuka, Masami; Yokomizo, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Atsunobu; Kawato, Haruko; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Toshiharu; Hoshino, Kazuki; Akimoto, Katsuya; Itoh, Junko; Ishida, Hiroko; Cho, Aesop; Palme, Monica H; Zhang, Jason Z; Lee, Ving J; Watkins, William J

    2004-05-17

    Exchange of the ethylene tether in a series of pyridopyrimidine-based MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors to an amide bond stabilized the olefin of the acrylic acid moiety, preventing facile photoisomerization to the Z-isomer. Furthermore, the activity was drastically improved in the amide tether variants, providing extremely potent acrylic acid and vinyl tetrazole analogues.

  7. Peptide immobilization onto radiation grafted PVDF-g-poly(acrylic acid) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clochard, M.-C.; Betz, N.; Goncalves, M.; Bittencourt, C.; Pireaux, J.-J.; Gionnet, K.; Déléris, G.; Moël, A. Le

    2005-07-01

    Introducing hydrophilic functions on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films surface allows the covalent immobilization of peptides. Therefore radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) in pre-irradiated PVDF films was achieved to allow surface functionalization with linear and cyclic peptides. Peptides were bound via spacer molecules using EDC as a coupling agent. The reactions were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode. The amount of immobilized peptides was determined by UV spectroscopy. As well, an uncommon method for PVDF characterization and reactions quantification was used: high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear mass spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR). Spacer saturation of the film surface corresponded to 25 mol% yield meaning that one spacer on 4 carboxylic acids was covalently bound. XPS experiments were also performed to deepen analysis of the surface composition. Peptide density is governed by steric hindrance. ELISA tests showed that the peptides' activity is maintained.

  8. The active component of vanadium-molybdenum catalysts for the oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushkevich, T.V.; Kuznetsova, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    The catalytic properties of the vanadium-molybdenum oxide system were investigated in the oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid. The active component of the catalyst is the compound VMo/sub 3/O/sub 11/, the maximum amount of which is observed at a content of 7-15 mole% V/sub 2/O/sub 4/. The compound VMo/sub 3/O/sub 11/ is formed in the thermodecomposition of silicomolybdovanadium heteropoly acids or isopoly compounds, reduced with respect to vanadium, and contains V/sup 4 +/ and Mo/sup 6 +/. The optimum treatment for the formation of this compound is treatment in the reaction mixture at 400 degrees C.

  9. ABS polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly(acrylic acid) covalent grafting.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Mesnage, Alice; Jégou, Pascale; Nekelson, Fabien; Roussel, Sébastien; Palacin, Serge

    2010-04-01

    A new, efficient, palladium- and chromium-free process for the electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers has been developed. The process is based on the ion-exchange properties of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chemically grafted onto ABS via a simple and one-step method that prevents using classical surface conditioning. Hence, ABS electroless plating can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of PAA onto ABS, (ii) the copper Cu(0) seeding of the ABS surface, and (iii) the nickel or copper metallization using commercial-like electroless plating bath. IR, XPS, and SEM were used to characterize each step of the process, and the Cu loading was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This process successfully compares with the commercial one based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, because the final metallic layer showed excellent adhesion with the ABS substrate. PMID:20361751

  10. [Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) pollution in farmland soils: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Rong; Cui, Ming-Ming; Shi, Yan-Xi

    2013-09-01

    The environmental pollution and food safety problems caused by phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been attracted 'extensive attention around the world. As a large PAEs producer and consumer, China is facing severe PAEs environmental pollution problems. This paper reviewed the present pollution status of six PAEs classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the priority pollutants in China farmland soils, analyzed the sources of these six PAEs in this country, and discussed the absorption and accumulation characteristics of the PAEs in different crops as well as the bio-toxic effects of PAEs pollutants. The PAEs concentrations in China farmland soils are significantly higher those in the farmland soils of the United States and European countries. The main sources of PAEs in China farmland soils are atmospheric deposition, agricultural films, sewage sludge application, and wastewater irrigation. There exist significant differences in the characteristics of PAEs absorption, accumulation, and distribution among different crops. PAEs not only have negative effects on soil quality, crop growth, and crop physiological and biochemical properties, but also possess bio-accumulative characteristics. The weaknesses in current researches were pointed out, and the suggestions for the further researches were given, e. g., to expand the scope of PAEs pollution survey, to explore the toxic mechanisms of PAEs on crops, and to develop the techniques for in situ remediation of PAEs-polluted soils.

