Science.gov

Sample records for acrylic acid monomer

  1. Structure-toxicity relationships of acrylic monomers.

    PubMed Central

    Autian, J

    1975-01-01

    Esters of acrylic acid, in particular methyl methacrylate, have wide applications in a number of industrial and consumer products, forming very desirable nonbreakable glass-like materials. In dentistry, the monomers are used to prepare dentures and a variety of filling and coating materials for the teeth. Surgeons utilize the monomers to prepare a cement which helps anchor prosthetic devices to bone. Special types of acrylic monomers such as the cyano derivatives have found a useful application as adhesive materials. Most of the acrylic acid esters are volatile substances and can produce various levels of toxicity if inhaled. A large number of workers thus exposed to the vapors of these esters can develop clinical symptoms and signs of toxicity. This paper will discuss the toxicity of a large number of acrylic esters, and will attempt to show structure-activity relationships where such data are available. General comments will also be made as to the potential health hazards this variety of esters may present to selected segments of the population. PMID:1175551

  2. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAT MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE TONGUE EARLY AFFECTED BY ACRYLIC RESIN MONOMER].

    PubMed

    Davydenko, V; Nidzelskiy, M; Starchenko, I; Davydenko, A; Kuznetsov, V

    2016-03-01

    Base materials, made on the basis of various derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acids, have been widely used in prosthetic dentistry. Free monomer, affecting the tissues of prosthetic bed and the whole body, is always found in dentures. Therefore, study of the effect of acrylic resins' monomer on mucous membrane of the tongue is crucial. Rat tongue is very similar to human tongue, and this fact has become the basis for selecting these animals to be involved into the experiment. The paper presents the findings related to the effect of "Ftoraks" base acrylic resin monomer on the state of rat mucous membrane of the tongue and its regeneration. The microscopy has found that the greatest changes in the mucous membrane of the tongue occur on day 3 and 7 day after applying the monomer and are of erosive and inflammatory nature. Regeneration of tongue epithelium slows down. PMID:27119844

  4. [New acrylic resins with very low residual monomer].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Kadoma, Y; Imai, Y

    1989-07-01

    New experimental acrylic resins were prepared by polymerization of MMA in the presence of vinylidene fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer. The amount of residual monomer in the resins prepared by visible light curing, cold curing, and heat curing, at various polymer/monomer ratios, was measured and compared with the usual MMA/PMMA resin. In the visible light cured resins containing 60 or 70 wt% of the fluoropolymer, the amount of residual monomer was less than 0.1%. In the cold cured resins, the amount of residual monomer was very low: 0.2% and 0.7% for the resins containing 70 and 60 wt% of the polymer, respectively. These values were comparable to the usual heat cured MMA/PMMA resins. In the heat cured resins, the amount of residual monomer was the lowest; less than 0.1%, even in the resin consisting of 50 wt% polymer. Thus, we prepared new acrylic resins with much less residual monomer than the usual MMA/PMMA resins. PMID:2491165

  5. Synthesis of novel polyfluorinated acrylic monomers and oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonucci, J.M.; Stansbury, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    An unhindered tertiary amine catalyzed reaction of monofunctional and difunctional hydrocarbon acrylates with paraformaldehyde under neat conditions yields unique difunctional acrylic monomers and oligomers, respectively. These multifunctional vinyl products have a predominantly 1,6-diene structure which favors cyclopolymerization. This reaction has been extended to the synthesis of similar polyfluorinated aliphatic monomers arrangements are determined by the nature of their fluoroester groups, e.g.-CF{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}C- favors a 1,4-diene rather than a 1,6-diene structure. In the present study the scope of this novel formaldehyde/acrylate insertion condensation reaction was further extended to include the synthesis of polyfluorinated aryl difunctional monomers and oligomers, e.g. from 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl acrylate and hexafluorobisphenol A diacrylate. The former did not require DMSO and yielded 1,6-, 1,8- and 1,10-dienes whereas the latter required DMSO and yielded oligomers mainly with 1,4-diene linkages.

  6. A method for preparing sodium acrylate-d3, a useful and stable precursor for deuterated acrylic monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A convenient and economical method for converting propiolic acid to sodium acrylate-d3 is described. Successive D/H exchange of the alkyne proton of sodium propiolate (prepared from propiolic acid) using D2O affords sodium propiolate-d having up to 99 atom% D. Sodium propiolate-d can be partially reduced to sodium acrylate-d3 with 90% conversion and 89% yield, using D2 and the Lindlar catalyst with control of reaction parameters to maximize conversion while minimizing over reduction.

  7. Investigation of fluorinated (Meth)acrylate monomers and macromonomers suitable for a hydroxy-containing acrylate monomer in UV nanoimprinting.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shunya; Kaneko, Shu; Yun, Cheol Min; Kobayashi, Kei; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2014-06-24

    We investigated reactive fluorinated (meth)acrylate monomers and macromonomers that caused segregation at the cured resin surface of a viscous hydroxy-containing monomer, glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate (GDD), and decreased the demolding energy in ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting with spin-coated films under a condensable alternative chlorofluorocarbon gas atmosphere. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements used to determine the surface free energy suggested that a nonvolatile silicone-based methacrylate macromonomer with fluorinated alkyl groups segregated at the GDD-based cured resin surface and decreased the surface free energy, while fluorinated acrylate monomers hardly decreased the surface free energy because of their evaporation during the annealing of the spin-coated films. The average demolding energy of GDD-based cured resins with the macromonomer having fluorinated alkyl groups was smaller than that with the macromonomer having hydrocarbon alkyl groups. The fluorinated alkyl groups were responsible for decreasing the demolding energy rather than the polysiloxane main chains. We demonstrated that the GDD-based UV-curable resin with the fluorinated silicone-based macromonomer was suitable for step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting with a bare silica mold, in addition to silica molds treated by chemical vapor surface modification with trifluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydropropyltrimethoxysilane (FAS3) and tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrimethoxysilane (FAS13). PMID:24892792

  8. UV-curable polyurethane acrylate coatings with different acrylate monomers as reactive diluents

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeth, B.; Gerard, J.F.; Pascault, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two series of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) based on polycaprolactone (PCL), tetraxylylene diisocyanate (TMXDI), and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) or hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were studied. These ones were considered with different acrylates as reactive diluents. The effect of the chemical nature and functionality of the reactive diluents on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties (DMS) was investigated. From a thermodynamic point of view, the PUA seem to display a one phase structure by DMS. Nevertheless, the statistic heterogeneities due to the use of three monomers or more can explain the Tg values and the mechanical relaxations of the PUA. The Tg-onset of the PUA is slightly influenced by the nature of the reactive diluents but is dependent on the Tg of the oligomer confirming the description of the structure using a clusters model. The same conclusions could be done from the dynamic mechanical spectra of the PUA sandwiched and UV-cured between two glass plates.

  9. Novel (meth)acrylate monomers for ultrarapid polymerization and enhanced polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beckel, E. R.; Berchtold, K. A.; Nie, J.; Lu, H.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is known to be one of the most efficient methods to initiatc polymeric reactions in the presence of a photonitiator. Photopolymerizations are advantageous because the chemistry of the materials can be tailored to design liquid monomers for ultrarapid polymerization into a solid polymer material. One way to achieve rapid photopolymerizations is to utilize multifunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. which form highly crosslinked polymers; however, these monomers typically do not achieve complete functional group conversion. Recently, Decker et al. developed novel monovinyl acrylate monomers that display polyriicrization kinetics that rival those of multifunctional acrylate monomers. These novel acrylate monomers incorporate secondary functionalities and end groups such as carbonates, carbamates, cyclic carbonates and oxazolidone which promote the increased polymerization kinetics of these monomers. In addition to thc polynierization kinetics, these novel monovinyl monomers form crosslinked polymers, which are characterized by having high strength and high flexibility. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the polymerization kinetics and crosslinking are not well understood.

  10. Influencing solvent miscibility and aqueous stability of aluminum nanoparticles through surface functionalization with acrylic monomers.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Christopher A; Pierce, Christian J; Spowart, Jonathan E

    2010-09-01

    With growing interest in the development of new composite systems for a variety of applications that require easily processable materials and adequate structural properties with high energy densities, we have pursued the chemical functionalization of oxide-passivated aluminum nanoparticles (nAl) using three acrylic monomers, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 2-carboxyethyl acrylate (CEA), and phosphonic acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester (PAM), to provide chemical compatibility within various solvent and polymeric systems. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that attachment of MPS and PAM monomers occurs through the formation of bonds directly to the passivated oxide surface upon reaction with surface hydroxyls, whereas CEA monomers interact through the formation of ionic carboxylate binding to aluminum atoms within the oxide. The coated particles demonstrate enhanced miscibility in common organic solvents and monomers; MPS and PAM coatings are additionally shown to inhibit oxidation of the aluminum particles when exposed to aqueous environments at room temperature, and PAM coatings are stable at even elevated temperatures. PMID:20795650

  11. Delamination of layered double hydroxides in polar monomers: new LDH-acrylate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Shane; O'Hare, Dermot; Seeley, Gordon

    2002-07-21

    The layered double hydroxide Mg2Al(OH)6(C12H25SO4) was delaminated to give high levels of inclusion in acrylate monomers; subsequent polymerisation of the monomers containing the LDH dispersion gave polyacrylates with the inorganic component still in the delaminated form. PMID:12189866

  12. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (p<0.05). However, the amount of residual monomer in group F3 was significantly higher than that of the F1, F4, and PC groups (p<0.05). In contrast, ultrasonic treatment did not reduce the amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin (p>0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time. PMID:26190059

  13. Integration of lignin and acrylic monomers towards grafted copolymers by free radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohuan; Xu, Yuzhi; Yu, Juan; Li, Shouhai; Wang, Jifu; Wang, Chunpeng; Chu, Fuxiang

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of acrylic monomers (2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFBMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA)) were utilized to modify the lignin (BBL) by "grafting from" free radical polymerization (FRP), respectively. Calcium chloride/hydrogen peroxide (CaCl2/H2O2) was used as initiator. Effects of monomer type and concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization time on grafting from BBL were studied. Grafting of poly (acrylic monomers) onto BBL was verified by the following characterizations and this synthesis method was found to be high efficient and selective for grafting polymerization of BBL. The presence of the BBL moiety in the backbone also resulted in higher glass transition temperature compared with the homopolymer of each monomer, and some modified copolymers also improved its thermal stability. All modifications made BBL more hydrophobic and the static contact angles of these modified copolymers were above 80°. XPS analysis revealed that the surface of these modified BBL copolymers were dominated by acrylate monomer moiety. Additionally, the BBL-g-PBA copolymers can be used as dispersion modifiers in PLA-based materials to enhance UV absorption. PMID:24742785

  14. Solid phase graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto thermoplastics and their use as blend compatibilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Srinivas

    This research work is an extension of some of the earlier work done on the development of solid phase grafting technique to graft various monomers onto polymers as well as postulation of the usefulness of the graft copolymers thus synthesized. Polystyrene grafted with acrylic acid, previously developed in bench scale, was synthesized in pilot-plant scale batches. Process parameter studies on the grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene and developmental studies on the grafting of maleic anhydride onto polystyrene were also done. Polymers grafted with polar molecules such as maleic anhydride and acrylic acid have been used to compatibilize immiscible blends of polar and non-polar polymers. On the same note, the applicability of the solid phase graft copolymers as blend compatibilizers were investigated and their performance was compared to commercially available compatibilizers. Solid phase graft copolymerization process is a technique to synthesize graft copolymers. Some of its salient features are use of minimal solvent to conduct the reaction and easy equipment modification. It is a low pressure and low temperature process. This technique provides a viable alternative to the environmentally hazardous, and time consuming conventional process currently in use. Hence, development of this technique could be beneficial not only to the plastics industry, but also to mankind. Also, this technique provides a low-cost and extremely easy method to develop graft copolymers such as acrylic acid functionalized polymers that are rapidly gaining popularity as blend compatibilizers and polymer reinforcing agents. A study that proves the potential of these solid phase graft copolymers as good blend compatibilizers for industrially important immiscible polymers will develop interest in the industries about this grafting process. The free radical solid phase graft copolymerization process was carried in a modified Brabender-type mixer fitted with specially designed blades to

  15. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of saccharide acrylate monomers from nonedible biomass.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Wouter M J; Brouwer, Sander G M; Loos, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol % of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by using TLC and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction resulted in two products. The minor product originated from transglycosidation to hemicellulose and was found to be 2-(β-xylosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. The major product was identified as 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate and the yield of the product was 5 wt % based on the amount of consumed cellulose. Glycosidation products with oligosaccharide moieties could not be detected in the reaction mixture. This result can be explained by the hydrolytic activities of the used cellulase preparation. Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei was found to possess, in addition to endoglucanase activity, cellobiosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Five other cellulase preparations from different origins were tested as well for catalysis of oligosaccharide acrylate synthesis. For most cellulase preparations the major transglycosidation product appeared to be 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Nevertheless, the endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum was found to catalyze the synthesis of 2-(β-cellobiosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Unlike the other cellulase preparations, endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from T. longibrachiatum showed no detectable β-glucosidase activity and therefore oligosaccharide acrylate monomers were not further hydrolyzed into the monosaccharide acrylate 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. PMID:24866837

  16. Effects of acrylic resin monomers on porcine coronary artery reactivity.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku; West, Daniel; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Pashley, David; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the reactivity of porcine coronary arteries under in vitro conditions following their exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers. Confirming previous studies using rat aortas, both MMA and HEMA induced acute/direct relaxation of coronary ring preparations, which was partly dependent on the endothelium. With prolonged tissue exposure, both monomers caused time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of receptor-mediated contraction of the vascular smooth muscle caused by prostaglandin F2∝ (PGF2∝), with HEMA causing more inhibition than MMA. Hydroxyethyl methacrylate, but not MMA, also produced impairment of non-receptor-mediated contraction of the coronary smooth muscle induced by KCl. On the other hand, neither HEMA nor MMA altered relaxation of the smooth muscle produced by the direct-acting pharmacological agent, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). While exposure to HEMA impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation caused by bradykinin (BK), MMA markedly enhanced this endothelial-mediated response of the arteries. The enhanced endothelial response produced by MMA was linked to nitric oxide (NO) release. In conclusion, with prolonged tissue exposure, MMA causes less pronounced effects/adverse consequences on coronary smooth muscle function relative to the effect of HEMA, while enhancing vasorelaxation associated with release of NO from the endothelium. Accordingly, MMA-containing resin materials appear to be safer for human applications than materials containing HEMA. PMID:27132475

  17. Development of Periodic and Three-Dimensional Structures in Acrylic-Monomer Photopolymer Materials by Holographic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorzobova, N. D.; Bulgakova, V. G.; Moskalenko, A. I.; Pavlovets, I. M.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Burunkova, Yu. É.

    2015-01-01

    We show the possibility and advantages of using photopolymer materials based on acrylic monomers and nanocomposites in holography. Holographic characteristics of these materials and conditions for forming periodic structures and three-dimensional elements in them are determined.

  18. Lattice Dynamics of Colloidal Crystals During Photopolymerization of Acrylic Monomer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, H. B,; Penn, B. G.; Frazier, D. O.; Ramachandran, N.

    1998-01-01

    The photoinitiated bulk polymerization process, which has been used recently in the manufacture of solid optical diffraction filters, is examined to understand the dynamics of both the crystalline colloidal arrays (CCA) and the host monomer species. Our analysis indicates that volume shrinkage of the monomer, changes in the dielectric properties of the monomer, and inhomogeneities of polymerization reaction rate across the dispersion during the polymerization process, are the major contributors for observed lattice compression and lattice disorder of the CCA of silica spheres in polymerized acrylic/methacrylic ester films. The effect of orientation of photocell with respect to the radiation source on Bragg diffraction of CCA indicated the presence of convective stirring in the thin fluid system during the photopolymerization that deleteriously affects the periodic array structures. To devise reproducible and more efficient optical filters, experimental methods to minimize or eliminate convective instabilities in monomeric dispersions during polymerization are suggested.

  19. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  20. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  1. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  2. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  3. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  4. Radiation grafting studies of acrylic acid onto cellulose triacetate membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzei, R. O.; Smolko, E.; Torres, A.; Tadey, D.; Rocco, C.; Gizzi, L.; Strangis, S.

    2002-05-01

    Polymer surface modifications were obtained by the application of radiation treatments, etching and grafting of acrylic acid monomers on different membranes of cellulose triacetate materials. Cellulose triacetate foils from pellet dissolution and commercial cellulose triacetate solid state nuclear track detector membranes were assayed. Irradiation with fission fragments from Cf-252 source to obtain a porous structure, 25 MeV proton beam and Co-60 γ-source to produce peroxides were employed in the experiments. The present work gives the grafting yield of AAc monomer onto CTA membranes as a function of diverse variables including irradiation parameters ( γ-dose, Cf-252 ff irradiation time, proton fluency and electronic energy loss (d E/d x) e), structural parameters (pore diameter and pore density, etching time and etching temperature) and grafting parameters (monomer and Mohr salt concentration, grafting time and grafting temperature).

  5. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  6. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ACRYLIC ACID MANUFACTURE; STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of acrylic acid. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide are emitted from various operations. Hydrocarbon emissions consist of acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone acrolein, acrylic acid, benzene, phenol, pr...

  7. Synthesis and molecular characterization of acrylate liquid crystalline resin monomers (ALCRM).

    PubMed

    He, X P; Cai, W; Guo, L; Zhou, L Z; Nie, M H

    2015-01-01

    A novel biocompatible resin monomer 4—3—(acryloyloxy)—2—hydroxypropoxy) phenyl 4—(3—(acryloyloxy)—2—hydroxypropoxy) benzoate, as an oral restorative — acrylate liquid crystalline resin monomer (ALCRM) was synthesized. The intermediate product and the final product were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A resin matrix which has a potential application in dental composites was prepared by photopolymerizing ALCRM and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as a primary and diluted monomer with a photosensitizer of camphorquinone (CQ) and 2—(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) mixture. The molar ratio of ALCRM and TEGDMA was 7:3. The properties such as the curing depth, curing time, and the volumetric shrinkage of the resin matrix were investigated and compared with a traditional composite resin matrix Bis—GMA. After photocuring polymerization, the conversion degree of the resin matrix is 68.06%, higher than Bis—GMA/TEGDMA; the curing time is 4.08±0.20min, the curing depth is 2.10±0.17mm, and the volumetric shrinkage is 3.62%±0.26%. All the properties exhibit a better performance of the prepared resin matrix than Bis—GMA. PMID:26475389

  8. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  11. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  16. Hydration structure of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate): comparison with a 2-methoxyethyl acetate model monomer.

    PubMed

    Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Kitagawa, Kuniyuki; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported the hydration structure of a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) antithrombogenic material. In the present study, the hydration structure of a 2-methoxyethyl acetate (MEAc) model monomer for PMEA was explored by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Water in MEAc does not show an evidence for cold crystallization by DSC, while it was found by ATR-IR spectroscopy that MEAc has a hydration structure similar to that of PMEA at a functional group level. Three different types of hydrated water, tightly bound water, loosely bound water and scarcely bound water, were identified in MEAc, as well as PMEA. It was suggested from the present study that the localized and concentrated water cluster having the three types of hydration structure on the surface of PMEA plays an important role in the biocompatibility. PMID:20566058

  17. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  18. Radiation-initiated emulsion copolymerization of styrene and carboxylic acid monomers. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Egusa, S.; Makuuchi, K.

    1982-03-01

    The emulsion copolymerization of styrene and carboxylic acid monomers such as acrylic, methacrylic, and itaconic acids (AAc, MAAc, IAc) was studied by using /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays as initiator and sodium dodecylsulfate as emulsifier. The polymerization behavior of these acid monomers was followed by simultaneous conductometric and potentiometric titrations for a latex sample taken in polymerization. The polymerization rate of these acid monomers increases in the following order of hydrophobicity: IAc < AAc < MAAc; this suggests that their polymerization sites are mainly the surface and/or subsurface regions of latex particles. The copolymerization rate of styrene and acid monomer increases with an increase in the acid monomer content for AAc and MAAc, whereas for IAc the rate decreases. The particle sizes determined by the stopped-flow method reveal that this variation of copolymerization rate cannot be explained by the number of growing particles and should be attributed to another factor; for instance, the transfer rate of styrene molecules from oil droplets to growing particles.

  19. Synthesis of radiation crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of phenyltriethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Safia; Yasin, Tariq

    2014-04-01

    Acrylic acid based superabsorbent hydrogel was prepared using phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES) as polyfunctional monomer. Different amounts of PTES were incorporated in acrylic acid and irradiated at different doses upto maximum of 30 kGy. The crosslinked acrylic acid showed hydrogel properties and its swelling kinetics, gel fraction and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) were studied. It was found that the increased PTES concentration decreased the EDS of the hydrogels. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the crosslinking reaction between the feed components and the existence of siloxane bond. Thermogravimetric analysis showed an increase in the stability of the hydrogels having high PTES content. The swelling of the hydrogel was affected by pH, ionic strength and temperature. These hydrogels showed low swelling in acidic and basic pH range and high swelling around neutral pH. This switchable pH response of these hydrogels can be exploited in environmental and biomedical applications.

  20. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  1. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

    2000-10-01

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

  2. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  3. Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on a Polytetrafluoroethylene Panel by an Inductively Coupled Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yan; You, Qingliang; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Suzhen; Ni, Guohua; Nagatsu, M.; Meng, Yuedong

    2011-02-01

    Surface modification on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panel was performed with sequential nitrogen plasma treatments and surface-initiated polymerization. By introducing COO- groups to the surface of the PTFE panel through grafting polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), a transparent poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) membrane was achieved from acrylic acid solution. Grafting polymerization initiating from the active groups was achieved on the PTFE panel surface after the nitrogen plasma treatment. Utilizing the acrylic acid as monomers, with COO- groups as cross link sites to form reticulation structure, a transparent poly (acrylic acid) membrane with arborescent macromolecular structure was formed on the PTFE panel surface. Analysis methods, such as fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were utilized to characterize the structures of the macromolecule membrane on the PTFE panel surface. A contact angle measurement was performed to characterize the modified PTFE panels. The surface hydrophilicities of modified PTFE panels were significantly enhanced after the plasma treatment. It was shown that the grafting rate is related to the treating time and the power of plasma.

  4. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  5. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  6. Analysis of cyclic pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Seen; Ko, Ji-Eun

    2011-11-18

    Amino acid was mixed with silica and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to favor pyrolysis of amino acid monomer. The pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer were using GC/MS and GC. 20 amino acids of alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine were analyzed. The pyrolysis products were divided into cyclic and non-cyclic products. Among the 20 amino acids, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, and phenylalanine generated cyclic pyrolysis products of the monomer. New cyclic pyrolysis products were formed by isolation of amino acid monomers. They commonly had polar side functional groups to 5-, 6-, or 7-membered ring structure. Arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, and phenylalanine generated only 5- or 6-membered ring products. However, lysine generated both 6- and 7-membered ring compounds. Variations of the relative intensities of the cyclic pyrolysis products with the pyrolysis temperature and amino acid concentration were also investigated. PMID:21993510

  7. Characterization of thin-film deposition in a pulsed acrylic acid polymerizing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, Sergey A.; Bradley, James W.; Fotea, Catalin; Zelzer, Mischa; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2007-07-15

    In this study, thin-film deposition in a pulsed rf polymerizing discharge (13.56 MHz) struck in acrylic acid has been investigated by mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. The experiment was conducted at a fixed acrylic acid pressure of 1.3 Pa and 'on' pulse duration of 0.1 ms, whereas the 'off' time was varied between 0 and 20 ms. The rf input power in the 'on' time and gas flow rate were varied between 10 and 50 W and 1.5 and 4.8 sccm (sccm denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively. These changes of the discharge conditions resulted in large-scale progressive variations in film and gas-phase plasma composition. In particular, the -COOH functionality of the monomer was increasingly retained in the plasma-generated thin films as the duty cycle was lowered (i.e., with lowered time-averaged powers). The monomer retention reached its maximum value of 66% for 'off' times exceeding 5 ms, when the discharge was operating in the power-deficient regime. The results show that the film deposition rate is a strong function of the monomer flow rate, whereas -COOH retention is correlated to the amount of unfragmented monomer in the plasma, controlled by the applied power.

  8. Selection of di(meth)acrylate monomers for low pollution of fluorinated mold surfaces in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Kei; Hattori, Azusa N; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Kubo, Shoichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-04-14

    We used fluorescence microscopy to show that low adsorption of resin components by a mold surface was necessary for continuous ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting, as well as generation of a low release energy on detachment of a cured resin from a template mold. This is because with low mold pollution, fracture on demolding occurred at the interface between the mold and cured resin surfaces rather than at the outermost part of the cured resin. To achieve low mold pollution, we investigated the radical photopolymerization behaviors of fluorescent UV-curable resins and the mechanical properties (fracture toughness, surface hardness, and release energy) of the cured resin films for six types of di(meth)acrylate-based monomers with similar chemical structures, in which polar hydroxy and aromatic bulky bisphenol moieties and methacryloyl or acryloyl reactive groups were present or absent. As a result, we selected bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BPAGDM), which contains hydroxy, bisphenol, and methacryloyl moieties, which give good mechanical properties, monomer bulkiness, and mild reactivity, respectively, as a suitable base monomer for UV nanoimprinting under an easily condensable alternative chlorofluorocarbon (HFC-245fa) atmosphere. The fluorescent UV-curable BPAGDM resin was used for UV nanoimprinting and lithographic reactive ion etching of a silicon surface with 32 nm line-and-space patterns without a hard metal layer. PMID:25793911

  9. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction. PMID:24859074

  10. Semiconductor nanoparticles in poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Blanuša, J.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Djoković, V.

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead sulfide (PbS) semiconductors were prepared in a poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) matrix. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using optical and structural methods. Co-polymers were synthesized in two different molar ratios of pDMAEMA:acrylic acid monomer units (1:2, 1:1). Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of nano-sized CdSe and PbS particles. In the case of CdSe, a shift of the onset of the optical absorption toward lower wavelengths was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both CdSe and PbS nanoparticles have cubic crystal structure.

  11. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Philip, Joseph Y N; Buchweishaija, Joseph; Mkayula, Lupituko L; Ye, Lei

    2007-10-31

    The objective of this work was to use monomers from cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shells to develop molecularly imprinted polymers. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a cheap and renewable agro byproduct consisting of versatile monomers. Solvent-extracted CNSL contains over 80% anacardic acid (AnAc) with more than 90% degree of unsaturation in its C 15 side chain. From AnAc monomer, anacardanyl acrylate (AnAcr) and anacardanyl methacrylate (AnMcr) monomers were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized by Fourier transform IR and NMR. Different imprinted bulk polymers based on AnAc, AnAcr, and AnMcr functional monomers have been prepared. In the present study, each functional monomer was separately copolymerized in toluene with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene as cross-linkers, using racemic propranolol as a model template. While the AnAc based polymer revealed a meager rebinding ability, the imprinted polymers made from AnAcr and AnMcr displayed highly specific propranolol binding. At a polymer concentration of 2 mg/mL, AnAcr and AnMcr based imprinted polymers were able to bind over 50% of trace propranolol (initial concentration 1.2 nM). Under the same condition propranolol uptake by the two nonimprinted control polymers was less than 20%. Chiral recognition properties of these polymers were further confirmed using tritium-labeled (S)-propranolol as a tracer in displacement experiments, suggesting that the apparent affinity of the imprinted chiral sites for the correct enantiomer is at least 10 times that of the mismatched (R)-propranolol. Moreover, cross reactivity studies of these polymers showed that the (S)-imprinted sites have higher cross-reactivity toward (R, S)-metoprolol than (R)-propranolol and (R)-timolol. PMID:17927136

  12. Drilling fluids containing amps, acrylic acid, itaconic acid polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component, there being from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and being at least water dispersible. A method is described of drilling a well into a subterranean formation in which an aqueous drilling fluid is circulated into the well. The step of circulating the drilling fluid contains in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component. There is from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and is at least water dispersible.

  13. Photopolymerizable phosphate acrylates as comonomers in dental adhesives with or without triclosan monomer units.

    PubMed

    Melinte, Violeta; Buruiana, Tinca; Aldea, Horia; Matiut, Simona; Silion, Mihaela; Buruiana, Emil C

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate diacrylates (CO-DAP, TMP-DAP) based on castor oil or trimethylolpropane were synthesized and evaluated in dental adhesive formulations in comparison with 3-acryloyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate phosphate (AMP-P). In an attempt to promote antibacterial activity, another photopolymerizable monomer (TCS-UMA) containing 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol moiety (triclosan) was prepared and incorporated in adhesive resins. Each of these monomers had a molecular structure confirmed by spectral methods. The photopolymerization rates for monomers (0.063-0.088s(-1)) were lower than those determined in the monomer combinations (0.116-0.158s(-1)) incorporating phosphate diacrylate (11wt.%), BisGMA (33wt.%), TEGDMA (10wt.%), UDMA (10wt.%) and HEMA (15wt.%), the degree of conversion varying between 63.4 and 74.5%. The formed copolymers showed high values for water sorption (18.65-57.02μg/mm(3)) and water solubility (3.51-13.38μg/mm(3)), and the contact angle was dependent on the presence of CO-DAP (θF1: 66.67°), TMP-DAP (θF2: 55.05°) or AMP-P (θF3: 52.90°) in the photocrosslinked specimens compared to the sample without phosphate monomer (θF4: 82.14°). The scanning electron microscopy image of the dentin-resin composite interface after applying our F1 formulation (pH: 4.1) and its light-curing for 20s supports the evidence of the formation of the hybrid layer with the tooth structure created by self-etching approach, with no gaps or cracks in the adhesive. A comparative analysis of the adhesion achieved with commercial adhesive systems (Single Bond Universal, C-Bond) rather indicates similarities than differences between them. The addition of triclosan methacrylate (1wt.%) into the formulation inhibited the bacterial growth of the Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli in the direct contact area due to the covalently linked antibacterial monomer. PMID:24268247

  14. Lattice Dynamics of Colloidal Crystals During Photopolymerization of Acrylic Monomer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, Hari B.; Benjamin, Penn G.; Donald, Frazier O.; Ramachandran, N.

    1997-01-01

    Polymerization process are the major contributors for observed lattice compression and lattice disorder of the Crystalline Colloidal Arrays (CCA) of silica spheres in polymerized acrylic/methacrylic ester films. The effect of orientation of photocell with respect to the readiation source on Bragg diffraction of CCA indicated the presence of convective stirring in thin fluid system during the photopolymerization that deleteriously affect the periodic array structures. To devise reproducible and more efficient optical filters, experimental methods to minimize or eliminate convective instabilities in monomeric dispersions during polymerization are suggested.

  15. Preparation and drug-loading properties of Fe3O4/Poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wensheng; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2013-11-01

    Fe3O4/poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites were synthesized by the dispersion polymerization method using styrene as hard monomer, acrylic acid as functional monomer, Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified with oleic acid as core, and poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) as shell. Drug-loading properties of magnetic polymer nanocomposites with curcumin as a model drug were also studied. The results indicated that magnetic polymer nanocomposites with monodisperse were obtained, the particle size distribution was 50-120 nm, and the average size was about 100 nm. The contents of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in magnetic polymer nanocomposites were 74% and 24.7%, respectively. The drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency were 2.5% and 44.4%, respectively. The saturation magnetization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites at 300 K was 20.2 emu/g without coercivity and remanence. The as-prepared magnetic polymer nanocomposites have not only lots of functional carboxyl groups but also stronger magnetic response, which might have potential applications in drug carrier and targeted drug release.

  16. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of carboxylated cobalt-containing nanocomposite ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytsihovskaya, S. A.; Sokolov, M. E.; Panyushkin, V. T.; Gromov, P. Yu.; Shcherbina, A. A.; Matveev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    We have used ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the effect of the concentration of cobalt nanoparticles (5-9 nm) incorporated into ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers (monomer ratios 100:1 and 10:1) on the magnitude of the resonant field in ferromagnetic resonance and on the effective magnetization of thin-film samples of these nanocomposite polymer materials. The cobalt nanoparticles were obtained by thermolysis of Co2(CO)8 in 5% solutions of the indicated copolymers in toluene. From the solutions obtained, we prepared films of thickness 1 μm on aluminum substrates.

  17. Allergic effects of the residual monomer used in denture base acrylic resins

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Haroon; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Vohra, Fahim

    2015-01-01

    Denture base resins are extensively used in dentistry for a variety of purposes. These materials can be classified as chemical, heat, light, and microwave polymerization materials depending upon the factor which starts the polymerization reaction. Their applications include use during denture base construction, relining existing dentures, and for fabrication of orthodontic removable appliances. There have been increased concerns regarding the safe clinical application of these materials as their biodegradation in the oral environment leads to harmful effects. Along with local side effects, the materials have certain occupational hazards, and numerous studies can be found in the literature mentioning those. The purpose of this article is to outline the cytotoxic consequences of denture base acrylic resins and clinical recommendations for their use. PMID:26929705

  18. Permeability of different types of medical protective gloves to acrylic monomers.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Wellendorf, Hanne; Ruyter, Eystein

    2003-10-01

    Dental personnel and orthopedic surgeons are at risk when manually handling products containing methyl methacrylate (MMA). Dental products may also contain cross-linking agents such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) or 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA). Skin contact with monomers can cause hand eczema, and the protection given by gloves manufactured from different types of material is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the breakthrough time (BTT, min) as a measure of protection (according to the EU standard EN-374-3) for a mixture consisting of MMA, EGDMA and 1,4-BDMA. Fifteen different gloves representing natural rubber latex material, synthetic rubber material (e.g. nitrile rubbers), and synthetic polymer material were tested. The smallest monomer MMA permeated within 3 min through all glove materials. A polyethylene examination glove provided the longest protection period to EGDMA and 1, 4-BDMA (> 120 min and 25.0 min), followed by the surgical glove Tactylon (6.0 min and 8.7 min) and the nitrile glove Nitra Touch (5.0 min and 8.7 min). This study showed that the breakthrough time (based on permeation rate) cannot be regarded as a 'safe limit'. When the permeation rate is low, monomers may have permeated before BTT can be determined. Using double gloves with a synthetic rubber inner glove and a natural rubber outer glove provided longer protection when the inner glove was rinsed in water before placing the outer glove on top. PMID:12974690

  19. Precision synthesis of bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomer by RAFT polymerization of itaconic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kotaro; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Nagai, Kanji; Kamigaito, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based polymer materials from renewable resources have recently become a growing research focus. Herein, a novel thermoplastic elastomer is developed via controlled/living radical polymerization of plant-derived itaconic acid derivatives, which are some of the most abundant renewable acrylic monomers obtained via the fermentation of starch. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerizations of itaconic acid imides, such as N-phenylitaconimide and N-(p-tolyl)itaconimide, and itaconic acid esters, such as di-n-butyl itaconate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) itaconate, are examined using a series of RAFT agents to afford well-defined polymers. The number-average molecular weights of these polymers increase with the monomer conversion while retaining relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. Based on the successful controlled/living polymerization, sequential block copolymerization is subsequently investigated using mono- and di-functional RAFT agents to produce block copolymers with soft poly(itaconate) and hard poly(itaconimide) segments. The properties of the obtained triblock copolymer are evaluated as bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomers. PMID:24243816

  20. Acrylic-acid-functionalized PolyHIPE scaffolds for use in 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam S; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

    2013-12-01

    This study describes the development of a functional porous polymer for use as a scaffold to support 3D hepatocyte culture. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) is prepared containing the monomers styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB), and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) in the external oil phase and the monomer acrylic acid (Aa) in the internal aqueous phase. Upon thermal polymerization with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), the resulting porous polymer (polyHIPE) is found to have an open-cell morphology and a porosity of 89%, both suitable characteristics for 3D cell scaffold applications. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy reveals that the polyHIPE surface contained 7.5% carboxylic acid functionality, providing a useful substrate for subsequent surface modifications and bio-conjugations. Initial bio-compatibility assessments with human hepatocytes show that the acid functionality does not have any detrimental effect on cell adhesion. It is therefore believed that this material can be a useful precursor scaffold towards 3D substrates that offer tailored surface functionality for enhanced cell adhesion. PMID:24243821

  1. Total sulfate vs. sulfuric acid monomer concenterations in nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulfuric-acid concentration is a crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulfuric-acid monomer concentrations and total-sulfate concentrations measured from the same source of sulfuric-acid vapor. The discrepancy of about 1-2 orders of magnitude was found with similar particle-formation rates. To investigate this discrepancy, and its effect on nucleation, a method of thermally controlled saturator filled with pure sulfuric acid (97% wt.) for production of sulfuric-acid vapor is applied and rigorously tested. The saturator provided an independent vapor-production method, compared to our previous method of the furnace (Brus et al., 2010, 2011), to find out if the discrepancy is caused by the production method itself. The saturator was used in a H2SO4-H2O nucleation experiment, using a laminar flow tube to check reproducibility of the nucleation results with the saturator method, compared to the furnace. Two independent methods of mass spectrometry and online ion chromatography were used for detecting sulfuric-acid or sulfate concentrations. Measured sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate concentrations are compared to theoretical predictions calculated using vapor pressure and a mixing law. The calculated prediction of sulfuric-acid concentrations agrees very well with the measured values when total sulfate is considered. Sulfuric-acid monomer concentration was found to be about 2 orders of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions, but with a temperature dependency similar to the predictions and the results obtained with the ion-chromatograph method. Formation rates are reproducible when compared to our previous results with both sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate detection and sulfuric-acid production methods separately, removing any doubts that the vapor-production method would

  2. High surface-area amidoxime-based polymer fibers co-grafted with various acid monomers yielding increased adsorption capacity for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is dissolved in the ocean at a uniform concentration of 3.34 ppb, which translates to approximately 4-5 billion tons of uranium. The development of adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater has been a long term goal, but the extremely dilute uranium concentration along with the competition of other metal salts (which are at higher concentrations) has hindered the development of an economical adsorption process. Several acid monomers were co-grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) to help increase the hydrophilicity of the adsorbent to improve access to the metal adsorption sites. Grafting various acid monomers on PE fibers was found to significantly affect the uranium adsorption in simulated seawater in the following order: acrylic acid (AA) < vinyl sulfonic acid (VSA) < methacrylic acid (MAA) < itaconic acid (ITA) < vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA). Interestingly, the uranium adsorption capacity significantly increased when Mohr's salt was added with acrylic acid, most likely due to the reduction of co-polymerization of the monomers. When testing under more realistic conditions, the acid-grafted PE fiber adsorbents were exposed to natural seawater (more dilute uranium), the uranium adsorption capacity increased in the following order: MAA < AA (Mohr's salt) < VSA < ITA (Mohr's salt) < ITA < VPA, which agreed well with the simulated seawater results. Characterization of the adsorbents indicated that the increase in uranium adsorption capacity with each acid monomer was related to higher grafting of AN and therefore a higher conversion to amidoxime (AO). PMID:27145863

  3. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  18. Flame retardant brominated styrene-based polymers. V. Synthesis and characterization of dibromostyrene and butyl acrylate latices with and without itaconic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.L.; Favstritsky, N.A.; Hemmerly, D.M.

    1995-12-01

    Dibranostyrene and butyl acrylate lattices with and without itaconic acid having desirable physical properties in combination with flame retardancy are prepared by an emulsion polymerization techniques Both lattices were characterized in terms of glass transition temperature (Tg), residual monomer, solids, Brookfield viscosity, UV stability and flame retardancy.

  19. Corrosion Inhibitive Evaluation of an Environmentally Friendly Water-Base Acrylic Terpolymer on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azghandi, Mojtaba Vakili; Davoodi, Ali; Farzi, Gholam Ali; Kosari, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion inhibitive performance of an environmentally friendly water-base acrylic terpolymer [methyl methacrylate/Butyl Acrylate/Acrylic acid (ATP)] on mild steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by alternating current and direct current electrochemical techniques and the quantum chemical method. An efficiency of more than 97 pct was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time has a positive effect, while the temperature influence is negligible on the inhibitor efficiency. The present terpolymer obeys the Langmuir isotherm, and thermodynamic calculation reveals a chemisorption type on the surface. Density functional calculations showed that the lone pairs of electrons of oxygen in the structure of three monomers are suitable sites to adsorb onto the metal surface. Finally, in the presence of ATP, a decrease in surface roughness and corrosion attacks was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy examinations, respectively.

  20. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  1. A study on the effect of the concentration of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and acrylic acid toward the properties of Dioscorea hispida-starch-based hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashri, Airul; Lazim, Azwan

    2014-09-01

    The research investigated the effects of acrylic acid (monomer) and N,N,-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA (crosslinker) toward the percentage of gel content, swelling ratio and ionic strength of a starch-based hydrogel. Starch grafted on poly (sodium acrylate), St-g-PAANa hydrogel was prepared by incorporating starch extracted from Dioscorea hispida in NaOH/aqueous solution using different composition of acrylic acid (AA) and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in the presence of potassium persulfate (KPS) as chemical initiator. The highest gel content was observed at 1:30 ratio of starch to AA and 0.10 M of MBA. Results showed the highest swelling ratio was observed at 1:15 ratio of starch to acrylic acid and 0.02 M of MBA solution. The same results also gave the highest swelling ratio for the ionic strength study. The FTIR analysis was also conducted in order to confirm the grafting of AA onto starch backbone.

  2. Production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from acrylic acid by newly isolated rhodococcus erythropolis LG12.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Park, Si Jae; Park, Oh-Jin; Cho, Junhyeong; Rhee, Joo Won

    2009-05-01

    A novel microorganism, designated as LG12, was isolated from soil based on its ability to use acrylic acid as the sole carbon source. An electron microscopic analysis of its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic classification by 16S rRNA homology showed that the LG12 strain belongs to Rhodococcus erythropolis. R. erythropolis LG12 was able to metabolize a high concentration of acrylic acid (up to 40 g/l). In addition, R. erythropolis LG12 exhibited the highest acrylic acid-degrading activity among the tested microorganisms, including R. rhodochrous, R. equi, R. rubber, Candida rugosa, and Bacillus cereus. The effect of the culture conditions of R. erythropolis LG12 on the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) from acrylic acid was also examined. To enhance the production of 3HP, acrylic acid-assimilating activity was induced by adding 1 mM acrylic acid to the culture medium when the cell density reached an OD600 of 5. Further cultivation of R. erythropolis LG12 with 40 g/l of acrylic acid resulted in the production of 17.5 g/l of 3HP with a molar conversion yield of 44% and productivity of 0.22 g/I/h at 30 degrees after 72 h. PMID:19494695

  3. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  6. Pulsed and continuous wave acrylic acid radio frequency plasma deposits: plasma and surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Voronin, Sergey A; Zelzer, Mischa; Fotea, Catalin; Alexander, Morgan R; Bradley, James W

    2007-04-01

    Plasma polymers have been formed from acrylic acid using a pulsed power source. An on-pulse duration of 100 micros was used with a range of discharge off-times between 0 (continuous wave) and 20,000 micros. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used in combination with trifluoroethanol (TFE) derivatization to quantify the surface concentration of the carboxylic acid functionality in the deposit. Retention of this functionality from the monomer varied from 2% to 65%. When input power was expressed as the time-averaged energy per monomer molecule, E(mean), the deposit chemistry achieved could be described using a single relationship for all deposition conditions. Deposition rates were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance, which revealed a range from 20 to 200 microg m(-2) s(-1), and these fell as COOH functional retention increased. The flow rate was found to be the major determinant of the deposition rate, rather than being uniquely defined by E(mean), connected to the rate at which fresh monomer enters the system in the monomer deficient regime. The neutral species were collected in a time-averaged manner. As the energy delivered per molecule in the system (E(mean)) decreased, the amount of intact monomer increased, with the average neutral mass approaching 72 amu as E(mean) tends to zero. No neutral oligomeric species were detected. Langmuir probes have been used to determine the temporal evolution of the density and temperature of the electrons in the plasma and the plasma potential adjacent to the depositing film. It has been found that even 500 micros into the afterglow period that ionic densities are still significant, 5-10% of the on-time density, and that ion accelerating sheath potentials fall from 40 V in the on-time to a few volts in the off-time. We have made the first detailed, time- and energy-resolved mass spectrometry measurements in depositing acrylic acid plasma. These have allowed us to identify and quantify the positive ion

  7. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan Ayaz, Elif; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n=10) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer's instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5% (−5), 10% (−10), 15% (−15) and 20% (−20) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis test (α=0.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 °C⋅min−1 from 35 °C to 600 °C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (P<0.01). Ac-10 and Ac-15 showed significance when compared to Ac-c (P<0.01). Acrylamide incorporation increased the elastic modulus in Qc-10, Qc-15 and Qc-20 when compared to Qc-c (P<0.01). Also significant increase was observed in Ac-10, Ac-15 and Ac-20 copolymer groups when compared to Ac-c (P<0.01). According to the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results, acrylamide copolymerization was confirmed in the experimental groups. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm. PMID:24030556

  8. A New Process for Acrylic Acid Synthesis by Fermentative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunelli, B. H.; Duarte, E. R.; de Toledo, E. C. Vasco; Wolf Maciel, M. R.; Maciel Filho, R.