  11. Oxidase-peroxidase enzymes of Datura innoxia. Oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanaraman, V S; Mahadevan, S; Kumar, S A

    1975-01-01

    An enzyme system from Datura innoxia roots oxidizing formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was purified 38-fold by conventional methods such as (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, negative adsorption on alumina Cy gel and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzyme was shown to catalyse the stoicheiometric oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester to benzoylformic acid ethyl ester and formic acid, utilizing molecular O2. Substrate analogues such as phenylacetaldehyde and phenylpyruvate were oxidized at a very low rate, and formylphenylacetonitrile was an inhilating agents, cyanide, thiol compounds and ascorbic acid. This enzyme was identical with an oxidase-peroxidase isoenzyme. Another oxidase-peroxidase isoenzyme which separated on DEAE-chromatography also showed formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester oxidase activity, albeit to a lesser extent. The properties of the two isoenzymes of the oxidase were compared and shown to differ in their oxidation and peroxidation properties. The oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was also catalysed by horseradish peroxidase. The Datura isoenzymes exhibited typical haemoprotein spectra. The oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was different from other peroxidase-catalysed reactions in not being activated by either Mn2+ or monophenols. The oxidation was inhibited by several mono- and poly-phenols and by catalase. A reaction mechanism for the oxidation is proposed. PMID:997

  12. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension using hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Chen, M C

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-phenoxyethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (poly(PHEA-co-AA)), have been synthesized and characterized by Ubbelohde type viscometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The shear thinning Non-Newtonian fluid behavior of their aqueous solution and the dependence on pH and hydrophobic group contents were found through apparent viscosity and rheological property investigating. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension was evaluated through visible absorbance data. Decolourization performance of hydrophobically associated polymer indicates two times better than that of PAA. The quantitative relationship was mainly studied. PMID:21866762

  13. Mechanisms of 5-aminolevulic acid ester uptake in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lorena; Batlle, Alcira; Di Venosa, Gabriela; Battah, Sinan; Dobbin, Paul; MacRobert, Alexander J; Casas, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    The porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is being widely used in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Improvement in ALA delivery has been sought through the use of ALA derivatives, in particular the esterification of ALA with aliphatic alcohols, which in certain cases can improve cellular penetration and selectivity. ALA uptake systems appear to be distinctive for each cell type. The LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma cell line takes ALA up by BETA transporters. In this work, we investigated ALA derivative transport systems through the inhibition of radiolabelled ALA uptake in the LM3 cells. We also performed inhibition studies of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake. The more lipohilic ALA derivatives hexyl-ALA and undecanoyl-ALA inhibit ALA uptake, whereas methyl-ALA, R, S-ALA-2-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyranyl ester and the dendron aminomethane tris methyl 5-ALA does not inhibit ALA uptake. A similar pattern was found for GABA, except that the dendron inhibited GABA uptake. However, hexyl-ALA and undecanoyl-ALA are not taken up by BETA transporters, but by simple diffusion, although they still inhibit ALA uptake by binding to the cell membrane. These results show that different modifications to the ALA molecule lead to different uptake mechanisms. Whereas ALA is taken up by BETA transporters, none of the ALA derivatives shares the same mechanism. Knowledge of the mechanisms of ALA derivatives entry into the cells is essential to understand and improve ALA-mediated PDT and to the design of new ALA derivatives that may be taken up at a higher rate than ALA. PMID:16432502

  14. Aggregation of poly(acrylic acid)-containing elastin-mimetic copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Bradford A.; Blanco, Marco A.; Jia, Xinqiao; Roberts, Christopher J.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-peptide conjugates were produced via the copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition of poly(tert butyl acrylate) (PtBA) and elastin-like peptides. An azide-functionalized polymer was produced via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) followed by conversion of bromine end groups to azide groups. Subsequent reaction of the polymer with a bis-alkyne-functionalized, elastin-like peptide proceeded with high efficiency, yielding di- and tri-block conjugates, which after deprotection, yielded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-based diblock and triblock copolymers. These conjugates were solubilized in dimethyl formamide, and titration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) induced aggregation. The presence of polydisperse spherical aggregates was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, a coarse-grained molecular model was designed to reasonably capture inter- and intramolecular interactions for the conjugates and its precursors. This model was used to assess the effect of the different interacting molecular forces on the conformational thermodynamic stability of the copolymers. Our results indicated that the PAA’s ability to hydrogen-bond with both itself and the peptide is the main interaction for stabilizing the diblocks and triblocks and driving their self-assembly, while interactions between peptides are suggested to play only a minor role on the conformational and thermodynamic stability of the conjugates. PMID:25611563