    With the synthesis of chemical products through biotechnological processes, it is possible to discover and to explore innumerable routes that can be used to obtain products of high addes value. Each route may have particular advantages in obtaining a desired product, compared with others, especially in terms of yield, productivity, easiness to separate the product, economy, and environmental impact. The purpose of this work is the development of a deterministic model for the biochemical synthesis of acrylic acid in order to explore an alternative process. The model is built-up with the tubular reactor equations together with the kinetic representation based on the structured model. The proposed process makes possible to obtain acrylic acid continuously from the sugar cane fermentation.

  9. Biosynthetic pathway for acrylic acid from glycerol in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenhua; Xu, Ying; Xian, Mo; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Acrylic acid is an important industrial feedstock. In this study, a de novo acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source glycerol was constructed in Escherichia coli. The acrylic acid was produced from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, and acrylyl-CoA. The acrylate production was improved by screening and site-directed mutagenesis of key enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase and chromosomal integration of some exogenous genes. Finally, our recombinant strain produced 37.7 mg/L acrylic acid under shaking flask conditions. Although the acrylate production is low, our study shows feasibility of engineering an acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source. Furthermore, the reasons for limited acrylate production and further strain optimization that should be performed in the future were also discussed. PMID:26782744

  10. Characterization of new acrylic bone cements prepared with oleic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Blanca; Deb, Sanjukta; Bonfield, William; Román, Julio San

    2002-01-01

    Acrylic bone-cement formulations were prepared with the use of a new tertiary aromatic amine derived from oleic acid, and also by incorporating an acrylic monomer derived from the same acid with the aim of reducing the leaching of toxic residuals and improving mechanical properties. 4-N,N dimethylaminobenzyl oleate (DMAO) was used as an activator in the benzoyl-peroxide radical cold curing of polymethyl methacrylate. Cements that contained DMAO exhibited much lower polymerization exotherm values, ranging between 55 and 62 C, with a setting time around 16--17 min, depending on the amine/BPO molar ratio of the formulation. On curing a commercial bone cement, Palacosreg R with DMAO, a decrease of 20 C in peak temperature and an increase in setting time of 7 min were obtained, the curing parameters remaining well within limits permitted by the standards. In a second stage, partial substitution of MMA by oleyloxyethyl methacrylate (OMA) in the acrylic formulations was performed, the polymerization being initiated with the DMAO/BPO redox system. These formulations exhibited longer setting times and lower peak temperatures with respect to those based on PMMA. The glass transition temperature of the experimental cements were lower than that of PMMA cement because of the presence of long aliphatic chains of both activator and monomer in the cement matrix. Number average molecular weights of the cured cements were in the range of 1.2x10(5). PMMA cements cured with DMAO/BPO revealed a significant (p<0.001) increase in the strain to failure and a significant (p<0.001) decrease in Young's modulus in comparison to Palacosreg R, whereas ultimate tensile strength remained unchanged. When the monomer OMA was incorporated, low concentrations of OMA provided a significant increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus without impairing the strain to failure. The results demonstrate that the experimental cements based on DMAO and OMA have excellent promise for use as orthopaedic and

  11. Patterned biofunctional poly(acrylic acid) brushes on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Baird, Barbara A; Lindau, Manfred; Ober, Christopher K

    2007-10-01

    Protein patterning was carried out using a simple procedure based on photolithography wherein the protein was not subjected to UV irradiation and high temperatures or contacted with denaturing solvents or strongly acidic or basic solutions. Self-assembled monolayers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on silicon surfaces were exposed to oxygen plasma through a patterned photoresist. The etched regions were back-filled with an initiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). ATRP of sodium acrylate was readily achieved at room temperature in an aqueous medium. Protonation of the polymer resulted in patterned poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes. A variety of biomolecules containing amino groups could be covalently tethered to the dense carboxyl groups of the brush, under relatively mild conditions. The PEG regions surrounding the PAA brush greatly reduced nonspecific adsorption. Avidin was covalently attached to PAA brushes, and biotin-tagged proteins could be immobilized through avidin-biotin interaction. Such an immobilization method, which is based on specific interactions, is expected to better retain protein functionality than direct covalent binding. Using biotin-tagged bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model, a simple strategy was developed for immobilization of small biological molecules using BSA as linkages, while BSA can simultaneously block nonspecific interactions. PMID:17880179

  12. Functional impact of polar and acidic substitutions in the lactose repressor hydrophobic monomer.monomer interface with a buried lysine.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hongli; Sun, Zhifei; Matthews, Kathleen Shive

    2009-02-17

    Despite predicted energetic penalties, the charged K84 side chains of tetrameric lactose repressor protein (LacI) are found buried within the highly hydrophobic monomer.monomer interface that includes side chains of V94 and V96. Once inducer binding has occurred, these K84 side chains move to interact with the more solvent-exposed side chains of D88 and E100'. Previous studies demonstrated that hydrophobic substitutions for K84 increased protein stability and significantly impaired the allosteric response. These results indicated that enhanced hydrophobic interactions at the monomer.monomer interface remove the energetic driving force of the buried charges, decreasing the likelihood of a robust conformational change and stabilizing the structure. We hypothesized that creating a salt bridge network with the lysine side chains by including nearby negatively charged residues might result in a similar outcome. To that end, acidic residues, D and E, and their neutral amides, N and Q, were substituted for the valines at positions 94 and 96. These variants exhibited one or more of the following functional changes: weakened inducer binding, impaired allosteric response, and diminished protein stability. For V96D and V96E, ion pair formation with K84 appears optimal, and the loss of inducer response exceeds that of the hydrophobic K84A and -L variants. However, impacts on functional properties indicate that stabilizing the buried positive charge with polar or ion pair interactions is not functionally equivalent to structural stabilization via hydrophobic enhancement. PMID:19166325

  13. Electron-beam induced RAFT-graft polymerization of poly(acrylic acid) onto PVDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasselli, M.; Betz, N.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores for the first time the post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization on solid substrate using reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) mechanism. Radiation-induced graft polymerization onto polymers is a potentially interesting technique to create easily new materials from highly resistant polymers, e.g. surface graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) improves its surface properties without losing its excellent mechanical properties. As a consequence of the radical nature of the polymerization processes it is difficult to control molecular weight of grafted chains, and therefore design and standardize the properties of the final product. RAFT polymerization is a suitable method to obtain monodisperse polymers. The ability of the RAFT agents to control the polymer chain length could be an interesting approach to improve the grafted polymers obtained by post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization technique. In this way, graft polymerization of AA onto electron-beam irradiated α-PVDF was performed using trithiocarbonic acid bis(1-phenylethyl) ester as a RAFT agent to control the radical polymerization. We studied several grafting parameters such as solvent, monomer concentration and grafting time in order to achieve a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer onto PVDF surface. Acetic acid was found to be the best solvent for many reasons, as to drive graft polymerization mainly to the polymer surface, complete solubility and stability of all reactants. Hydrolysis of PAA chains was also studied in order to remove the trithiocarbonate functionality from the grafted polymer. A mild chemical condition was achieved in order to have thiol groups that were detected onto the modified PVDF by specific enzymatic reaction.

  14. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  15. Radiation curing of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Janowska, G.

    Polyester resin containing acrylic acid or its salts was cured with γ 60Co radiation. The course of curing was examined, the gel content and polymerization shrinkage were measured and also thermographic and IR absorption analyses were carried out. It was found that manganese, iron and copper acrylates inhibited the curing of resin while the remaining additives showed a slightly stimulating action. All the additives decreased the polymerization shrinkage by a factor of 2-3 and iron acrylate by as much as 8 times (up to 1%). They also increased the activation energy of the thermal decomposition of resin, and calcium, barium and copper acrylates increased the thermal stability of resin by 20 K. IR absorption spectra showed that acrylic acid and its salts reacted mainly with the monomeric component of the resin (styrene) whereas iron and copper acrylates first attacked the unsaturated bonds of the oligoester.

  16. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  17. A study on the photopolymerization of acrylic monomers having fluorene moiety for the application of holographic data storage system.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mina; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Lee, Jaemin; Han, Mijeong; Lee, Changjin

    2009-12-01

    We have prepared photopolymer compositions for holographic data storage system from aromatic diacrylate having fluorine moiety, a hybrid sol-gel, and photoinitiator. The fluorenyl diacrylate monomer was synthesized via nucleophilic substitution reaction of fluorene diphenol with an excess of 2-chloroethoxyethanol, followed by the reaction with acryloyl chloride. The physical and holographic properties of photopolymer were controlled by the ratio of precursor triethoxysilylpropyl polyethyleneglycol carbamate (TSPEG) in a hybrid sol-gel binder and the content of monomer. Also, we measured the photopolymerization rate and conversion of monomer by photo-differential scanning calorimeter (photo-DSC). Holographic recording was attempted by photopolymerization of the monomers in the photopolymer film using a 532 nm laser light in the presence of Irgacure 784 and holographic gratings were recorded into the photopolymer films by interfering two collimated plane wave beams. Contents of monomer and TSPEG were changed in the range of 0.25-1.0 equiv. and the composition were optimized in terms of diffraction efficiency. Finally, we obtained that efficient photopolymer films showed diffraction efficiency of 78% when 0.5 equiv. of TESPEG in sol-gel binder and 40% of compound 4 were added. PMID:19908697

  18. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  19. SEM ANALYSIS OF THE ACID-ETCHED ENAMEL PATTERNS PROMOTED BY ACIDIC MONOMERS AND PHOSPHORIC ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; de Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares; Hipólito, Vinícius Di; Giannin, Marcelo; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although self-etching bonding systems (SES) are indicated to prepare dental enamel for bonding, concerns have been expressed regarding their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to analyze the etching pattern (EP) of nine SES in comparison with 35% and 34% phosphoric acid etchants (FA) on intact (IN) and ground (GR) enamel surface. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two human third molars were sectioned in mesial-distal and buccal-lingual directions, and four dental fragments were obtained from each tooth. Half of the fragments were ground using 600-grit SiC paper and the other half remained intact. The fragments were randomly assigned into 22 groups, according to the texture of enamel surface (IN and GR) and the technique to etch the enamel (34% FA, 35% FA, AdheSE primer; Brush & Bond; Clearfil Protect Bond primer; iBond; One-up Bond F; OptiBond Solo Plus primer; Tyrian SPE primer; Unifil Bond primer and Xeno III). Conditioners were applied to IN and GR enamel surfaces, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens etched with phosphoric acids were washed with water, while the surfaces treated with SES were submitted to alternate rinsing with alcohol and acetone. The specimens were dried, sputter-coated and examined under a scanning electron microscope. Results: For both IN and GR enamel surfaces, the EP of 34 and 35% FA was deeper and more homogeneous in comparison to EP of SES, except for Tyrian SPE. The acidic monomer action of self-etching systems was more effective on GR enamel. Conclusion: Most of the SES are less aggressive than phosphoric acid etchants and their etching effects were reduced on intact enamel surfaces. Uniterms: Dental acid etching; Dental enamel; Electron microscopy. PMID:19089243

  20. Homo- and co-polymerization of polysytrene-block-poly(acrylic acid)-coated metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Song, Xiaohui; Liu, Cuicui; He, Jiating; Chong, Wen Han; Chen, Hongyu

    2014-08-26

    Amphiphilic block copolymers such as polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PSPAA) give micelles that are known to undergo sphere-to-cylinder shape transformation. Exploiting this polymer property, core-shell nanoparticles coated in PSPAA can be "polymerized" into long chains following the chain-growth polymerization mode. This method is now extended to include a variety of different nanoparticles. A case study on the assembly process was carried out to understand the influence of the PAA block length, the surface ligand, and the size and morphology of the monomer nanoparticles. Shortening the PAA block promotes the reorganization of the amphiphilic copolymer in the micelles, which is essential for assembling large Au nanoparticles. Small Au nanoparticles can be directly "copolymerized" with empty PSPAA micelles into chains. The reaction time, acid quantity, and the [Au nanoparticles]/[PSPAA micelles] concentration ratio played important roles in controlling the sphere-cylinder-vesicle conversion of the PSPAA micelles, giving rise to different kinds of random "copolymers". With this knowledge, a general method is then developed to synthesize homo, random, and block "copolymers", where the basic units include small Au nanoparticles (d = 16 nm), large Au nanoparticles (d = 32 nm), Au nanorods, Te nanowires, and carbon nanotubes. Given the lack of means for assembling nanoparticles, advancing synthetic capabilities is of crucial importance. Our work provides convenient routes for combining nanoparticles into long-chain structures, facilitating rational design of complex nanostructures in the future. PMID:25000121

  1. Synthesis and self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zicheng; Ono, Robert J.; Wu, Zong-Quan; Bielawski, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    A modular and convenient synthesis of ethynyl end functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) in high purity is reported; this material facilitated access to poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) which self-assembled into hierarchical structures.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of amylose grafted poly(acrylic acid) and its application in ammonia adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Yu, Haojie; Wang, Li; Abdin, Zain-Ul; Yang, Xinpeng; Wang, Junhua; Zhou, Weidong; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Xiao

    2016-11-20

    Amylose grafted poly(acrylic acid) (Am-g-PAA) was synthesized by graft copolymerization of amylose with acrylic acid. The structure of Am-g-PAA was confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectra. The morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of amylose and Am-g-PAA were investigated by SEM, XRD and TGA, respectively. The highest degree of substitution (DS) of carboxyl group was 1.96 which was obtained after reacted for 1h at 60°C. Acrylic acid to anhydroglucose mole ratio for DS was 19.81. It was found that a large number of carboxyl groups were grafted on the backbone of amylose. It was also found that ammonia adsorption capacity of amylose increased by grafting poly(acrylic acid) on the backbone of amylose. PMID:27561514

  3. Characterization of Acid-neutralizing Basic Monomers in Co-solvent Systems by NMR.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Jennifer S; Nelson, Benjamin N; Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic activity of the oral microbiota leads to acidification of the microenvironment and promotes demineralization of tooth structure at the margin of composite restorations. The pathogenic impact of the biofilm at the margin of the composite restoration could be reduced by engineering novel dentin adhesives that neutralize the acidic micro-environment. Integrating basic moieties into methacrylate derivatives has the potential to buffer against acid-induced degradation, and we are investigating basic monomers for this purpose. These monomers must be compatible with existing formulations, which are hydrophobic and marginally miscible with water. As such, cosolvent systems may be required to enable analysis of monomer function and chemical properties. Here we present an approach for examining the neutralizing capacity of basic methacrylate monomers in a water/ethanol co-solvent system using NMR spectroscopy. NMR is an excellent tool for monitoring the impact of co-solvent effects on pKa and buffering capacity of basic monomers because chemical shift is extremely sensitive to small changes that most other methods cannot detect. Because lactic acid (LA) is produced by oral bacteria and is prevalent in this microenvironment, LA was used to analyze the effectiveness of basic monomers to neutralize acid. The (13)C chemical shift of the carbonyl in lactic acid was monitored as a function of ethanol and monomer concentration and each was correlated with pH to determine the functional buffering range. This study shows that the buffering capacity of even very poorly water-soluble monomers can be analyzed using NMR. PMID:25400302

  4. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules. PMID:25669583

  5. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  6. Potassium fulvate as co-interpenetrating agent during graft polymerization of acrylic acid from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Mohamed B M; El-Hai, Farag Abd; Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A

    2016-10-01

    Grafting polymerization of acrylic acid onto cellulose in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) as a co-interpenetrating agent results enhanced water sorption compared to materials prepared similarly in its absence. The insertion of potassium fulvate (KF) did not affect the grafting process and is thought to proceed in parallel to the graft polymerization via intensive polycondensation reactions of its function groups (-COOH and OH) with COOH of the monomer and OH groups of cellulose. The combination of graft copolymerization and polycondensation reactions is assumed to produce interpenetrating network structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) confirmed successful incorporation within the network structure which is an evidence for formation of interpenetrating network. The obtained structures showed homogeneous uniform surface as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained superabsorbent possessed high water absorbency 422 and 48.8g/g in distilled water and saline (0.9wt.% NaCl solution), respectively, and enhanced water retention even at elevated temperatures as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This could be explained by the high content of hydrophilic groups. The new superabsorbents proved to be efficient devices for controlled release of fertilizers which expands their use in agricultural applications. PMID:27370745

  7. Synthesis, structure and phase transition property of acrylic acid grafted paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowen; Liu, Pengfei; Ye, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Polar monomer acrylic acid (AA) was used to modify paraffin in order to improve the latent heat of paraffin as phase change materials. The composition and sequence structure of the grafted products were characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR, 1H NMR and GPC analysis, and the thermal properties of paraffin-g-AA were investigated. It was found that AA was confirmed to be grafted onto the molecular chain of paraffin successfully. The mechanism of free radical grafting of AA may be only monomeric grafts. At low grafting ratio, the structure B can be mainly formed as a result of the radical coupling termination; while at the high grafting ratio, structure A was the primary structure as a result of the radical chain growth process. The number-average molecular weight of the grafted samples increased at first but leveled off with increasing grafting ratio, while the weight-average molecular weight increased gradually. The latent heat capacity of the grafted paraffin can be improved obviously at low grafting ratio due to the formation of structure B.

  8. p-Coumaric acid - a monomer in the sporopollenin skeleton.

    PubMed

    Wehling, K; Niester, C; Boon, J J; Willemse, M T; Wiermann, R

    1989-10-01

    Sporopollenin obtained from wings of Pinus mugo (Turra) pollen was analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. In the spectrum, mass peaks which are characteristic for p-coumaric acid were dominant. p-Coumaric acid was the main degradation compound when the wing material was treated by a gentle method using AII3, and also when the remaining residue of the treated sporopollenin material was saponified. It is therefore assumed that p-coumaric acid is a genuine structural unit in the sporopollenin skeleton. In addition, the effects of AII3 treatment indicate that the p-coumaric acid might be bound by ether linkages. PMID:24201667

  9. Preparation and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles dispersed in poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Djoković, V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Radhakrishnan, T.

    2008-03-01

    CdS/poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized using structural, optical and thermal methods. Co-polymers used as the matrices were synthesized by radical polymerization of the co-monomers in different mol ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, DMAEMA:acrylic acid). The presence of the nanostructured CdS was confirmed by TEM analysis as well as by the shift of the onset of the optical absorption towards lower wavelengths. XRD spectra showed the cubic crystal phase of the obtained CdS nanoparticles. TGA measurements revealed improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite with respect to pure co-polymer matrix.

  10. Thermosets of epoxy monomer from Tung oil fatty acids cured in two synergistic ways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new epoxy monomer from tung oil fatty acids, glycidyl ester of eleostearic acid (GEEA), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and FT-IR were utilized to investigate the curing process of GEEA cured by both dienophiles...

  11. Hemocompatibility of Chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) Grafted Polyurethane Tubing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Tomczyk, Nancy; Kandel, Judith; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The activation and adhesion of platelets or whole blood exposed to chitosan (CH) grafted surfaces is used to evaluate the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. The biomaterial surfaces are polyurethane (PU) tubes grafted with an inner poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and an outer CH or quaternary ammonium modified CH (CH-Q) brush. The CH, CH-Q and PAA grafted layers were characterized by ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy. Material wear tests demonstrate that CH (CH-Q) is stably grafted onto PU tubes upon exposure to saline solution for 7 days. Using quartz-crystal microbalances with dissipation (QCM-D), in-situ adsorption of blood plasma proteins on CH and CH-Q compared to a silicon oxide control was measured. The QCM-D results showed that the physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on CH-Q and CH surfaces is softer and more viscous than the protein layer on the SiO2 surface. The CH-Q layer thus has the weakest interaction with plasma proteins. Whole blood and platelet adhesion was reduced by ~92% on CH-Q, which showed the weakest interaction with plasma protein but more viscous adsorbed plasma protein layer, compared to SiO2. Last, to examine the biologic response of platelets and neutrophils to biomaterial surfaces, CH (CH-Q)/PAA, PAA and PU tubes were tested using a Chandler Loop apparatus as an ex vivo model and flow cytometry. The blood adhesion and biologic response results showed that CH and CH-Q reduced adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils and improved hemocompatibility relative to other surfaces (PU and PAA). Our studies demonstrated that the properties of physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on biomaterial surfaces correlates with blood coagulation on biomaterial surfaces. PMID:24349719

  12. Hemocompatibility of Chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) Grafted Polyurethane Tubing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Tomczyk, Nancy; Kandel, Judith; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2013-12-14

    The activation and adhesion of platelets or whole blood exposed to chitosan (CH) grafted surfaces is used to evaluate the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. The biomaterial surfaces are polyurethane (PU) tubes grafted with an inner poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and an outer CH or quaternary ammonium modified CH (CH-Q) brush. The CH, CH-Q and PAA grafted layers were characterized by ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy. Material wear tests demonstrate that CH (CH-Q) is stably grafted onto PU tubes upon exposure to saline solution for 7 days. Using quartz-crystal microbalances with dissipation (QCM-D), in-situ adsorption of blood plasma proteins on CH and CH-Q compared to a silicon oxide control was measured. The QCM-D results showed that the physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on CH-Q and CH surfaces is softer and more viscous than the protein layer on the SiO2 surface. The CH-Q layer thus has the weakest interaction with plasma proteins. Whole blood and platelet adhesion was reduced by ~92% on CH-Q, which showed the weakest interaction with plasma protein but more viscous adsorbed plasma protein layer, compared to SiO2. Last, to examine the biologic response of platelets and neutrophils to biomaterial surfaces, CH (CH-Q)/PAA, PAA and PU tubes were tested using a Chandler Loop apparatus as an ex vivo model and flow cytometry. The blood adhesion and biologic response results showed that CH and CH-Q reduced adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils and improved hemocompatibility relative to other surfaces (PU and PAA). Our studies demonstrated that the properties of physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on biomaterial surfaces correlates with blood coagulation on biomaterial surfaces. PMID:24349719

  13. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. PMID:24365742

  15. Water-soluble polymers 60. Synthesis and solution behavior of terpolymers of acrylic arid, acrylamide, and the zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Kathmann, E.E.L.; Davis, D.D.; McCormick, C.L. . Dept. of Polymer Science)

    1994-06-06

    Terpolymers of acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), and the zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (AMPDAPS) have been prepared by the free-radical polymerization in a 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution using potassium persulfate as the initiator. The feed ratio of AMPDAPS:AA:AM was varied from 5:5:90 to 40:20:20 mol%, with the total monomer concentration held constant at 0.45 M. Terpolymer compositions were obtained by [sup 13]C NMR. Low-angle laser light scattering provided molecular weights and second virial coefficients which varied from (3.0 to 7.9) [times] 10[sup 6] and (2.23 to 2.95) [times] 10[sup [minus]4] ml mol g[sup [minus]2], respectively. The solubilities of the resulting terpolymers are dependent on pH as well as the amount of AMPDAPS and AA present in the feed. At pH 4 and for higher incorporation of AA and AMPDAPS in the feed (>25 mol %), the terpolymers are insoluble in deionized water and 0.25 M NaCl. At pH 8, all terpolymers are soluble in deionized water and salt solutions. The dilute and semidilute solution behavior f the terpolymers were studied as a function of composition and added electrolytes. Polyelectrolyte behavior was observed for all terpolymers at pH 8 as evidenced by a viscosity decrease in the presence of added electrolytes. The terpolymers exhibit higher viscosities in the presence of NaSCN versus NaCl. Comparison of the solution behavior of the terpolymers to copolymers of AM and AA as well as copolymers of AMPDAPS and AM has been made.

  16. Synthesis of a novel acrylated abietic acid-g-bacterial cellulose hydrogel by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abeer, Muhammad Mustafa; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Pandey, Manisha; Martin, Claire

    2014-09-22

    Acrylated abietic acid (acrylated AbA) and acrylated abietic acid-grafted bacterial cellulose pH sensitive hydrogel (acrylated AbA-g-BC) were prepared by a one-pot synthesis. The successful dimerization of acrylic acid (AA) and abietic acid (AbA) and grafting of the dimer onto bacterial cellulose (BC) was confirmed by 13C solid state NMR as well as FT-IR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed characteristic peaks for AbA and BC; further, there was no effect of increasing amorphous AA content on the overall crystallinity of the hydrogel. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a glass transition temperature of 80°C. Gel fraction and swelling studies gave insight into the features of the hydrogel, suggesting that it was suitable for future applications such as drug delivery. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed an interesting interpenetrating network within the walls of hydrogel samples with the lowest levels of AA and gamma radiation doses. Cell viability test revealed that the synthesized hydrogel is safe for future use in biomedical applications. PMID:24906785

  17. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from ˜320 to ˜800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction (˜80%) and very high EDS (˜800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  18. Preparation of thermosensitive membranes by radiation grafting of acrylic acid/ N-isopropyl acrylamide binary mixture on PET fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Mishra, Swaiti; Saxena, Shalini

    2008-05-01

    Thermosensitive membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of monomers on PET fabrics. A binary mixture of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) was grafted on polyester fabric as a base material to introduce thermosensitive poly( N-isopropyl acrylamide) pendant chains having LCST slightly higher than 37 °C in the membrane. The influence of ferrous sulfate, radiation dose and monomer composition on the degree of grafting was studied. The structure of the grafted fabric was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The thermosensitive nature of the fabric was monitored by swelling at different temperatures. The graft copolymerization of AA with NIPAAm enhanced the LCST of the resultant membrane to ˜37 °C. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) and air permeability of the fabric decreased slightly, may be due to the slight blocking of the fabric pores. The immobilization of tetracycline hydrochloride as the model drug and its release characteristics at different temperatures were monitored.

  19. Enhancing antibiofouling performance of Polysulfone (PSf) membrane by photo-grafting of capsaicin derivative and acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Haijing; Gao, Xueli; Gao, Congjie

    2014-10-01

    Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment. Herein, antibiofouling PSf membrane was prepared by UV-assisted graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and a capsaicin derivative, N-(5-methyl-3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy benzyl) acrylamide (MBHBA), on PSf membrane. AA and MBHBA were used as hydrophilic monomer and antibacterial monomer separately. The membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR, contact angle, SEM, AFM, cross-flow filtration unit, antifouling and antibacterial measurements. Verification of MBHBA and AA that photo-chemically grafted onto the PSf membrane surface is confirmed by carbonyl stretching vibration at ∼1655 cm-1 and ∼1730 cm-1, separately. The increasing AA concentration accelerates the graft-polymerization of MBHBA and resulted in a more hydrophilic surface. Consequently, antifouling property of the membranes was improved on a large level. The flux recovery rate can achieve 100% during the cyclic test, which may be attributed to the more hydrophilic and smooth surface, as well as the decreased membrane pore size. Most importantly, the presence of AA in graft co-polymer does not affect the antibacterial activity of MBHBA. That may be induced by the increasing chain length and flexibility of the grafted polymer chains.

  20. Poly(acrylic acid) to induce competitive crystallization of a theophylline/oxalic acid cocrystal and a theophylline polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jisun; Kim, Il Won

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric additives to induce competitive crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds were explored. A cocrystal of theophylline and oxalic acid was used as a model system, and poly(acrylic acid), poly(caprolactone), and poly(ethylene glycol) were the additives. The cocrystal formation was selectively hindered with addition of poly(acrylic acid). First the size of the cocrystals were reduced, and eventually the cocrystallization was inhibited to generate neat theophylline crystals. The theophylline crystals were of a distinctively different crystal structure from known polymorphs, based on powder X-ray diffraction. They were also obtained in nanoscale size, when millimeter-scale crystals formed without poly(acrylic acid). Polymeric additives that could form specific interactions with crystallizing compounds seem to be useful tools for the phase and size control of pharmaceutical crystals.

  1. Synthesis of bioadhesive poly(acrylic acid) nano- and microparticles using an inverse emulsion polymerization method for the entrapment of hydrophilic drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Kriwet, B; Walter, E; Kissel, T

    1998-12-01

    Bioadhesive latices of water-swollen poly(acrylic acid) nano-and microparticles were synthesized using an inverse (W/O) emulsion polymerization method. They are stabilized by a co-emulsifier system consisting of SpanTM 80 and TweenTM 80 dispersed in aliphatic hydrocarbons. The initial polymerization medium contains emulsion droplets and inverse micelles which solubilize a part of the monomer solution. The polymerization is initiated by free radicals, and particle dispersions with a narrow size distribution are obtained. The particle size is dependent on the type of radical initiator used. With water-soluble initiators, for example ammonium persulfate, microparticles were obtained in the size range of 1 to 10 micrometer indicating that these microparticles originate from the emulsion droplets since the droplet sizes of the W/O emulsion show similar distribution. When lipophilic radical initiators, such as azobis-isobutyronitrile, are used, almost exclusively nanoparticles are generated with diameters in the range of 80 to 150 nm, due to the limited solubility of oligomeric poly(acrylic acid) chains in the lipophilic continuous phase. These poly(acrylic acid) micro- and nanoparticles yielded excellent bioadhesive properties in an in-vitro assay and may, therefore, be suitable for the encapsulation of peptides and other hydrophilic drugs. PMID:9801438

  2. Water-soluble polymeric chemosensor for selective detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution using rhodamine-based modified poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Geng, Tong-Mou; Wu, Da-Yu

    2015-12-01

    We report the fabrication of a novel easily available turn-on fluorescent water-soluble polymeric chemosensor for Hg(2+) ions that was simply prepared by micellar free radical polymerization of a water-insoluble organic rhodamine-based Hg(2+)-recognizing monomer (GR6GH), with hydrophilic monomers acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA). The chemical structure of the polymeric sensor was characterized by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The apparent viscosity average molecular weight Mη of poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid) [poly(AM-NaAA)] and the water-soluble polymeric chemosensor poly(AM-NaAA-GR6GH) were 1.76 × 10(6) and 6.84 × 10(4) g/mol, respectively. Because of its amphiphilic property, the water-soluble polymeric chemosensor can be used as a chemosensor in aqueous media. Upon addition of Hg(2+) ions to an aqueous solution of poly(AM-NaAA-GR6GH), fluorescence enhancements were observed instantly. Moreover, other metal ions did not induce obvious changes to the fluorescence spectra. This approach may provide an easily measurable and inherently sensitive method for Hg(2+) ion detection in environmental and biological applications. PMID:25808221

  3. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  4. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  5. Synthesis and application of novel EB curable polyester urethane acrylate modified by linseed oil fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Li; Xuecheng, Ju; Min, Yi; Jinshan, Wei; Hongfei, Ha

    1999-06-01

    A novel polyester urethane acrylate resin modified by linseed oil fatty acid (LFA) was synthesized and EB curing coating was formulated in this work. When the coating cured by EB radiation on the timber, the cured coating was possessed of good performances.

  6. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  7. O-Toluic Acid Monomer and Monohydrate: Rotational Spectra, Structures, and Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzler, Elijah G.; Zenchyzen, Brandi L. M.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Clusters of carboxylic acids with water, sulfuric acid, and other atmospheric species potentially increase the rate of new particle formation in the troposphere. Here, we present high-resolution pure rotational spectra of o-toluic acid and its complex with water in the range of 5-14 GHz, measured with a cavity-based molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. In both the monomer and the complex, the carboxylic acid functional group adopts a syn- conformation, with the acidic proton oriented away from the aromatic ring. In the complex, water participates in two hydrogen bonds, forming a six-membered intermolecular ring. Despite its large calculated c-dipole moment, no c-type transitions were observed for the complex, because of a large amplitude "wagging" motion of the unbound hydrogen of water, similar to the case of the benzoic acid-water complex. No methyl internal rotation splittings were observed, consistent with a high barrier (7 kJ mol-1) calculated for the monomer at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Using statistical thermodynamics, experimental rotational constants were combined with a theoretical frequency analysis and binding energy to give an estimate of the percentage of hydrated acid in the atmosphere under various conditions. F. Riccobono, et al., Science, 344, 717 (2014). R. Zhang, et al., Science, 304, 1487 (2004). E. G. Schnitzler and W. Jäger, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 2305 (2014).

  8. Effects of calcium salts of acidic monomers on mineral induction of phosphoprotein immobilized to agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Motai, Fumiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Saito, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the mineralizing potential of acidic monomers and their calcium salts for mineralization, using an in vitro mineral induction model. Phosvitin (PV) was used as a model phosphoprotein in this study. PV was immobilized on agarose beads with divinyl sulfone. Five aliquots of agarose-immobilized PV, acidic monomers, and their calcium salts were incubated in mineralizing solution at various concentrations. The PV beads and acidic monomers were incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at several time points during the incubation. Then, the agarose beads were analyzed for bound calcium by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral formed on the agarose beads was identified as an apatite by microarea X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineral induction time decreased with increasing solution saturation. 4-METCa salt [calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate (CMET)] significantly reduced the mineral induction time. Using these data, the interfacial tension for mineral induction of PV and CMET was determined to be 90.1 and 92.7 ergs/cm(2), respectively. The mineral induced in each specimen after incubation for 24 h was identified by its X-ray diffraction pattern as apatite. SEM observation showed that lath-shaped crystals were formed on the surfaces of the CMET. We conclude that CMET could play a role in dentin remineralization. PMID:22623052

  9. Communication: Remarkable electrophilicity of the oxalic acid monomer: An anion photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Buonaugurio, Angela; Graham, Jacob; Buytendyk, Allyson; Bowen, Kit H. E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu; Ryder, Matthew R. Gutowski, Maciej E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu; Keolopile, Zibo G. E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2014-06-14

    Our experimental and computational results demonstrate an unusual electrophilicity of oxalic acid, the simplest dicarboxylic acid. The monomer is characterized by an adiabatic electron affinity and electron vertical detachment energy of 0.72 and 1.08 eV (±0.05 eV), respectively. The electrophilicity results primarily from the bonding carbon-carbon interaction in the singly occupied molecular orbital of the anion, but it is further enhanced by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The well-resolved structure in the photoelectron spectrum is reproduced theoretically, based on Franck-Condon factors for the vibronic anion → neutral transitions.

  10. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio. PMID:27514871

  11. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid to cassava starch--evaluation of the influences of process parameters by an experimental design method.

    PubMed

    Witono, J R; Noordergraaf, I W; Heeres, H J; Janssen, L P B M

    2012-11-01

    The graft copolymerization of cassava starch with acrylic acid was investigated using a free radical initiator system (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) redox system) in water. A comprehensive understanding of the important variables and their interaction has been obtained by applying an experimental design method. In this approach, two ('high' and 'low') values of selected variables are considered. Important result parameters are add-on and the grafting efficiency. Out of eight reaction variables, it was found that only temperature, starch concentration and the starch to monomer ratio have a pronounced influence on these response parameters. Moderate reaction temperature (40 °C) and high starch concentration (10%) give relatively good results of add-on and grafting efficiency. A low starch to monomer ratio favors add-on but decreases grafting efficiency. These findings can be used to optimize the production of cassava starch-acrylate copolymers and to gain insight in the process-product property interactions, for various applications. PMID:22944411

  12. First-order kinetics analysis of monomer composition dependent polyhydroxyalkanoic acid degradation in Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mun Hwan; Rho, Jong Kook; Lee, Ho-Joo; Song, Jae Jun; Yoon, Sung Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2003-01-01

    The intracellular degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) in pseudomonads was investigated by first-order kinetics analysis using the initial rate method. One type of PHA was accumulated in five Pseudomonas spp., P. oleovorans, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. citronellolis, and P. putida, by growing them on octanoic acid. The monomer compositions of the five PHA were not significantly different from one another: 85-90 mol % 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3HO), 7-12 mol % 3-hydorxycaproic acid (3HC), and 3-6 mol % 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3HD). The first-order degradation rate constants (k(1)) for the octanoate-derived PHA (designated P(3HO)) in the five species were in a similar range between 0.060 and 0.088 h(-1). This may indicate the similar specificities of the five intracellular depolymerases. In addition, the similar k(1) among the different species may correlate with the high degree of amino acid sequence identities (over 85%) among the intracellular PHA depolymerase phaZ genes. Six other chemically different types of PHA were accumulated in P. putida from n-nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, 5-phenyvaleric acid, or 11-phenoxyundecanoic acid as a single or a mixed carbon source. The calculated k(1) values were characteristic to each PHA, reflecting their chemical structures. In comparison with P(3HO), an increase in the levels of the two minor monomers 3HC and 3HD as in P(21 mol % 3HC-co-56 mol % 3HO-co-23 mol % 3HD) significantly slowed the rate of intracellular degradation. From the comparison of k(1) values, it is suggested that the P. putida intracellular depolymerase is most active against P(3HO). PMID:12625741

  13. Superabsorbent biphasic system based on poly(lactic acid) and poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Pandini, Stefano; Baldi, Francesco; Bignotti, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    In this research work, biocomposites based on crosslinked particles of poly(acrylic acid), commonly used as superabsorbent polymer (SAP), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were developed to elucidate the role of the filler (i.e., polymeric crosslinked particles) on the overall physico-mechanical behavior and to obtain superabsorbent thermoplastic products. Samples prepared by melt-blending of components in different ratios showed a biphasic system with a regular distribution of particles, with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 μm, within the PLLA polymeric matrix. The polymeric biphasic system, coded PLASA i.e. superabsorbent poly(lactic acid), showed excellent swelling properties, demonstrating that cross-linked particles retain their superabsorbent ability, as in their free counterparts, even if distributed in a thermoplastic polymeric matrix. The thermal characteristics of the biocomposites evidence enhanced thermal stability in comparison with neat PLLA and also mechanical properties are markedly modified by addition of crosslinked particles which induce regular stiffening effect. Furthermore, in aqueous environments the particles swell and are leached from PLLA matrix generating very high porosity. These new open-pore PLLA foams, produced in absence of organic solvents and chemical foaming agents, with good physico-mechanical properties appear very promising for several applications, for instance in tissue engineering for scaffold production.

  14. Determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid by isocratic liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Pierri, Marianna; Contursi, Michela

    2006-02-24

    The electrochemical behaviour of the polycrystalline platinum electrode towards the oxidation/reduction of short-chain unsaturated aliphatic molecules such as acrylamide and acrylic acid was investigated in acidic solutions. Analytes were separated by reverse phase liquid chromatographic and quantified using a pulsed amperometric detection. A new two-step waveform, is introduced for detection of acrylamide and acrylic acid. Detection limits (LOD) of 20 nM (1. 4 microg/kg) and 45 nM (3.2 microg/kg) were determined in water solutions containing acrylamide and acrylic acid, respectively. Compared to the classical three-step waveform, the proposed two-step waveform shows favourable analytical performance in terms of LOD, linear range, precision and improved long-term reproducibility. The proposed analytical method combined with clean-up procedure accomplished by Carrez clearing reagent and subsequent extraction with a strong cation exchanger cartridges (SPE), was successfully used for the quantification of low concentrations of acrylamide in foodstuffs such as coffee and potato fries. PMID:16426623

  15. Improved thrombin binding aptamer by incorporation of a single unlocked nucleic acid monomer

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Anna; Hernandez, Frank J.; Rasmussen, Lars M.; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    A 15-mer DNA aptamer (named TBA) adopts a G-quadruplex structure that strongly inhibits fibrin-clot formation by binding to thrombin. We have performed thermodynamic analysis, binding affinity and biological activity studies of TBA variants modified by unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers. UNA-U placed in position U3, U7 or U12 increases the thermodynamic stability of TBA by 0.15–0.50 kcal/mol. In contrast, modification of any position within the two G-quartet structural elements is unfavorable for quadruplex formation. The intramolecular folding of the quadruplexes is confirmed by Tm versus ln c analysis. Moreover, circular dichroism and thermal difference spectra of the modified TBAs displaying high thermodynamic stability show bands that are characteristic for antiparallel quadruplex formation. Surface plasmon resonance studies of the binding of the UNA-modified TBAs to thrombin show that a UNA monomer is allowed in many positions of the aptamer without significantly changing the thrombin-binding properties. The biological effect of a selection of the modified aptamers was tested by a thrombin time assay and showed that most of the UNA-modified TBAs possess anticoagulant properties, and that the construct with a UNA-U monomer in position 7 is a highly potent inhibitor of fibrin-clot formation. PMID:20870750

  16. Modification of silicon nitride slip properties by poly(acrylic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Hackley, V.A.; Maglhan, S.G.

    1996-06-01

    Acrylic-acid based polyelectrolytes are used for dispersion and rheology control of ceramic powder slips. This study focuses on the Si{sub 3}N4/H{sub 2}O/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) system, with the goal of improving our basic understanding of the mechanisms which may significantly affect slip properties during processing. A variety of experimental techniques were employed, including potentiometric titration, electroacoustic analysis, adsorption isotherms, and controlled-stress rheology. The slips exhibited complex behavior over a wide range of conditions in which solids concentration, PAA molecular weight and concentration, and pH were varied. Polymer charge and conformation were found to have significant impact on the flow properties. Pseudoplastic behavior was attributed to the presence of free polymer. The flow properties were also found to be highly pH dependent.

  17. Preparation of poly(acrylic acid) particles by dispersion polymerization in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hideto; Kimura, Akira; Kinoshita, Keigo; Okubo, Masayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles were successfully prepared by dispersion polymerization of acrylic acid in ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoro-methanesulfonyl)amide ([DEME][TFSA]) at 70 degrees C with low hydrolysis grade (35.4%) poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizer. Interestingly, the PAA particles were easily extracted as particle state with water. Thus, the PAA particles had a cross-linked structure during the polymerization without cross-linker. Moreover, it was also noted that the cross-linking density of the PAA particles could be controlled by thermal treatment at various temperatures in [DEME][TFSA] utilizing the advantages of nonvolatility and high thermal stability of the ionic liquid. PMID:20043688

  18. Preparation of poly (styrene)-b-poly (acrylic acid)/γ-Fe 2O 3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. D.; Liu, W. L.; Xiao, C. L.; Yao, J. S.; Fan, Z. P.; Sun, X. L.; Zhang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X. Q.

    2011-12-01

    The use of a block copolymer, poly (styrene)-b-poly (acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) to prepare a magnetic nanocomposite was investigated. Poly (styrene)-poly (t-butyl acrylate) block copolymer, being synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization, was hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid for obtaining PS-b-PAA. The obtained PS-b-PAA was then compounded with the modified γ-Fe2O3, and subsequently the magnetic nanocomposite was achieved. The products were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the nanocomposites exhibited soft magnetism, with the mean diameter of 100 nm approximately.

  19. Ultrafine metal particles immobilized on styrene/acrylic acid copolymer particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Hisashi; Hamamoto, Shiro; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Hajime

    1995-04-01

    Ultrafine metal particles immobilized on styrene/acrylic acid copolymer fine particles were produced by reducing the copolymer particles-metal ion complexes or refluxing an ethanol solution of metal ions in the presence of copolymer particles. The size of metal particles formed by reduction of the complex is smaller than that by reflux of the metal ion solution and depends on the amount of metal ions immobilized.

  20. Influence of ozone and paracetic acid disinfection on adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paracetic acid (PAA) and ozone disinfection on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of silicone-based resilient liners to acrylic resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty dumbbell shaped heat-polymerized acrylic resins were prepared. From the mid segment of the specimens, 3 mm of acrylic were grinded off and separated parts were reattached by resilient liners. The specimens were divided into 2 control (control1, control7) and 4 test groups of PAA and ozone disinfection (PAA1, PAA7, ozone1 and ozone7; n=10). While control groups were immersed in distilled water for 10 min (control1) and 7 days (control7), test groups were subjected to PAA (16 g/L) or ozone rich water (4 mg/L) for 1 cycle (10 min for PAA and 60 min for ozone) per day for 7 days prior to tensile tests. Measurements of the TBS were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS Adhesive strength of Mollosil decreased significantly by application of ozone disinfection. PAA disinfection had no negative effect on the TBS values of Mollosil and Molloplast B to acrylic resin. Single application of ozone disinfection did not have any negative effect on TBS values of Molloplast B, but prolonged exposure to ozone decreased its adhesive strength. CONCLUSION The adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic was not adversely affected by PAA disinfection. Immersion in ozonated water significantly decreased TBS of Mollosil. Prolonged exposure to ozone negatively affects adhesion of Molloplast B to denture base materials. PMID:27555898

  1. Plasma copolymer surfaces of acrylic acid/1,7 octadiene: surface characterisation and the attachment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Daw, R; Candan, S; Beck, A J; Devlin, A J; Brook, I M; MacNeil, S; Dawson, R A; Short, R D

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the effect of plasma-gas composition on plasma polymer oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio, functional group composition and stability in water, and then (b) to examine cell attachment to surfaces containing different concentrations of O/C and functional groups. Oxygen-functionalised surfaces were deposited by means of the plasma copolymerisation of acrylic acid/1,7-octadiene. The use of a diluent hydrocarbon allowed the deposition of surfaces with a range of O/C concentrations. Plasma copolymer surfaces were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Changes in functional group composition with % acrylic acid monomer and the non-dispersive and dispersive parts of the surface energy of these plasma copolymers were measured. The solubility of the plasma copolymers was assessed by means of XPS. The degree of attachment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells to plasma copolymer surfaces deemed to be 'stable' in aqueous medium was measured. Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) was included as a control. Attachment was found to be greatest to the plasma copolymer surface with an O/C of 0.11. This surface had a carboxylic acid concentration of ca. 3%. Attachment did not correlate with increased surface wettability (i.e. the non-dispersive component of the surface energy). PMID:9856582

  2. 2-Fatty acrylic acids: new highly derivatizable lipophilic platform molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the incorporation of an alpha-methylene unit into fatty acid skeletons. Since the new olefin is conjugated with the carboxylate, it is susceptible to 1,4- (Michael) additions. We have used multifunctional thiols and amines for additions at the methylene. The resulting products ...