  15. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  16. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  17. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  18. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10338 - 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-nonanediyl) ester. 721.10338 Section 721.10338 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10338 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester (PMN P-04-53; CAS No. 107481-28-7) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10452 - 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(dimethylstannylene) ester. 721.10452 Section 721.10452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10452 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester. (a... 9-octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester (PMN P-02-659; CAS No. 3865-34-7)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10338 - 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-nonanediyl) ester. 721.10338 Section 721.10338 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10338 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester (PMN P-04-53; CAS No. 107481-28-7) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10338 - 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-nonanediyl) ester. 721.10338 Section 721.10338 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10338 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester (PMN P-04-53; CAS No. 107481-28-7) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10452 - 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(dimethylstannylene) ester. 721.10452 Section 721.10452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10452 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester. (a... 9-octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester (PMN P-02-659; CAS No. 3865-34-7)...

  1. Automated determination of fatty acid methyl ester and cis/trans methyl ester composition of fats and oils.

    PubMed

    de Koning, S; van der Meer, B; Alkema, G; Janssen, H G; Brinkman, U A

    2001-07-13

    The determination of the fatty acid composition (as methyl esters, FAMEs) of fats and oils and their cis/trans (CTME) distribution requires a simple, but manual and time-consuming sample preparation. The so-called BF3 method is often the preferred procedure. Because FAME/CTME analyses are encountered very frequently in the food industry, an automated, robot-based alternative is proposed which uses the sodium methylate procedure. After sample weighing and the (manual) addition of heptane (2 min), a XYZ robotic autosampler is used for all remaining work, which includes reagent addition, agitation, sample settling and the final injection into the gas chromatograph (10 min). The performance of the sodium methylate and BF3 methods are compared by analysing some 30 oil and fat samples. The novel procedure is much faster (less than 15 min versus ca. 1 h) and manual sample handling is drastically decreased. The experimental results obtained with the two methods frequently are the same, while small differences can be explained by (known) differences of the two methods in the conversion of minor oil/fat constituents, such as free fatty acids, wax esters and sterol esters. In case of FAME analyses, a hot injection is to be preferred over a cold injection. The RSDs of the peak areas were 1.5% for the major fatty acids to 11% for peaks that were just above the noise level. The detection limit were approximately 0.03%.

  2. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  3. Preparation and drug-loading properties of Fe3O4/Poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wensheng; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2013-11-01

    Fe3O4/poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites were synthesized by the dispersion polymerization method using styrene as hard monomer, acrylic acid as functional monomer, Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified with oleic acid as core, and poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) as shell. Drug-loading properties of magnetic polymer nanocomposites with curcumin as a model drug were also studied. The results indicated that magnetic polymer nanocomposites with monodisperse were obtained, the particle size distribution was 50-120 nm, and the average size was about 100 nm. The contents of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in magnetic polymer nanocomposites were 74% and 24.7%, respectively. The drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency were 2.5% and 44.4%, respectively. The saturation magnetization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites at 300 K was 20.2 emu/g without coercivity and remanence. The as-prepared magnetic polymer nanocomposites have not only lots of functional carboxyl groups but also stronger magnetic response, which might have potential applications in drug carrier and targeted drug release.

  4. Chlorsulfuron modifies biosynthesis of acyl Acid substituents of sucrose esters secreted by tobacco trichomes.

    PubMed

    Kandra, L; Wagner, G J

    1990-11-01

    Sucrose esters and duvatrienediol diterpenes are principal constituents formed in and secreted outside head cells of trichomes occurring on surfaces of Nicotiana tabacum. Using trichome-bearing epidermal peels prepared from midveins of N. tabacum cv T.I. 1068 leaves, we found that chlorsulfuron reduced and modified radiolabeling of sucrose ester acyl acids derived from branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The herbicide did not effect formation and exudation of diterpenes which are products of isoprenoid metabolism. Treatment with 1.0 micromolar chlorsulfuron affected 8.5- and 6.3-fold reductions in radiolabeling of methylvaleryl and methylbutyryl groups of sucrose esters, respectively, and concomitant increases of 9- and 9.8-fold in radiolabeling of straight chain valeryl and butyryl groups, respectively. These results and others indicate that inhibition of acetolactate synthase causes an accumulation of 2-oxo-butyric acid that is utilized by enzymes common to Leu biosynthesis to form 2-oxo-valeric acid. Coenzyme A (CoA) activation of this keto acid gives rise to butyryl CoA, which is utilized to form butyryl containing sucrose esters. Alternatively, reutilization of 2-oxo-valeric acid by the same enzymes followed by CoA activation leads to valeryl containing sucrose esters. We propose that in trichome secretory cells synthase, isomerase and dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze Leu synthesis/degredation in most tissues, convert iso-branched, anteiso-branched and straight-chain keto acids in the formation of sucrose ester acyl groups. PMID:16667871

  5. Chlorsulfuron Modifies Biosynthesis of Acyl Acid Substituents of Sucrose Esters Secreted by Tobacco Trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Kandra, Lili; Wagner, George J.

    1990-01-01

    Sucrose esters and duvatrienediol diterpenes are principal constituents formed in and secreted outside head cells of trichomes occurring on surfaces of Nicotiana tabacum. Using trichome-bearing epidermal peels prepared from midveins of N. tabacum cv T.I. 1068 leaves, we found that chlorsulfuron reduced and modified radiolabeling of sucrose ester acyl acids derived from branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The herbicide did not effect formation and exudation of diterpenes which are products of isoprenoid metabolism. Treatment with 1.0 micromolar chlorsulfuron affected 8.5- and 6.3-fold reductions in radiolabeling of methylvaleryl and methylbutyryl groups of sucrose esters, respectively, and concomitant increases of 9- and 9.8-fold in radiolabeling of straight chain valeryl and butyryl groups, respectively. These results and others indicate that inhibition of acetolactate synthase causes an accumulation of 2-oxo-butyric acid that is utilized by enzymes common to Leu biosynthesis to form 2-oxo-valeric acid. Coenzyme A (CoA) activation of this keto acid gives rise to butyryl CoA, which is utilized to form butyryl containing sucrose esters. Alternatively, reutilization of 2-oxo-valeric acid by the same enzymes followed by CoA activation leads to valeryl containing sucrose esters. We propose that in trichome secretory cells synthase, isomerase and dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze Leu synthesis/degredation in most tissues, convert iso-branched, anteiso-branched and straight-chain keto acids in the formation of sucrose ester acyl groups. PMID:16667871

  6. A 13C NMR study of the structure of four cinnamic acids and their methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M. S.; Alkorta, I.; Elguero, J.; Silva, V. L. M.

    2001-09-01

    The 13C NMR spectra, both in DMSO solution and in the solid state of four cinnamic acids ( p-methoxy, p-hydroxy, p-methyl, p-chloro) and their corresponding methyl esters have been recorded. The two main results in the solid state are: (i) the only significant difference between acids and esters chemical shifts concerns the CO group which, on average, appears at 173 ppm in the acids and 168 ppm in the esters; (ii) the signals of the ortho and meta carbons both in the acids and the esters are splitted. The two 'anomalies' disappear in DMSO solution. These observations can be rationalized using simple GIAO/B3LYP/6-31G ∗ calculations.

  7. Premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters: A motored engine study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Yang, Yi; Boehman, Andre L.

    2009-06-15

    An experimental study on the premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters has been conducted in a motored CFR engine. For each test fuel, the engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) was observed. The engine exhaust was sampled and analyzed through GC-FID/TCD and GC-MS. Combustion analysis showed that the four C{sub 9} fatty acid esters tested in this study exhibited evidently different ignition behavior. The magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) follows the order, ethyl nonanoate > methyl nonanoate >> methyl 2-nonenoate > methyl 3-nonenoate. The lower oxidation reactivity for the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the low temperature regime can be explained by the reduced amount of six- or seven-membered transition state rings formed during the oxidation of the unsaturated esters due to the presence of a double bond in the aliphatic chain of the esters. The inhibition effect of the double bond on the low temperature oxidation reactivity of fatty acid esters becomes more pronounced as the double bond moves toward the central position of the aliphatic chain. GC-MS analysis of exhaust condensate collected under the engine conditions where only LTHR occurred showed that the alkyl chain of the saturated fatty acid esters participated in typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequences. In contrast, for unsaturated fatty acid esters, the autoignition can undergo olefin ignition pathways. For all test compounds, the ester functional group remains largely intact during the early stage of oxidation. (author)