  3. Radiation grafting of pH-sensitive acrylic acid and 4-vinyl pyridine onto nylon-6 using one- and two-step methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Alejandra; Alarcón, Darío; Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin; Garzón-Fontecha, Angélica; Burillo, Guillermina

    2015-04-01

    Acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) were γ-ray grafted onto nylon-6 (Ny6) films via pre-irradiation oxidative method. These monomers were grafted using a one-step method to render Ny6-g-(AAc/4VP). A two-step or sequential method was used to render (Ny6-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Random copolymer branches were obtained when the grafting was carried out via one-step method using the two monomers together. The two-step method was applied to graft chains of 4VP on both Ny6 substrate and previously grafted AAc chains (Ny6-g-AAc). The two types of binary copolymers synthesized were characterized to determine the amount of grafted polymers, the thermal behavior (DSC and TGA), the surface composition (XPS), and the pH responsiveness. In the two-step process, it is possible to achieve a higher graft yield, better control of the amount of each monomer, good reversibility in the swelling/deswelling process and shorter time to achieve equilibrium swelling.

  4. A density functional study on dielectric properties of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuska, Henna; Arola, Eero; Kortelainen, Tommi; Rantala, Tapio T.; Kannus, Kari; Valkealahti, Seppo

    2011-04-01

    Influence of acrylic acid grafting of isotactic polypropylene on the dielectric properties of the polymer is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, both in the molecular modeling and three-dimensional (3D) bulk periodic system frameworks. In our molecular modeling calculations, polarizability volume, and polarizability volume per mass which reflects the permittivity of the polymer, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gap, one of the important measures indicating the electrical breakdown voltage strength, were examined for oligomers with various chain lengths and carboxyl mixture ratios. When a polypropylene oligomer is grafted with carboxyl groups (cf. acrylic acid), our calculations show that the increase of the polarizability volume α' of the oligomer is proportional to the increase of its mass m, while the ratio {{α^ ' } { α^ ' } m} decreases from the value of a pure polymer when increasing the mixture ratio. The decreasing ratio of {{α^ ' } {α^ ' } m} under carboxyl grafting indicates that the material permittivity might also decrease if the mass density of the material remains constant. Furthermore, our calculations show that the HOMO-LUMO gap energy decreases by only about 15% in grafting, but this decrease seems to be independent on the mixture ratio of carboxyl. This indicates that by doping polymers with additives better dielectric properties can be tailored. Finally, using the first-principles molecular DFT results for polarizability volume per mass in connection with the classical Clausius-Mossotti relation, we have estimated static permittivity for acrylic acid grafted polypropylene, assuming the structural density keeping constant under grafting. The computed permittivity values are in a qualitative agreement with the recent experiments, showing increasing tendency of the permittivity as a function of the grafting composition. In order to validate our molecular DFT based approach, we have also carried out extensive three

  5. A density functional study on dielectric properties of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Ruuska, Henna; Arola, Eero; Kortelainen, Tommi; Rantala, Tapio T; Kannus, Kari; Valkealahti, Seppo

    2011-04-01

    Influence of acrylic acid grafting of isotactic polypropylene on the dielectric properties of the polymer is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, both in the molecular modeling and three-dimensional (3D) bulk periodic system frameworks. In our molecular modeling calculations, polarizability volume, and polarizability volume per mass which reflects the permittivity of the polymer, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gap, one of the important measures indicating the electrical breakdown voltage strength, were examined for oligomers with various chain lengths and carboxyl mixture ratios. When a polypropylene oligomer is grafted with carboxyl groups (cf. acrylic acid), our calculations show that the increase of the polarizability volume α' of the oligomer is proportional to the increase of its mass m, while the ratio α'/m decreases from the value of a pure polymer when increasing the mixture ratio. The decreasing ratio of α'/m under carboxyl grafting indicates that the material permittivity might also decrease if the mass density of the material remains constant. Furthermore, our calculations show that the HOMO-LUMO gap energy decreases by only about 15% in grafting, but this decrease seems to be independent on the mixture ratio of carboxyl. This indicates that by doping polymers with additives better dielectric properties can be tailored. Finally, using the first-principles molecular DFT results for polarizability volume per mass in connection with the classical Clausius-Mossotti relation, we have estimated static permittivity for acrylic acid grafted polypropylene, assuming the structural density keeping constant under grafting. The computed permittivity values are in a qualitative agreement with the recent experiments, showing increasing tendency of the permittivity as a function of the grafting composition. In order to validate our molecular DFT based approach, we have also carried out extensive three-dimensional bulk periodic first

  6. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of novel dental monomer with branched carboxyl acid group

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S.; Berrie, Cynthia L.; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the water miscibility and increase the mechanical properties of dentin adhesives, a new glycerol-based monomer with vinyl and carboxylic acid, 4-((1,3-bis(-methacryloyloxy)propan-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylene-4-oxobutanoic acid (BMPMOB), was synthesized and characterized. Dentin adhesive formulations containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (BisGMA), and BMPMOB were characterized with regard to real-time photopolymerization behavior, water sorption, dynamic mechanical analysis, and microscale three-dimensional internal morphologies and compared with HEMA/BisGMA controls. The experimental adhesive copolymers showed higher glass transition temperature and rubbery moduli, as well as improved water miscibility compared to the controls. The enhanced properties of the adhesive copolymers indicated that BMPMOB is a promising comonomer for dental restorative materials. PMID:24596134

  8. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. PMID:23008096

  9. Micelle-assisted signaling of peracetic acid by the oxidation of pyreneboronic acid via monomer-excimer switching.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-08-15

    A simple fluorescent probe for the industrial oxidant peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated. PAA-assisted oxidative conversion of pyrene-1-boronic acid into 1-hydroxypyrene was used as the signaling tool. Pyreneboronic acid was found to display selective signaling behavior, being more responsive to PAA than to other commonly used practical oxidants such as H2O2 and HOCl. The changes in pyrene monomer fluorescence to excimer were used in the quantitative analysis of PAA. When using the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as a micellar additive, the signaling of PAA was markedly enhanced. Selective fluorescence signaling of PAA by pyrene-1-boronic acid with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-6)M in aqueous environment was successfully achieved. PMID:25966389

  10. Effect of initiation chemistry on the fracture toughness, fatigue strength, and residual monomer content of a novel high-viscosity, two-solution acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Hasenwinkel, Julie M; Lautenschlager, Eugene P; Wixson, Richard L; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2002-03-01

    Porous-free, two-solution bone cements have been developed in our laboratory as an alternative to commercial powder/liquid formulations. Each pair of solutions consist of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) powder dissolved in methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) added to one solution as the initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) added to the other as the activator. When mixed, the solutions polymerize via a free radical reaction, which is governed by the concentrations of initiator and activator and their molar stoichiometry. Previous work by the authors has demonstrated that these two-solution cement compositions are comparable to Simplex P bone cement in polymerization exotherm, setting time, and flexural mechanical properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of BPO and DMPT concentrations, along with their molar ratio, on the fracture toughness, fatigue strength, and residual monomer content of the experimental compositions. The results showed that fracture toughness and fatigue strength for the solution cements were comparable to Simplex P and were not significantly affected by the BPO concentration or the BPO:DMPT molar ratio; however, the highest DMPT concentration yielded significantly lower values for both variables. Residual monomer content was significantly affected by both the individual concentrations of BPO and DMPT and their molar ratios. The two-solution cements had significantly higher residual monomer contents versus Simplex P; however, this can be attributed to their higher initial monomer concentration rather than a lower degree of conversion. PMID:11774298

  11. Radiation synthesis of eco-friendly water reducing sulfonated starch/acrylic acid hydrogel designed for cement industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rehim, H. A.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Diaa, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Starch was treated with chlorosulfonic acid to obtain sulfonated starch. Acrylic acid/sulfonated starch semi-interpenetrated network IPN of different compositions was prepared using ionizing radiation. Swelling of prepared IPNs at different environmental conditions was studied. The possible use of sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN as a water-retarding agent in the cement industry was investigated. ζ-potential measurements were used to determine the stability of the colloidal cement—SS/AA and cement -poly-naphthalene sulfonic acid (SNF) water retarding mixtures. Sulfonated starch/acrylic acid water-retarding property was influenced by hydrogel concentration and composition. Sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN admixture has a great effect on the cement initial setting time. Using 2% of SS/AA or SNF resulted in an increase in initial setting time by 2 and 1 h respectively, if compared with native cement initial setting time. The results showed that the synthetic commercial super-plasticizers could be replaced by an eco-friendly water-retarding sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN in the cement industry.

  12. Epoxy monomers derived from tung oil fatty acids and its regulable thermosets cured in two synergistic ways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bio-based epoxy monomer with conjugated double bonds, glycidyl ester of eleostearic acid (GEEA), was synthesized from tung oil fatty acids and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and Mass Spectrometry Analysis (MSA). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and FT-IR were utilized to inve...

  13. An epoxy monomer derived from Tung oil fatty acids and its products cured by two synergistic reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bio-based epoxy monomer containing conjugated double bonds, the glycidyl ester of eleostearic acid (GEEA), was synthesized from tung oil fatty acids. It was characterized using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR spectroscopy were ...

  14. Lysineurethanedimethacrylate--a novel generation of amino acid based monomers for bone cements and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Müh, Ekkehard; Zimmermann, Jörg; Kneser, Ulrich; Marquardt, Jürgen; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Stark, Björn

    2002-07-01

    A novel amino acid based dimethacrylate monomer (lysineurethanedimethacrylate, LUDM) was prepared by the addition of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) to lysinediisocyanate (LDI). The structure was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as FAB-MS. Photopolymerized LUDM exhibited low volume shrinkage upon polymerization, good mechanical properties (Young's modulus: 3740 MPa) and high thermal stability. Osteoblast adhesion and growth on polymerized LUDM samples evidenced the biocompatibility. Further improvement of the mechanical properties was obtained by using Ca-hydroxyapatite as inorganic filler varying between 10 and 30 wt%. The Young's and flexural moduli increased with increasing filler content ranging from 3740 to 5250 MPa and from 2020 to 3690 MPa, respectively. The mechanical properties and the good biocompatibility of the lysine-based methacrylate networks make them interesting materials for medical applications, e.g. bone cements, and tissue engineering. PMID:12069324

  15. Synthesis of carboxymethylcellulose/acrylic acid hydrogels with superabsorbent properties by radiation-initiated crosslinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Tamás; Borsa, Judit; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation from aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and acrylic acid (AAc) with varying CMC:AAc ratio. By partially replacing the CMC with AAc the gelation increased and led to a higher gel fraction and lower water uptake. Moreover, the gelation required significantly milder synthesis conditions. Decreasing both the dose and the solute concentration in the presence of AAc led to gels with higher gel fraction and higher degree of swelling compared to pure CMC gels. Increasing the AAc content up to 10% proved to be very effective, while very high AAc content (over 50%) hindered the gelation process.

  16. Antimicrobial effects of esters and amides of 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kellová, G; Sturdík, E; Stibrányi, L; Drobnica, L; Augustín, J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of 18 newly synthesized esters and amides of 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid on bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans), molds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopium, Rhizopus oryzae) and algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus) was investigated. The MIC values revealed antimycotic, antialgal and antibacterial activity of the studied derivatives. The antimycotic activity was found to decrease with increasing the length of the alkyl chain of esters and after introduction of amino nitrogen into the furylethylene backbone. The inhibitory effect on growth is caused by blocking bioenergetic processes, glycolysis in particular. PMID:6714854

  17. Thermal destruction of copolymers of polypropylene glycol maleate with acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkeev, M. Zh.; Sarsenbekova, A. Zh.; Tazhbaev, E. M.; Figurinene, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    The results from thermogravimetric and kinetic studies of copolymers of polypropylene glycol maleate with acrylic acid at different molar ratios are presented. The results from conventional thermogravimetric studies are used to determine kinetic characteristics of the process of thermal decomposition, i.e., activation energy and pre-exponential factors. These parameters are determined in three ways: the Achar, Freeman-Carroll, and Sharp-Wentworth methods. Activation energies calculated using all the three methods confirm the dependence of the destruction process on the ratio of components in a synthesized copolymer. It is shown that the obtained values of the activation energies and thermodynamic characteristics allow us to predict a copolymer's composition.

  18. Stabilization of mid-sized silicon nanoparticles by functionalization with acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywalez, Robert; Karacuban, Hatice; Nienhaus, Hermann; Schulz, Christof; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    We present an enhanced method to form stable dispersions of medium-sized silicon nanoparticles for solar cell applications by thermally induced grafting of acrylic acid to the nanoparticle surface. In order to confirm their covalent attachment on the silicon nanoparticles and to assess the quality of the functionalization, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy measurements were carried out. The stability of the dispersion was elucidated by dynamic light scattering and Zeta-potential measurements, showing no sign of degradation for months.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of copolymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone with acrylic acid. Article 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, R.Z.; Sakhibov, A.D.; Akhmedzhanov, R.I.; Aliev, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the pharmacokinetics of the copolymers of n-vinyl-pyrrolidone (I) with acrylic acid (II) (copolymer III) using the radioactive isotope /sup 125/I. In experiments on mice, they studied the distribution of a copolymer of I with II (/sup 125/I-III) in the organism of the animals. The content of /sup 125/I-III and its possible radioactive metabolites in the blood and organs of mice after a single intravenous administration of the given preparation is shown. The radioactivity of organs after butanol extraction is presented.

  20. pH- and Electro-Responsive Properties of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(acrylic acid-grad-styrene) Brushes Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borisova, O V; Billon, L; Richter, R P; Reimhult, E; Borisov, O V

    2015-07-14

    We report on the synthesis of novel pH- and electro-responsive polyelectrolyte brushes from a gold substrate by direct one-step nitroxide-mediated polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) or copolymerization of AA and styrene (S). In the latter case, amphiphilic brushes of block-gradient copolymers PAA-b-(PAA-grad-PS) comprising one PAA block and one block with the gradient sequence of AA and S were obtained. The block-gradient copolymers are initiated from the surface by the start of the PAA block. The brushes were characterized by XPS and ellipsometry. (1)H NMR confirmed the gradient sequence of the PAA-grad-PS copolymer block. The pH- and electro-responsive properties of the brushes were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in combination with electrochemistry. This method provides evidence of swelling of the PAA brushes proportional to the contour length of the chains at elevated pH, whereas the response functions of the block-gradient copolymers are more complex and point to intermolecular aggregation in the brush at low pH. Monitoring of the changes in resonance frequency and dissipation of the QCM-D also demonstrates that application of negative voltage to the substrate leads to swelling of the brush; application of a positive voltage provokes only a transient collapse of the brush in proportion to the applied voltage. PMID:26070329

  1. Characterization of bioactive RGD peptide immobilized onto poly(acrylic acid) thin films by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong Mu; Shim, Jae Won; Lim, Yun Kyong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Cho, Dong-Lyun; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Plasma surface modification can be used to improve the surface properties of commercial pure Ti by creating functional groups to produce bioactive materials with different surface topography. In this study, a titanium surface was modified with acrylic acid (AA) using a plasma treatment and immobilized with bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which may accelerate the tissue integration of bone implants. Both terminals containing the -NH2 of RGD peptide sequence and -COOH of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thin film were combined with a covalent bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The chemical structure and morphology of AA film and RGD immobilized surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analysis showed full coverage of the Ti substrate with the PAA thin film containing COOH groups and the RGD peptide. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on each specimen, and the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were examined. The surface-immobilized RGD peptide has a significantly increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the RGD peptide immobilization on the titanium surface has an effect on osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and potential use in osteo-conductive bone implants.

  2. Chitosan-poly(acrylic) acid polyionic complex: in vivo study to demonstrate prolonged gastric retention.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Susana; Prada, Pablo; de la Torre, Paloma M; Torrado, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan-poly(acrylic) acid based controlled drug release system for gastric antibiotic delivery. Different mixtures of amoxicillin (A), chitosan (CS), and poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) were employed to obtain these polyionic complexes. A non-invasive method was employed for determining the gastric residence time of the formulations. It was studied the swelling behavior and drug release from these complexes. Gastric emptying rate study was performed by means of the [13C]octanoic acid breath test. The gastric emptying rates of two different formulations (conventional and gastric retentive system) were studied. Swelling studies indicated that the extent of swelling was greater in the polyionic complexes than in the single chitosan formulations. The amoxicillin diffusion from the hydrogels was controlled by the polymer/drug interaction. The property of these complexes to control the solute diffusion depends on the network mesh size, which is a significant factor in the overall behavior of the hydrogels. The gastric half-emptying time of the polyionic complex was significantly delayed compared to the reference formulation, showing mean values of 164.32+/-26.72 and 65.06+/-11.50min, respectively (P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that, these polyionic complexes are good systems for specific gastric drug delivery. PMID:14609680

  3. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions. PMID:27078740

  4. Multielement crystalline and pseudocrystalline oxides as efficient catalysts for the direct transformation of glycerol into acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chieregato, Alessandro; Soriano, M Dolores; García-González, Ester; Puglia, Giuseppe; Basile, Francesco; Concepción, Patricia; Bandinelli, Claudia; López Nieto, José M; Cavani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol surplus from biodiesel synthesis still represents a major problem in the biofuel production chain. Meanwhile, those in the acrylic acid market are looking for new processes that are able to offer viable alternatives to propylene-based production. Therefore, acrylic acid synthesis from glycerol could be an effective solution to both issues. Among the viable routes, one-pot synthesis theoretically represents the most efficient process, but it is also highly challenging from the catalyst design standpoint. A new class of complex W--Mo--V mixed-oxide catalysts, which are strongly related to the hexagonal tungsten bronze structure, able to directly convert glycerol into acrylic acid with yields of up to 51 % are reported. PMID:25488515

  5. Topological characterization of a bacterial cellulose-acrylic acid polymeric matrix.

    PubMed

    Halib, N; Mohd Amin, M C I; Ahmad, I; Abrami, M; Fiorentino, S; Farra, R; Grassi, G; Musiani, F; Lapasin, R; Grassi, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the micro- and nano-topological organization of a hydrogel, constituted by a mixture of bacterial cellulose and acrylic acid, and intended for biomedical applications. The presence of acrylic acid promotes the formation of two interpenetrated continuous phases: the primary "pores phase" (PP) containing only water and the secondary "polymeric network phase" (PNP) constituted by the polymeric network swollen by the water. Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF NMR), rheology, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and release tests were used to determine the characteristics of the two phases. In particular, we found that this system is a strong hydrogel constituted by 81% (v/v) of PP phase the remaining part being occupied by the PNP phase. Pores diameters span in the range 10-100 μm, the majority of them (85%) falling in the range 30-90 μm. The high PP phase tortuosity indicates that big pores are not directly connected to each other, but their connection is realized by a series of interconnected small pores that rend the drug path tortuous. The PNP is characterized by a polymer volume fraction around 0.73 while mesh size is around 3 nm. The theoretical interpretation of the experimental data coming from the techniques panel adopted, yielded to the micro- and nano-organization of our hydrogel. PMID:24932712

  6. Controlled release of anti-diabetic drug Gliclazide from poly(caprolactone)/poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Chand, Navin; Soni, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Drug Gliclazide (Glz) has limited solubility and low bioavailability. In order to obtain a controlled release of this drug and to improve its bioavailability, the drug has been loaded into poly(caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogels, prepared by free radical polymerization of acrylic acid in the presence of poly(caprolactone) in acetone medium using azo-isobutyronitrile as initiator and N,N' methylene bisacrylamide as cross-linking agent. The swelling behaviour of these hydrogels has been investigated in the physiological gastric and intestinal fluids to obtain an optimum composition suitable for delivery of a biologically active compound. The gels were loaded with anti-diabetic drug Glz and a detailed investigation of release of drug has been carried out. Various kinetic models have been applied on the release data. Finally, the Albino wistar rats were treated for Streptozotocin plus nicotinamide - induced diabetes using a Glz-loaded PCL/PAAc hydrogel. The results indicated a fair reduction in the glucose level of rats. PMID:26135033

  7. Protein absorption and fouling on poly(acrylic acid)-graft-polypropylene microfiltration membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Ma, Huiying; Lv, Chunying; Yang, Jia; Fu, Xueqi

    2009-07-01

    A series of pH-sensitive poly (acrylic acid)-graft-polypropylene hollow fiber microfiltration membranes were prepared by UV-photo-irradiation. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as the model protein to investigate its absorption and fouling behaviors on membranes. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of grafted membrane was improved by poly(acrylic acid) chains with parts of membrane pores blocked. The grafted membranes were markedly pH-dependent on the water permeability as pH was altered from 1 to 11. The zeta potential of grafted membranes calculated by streaming potential was negative in most pH range. Electrostatic interaction energy calculated by DLVO theory showed the electric interaction force between grafted membrane and BSA was attractive. With the rise of grafting degree, the electric attractive force between grafted membrane and BSA increased as pH=3 and decreased as pH=8, while it kept basically unchanged as pH=4.7. As a result, most serious fouling was observed as pH=4.7. Grafted membranes had a lower BSA absorption and better antifouling behavior as pH=8, while the opposite result was revealed as pH=3. In conclusion, the absorption and fouling behavior of BSA on membranes was pH-dependent due to the pH-dependence of membrane charge, and the conformation of BSA and grafting chains.

  8. Precipitation-Redispersion of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles with Poly(acrylic acid): Toward Stable Dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal,A.; Lalatonne, Y.; Berret, J.; Morvan, M.