  8. Novel one-dimensional lanthanide acrylic acid complexes: an alternative chain constructed by hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Hu, Chang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Novel one-dimensional (1D) chains of three lanthanide complexes La(L 1) 3(CH 3OH)]·CH 3OH (L 1=(E)-3-(2-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 1, La(L 2) 3(H 2O) 2]·2.75H 2O (L 2=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 2, and La(L 3) 3(CH 3OH) 2(H 2O)]·CH 3OH (L 3=(E)-3-(4-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 3 are reported. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C 29H 29LaO 11, monoclinic, P2 1/ n, a=15.4289(12) Å, b=7.9585(6) Å, c=23.041(2) Å, β=99.657(2)°, Z=4, R1=0.0637, w R2=0.0919; for 2: C 27H 30.50LaO 13.75, triclinic, P-1, a=8.4719(17) Å, b=13.719(3) Å, c=14.570(3) Å, α=62.19(3)°, β=99.657(2)°, γ=78.22(3)°, Z=2, R1=0.0384, w R2=0.0820; and for 3: C 30H 35LaO 13, monoclinic, P2(1)/ c, a=9.5667(6) Å, b=24.3911(15) Å, c=14.0448(9) Å, β=109.245(2)°, Z=4, R1=0.0374, w R2=0.0630. All the three structure data were collected using graphite monochromated molybdenum Kα radiation and refined using full-matrix least-squares techniques on F 2. These structures show that four kinds of the carboxylato bridge modes are included in these chains to link the La(III) ions. It is the first time that it has been found that the intra-chain hydrogen bonding can construct an alternative chain even, when the coordination bridge mode is the same along the chain (complex 2). There are 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding in the crystal lattices of complexes 1- 3.

  9. Enzyme immobilization on ultrafine cellulose fibers via poly(acrylic acid) electrolyte grafts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2005-05-20

    Ultrafine cellulose fiber (diameter 200-400 nm) surfaces were grafted with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via either ceric ion initiated polymerization or methacrylation of cellulose with methacrylate chloride (MACl) and subsequent free-radical polymerization of acrylic acid. PAA grafts by ceric ion initiated polymerization increased with increasing reaction time (2-24 h), monomer (0.3-2.4 M), and initiator (1-10 mM) concentrations, and spanned a broad range from 5.5-850%. PAA grafts on the methacrylated cellulose fibers also increased with increasing molar ratios of MACl to cellulosic hydroxyl groups (MACl/OH, 2-6.4) and monomer acrylic acid (AA) to initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) ratios ([AA]/[KPS], 1.5-6), and were in a much narrower range between 12.8% and 29.4%. The adsorption of lipase (at 1 mg/ml lipase and pH 7) and the activity of adsorbed lipase (pH 8.5, 30 degrees C), in both cases decreased with increasing PAA grafts. The highest adsorption and activity of the lipase on the ceric ion initiated grafted fibers were 1.28 g/g PAA and 4.3 U/mg lipase, respectively, at the lowest grafting level of 5.5% PAA, whereas they were 0.33 g/g PAA and 7.1 U/mg lipase, respectively, at 12.8% PAA grafts on the methacrylated and grafted fibers. The properties of the grafted fibers and the absorption behavior and activity of lipase suggest that the PAA grafts are gel-like by ceric-initiated reaction and brush-like by methacrylation and polymerization. The adsorbed lipase on the ceric ion-initiated grafted surface possessed greatly improved organic solvent stability over the crude lipase. The adsorbed lipases exhibited 0.5 and 0.3 of the initial activity in the second and third assay cycles, respectively. PMID:15816022

  10. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  11. [Synthesis, characterization and application of polyglycerols and polyglycerol fatty acid esters].