    2005-01-01

    We exploit a precipitation-redispersion mechanism for complexation of short chain polyelectrolytes with cerium oxide nanoparticles to extend their stability ranges. As synthesized, cerium oxide sols at pH 1.4 consist of monodisperse cationic nanocrystalline particles having a hydrodynamic diameter of 10 nm and a molecular weight of 400 000 g mol{sup -1}. We show that short chain uncharged poly(acrylic acid) at low pH when added to a cerium oxide sols leads to macroscopic precipitation. As the pH is increased, the solution spontaneously redisperses into a clear solution of single particles with an anionic poly(acrylic acid) corona. The structure and dynamics of cerium oxide nanosols and their hybrid polymer-inorganic complexes in solution are investigated by static and dynamic light scattering, X-ray scattering, and chemical analysis. Quantitative analysis of the redispersed sol gives rise to an estimate of 40-50 polymer chains per particle for stable suspension. This amount represents 20% of the mass of the polymer-nanoparticle complexes. This complexation adds utility to the otherwise unstable cerium oxide dispersions by extending the range of stability of the sols in terms of pH, ionic strength, and concentration.

  9. Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Remya, P; Sathish, U; Rani, T; Mohan, S

    2014-08-14

    The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been determined from B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The effects of substituents (acrylyl group) on the imidazole vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. (1)H and (13)C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and the assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO's of the compound are also determined from DFT method. The total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined by natural bond orbital analysis. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities employing natural population analysis (NPA) are calculated. PMID:24755636

  10. Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Remya, P.; Sathish, U.; Rani, T.; Mohan, S.

    2014-08-01

    The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been determined from B3LYP methods with 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The effects of substituents (acrylyl group) on the imidazole vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. 1H and 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and the assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO’s of the compound are also determined from DFT method. The total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined by natural bond orbital analysis. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities employing natural population analysis (NPA) are calculated.

  11. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0-10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge-charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of -38 to -56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials. PMID:23910267

  12. Effect of chemical composition on corneal tissue response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and hydrogel material compatibility towards ocular anterior segment tissues, particularly the corneal endothelium. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Then, the 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from photopolymerized materials were placed into the ocular anterior chamber for 4days and assessed by biomicroscopic examinations, corneal thickness measurements, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The poly(HEMA-co-AAc) implants prepared from the solution mixture containing 0-10vol.% AAc displayed good biocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the enhanced inflammatory response, decreased endothelial cell density, and increased ocular score and corneal thickness were observed, probably due to the influence of surface charge of copolymer membranes. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelium exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of the implants having higher amount of AAc incorporated in the copolymers (i.e., 15.1 to 24.7μmol) and zeta potential (i.e., -38.6 to -56.5mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal tissue responses to polymeric biomaterials. PMID:24268266

  13. ABS polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly(acrylic acid) covalent grafting.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Mesnage, Alice; Jégou, Pascale; Nekelson, Fabien; Roussel, Sébastien; Palacin, Serge

    2010-04-01

    A new, efficient, palladium- and chromium-free process for the electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers has been developed. The process is based on the ion-exchange properties of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chemically grafted onto ABS via a simple and one-step method that prevents using classical surface conditioning. Hence, ABS electroless plating can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of PAA onto ABS, (ii) the copper Cu(0) seeding of the ABS surface, and (iii) the nickel or copper metallization using commercial-like electroless plating bath. IR, XPS, and SEM were used to characterize each step of the process, and the Cu loading was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This process successfully compares with the commercial one based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, because the final metallic layer showed excellent adhesion with the ABS substrate. PMID:20361751

  14. Poly(acrylic acid)-grafted fluoropolymer films for highly sensitive fluorescent bioassays.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Kuk, In-Seol; Choi, Jae-Hak; Oh, Byung-Keun; Lee, Young-Moo

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a facile and effective method for the surface functionalization of inert fluoropolymer substrates using surface grafting was demonstrated for the preparation of a new platform for fluorescence-based bioassays. The surface of perfluorinated poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (FEP) films was functionalized using a 150 keV ion implantation, followed by the graft polymerization of acrylic acid, to generate a high density of carboxylic acid groups on the implanted surface. The resulting functionalized surface was investigated in terms of the surface density of carboxylic acid, wettability, chemical structure, surface morphology, and surface chemical composition. These results revealed that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was successfully grafted onto the implanted FEP surface and its relative amount depended on the fluence. To demonstrate the usefulness of this method for the fabrication of bioassays, the PAA-grafted FEP films were utilized for the immobilization of probe DNA for anthrax toxin, followed by hybridization with Cy3-labeled target DNA. Liver cancer-specific α-feto-protein (AFP) antigen was also immobilized on the PAA-grafted FEP films. Texas Red-labeled secondary antibody was reacted with AFP-specific primary antibody prebound to the AFP antigen using an immunoassay method. The results revealed that the fluorescence intensity clearly depended on the concentration of the target DNA hybridized to the probe DNA and the AFP antigen immobilized on the FEP films. The lowest detectable concentrations of the target DNA and the AFP antigen were 10 fg/mL and 10 pg/mL, respectively, with the FEP films prepared at a fluence of 3 × 10(14) ions/cm(2). PMID:23452270

  15. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension using hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Chen, M C

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-phenoxyethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (poly(PHEA-co-AA)), have been synthesized and characterized by Ubbelohde type viscometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The shear thinning Non-Newtonian fluid behavior of their aqueous solution and the dependence on pH and hydrophobic group contents were found through apparent viscosity and rheological property investigating. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension was evaluated through visible absorbance data. Decolourization performance of hydrophobically associated polymer indicates two times better than that of PAA. The quantitative relationship was mainly studied. PMID:21866762

  16. Aggregation of poly(acrylic acid)-containing elastin-mimetic copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Bradford A.; Blanco, Marco A.; Jia, Xinqiao; Roberts, Christopher J.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-peptide conjugates were produced via the copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition of poly(tert butyl acrylate) (PtBA) and elastin-like peptides. An azide-functionalized polymer was produced via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) followed by conversion of bromine end groups to azide groups. Subsequent reaction of the polymer with a bis-alkyne-functionalized, elastin-like peptide proceeded with high efficiency, yielding di- and tri-block conjugates, which after deprotection, yielded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-based diblock and triblock copolymers. These conjugates were solubilized in dimethyl formamide, and titration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) induced aggregation. The presence of polydisperse spherical aggregates was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, a coarse-grained molecular model was designed to reasonably capture inter- and intramolecular interactions for the conjugates and its precursors. This model was used to assess the effect of the different interacting molecular forces on the conformational thermodynamic stability of the copolymers. Our results indicated that the PAA’s ability to hydrogen-bond with both itself and the peptide is the main interaction for stabilizing the diblocks and triblocks and driving their self-assembly, while interactions between peptides are suggested to play only a minor role on the conformational and thermodynamic stability of the conjugates. PMID:25611563

  17. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  18. Novel one-dimensional lanthanide acrylic acid complexes: an alternative chain constructed by hydrogen bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui . E-mail: lihui@bit.edu.cn; Hu Changwen

    2004-12-01

    Novel one-dimensional (1D) chains of three lanthanide complexes La(L{sup 1}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}OH)].CH{sub 3}OH (L{sup 1}=(E)-3-(2-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 1, La(L{sup 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].2.75H{sub 2}O (L{sup 2}=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 2, and La(L{sup 3}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)].CH{sub 3}OH (L{sup 3}=(E)-3-(4-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 3 are reported. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C{sub 29}H{sub 29}LaO{sub 11}, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n, a=15.4289(12)A, b=7.9585(6)A, c=23.041(2)A, {beta}=99.657(2){sup o}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0637, wR{sub 2}=0.0919; for 2: C{sub 27}H{sub 30.50}LaO{sub 13.75}, triclinic, P-1, a=8.4719(17)A, b=13.719(3)A, c=14.570(3)A, {alpha}=62.19(3){sup o}, {beta}=99.657(2){sup o}, {gamma}=78.22(3){sup o}, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0384, wR{sub 2}=0.0820; and for 3: C{sub 30}H{sub 35}LaO{sub 13}, monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a=9.5667(6)A, b=24.3911(15)A, c=14.0448(9)A, {beta}=109.245(2){sup o}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0374, wR{sub 2}=0.0630. All the three structure data were collected using graphite monochromated molybdenum K{alpha} radiation and refined using full-matrix least-squares techniques on F{sup 2}. These structures show that four kinds of the carboxylato bridge modes are included in these chains to link the La(III) ions. It is the first time that it has been found that the intra-chain hydrogen bonding can construct an alternative chain even, when the coordination bridge mode is the same along the chain (complex 2). There are 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding in the crystal lattices of complexes 1-3.

  19. Synthesis of Gold Nanoflowers Encapsulated with Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bae, Saet-Byeol; Lee, Sang-Wha

    2015-10-01

    In this work, hydrogel-coated gold nanoflowers (AuNFs@hydrogel) were facilely prepared. First, gold nanoflowers (AuNFs) were synthesized by reducing gold acid with ascorbic acid in the presence of chitosan biopolymers, and the chitosan-mediated AuNFs were subsequently conjugated with oleic acid with carboxylate groups. Finally, the olefin-conjugated AuNFs were encapsulated with P(NIPAM-co-AAC) hydrogels via a radical polymerization reaction with co-monomer ratio of [NIPAM:AAc = 91:9 wt%]. The encapsulated hydrogels had a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) slightly above the physiological temperature and demonstrated a thermo-sensitive variation of particle size. The hydrogel-coated AuNFs can be utilized as a promising thermo-responsive drug delivery system with a unique optical property. As-prepared samples were characterized by DLS, SEM, TEM, UV-vis and Zeta potential meter. PMID:26726447

  20. Ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo testosterone bioavailability study of different bioadhesive formulations based on starch-g-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers and starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ameye, D; Voorspoels, J; Foreman, P; Tsai, J; Richardson, P; Geresh, S; Remon, J P

    2002-02-19

    Starch-g-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers or grafted starches synthesized by 60Co irradiation or chemical modification and co-freeze-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures were evaluated on their ex vivo bioadhesion capacity. The buccal absorption of testosterone from a bioadhesive tablet formulated with the grafted starches or starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures was investigated. The results were compared to a reference formulation (physical mixture of 5% Carbopol 974P and 95% Drum Dried Waxy Maize). Rice starch-based irradiated grafted starches showed the best bioadhesion results. Partial neutralization of the acrylic acid with Ca(2+) ions resulted in significantly higher bioadhesion values compared to the reference. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) partially neutralized maltodextrin-based irradiated grafted starches showed significantly higher bioadhesion values compared to the reference formulation. The chemically modified grafted starches showed significantly higher adhesion force values than for the reference tablet. None of the co-freeze-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures showed significantly higher bioadhesion results than the reference (Bonferroni test, P<0.05). A chemically modified grafted starch could sustain the 3 ng/ml plasma testosterone target concentration during +/- 8 h (T(>3 ng/ml)). By lyophilization of a partially neutralized irradiated grafted starch, the in vivo adhesion time (22.0 +/- 7.2 h) and the T(>3 ng/ml) (13.5 +/- 1.3 h) could be increased. The absolute bioavailability of the lyophilized formulation approached the reference formulation. Some of the grafted starches showed to be promising buccal bioadhesive drug carriers for systemic delivery. PMID:11853929

  1. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness. PMID:25475759

  2. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  3. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  4. REACTIVITIES OF ACRYLIC AND METHACRYLIC ACIDS IN A NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION MODEL OF THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactivities of derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acid (AA and MAA) in Michael reactions of nucleophilic addition that have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms for the toxicity of such compounds are evaluated from a study of the mechanism of addition of a nucleoph...

  5. A facile one pot strategy for the synthesis of well-defined polyacrylates from acrylic acid via RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianbiao; Wang, Taisheng; Dai, Jingwen; Ma, Chao; Jin, Bangkun; Bai, Ruke

    2014-03-28

    A facile one pot strategy for the preparation of linear and hyperbranched polyacrylates has been successfully developed by the combination of in situ esterification of acrylic acid with halogenated compounds promoted by 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and RAFT polymerization. PMID:24534953

  6. Introduction of poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid)] branches onto starch for cotton warp sizing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhifeng; Liu, Fengdan

    2016-03-15

    An attempt has been made to reveal the effect of amphoteric poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride-co-acrylic acid) [P(ATAC-co-AA)] branches grafted onto the backbones of starch upon the adhesion-to-cotton, film properties, and desizability of maize starch for cotton warp sizing. Starch-g-poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid) [S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA)] was prepared by the graft copolymerization of 2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ATAC) and acrylic acid (AA) with acid-converted starch (ACS) in aqueous medium using Fe(2+)-H2O2 initiator. The adhesion was evaluated in term of bonding strength according to the FZ/T 15001-2008 whereas the film properties considered included tensile strength, work and percentage elongation at break. The evaluation was undertaken through the comparison of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) with ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride). It was found that the amphoteric branch was able to significantly improve the adhesion and mitigate the brittleness of starch film. Zeta potential of cooked S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) paste, depending on the mole ratio of ATAC to AA units on P(ATAC-co-AA) branches, had substantial effect on the adhesion and desizability. Increasing the mole ratio raised the potential, which favored the adhesion but disfavored the removal of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) from sized cotton warps. Electroneutral S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) was superior to negatively grafted starch in adhesion and to positively grafted starch in desizability. Generally, it showed better sizing property than ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), and had potential in the application of cotton warp sizing. PMID:26794764

  7. Cascade enzymatic catalysis in poly(acrylic acid) brushes-nanospherical silica for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaobin; Kong, Rongmei; Xia, Lian; Qu, Fengli

    2016-08-01

    The ultrasensitive monitoring of glucose with a fast and accurate method is significant in potential therapeutics and optimizes protein biosynthesis. Incorporation of enzyme into matrix is considered as promising candidates for constructing highly sensitive glucose-responsive systems. In this study, three-dimensional poly(acrylic acid) brushes-nanospherical silica (PAA-nano silica) with high amplification capability and stability were used to covalently immobilize bienzymes for cascade enzymatic catalysis. The major advantages of PAA-nano silica-bienzyme co-incorporation is that the enzymes are proximity distribution, and such close confinement both minimized the diffusion of intermediates among the enzymes in the consecutive reaction and improve the utilization efficiency of enzymes, thereby enhancing the overall reaction efficiency and specificity. Thus, this present bienzymatic biosensor shows robust signal amplification and ultrasensitivity of glucose-responsive properties with a detection limit of 0.04μM. PMID:27216683

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSTITUTED POLY(STYRENE)-b-POLY(ACRYLIC ACID) BLOCK COPOLYMER MICELLES

    SciTech Connect

    Pickel, Deanna L; Pickel, Joseph M; Devenyi, Jozsef; Britt, Phillip F

    2009-01-01

    Block copolymer micelle synthesis and characterization has been extensively studied. In particular, most studies have focused on the properties of the hydrophilic corona due to the micelle corona structure s impact on the biodistribution and biocompatibility. Unfortunately, less attention has been given to the effect of the core block on the micelle stability, morphology, and the rate of diffusion of small molecules from the core. This investigation is focused on the synthesis of block copolymers composed of meta-substituted styrenes and acrylic acid by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Micelles with cores composed of substituted styrenes having Tgs ranging from -30 to 100 oC have been prepared and the size and shape of these micelles were characterized by Static and Dynamic Light Scattering and TEM. In addition, the critical micelle concentration and rate of diffusion of small molecules from the core were determined by fluorimetry using pyrene as the probe.

  9. Amylopectin grafted with poly (acrylic acid): development and application of a high performance flocculant.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Mandre, N R; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

    2013-06-20

    In recent years, wastewater treatment, especially for wastewaters which are not suitably recycled by conventional or normal biological processes, is getting more importance. Of late, natural biopolymer based flocculants are extensively used for wastewater treatment because of low cost, environment-friendly and easily availablility from reproducible farm and forest resources. This article introduces the development of a natural polymer based flocculant [amylopectin grafted with poly (acrylic acid) - AP-g-PAA] for treatment of synthetic effluent as well as mining industry wastewater. The graft copolymer based flocculants have been developed under optimum conditions and characterized using viscometry, (13)C NMR, SEM, TGA, rheological characteristics, determination of hydrodynamic radius and CHN analysis. The flocculation characteristics of grafted and ungrafted polysaccharide have been evaluated in synthetic effluents (as Fe-ore, kaolin, Mn ore suspensions) as well as in mining industry wastewater. PMID:23648038

  10. Electrophoretic Mobility of Poly(acrylic acid)-Coated Alumina Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhosale, Prasad S.; Chun, Jaehun; Berg, John C.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption on the electrokinetic behavior of alumina dispersions under high pH conditions was investigated as a function of polymer concentration and molecular weight as well as the presence, concentration and ion type of background electrolyte. Systems of this type are relevant to nuclear waste treatment, in which PAA is known to be an effective rheology modifier. The presence of all but the lowest molecular weight PAA studied (1800) led to decreases in dynamic electrophoretic mobility at low polymer concentrations, attributable to bridging flocculation, as verified by measurements of particle size distribution. Bridging effects increased with polymer molecular weight, and decreased with polymer concentration. Increases in background electrolyte concentration enhanced dynamic electrophoretic mobility as the polymer layers were compressed and bridging was reduced. Such enhancements were reduced as the cation was changed from Na+ to K+ to Cs+.

  11. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2014-09-01

    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  12. Water dispersible polytetrafluoroethylene microparticles prepared by grafting of poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changqiao; Xu, Lu; Zeng, Hongyan; Tang, Zhongfeng; Zhong, Lei; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-10-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature and high gravimetric density, it is very difficult to obtain water dispersible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powder. In this work, hydrophilic PTFE microparticles were successfully prepared by grafting of poly(acrylic acid) onto PTFE micropowder via a pre-irradiation method. The as-obtained hydrophilic PTFE microparticles were analyzed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, CA, SEM and TGA. After neutralization by sodium hydroxide, the water contact angle decreased from 145.69° for pristine PTFE to 63.38° for PTFE-g-NaAA. The obtained micropowder can be easily dispersed in water to form a dispersion with very high stability. Furthermore, the presence of grafted PAA shows no obvious influence on degradation temperature of PTFE backbones.

  13. Scaffolds of Hyaluronic Acid-Poly(Ethyl Acrylate) Interpenetrating Networks: Characterization and In Vitro Studies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, E; Lloret Compañ, A; Monleón Pradas, M; Martínez-Ramos, C

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) provides many advantages to regenerative implants through its bioactive properties, but it also has many limitations as a biomaterial if it is not chemically modified. In order to overcome some of these limitations, HA has been combined with poly(ethyl acrylate) in the form of interpenetrating polymeric networks (IPNs), in which the HA network is crosslinked with divinyl sulfone. Scaffolds of this IPN have been produced through a template-leaching methodology, and their properties have been compared with those of single-network scaffolds made of either PEA or crosslinked HA. A fibroblast cell line has been used to assess the in vitro performance of the scaffolds, revealing good cell response and a differentiated behavior on the IPN surface when compared to the individual polymers. Altogether, the results confirm that this type of material offers an interesting microenvironment for cells, which can be further improved toward its potential use in medical implants. PMID:27072058

  14. Acrylic acid grafted guargum-nanosilica membranes for transdermal diclofenac delivery.

    PubMed

    Giri, Arindam; Bhunia, Tridib; Mishra, Samir Ranjan; Goswami, Luna; Panda, Asit Baran; Pal, Sagar; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2013-01-16

    Green, hydrophobic device for controlled transdermal release of diclofenac sodium was designed from in situ nanosilica/acrylic acid grafted guargum membranes. Best grafting condition was assigned and nanocomposites were formed in situ using varying proportions of aqueous nanosilica sol. Nanocomposite/drug conjugates were formed by bringing down the medium pH from 9.0 to 7.0. The conjugates were characterized through infrared and solid state NMR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, hydro-swelling, surface contact angle, viscometry and biocompatibility. Most balanced property was exhibited by the membrane containing 1wt% nanosilica. It also had shown the highest encapsulation efficacy vis-à-vis slowest release as compared to others during experimentation in a Franz diffusion cell. PMID:23121937

  15. Surface Modification of PET Fabric by Graft Copolymerization with Acrylic Acid and Its Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahifard, M.; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Malek, R. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics with the aid of benzoyl peroxide was carried out. The effect of polymerization parameters on the graft yield was studied. Percent grafting was enhanced significantly by increasing benzoyl peroxide (BP) concentrations up to 3.84 g/lit and then decreased upon further increase in initiator concentration. Preswelling of PET leads to changes in its sorption-diffusion properties and favors an increase in the degree of grafting. The antibiotics treated grafted fabrics showed antibacterial properties towards gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. FTIR and SEM were used to characterize AA-grafted polyester fabrics. PMID:24052819

  16. Self-assembly and the hemolysis effect of monodisperse N,N-diethylacrylamide/acrylic acid nanogels with high contents of acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueting; Zhao, Di; Shi, Xiaodi; Qiu, Gao; Lu, Xihua

    2016-09-21

    Monodisperse temperature/pH sensitive poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide/acrylic acid) (P(DEA/AAc)) nanogels with high contents of AAc up to 40 wt% have been prepared. In this study, it was unexpectedly found that the polydispersity of the nanogels with 40 wt% AAc strongly depended on the initiator concentration. Monodisperse P(DEA/AA) nanogels were synthesized only at a very low concentration of initiator. The phase transition behavior of the nanogels in water can be tuned by pH and temperature. Due to low polydispersity, the nanogels self-assembled into colloidal crystals at different temperatures below the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT). The sharp Bragg peaks of the crystals were significantly blue-shifted as the concentration of the nanogels was increased. In contrast, the condensed suspensions without crystals still exhibited clear colours resulting from a short-range order structure. The reflection spectra of the coloured suspensions showed that the peak wavelength became a bit longer and much broader. And the reflection intensity of the coloured suspensions was much weaker. Elastic and coloured crosslinked nanogel networks prepared by a one-pot and rapid light-initiated crosslinking method showed responses to pH and temperature. Furthermore, the interaction between the nanogels and peptide melittin was investigated. The results showed that an increasing AAc composition led to more efficient inhibition of the hemolytic activity of melittin. The nanogels with 40 wt% AAc composition completely inhibited hemolytic activity at a nanogel concentration of 400 µg ml(-1). Thus, monodisperse P(DEA/AAc) nanogels of high AAc composition may be developed as efficient substitutes for antibody-based antidotes. Owing to the combined influence of the periodic structure of the crystals of the nanogels and an efficient neutralization effect, the P(DEA/AAc) nanogels show promise to become an integral step for preparing valuable naked-eye biosensors as simple, cheap and

  17. Thiomers: Influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid) on efflux pump inhibition.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Vjera; Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugates on the permeation of sulforhodamine 101 and penicillin G. acting as substrates for multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 efflux pump. Poly(acrylic acids) of 2 kDa, 100 kDa, 250 kDa, 450 kDa and 3000 kDa were conjugated with cysteine. The thiol group content of all these polymers was in the range from 343.3 ± 48.4 μmol/g to 450.3 ± 76.1 μmol/g. Transport studies were performed on rat small intestine mounted in Ussing-type chambers. Since 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid) showed the highest permeation enhancing effect, additionally thiolated 250 kDa polyacrylates displaying 157.2 μmol/g, 223.0 ± 18.1 and 355.9 μmol/g thiol groups were synthesized in order to investigate the influence of thiol group content on the permeation enhancement. The permeation of sulforhodamine was 3.93- and 3.85-fold improved using 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugate exhibiting 355.9 ± 39.5 μmol/g and 223.0 ± 18.1 μmol/g thiol groups. Using the same conjugates the permeation of penicillin G was 1.70- and 1.59-fold improved, respectively. The study demonstrates that thiolated poly(acrylic acid) inhibits Mrp2 mediated transport and that the extent of inhibition depends on the molecular mass and degree of thiolation of the polymer. PMID:26238816

  18. Controlled release of insulin through hydrogels of (acrylic acid)/trimethylolpropane triacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymundi, Vanessa C.; Aguiar, Leandro G.; Souza, Esmar F.; Sato, Ana C.; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogels of poly(acrylic acid) crosslinked with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were produced through solution polymerization. After these hydrogels were loaded with insulin solution, they evidenced swelling. Experiments of controlled release of insulin through the hydrogels were performed in acidic and basic media in order to evaluate the rates of release of this protein provided by the referred copolymer. Additionally, a mathematical description of the system based on differential mass balance was made and simulated in MATLAB. The model consists of a system of differential equations which was solved numerically. As expected, the values of swelling index at the equilibrium and the rates of insulin release were inversely proportional to the degree of crosslinking. The mathematical model provided reliable predictions of release profiles with fitted values of diffusivity of insulin through the hydrogels in the range of 6.0 × 10-7-1.3 × 10-6 cm2/s. The fitted and experimental values of partition coefficients of insulin between the hydrogel and the medium were lower for basic media, pointing out good affinity of insulin for these media in comparison to the acidic solutions.

  19. pH-Responsive Behavior of Poly(acrylic acid) Brushes of Varying Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vivek; Robertson, Megan; Conrad, Jacinta

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the pH-dependent response of polyelectrolyte brushes of varying thickness. Our model system consists of poly(acrylic acid) brushes, which change from hydrophobic and neutral at low pH to hydrophilic and negatively charged at high pH, synthesized using a grafting-from approach at constant grafting density. As the polymer brush thickness increased, the brushes exhibited greater hysteresis in static water contact angle as a function of pH. We extracted the pKa of the polymer brushes from contact angle measurements. The relationship between the pKa and brush thickness depended on the order in which the brushes were exposed to solutions of varying pH: pKa decreased on increasing brush thickness when going from basic to acidic medium whereas pKa increased on increasing brush thickness when going from acidic to basic medium. We speculate that the origin of hysteresis can be explained by pH-dependent conformational changes in these polyelectrolyte brushes.

  20. Polyaniline/poly acid acrylic thin film composites: a new gamma radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lima Pacheco, Ana P.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a new and straightforward route to prepare polyaniline/poly acid acrylic (PAA) thin film composites in large areas and on almost any surface. This method was developed to improve the mechanical and adherence properties of polyaniline devices used as ionization radiation sensors. The route consists of the combination of the metal oxidant with polymer acid to form a highly homogeneous and viscous paste, which can be easily spread over any surface. In the second step, an aniline acid solution is brought in contact with the dried paste where polymerization occurs, yielding a high homogeneous and conducting polymer composite. The UV-visible absorption and infrared analysis confirm that a polyaniline/PAA complex is obtained. The four-point conductivity measurements show that the composite conductivity {rho} is the order of 5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Preliminary gamma radiation interaction with the composite shows that the doped composite exhibits a linear response that can be used in the development of real-time radiation sensors for the dose range from 0 to 5000 Gy.

  1. A study of the swelling and model protein release behaviours of radiation-formed poly(N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David; Hill, David J. T.; Rasoul, Firas; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-02-01

    Hydrogels were prepared from poly(acrylic acid-co-N-vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(AA-co-VP) and mixtures of poly(AA-co-VP) and poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, by gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of the AA and VP monomers containing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, EGDMA, as crosslinker and PEO. The AA/VP composition range of the poly(AA-co-VP) was XAA 0.7-0.9. The swelling behaviours of the hydrogels from the dry state were investigated in water (pH 6.5) and 50 mM 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethylsulfonic acid buffer, HEPES buffer, at pH 7.4 and 295 K. The effects of poly(AA-co-VP) composition, crosslinker mole fraction and the presence of PEO on the equilibrium swelling ratio for the gels was examined. The kinetics of the release of a model protein, horseradish peroxidase, HRP, from the hydrogels in water were also studied at 295 K.

  2. The effect of unsaturated fatty acid and triglyceride oil addition on the mechanical and antibacterial properties of acrylic bone cements.

    PubMed

    Persson, Cecilia; Robert, Elise; Carlsson, Elin; Robo, Céline; López, Alejandro; Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Engqvist, Håkan

    2015-09-01

    Acrylic bone cements have an elastic modulus several times higher than the surrounding trabecular bone. This has been hypothesized to contribute to certain clinical complications. There are indications that the addition of specific fatty acids and triglyceride oils may reduce the elastic modulus of these types of cements. Some of these additives also appear to have inherent antibiotic properties, although this has never been evaluated in bone cements. In this study, several types of fatty acids and triglyceride oils were evaluated for use in acrylic bone cements. Their mechanical properties were evaluated under uniaxial compression testing and selected cements were then further characterized in terms of microstructure, handling and antibacterial properties using scanning electron microscopy, polymerization temperature measurements, agar diffusion tests and bactericidal activity assays of cement extracts. It was found that any of the evaluated fatty acids or triglyceride oils could be used to tailor the stiffness of acrylic bone cements, although at varying concentrations, which also depended on the type of commercial base cement used. In particular, the addition of very small amounts of linoleic acid (<2.0 wt%) resulted in Young's moduli and compressive strengths in the range of human trabecular bone, while maintaining a similar setting time. Further, the addition of 12.6 wt% ricinoleic acid to Osteopal V cement was found to have a significant antibacterial effect, inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in an agar diffusion test as well as demonstrating 100% bactericidal activity against the same strain. PMID:25876889

  3. Production of Chiral (R)-3-Hydroxyoctanoic Acid Monomers, Catalyzed by Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13 Poly(3-Hydroxyoctanoic Acid) Depolymerase▿

    PubMed Central

    Gangoiti, Joana; Santos, Marta; Llama, María J.; Serra, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (MCL-PHA) depolymerase of Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13 catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)]. Based on the strong tendency of the enzyme to interact with hydrophobic materials, a low-cost method which allows the rapid and easy purification and immobilization of the enzyme has been developed. Thus, the extracellular P(3HO) depolymerase present in the culture broth of cells of P. fluorescens GK13 grown on mineral medium supplemented with P(3HO) as the sole carbon and energy source has been tightly adsorbed onto a commercially available polypropylene support (Accurel MP-1000) with high yield and specificity. The activity of the pure enzyme was enhanced by the presence of detergents and organic solvents, and it was retained after treatment with an SDS-denaturing cocktail under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The time course of the P(3HO) hydrolysis catalyzed by the soluble and immobilized enzyme has been assessed, and the resulting products have been identified. After 24 h of hydrolysis, the dimeric ester of 3-HO [(R)-3-HO-HO] was obtained as the main product of the soluble enzyme. However, the immobilized enzyme catalyzes almost the complete hydrolysis of P(3HO) polymer to (R)-3-HO monomers under the same conditions. PMID:20400568

  4. Synthesis of poly acrylic acid modified silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhihui; Wang, Zhihua; Sun, Lei; Li, Binjie; Zhao, Yanbao

    2014-08-01

    Poly acrylic acid modified silver (Ag/PAA) nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized in the aqueous solution by using tannic acid as a reductant. The structure, morphology and composition of Ag/PAA NPs were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The results show that PAA/Ag NPs have a quasi-ball shape with an average diameter of 10 nm and exhibit well crystalline, and the reaction conditions have some effect on products morphology and size distribution. In addition, the as-synthesized Ag/PAA NPs antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated by the methods of broth dilution, cup diffusion, optical density (OD600) and electron microscopy observation. The as-synthesized Ag/PAA NPs exhibit excellent antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial mechanism may be attributed to the damaging of bacterial cell membrane and causing leakage of cytoplasm. PMID:24907758

  5. Nanoparticle Formation from Hybrid, Multiblock Copolymers of Poly(Acrylic Acid) and VPGVG Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Grieshaber, Sarah E.; Paik, Bradford A.; Bai, Shi; Kiick, Kristi L.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    Elastin-mimetic hybrid copolymers with an alternating molecular architecture were synthesized via the step growth polymerization of azide-functionalized, telechelic poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA) and an alkyne-terminated, valine and glycine-rich peptide with a sequence of (VPGVG)2 (VG2). The resultant hybrid copolymer, [PtBA-VG2]n, contains up to six constituent building blocks and has a polydispersity index (PDI) of ~1.9. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) treatment of [PtBA-VG2]n gave rise to an alternating copolymer of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and VG2 ([PAA-VG2]n). The modular design permits facile adjustment of the copolymer composition by varying the molecular weight of PAA (22 and 63 repeat units). Characterization by dynamic light scattering indicated that the multiblock copolymers formed discrete nanoparticles at room temperature in aqueous solution at pH 3.8, with an average diameter of 250-270 nm and a particle size distribution of 0.34 for multiblock copolymers containing PAA22 and 0.17 for those containing PAA63. Upon increasing the pH to 7.4, both types of particles were able to swell without being disintegrated, reaching an average diameter of 285-300 nm for [PAA22-VG2]n and 330-350 nm for [PAA63-VG2]n, respectively. The nanoparticles were not dissociated upon the addition of urea, further confirming their unusual stability. The nanoparticles were capable of sequestering a hydrophobic fluorescent dye (pyrene), and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) was determined to be 1.09 × 10-2 or 1.05 × 10-2 mg/mL for [PAA22-VG2]n and [PAA63-VG2]n, respectively. We suggest that the multiblock copolymers form through collective H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions between the PAA and VG2 peptide units, and that the unusual stability of the multiblock nanoparticles is conferred by the multiblock architecture. These hybrid multiblock copolymers are potentially useful as pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles, with the possibility of drug loading through

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors of salt-sensitive maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyue; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Tianqi; Liu, Mengzhu; Hu, Meijuan; Li, Junfeng

    2014-09-01

    A novel composite hydrogel was prepared via UV irradiation copolymerization of acrylic acid and maize bran (MB) in the presence of composite initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and ammonium persulfate) and cross-linker (N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)). Under the optimized conditions, maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) was obtained (2507 g g(-1) in distilled water and 658 g g(-1) in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution). Effects of granularity, salt concentration, and various cations and anions on water absorbency were investigated. It was found that swelling was extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cation and anion type. Swelling kinetics and water diffusion mechanism in distilled water were also discussed. Moreover, the product showed excellent water retention capability under the condition of high temperature or high pressure. The salt sensitivity, good water absorbency, and excellent water retention capability of the hydrogels give this intelligentized polymer wide potential applications. PMID:25133321

  7. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Song, Cunfeng; Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina; Dai, Lizong

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. PMID:24433897

  8. Lactic acid conversion to 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid over silica-supported sodium nitrate: Reaction optimization and identification of sodium lactate as the active catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wadley, D.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1997-01-15

    Lactic acid is converted to 2,3-pentanedione, acrylic acid, and other products in vapor-phase reactions over silica-supported sodium lactate formed from sodium nitrate. Multiparameter optimization of reaction conditions using a Box-Benkhen experimental design shows that the highest yield and selectivity to 2,3-pentanedione are achieved at low temperature, elevated pressure, and long contact time, while yield and selectivity to acrylic acid are most favorable at high temperature, low pressure, and short contact time. Post-reaction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses of the catalyst indicate that sodium nitrate as the initial catalyst material is transformed to sodium lactate at the onset of reaction via proton transfer from lactic acid to nitrate. The resultant nitric acid vaporizes as it is formed, leaving sodium lactate as the sole sodium-bearing species on the catalyst during reaction. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Rapid 3D Patterning of Poly(acrylic acid) Ionic Hydrogel for Miniature pH Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming-Jie; Yao, Mian; Gao, Shaorui; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, Ping-Kong A

    2016-02-17

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), as a highly ionic conductive hydrogel, can reversibly swell/deswell according to the surrounding pH conditions. An optical maskless -stereolithography technology is presented to rapidly 3D pattern PAA for device fabrication. A highly sensitive miniature pH sensor is demonstrated by in situ printing of periodic PAA micropads on a tapered optical microfiber. PMID:26643765

  10. A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculant with outstanding flocculation performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yang; Tan, Ying; Liang, Xuecheng; Lu, Cuige; Wang, Haiwei; Liu, Xiusheng; Wang, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Series of anionic flocculants with outstanding flocculation performance, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculants (PAAD) were successfully prepared through aqueous solution copolymerization and applied to flocculate from oil-field fracturing waste-water. The structure of PAAD was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction tests, and its properties were systematically evaluated by viscometer, thermogravimetry analysis and flocculation measurements. Furthermore, the influences of various reaction parameters on the apparent viscosity of flocculant solution were studied, and the optimum synthesis condition was determined. The novel composite flocculants exhibited outstanding flocculation properties. Specifically, the dosage of composite flocculants that could make the transmittance of treated wastewater exceed 90% was only approximately 12-35 ppm, which was far lower than that of conventional flocculants. Meanwhile, the settling time was lower than 5 s, which was similar to that of conventional flocculants. This was because PAAD flocculants had a higher absorption capacity, and larger chain extending space than conventional linear flocculants, which could refrain from the entanglement of linear polymer chains and significantly improve flocculation capacity. PMID:26360748

  11. Investigation of electrochemical properties of a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) polymer blend

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, C.O.; Seliskar, C.; Heineman, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical sensors have wide applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, industrial applications, and others because of their versatility, ruggedness, sensitivity, selectivity, and economy. Electrochemical sensors are constructed by using a conducting medium, in this case graphite, and applying a constant potential while measuring changes in the current. Polymers are used for electrochemical sensors to exclude interferents from the electrode surface, to preconcentrate the analyte near the electrode, and in some cases to provide a matrix for the immobilization of analytes, such as enzymes. These functions of the polymer can serve to improve the detection limit of the sensor. This project involves the evaluation of a new polymer for electrode modification. The poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) polymer was originally developed as an ion exchanger for use in space batteries. It has also been used in wastewater cleanup because it will concentrate heavy metals in the presence of calcium ion. This polymer is also optically clear, so it can potentially be used for an optical sensor. We are interested in investigating the ion exchange properties of the PVA/PAA polymer, as well as the ability of this polymer to preconcentrate and exclude analytes on the basis of size, charge, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions.

  12. Poly(acrylic acid) brushes pattern as a 3D functional biosensor surface for microchips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Mei; Cui, Yi; Cheng, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Lu-Sheng; Wang, Zhi-You; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhu, Jin-Song

    2013-02-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, a novel three dimensional (3D) precursor layer of biosensor or protein microarrays, possess high protein loading level and low non-specific protein adsorption. In this article, we describe a simple and convenient way to fabricate 3D PAA brushes pattern by microcontact printing (μCP) and characterize it with FT-IR and optical microscopy. The carboxyl groups of PAA brushes can be applied to covalently immobilize protein for immunoassay. Thriving 3D space made by patterning PAA brushes thin film is available to enhance protein immobilization, which is confirmed by measuring model protein interaction between human immunoglobulin G (H-IgG) and goat anti-H-IgG (G-H-IgG) with fluorescence microscopy and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). As expected, the SPRi signals of H-IgG coating on 3D PAA brushes pattern and further measuring specific binding with G-H-IgG are all larger than that of 3D PAA brushes without pattern and 2D bare gold surface. We further revealed that this surface can be used for high-throughput screening and clinical diagnosis by label-free assaying of Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antibody (HBsAb) with Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antigen (HBsAg) concentration array chip. The linearity range for HBsAb assay is wider than that of conventional ELISA method.

  13. Cellulose nanocrystal-filled poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite fibrous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2009-10-01

    Nanocomposite fibrous membranes have been fabricated by electrospinning cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-loaded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) ethanol mixtures. Incorporating CNC in PAA significantly reduced fiber diameters and improved fiber uniformity. The average diameters of the as-spun nanocomposite fibers were significantly reduced from 349 nm to 162 nm, 141 nm, 90 nm and 69 nm at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% CNC loading (by weight of a constant 4% PAA solution), respectively. CNC was well dispersed in the fibers as isolated rods oriented along the fiber axis and as spheres in the PAA matrix. The Young modulus and stress of the PAA/CNC nanocomposite fibers were significantly improved with increasing CNC loadings by up to 35-fold and 16-fold, respectively. Heat-induced esterification between the CNC surface hydroxyls and PAA carboxyl groups produced covalent crosslinks at the CNC-PAA interfaces, rendering the nanocomposite fibrous membranes insoluble in water, more thermally stable and far more superior in tensile strength. With 20% CNC, the crosslinked nanocomposite fibrous membrane exhibited a very impressive 77-fold increase in modulus and 58-fold increase in stress.

  14. Surfactants modify the release from tablets made of hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid)☆

    PubMed Central

    Knöös, Patrik; Onder, Sebla; Pedersen, Lina; Piculell, Lennart; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Many novel pharmaceutically active substances are characterized by a high hydrophobicity and a low water solubility, which present challenges for their delivery as drugs. Tablets made from cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid) (CLHMPAA), commercially available as Pemulen™, have previously shown promising abilities to control the release of hydrophobic model substances. This study further investigates the possibility to use CLHMPAA in tablet formulations using ibuprofen as a model substance. Furthermore, surfactants were added to the dissolution medium in order to simulate the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The release of ibuprofen is strongly affected by the presence of surfactant and/or buffer in the dissolution medium, which affect both the behaviour of CLHMPAA and the swelling of the gel layer that surrounds the disintegrating tablets. Two mechanisms of tablet disintegration were observed under shear, namely conventional dissolution of a soluble tablet matrix and erosion of swollen insoluble gel particles from the tablet. The effects of surfactant in the surrounding medium can be circumvented by addition of surfactant to the tablet. With added surfactant, tablets that may be insusceptible to the differences in bile salt level between fasted or fed states have been produced, thus addressing a central problem in controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. In other words CLHMPAA is a potential candidate to be used in tablet formulations for controlled release with poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25755999

  15. Preparation and Biophysical Characterization of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer-Poly(acrylic acid) Graft.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Huu; Do, Le Thanh; Loan, Ta Thi; Yoo, Hoon

    2015-01-01

    A series of PAMAM dendrimer generation 5-poly(acrylic acid) grafts were prepared to evaluate the potential use of dendritic grafts as a drug encapsulated nanocarrier. The structural features of the synthesized polymer graft were identified by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra and the biophysical properties were characterized by measuring its particle size and zeta potential. The prepared dendrimer G5-PAA grafts had particle size in the range of 600 to 900 nm and the size increased proportionally with the number of PAA on dendrimer surface. The electrostatic property of the dendrimer G5-PAA, carried out by HPLC reversed phase column analysis and the measurement of zeta potential, revealed that both migration time and zeta potential were dependent on the number of grafted PAA. The number of free amino groups on dendrimer G5-PAA, determined quantitatively by fluorescamine assay, was in a reverse order with the reaction mole ratio of dendrimer to PAA. In addition, dendrimer G5-PAA showed a pH-dependent solubility in aqueous solution with characteristic pH region of solubility, depending on the dendrimer generation. The observed biophysical properties indicate that PAMAM dendrimer G5-PAA is promising as a drug encapsulated nanocarrier. PMID:26328427

  16. Adsorption of poly acrylic acid onto the surface of calcite: an experimental and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sparks, David J; Romero-González, Maria E; El-Taboni, Elfateh; Freeman, Colin L; Hall, Shaun A; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Swanson, Linda; Banwart, Steven A; Harding, John H

    2015-11-01

    Macromolecular binding to minerals is of great importance in the formation of biofilms, and carboxylate functional groups have been found to play a pivotal role in the functioning of these macromolecules. Here we present both fluorescence time-resolved anisotropy measurements and simulation data on the conformational behaviour and binding of a poly acrylic acid polymer. In solution the polymer exhibits a pH dependent behaviour, with a coiled conformation at a low pH and extended conformation at higher pH values. The polymer is readily adsorbed on the surface of calcite, preferring to bind in an extended conformation, with the strength of the adsorption dependent on the pH and presence of counter ions. We discuss the reasons why the calculated adsorption free energy differs from that obtained from a Langmuir isotherm analysis, showing that they refer to different quantities. The enhanced binding of the extended conformations shows the importance of flexibility in the binding of macromolecules. PMID:26418100

  17. Antimicrobial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Morales, Javier; Amariei, Georgiana; Letón, Pedro; Rosal, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Electrospun nanofibers were prepared from blends of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The fibers were stabilized by heat curing at 140°C via anhydride and ketone formation and crosslinking esterification. The antimicrobial effect was assessed using strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by tracking their capacity to form colonies and their metabolic impairment upon contact with PAA/PVA membranes. Membranes containing >35wt.% PAA displayed significant antibacterial activity, which was particularly high for the gram-positive S. aureus. All membranes were negatively charged, with surface ζ-potential in the (-34.5)-(-45.6)mV range, but the electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged cells was not the reason for the antimicrobial effect. Neither pH reduction nor the passing of non-crosslinked polymers to the solution affected microbial growth. The antibacterial activity was attributed to the chelation of the divalent cations stabilizing the outer cell membrane. The effect on gram-positive bacteria was attributed to the destabilization of the peptidoglycan layer. The sequestration of divalent cations was demonstrated with experiments in which calcium and a chelating agent were added to the cultures in contact with membranes. The damage to bacterial cells was tracked by measuring their surface charge and the evolution of intracellular calcium during the early stages after contact with PAA/PVA membranes. PMID:27318959

  18. Mechanically stable thermally crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/reduced graphene oxide aerogels.