    PubMed

    Behrens, H; Mieth, G

    1984-01-01

    The current state of knowledge in the field of synthesis and properties of polyglycerols and polyglycerol fatty acid esters is presented. Alternatives for the analytical characterization of these families by means of physico-chemical methods, with special reference to chromatography and spectroscopy, are described. Furthermore, the use of polyglycerol fatty acid esters as food additives is considered from the view-points of the physiology of nutrition and of processing technology.

  12. Long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol from Dorstenia harmsiana Engl. (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Poumale, Herve Martial P; Awoussong, Kenzo Patrice; Randrianasolo, Rivoarison; Simo, Christophe Colombe F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    In addition to lupeol (1a), three long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol, in which two were new, were isolated from the hexane and ethyl acetate twigs extract of Dorstenia harmsiana Engl. (Moraceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Some isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. The lupeol and its three long-chain alkanoic acid esters showed antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  13. Ammonolysis of esters of hydroxybenzoic acids on a boron phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Bukeikhanov, N.R.; Li, L.V.; Zulkasheva, A.Z.

    1987-09-10

    In this investigation boron phosphate catalyst was used for ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. It was shown that ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids in presence of boron phosphate catalyst at a ratio of 3-7 moles of ammonia per mole of ester in a contact time of 1-5 sec at 380-400/sub 0/ can be used for obtaining o- and p- hydroxybenzonitriles in yields of over 90% of the theoretical.

  14. Ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo testosterone bioavailability study of different bioadhesive formulations based on starch-g-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers and starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ameye, D; Voorspoels, J; Foreman, P; Tsai, J; Richardson, P; Geresh, S; Remon, J P

    2002-02-19

    Starch-g-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers or grafted starches synthesized by 60Co irradiation or chemical modification and co-freeze-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures were evaluated on their ex vivo bioadhesion capacity. The buccal absorption of testosterone from a bioadhesive tablet formulated with the grafted starches or starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures was investigated. The results were compared to a reference formulation (physical mixture of 5% Carbopol 974P and 95% Drum Dried Waxy Maize). Rice starch-based irradiated grafted starches showed the best bioadhesion results. Partial neutralization of the acrylic acid with Ca(2+) ions resulted in significantly higher bioadhesion values compared to the reference. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) partially neutralized maltodextrin-based irradiated grafted starches showed significantly higher bioadhesion values compared to the reference formulation. The chemically modified grafted starches showed significantly higher adhesion force values than for the reference tablet. None of the co-freeze-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures showed significantly higher bioadhesion results than the reference (Bonferroni test, P<0.05). A chemically modified grafted starch could sustain the 3 ng/ml plasma testosterone target concentration during +/- 8 h (T(>3 ng/ml)). By lyophilization of a partially neutralized irradiated grafted starch, the in vivo adhesion time (22.0 +/- 7.2 h) and the T(>3 ng/ml) (13.5 +/- 1.3 h) could be increased. The absolute bioavailability of the lyophilized formulation approached the reference formulation. Some of the grafted starches showed to be promising buccal bioadhesive drug carriers for systemic delivery. PMID:11853929

  15. Fatty Acid Phytyl Ester Synthesis in Chloroplasts of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence. PMID:22623494

  16. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness. PMID:25475759

  17. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  18. Photoinduced Graft-Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on Polyethylene and Polypropylene Surfaces: Comparative Study Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, A. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Shkrabatovskaya, L. V.; Prikhodchenko, L. K.

    2014-11-01

    Photoinduced graft-polymerization of acrylic acid on the surface of polyethylene and polypropylene films containing a photoinitiator pre-adsorbed from a thin layer of non-de-aerated aqueous monomer solution was investigated. Data about the monomer conversion and grafting depth as functions of the UV irradiation time and polymer nature were obtained using IR-ATR spectroscopy.

  19. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  20. Rapid 3D Patterning of Poly(acrylic acid) Ionic Hydrogel for Miniature pH Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming-Jie; Yao, Mian; Gao, Shaorui; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, Ping-Kong A

    2016-02-17

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), as a highly ionic conductive hydrogel, can reversibly swell/deswell according to the surrounding pH conditions. An optical maskless -stereolithography technology is presented to rapidly 3D pattern PAA for device fabrication. A highly sensitive miniature pH sensor is demonstrated by in situ printing of periodic PAA micropads on a tapered optical microfiber.