    PubMed

    Ha, Heonjoo; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2015-03-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) aerogels, high porosity (>99%) low density (∼3-10 mg cm(-3)) porous materials with GO pore walls, are particularly attractive due to their lightweight, high surface area, and potential use in environmental remediation, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic materials, energy storage, etc. However, pure GO aerogels are generally weak and delicate which complicates their handling and potentially limits their commercial implementation. The focus of this work was to synthesize highly elastic, mechanically stable aerogels that are robust and easy to handle without substantially sacrificing their high porosity or low density. To overcome this challenge, a small amount of readily available and thermally cross-linkable poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was intermixed with GO to enhance the mechanical integrity of the aerogel without disrupting other desirable characteristic properties. This method is a simple straightforward procedure that does not include multistep or complicated chemical reactions, and it produces aerogels with mass densities of about 4-6 mg cm(-3) and >99.6% porosity that can reversibly support up to 10,000 times their weight with full recovery of their original volume. Finally, pressure sensing capabilities were demonstrated and their oil absorption capacities were measured to be around 120 g oil per g aerogel(-1) which highlights their potential use in practical applications. PMID:25714662

  19. Preparation and properties of poly(acrylic acid) oligomer stabilized superparamagnetic ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Lung; Lee, Chia-Fen; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2005-11-15

    Ferrofluids, which are stable dispersions of magnetic particles, behave as liquids that have strong magnetic properties. Nanoparticles of magnetite with a mean diameter of 10-15 nm, which are in the range of superparamagnetism, are usually prepared by the traditional method of co-precipitation from ferrous and ferric electrolyte solution. When diluted, the ferrofluid dispersions are not stable if anionic or cationic surfactants are used as the stabilizer. This work presents an efficient way to prepare a stable aqueous nanomagnetite dispersion. A stable ferrofluid containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles was synthesized via co-precipitation in the presence of poly(acrylic acid) oligomer. The mechanism, microstructure, and properties of the ferrofluid were investigated. The results indicate that the PAA oligomers promoted the nucleation and inhibited the growth of the magnetic iron oxide, and the average diameter of each individual Fe3O4 particle was smaller than 10 nm. In addition, the PAA oligomers provided both electrostatic and steric repulsion against particle aggregation, and the stability of dispersions could be controlled by adjusting the pH value of solution. A small amount of Fe2O3 was found in the nanoparticles but the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles was not affected. PMID:16009367

  20. Multiplex Immunoassay Platforms Based on Shape-Coded Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogel Microparticles Incorporating Acrylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Park, Saemi; Lee, Hyun Jong; Koh, Won-Gun

    2012-01-01

    A suspension protein microarray was developed using shape-coded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microparticles for potential applications in multiplex and high-throughput immunoassays. A simple photopatterning process produced various shapes of hydrogel micropatterns that were weakly bound to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated substrates. These micropatterns were easily detached from substrates during the washing process and were collected as non-spherical microparticles. Acrylic acids were incorporated into hydrogels, which could covalently immobilize proteins onto their surfaces due to the presence of carboxyl groups. The amount of immobilized protein increased with the amount of acrylic acid due to more available carboxyl groups. Saturation was reached at 25% v/v of acrylic acid. Immunoassays with IgG and IgM immobilized onto hydrogel microparticles were successfully performed with a linear concentration range from 0 to 500 ng/mL of anti-IgG and anti-IgM, respectively. Finally, a mixture of two different shapes of hydrogel microparticles immobilizing IgG (circle) and IgM (square) was prepared and it was demonstrated that simultaneous detection of two different target proteins was possible without cross-talk using same fluorescence indicator because each immunoassay was easily identified by the shapes of hydrogel microparticles. PMID:22969408

  1. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  2. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic Superparamagnetic Fe3O4/Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) Composite Nanoparticles with High Magnetization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaohua; Lan, Fang; Yang, Qi; Xie, Liqin; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Uniform superparamagnetic Fe3O4/poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-AA)) composite nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization and good hydrophilicity were successfully and directly synthesized via a facile one-pot miniemulsion polymerization approach. The mixture of the ferrofluids, MMA and AA monomers, surfactants and initiator was co-sonicated and emulsified to prepare stable miniemulsion for polymerization. The as-prepared products were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and VSM. The results of SEM indicated that the morphology of the Fe3O4/P(MMA-AA) composite nanoparticles all assumed near spherical geometry with diameters about 60 nm, 60 nm, and 100 nm respectively corresponding to the weight ratios of Fe3O4 to MMA and AA at 1:8, 1:4, and 1:2. The TEM images implied that the Fe3O4/P(MMA-AA) composite nanoparticles showed a perfect core-shell structure with a polymeric shell of about 2 nm thickness and a core encapsulating uniform and close packed Fe3O4 nanoparticles. TGA and VSM showed that the Fe3O4/P(MMA-AA) composite nanoparticles with a maximum saturation magnetization up to 45 emu g(-1) corresponding to the magnetite content of 78% exhibited superparamagntism. The hydrophilic modification and the high saturation magnetization impart a promising potential for biomedical applications to the as-synthesized composite nanoparticles. PMID:26328359

  3. Degradation of dissolved organic monomers and short-chain fatty acids in sandy marine sediment by fermentation and sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The decay of a wide range of organic monomers (short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA's), amino acids, glucose and a pyrimidine) was studied in marine sediments using experimental plug flow-through reactors. The reactions were followed in the presence and absence of 10 mM SO 42-. Degradation stoichiometry of individual monomers (inflow concentration of 6 mM organic C) was traced by measuring organic (VFA's, amino acids) and inorganic (CO 2, NH 4+, SO 42-) compounds in the outflow. Fermentation of amino acids was efficient and complete during passage through anoxic sediment reactors. Aliphatic amino acids (alanine, serine and glutamate) were primarily recovered as CO 2 (24-34%), formate (3-22%) and acetate (41-83%), whereas only ˜1/3 of the aromatic amino acid (tyrosine) was recovered as CO 2 (13%) and acetate (20%). Fermentation of glucose and cytosine was also efficient (78-86%) with CO 2 (30-35%), formate (3%) and acetate (28-33%) as the primary products. Fermentation of VFA's (acetate, propionate and butyrate), on the other hand, appeared to be product inhibited. The presence of SO 42- markedly stimulated VFA degradation (29-45% efficiency), and these compounds were recovered as CO 2 (17% for butyrate to 100% for acetate) and acetate (51% and 82% for propionate and butyrate, respectively). When reaction stoichiometry during fermentation is compared with compound depletion during sulfate reduction, the higher proportion CO 2 recovery is consistent with lower acetate and formate accumulation. Our results therefore suggest that fermentation reactions mediate the initial degradation of added organic compounds, even during active sulfate reduction. Fermentative degradation stoichiometry also suggested significant H 2 production, and >50% of sulfate reduction appeared to be fuelled by H 2. Furthermore, our results suggest that fermentation was the primary deamination step during degradation of the amino acids and cytosine.

  4. Toward pH-responsive coating materials--high-throughput study of (meth)acrylic copolymers.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Andreas; Arici, Elif; Windhab, Norbert; Schattka, Jan Hendrik; Schubert, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-08-11

    The release behavior of a model compound (β-naphthol orange) encapsulated in (meth)acrylate-based statistical copolymers under different environmental conditions was investigated. From monomers of varying polarity (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, tert-butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate) in combination with methacrylic acid, five polymer series were synthesized by free radical polymerization. The pH-dependent release kinetics were investigated via UV-vis spectroscopy at pH 1.2 and 6.8, simulating physiological conditions in the stomach and intestines. Furthermore, the influence of different ethanol contents (0 and 40 vol %) in the acidic medium was investigated. The whole approach was designed to meet the requirements of a high-throughput experimentation workflow. PMID:24964068

  5. Oleanolic acid acrylate elicits antidepressant-like effect mediated by 5-HT1A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fajemiroye, James O.; Polepally, Prabhakar R.; Chaurasiya, Narayan D.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Costa, Elson A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new drugs for the treatment of depression is strategic to achieving clinical needs of patients. This study evaluates antidepressant-like effect and neural mechanisms of four oleanolic acid derivatives i.e. acrylate (D1), methacrylate (D2), methyl fumarate (D3) and ethyl fumarate (D4). All derivatives were obtained by simple one-step esterification of oleanolic acid prior to pharmacological screening in the forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. Pharmacological tools like α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, catecholamine depletor), p-chlorophenylalanine (serotonin depletor), prazosin (PRAZ, selective α1-receptor antagonist), WAY-100635 (selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) as well as monoamine oxidase (MAO) and functional binding assays were conducted to investigate possible neural mechanisms. In the FS test, D1 showed the most promising antidepressant-like effect without eliciting locomotor incoordination. Unlike group of mice pretreated with AMPT 100 mg/kg, PCPA 100 mg/kg or PRAZ 1 mg/kg, the effect of D1 was attenuated by WAY-100635 0.3 mg/kg pretreatment. D1 demonstrated moderate inhibition of MAO-A (IC50 = 48.848 ± 1.935 μM), potency (pEC50 = 6.1 ± 0.1) and intrinsic activity (Emax = 26 ± 2.0%) on 5-HT1A receptor. In conclusion, our findings showed antidepressant-like effect of D1 and possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:26199018

  6. The C-F...F-C short contacts in the metal complexes of fluoro-phenyl-acrylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Guilei; Liu CaiMing; Li Hui

    2011-03-15

    Four new complexes of fluoro-phenyl-acrylic acids (E)-3-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-acrylic acid (L1) [Mn{sub 3}(L1){sub 6}(L2){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O.CH{sub 3}CN (1), [Zn{sub 2}(L1){sub 4}(L3)]{sub n} (2), [Mn(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (L2=1,10-phenanthroline, L3=4,4'-bipy) have been synthesized based on the molecular design and research of halogen-halogen interactions (especially fluoro-fluoro contact). The structure analyses reveal that complex 1 is a trinuclear complex, which is blocked by L2. Complex 2 is a 1D chain bridged through L3. Complexes 3 and 4 exhibit 2D grid like metal-organic framework structures through carboxylato bridge ligand. Variable-temperature magnetic measurements showed an antiferromagnetic interaction between Mn(II) ions and between Co(II) ions in complexes 3 and 4, respectively. A short C-F...F-C contact with a distance of 2.953 A was found between the trinuclear coordination compound 1. -- Graphical Abstract: The short distance between F...F (2.953 A) was found in the complex of [Mn{sub 3}(L1){sub 6}(L2){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O.CH{sub 3}CN (L1=(E)-3-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-acrylic acid, L2=1,-10-phenanthroline). Display Omitted Research highlights: > Four new complexes of fluoro-phenyl-acrylic acids (E)-3-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-acrylic acid (L1) [Mn{sub 3}(L1){sub 6}(L2){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O.CH{sub 3}CN (1), [Zn{sub 2}(L1){sub 4}(L3)]{sub n} (2), [Mn(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L1){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (L2=1,10-phenanthroline, L3=4,4'-bipy) have been synthesized based on the molecular design and research of halogen-halogen interactions (especially fluoro-fluoro contact). > A short C-F...F-C contact with a distance of 2.953 A was found between the trinuclear coordination compound 1. > Variable-temperature magnetic measurements showed an antiferromagnetic interaction between Mn(II) ions and between Co(II) ions in complexes 3 and 4, respectively.

  7. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates. PMID:26367207

  8. Spectroscopic studies, HOMO-LUMO and NBO calculations on monomer and dimer conformer of 5-nitrosalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, T.; Balachandran, V.; Perumal, S.; Nataraj, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this work, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded on the solid phase of 5-nitrosalicylic acid (abbreviated as 5-NSA). The energies of all possible conformers obtained from DFT theory with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set identified the most stable conformer of 5-NSA as C6 form. Optimized geometrical parameters, vibrational assignments, HOMO-LUMO energies and NBO calculations are performed on the stable monomer and dimer structure of 5-NSA using the same level of theory. Second order perturbation energies and electron density (ED) transfer from filled lone pairs of Lewis base to unfilled Lewis acid sites of 5-NSA are discussed on the basis of NBO analysis. Inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds exist between sbnd COOH and sbnd OH group, give the evidence for the formation of dimer entities in the title molecule. The variations in bond lengths, ED and vibrational wavenumbers of 5-NSA dimer are being discussed. The spectroscopic and theoretical results are compared to the corresponding properties for 5-NSA monomer and dimer of C6 conformer. Reliable vibrational modes associated with 5-NSA are made on the basis of total energy distribution (TED) results obtained from scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method.

  9. Transport in Porous Media of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Coated Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Xiang, A.; Koel, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Augmentation of soils with iron to enhance biological processes such as uranium reduction via iron reducing bacteria, e.g., Geobacter sp., might be achieved via the injection of iron nanoparticles into the subsurface. The challenge is to make these nanoparticles transportable in the subsurface while not affecting the iron bioavailability. Poorly crystallized 2-line ferrihydrite iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with different amounts of poly(acrylic acid) polymers (Na-PAA6K or Na-PAA140K). Analyses were then performed on these particles, including sorption/desorption of the polymer onto the iron nanoparticles, particle size, zeta potential, transport in sand and soil columns, and bioavailabity of the Fe(III) in the absence and presence of the coating to iron reducing organisms. Results showed that at pH values of environmental relevance, the zeta potential of the particles varied from about 3 mV (pH=8.2) for the non-coated particles to about -30 mV for the particles coated with the polymers to their highest sorption capacity. The coated particle diameter was shown to be in the range of 200 nm. Column transport experiments showed that for the highest polymer coating the nanoparticle breakthrough was virtually identical to that of bromide, while significant filtration was observed for particles with an intermediate coating, and complete particle removal via filtration was observed for the non-coated particles. These results held for sand as well as for soil, which had been previously characterized, from a field site at Rifle, CO. Bioavailability experiments showed no difference in the iron reduction rate between the untreated and treated nanoparticles. These results show that it is possible to manufacture iron nanoparticles to enhance biological iron reduction, and that the transport properties of these treated particles is tunable so that a desired retention in the porous medium can be achieved.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic acid) stabilized cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Serdar; Erdamar, A Koray; Sennaroglu, Alphan; Kurt, Adnan; Acar, Havva Yagci

    2007-11-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) capped with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared in aqueous solutions from Cd(NO3)2 and Na2S. Influence of the COOH/Cd ratio (0.8-12.5), reaction pH (5.5 and 7.5), and PAA molecular weight (2100 and 5100 g/mol) on the particle size, colloidal stability, and photoluminescence were investigated. A Cd/S ratio of <1 causes ineffective passivization of the surface with the carboxylate and therefore results in a red shift of the absorption band and a significant drop in photoluminescence. Therefore, the Cd/S ratio was fixed at 1.1 for all experiments studying the mentioned variables. PAA coating provided excellent colloidal stability at a COOH/Cd ratio above 1. Absorption edges of PAA-coated CdS NPs are in the range of 460-508 nm. The size of the NPs increases slightly with increasing PAA molecular weight and COOH/Cd ratio at pH 7.5. It is demonstrated that there is a critical COOH/Cd ratio (1.5-2) that maximizes the photoluminescence intensity and quantum yield (QY, 17%). Above this critical ratio, which corresponds to smaller crystal sizes (3.7-4.1 nm) for each reaction set, the quantum yield decreases and the crystal size increases. Moreover, CdS NPs prepared at pH 7.5 have significantly higher QY and absorb at lower wavelengths in comparison with those prepared at pH 5.5. Luminescence quenching has not been observed over 8 months. PMID:17929960

  11. Anelastic and thermal properties of ethylene/acrylic acid copolymers partially ionized with transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Matthews, F.M.; Riley, M.O.; Walkup, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Ionomers of five 3d series transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu), two Lanthanide series transition metals (Ce, Sm) and the IV and V series metals (Pb, Bi) were prepared by reaction with 25% solids dispersion of poly (ethylene-co-acrylic acid), EAA, in aqueous ammonia. The unreacted copolymer showed two mechanical relaxations, the glass transition at about 5C and a low temperature secondary relaxation at about -140C with 230 +- 10 kJ/mol and 50+-8 kJ/mol apparent activation energies, respectively. Typically three weight percent of the metal nitrate or acetate was reacted with the copolymer dispersion. After precipitation, drying and molding, the ionomers showed three mechanical relaxations. The low temperature ..gamma..-relaxation was quite strong and shifted about 5C higher compared to the EAA copolymer. The ..beta..-relaxation was extremely weak occurring at -62+-5C in the loss tangent at 1.0 Hz. The ..cap alpha..-relaxation or glass transition for 3% transition metal ionomers occurred at about 26+-3C for +3 oxidation states and Cu/sup +2/, but significantly higher for other +2 oxidation states (48 +- 2C for Co, Ni and 35C for Mn) based on G'' maxima at 1.0 Hz and the apparent activation energy was 220+-30kJ/mol. The two group IV and V metal ionomers were much higher loadings and had a much broader and stronger (..beta..') relaxation occurring at -6 +- 4C with 130+-10 kJ/mol activation energies. The lead ionomers were clear but the bismuth ionomer showed macroscopic phase separation. The 3d transition metal ionomers were clear and nicely colored characteristic of their ionization state except for iron which was somewhat cloudy. The Lanthanide ionomers were clear (Ce) or pale yellow (Sm) and also reasonably transparent. (16 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.)

  12. Production of dimethylsulfide and acrylic acid from dimethylsulfoniopropionate during growth of three marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunying; Gao, Caixia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Ping; Yue, Xin'an; Guo, Xiaoyi

    2014-07-01

    We measured the concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS), acrylic acid (AA), and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) during growth of three microalgae: Prorocentrum micans, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, and Platymonas subcordiformis. The DMSP, AA, and DMS concentrations in culture media varied significantly among algal growth stages, with the highest concentrations in the late stationary growth stage or the senescent stage. In the stationary growth stage, the average DMSP concentration per cell in P. mican s (0.066 5 pmol/cell) was 1.3 times that in G. oceanica (0.049 5 pmol/cell) and 20.2 times that in P. subcordiformi s (0.003 29 pmol/cell). The average concentrations of AA were 0.044 6, 0.026 9, and 0.003 05 pmol/cell in P. micans, G. oceanica, and P. subcordiformi s, respectively, higher than the concentrations of DMS (0.272, 0.497, and 0.086 2 fmol/cell, respectively). There were significant positive correlations between cell density and AA, DMSP, and DMS concentrations. The ratios of DMS /AA and AA /(DMSP+AA) in the three algae differed significantly over the growth cycle. In all three microalgae, the DMS/AA ratios were less than 25% during the growth period, suggesting that the enzymatic cleavage pathway, which generates DMS, was not the main DMSP degradation pathway. The changes in the DMS/AA ratio indicated that there was a higher rate of enzymatic breakdown of DMSP in the early growth period and a lower rate during senescence. In all three microalgae, the AA /(DMSP+AA) ratio (degradation ratio of DMSP) decreased during the exponential growth phase, and then increased. The variations in these ratios can approximately indicate the cleavage mechanism of DMSP at different stages of algal growth.

  13. Production of dimethylsulfide and acrylic acid from dimethylsulfoniopropionate during growth of three marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunying; Gao, Caixia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Ping; Yue, Xin'an; Guo, Xiaoyi

    2014-11-01

    We measured the concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS), acrylic acid (AA), and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) during growth of three microalgae: Prorocentrum micans, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, and Platymonas subcordiformis. The DMSP, AA, and DMS concentrations in culture media varied significantly among algal growth stages, with the highest concentrations in the late stationary growth stage or the senescent stage. In the stationary growth stage, the average DMSP concentration per cell in P. micans (0.066 5 pmol/cell) was 1.3 times that in G. oceanica (0.049 5 pmol/cell) and 20.2 times that in P. subcordiformis (0.003 29 pmol/cell). The average concentrations of AA were 0.044 6, 0.026 9, and 0.003 05 pmol/cell in P. micans, G. oceanica, and P. subcordiformi s, respectively, higher than the concentrations of DMS (0.272, 0.497, and 0.086 2 fmol/cell, respectively). There were significant positive correlations between cell density and AA, DMSP, and DMS concentrations. The ratios of DMS/AA and AA/(DMSP+AA) in the three algae differed significantly over the growth cycle. In all three microalgae, the DMS/AA ratios were less than 25% during the growth period, suggesting that the enzymatic cleavage pathway, which generates DMS, was not the main DMSP degradation pathway. The changes in the DMS/AA ratio indicated that there was a higher rate of enzymatic breakdown of DMSP in the early growth period and a lower rate during senescence. In all three microalgae, the AA/(DMSP+AA) ratio (degradation ratio of DMSP) decreased during the exponential growth phase, and then increased. The variations in these ratios can approximately indicate the cleavage mechanism of DMSP at different stages of algal growth.

  14. Improved homopolymer separation to enable the application of 1H NMR and HPLC for the determination of the reaction parameters of the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto starch.

    PubMed

    Witono, Judy R; Marsman, Jan Henk; Noordergraaf, Inge-Willem; Heeres, Hero J; Janssen, Leon P B M

    2013-04-01

    Graft copolymers of starch with acrylic acid are a promising green, bio based material with many potential applications. The grafting of acrylic acid onto cassava starch in an aqueous medium initiated by Fenton's reagent has been studied. Common grafting result parameters are add-on (yield) and graft efficiency (selectivity). However, the analysis of the reaction products and an accurate determination of these parameters stand or fall with a complete separation of the entangled but ungrafted homopolymer from the grafted product. Therefore, this separation is the core of the newly developed analytical procedure. An appropriate solvent has been selected with dedicated testing from the range methanol, ethanol, acetone, dioxane, 2-propanol, and 1-propanol. Acetone showed the best performance in many respects. It has a high dissolving power for the homopolymer, as well as the highest yield of precipitation for the starch derivatives and it is the most economical in use. After the successful separation, the precipitated graft copolymers could be analyzed quantitatively by nuclear magnetic resonance. The liquid with homopolymer and unreacted monomer was analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Proof of grafting has been found by FTIR and TGA analyses. The mass balance calculation shows a systematic error which appears fairly consistent: 18.0±2.5 wt%. This was used as a correction factor in the calculation of the grafting parameters but more importantly, it means that the method we developed has a high level of repeatability, in the order of 97%. PMID:23435285

  15. Advances in catalytic production of bio-based polyester monomer 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Junke; Tang, Yanjun; Lin, Lu; Long, Minnan

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the production and utilization of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) have become a hot research topic in catalyst field and polyester industry for its special chemical structure and a wide range of raw material source. FDCA is a potential replacement for the terephthalic acid monomer used in the production of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), which opens up a new pathway for obtaining biomass-based polyester to replace or partially replace petroleum based polyester. Here, we mainly reviewed the catalytic pathway for the synthesis of FDCA derived from lignocellulosic biomass or from the related downstream products, such as glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Moreover, the utilization of oxidation catalysts, the reaction mechanism, the existing limitations and unsolved challenges were also elaborated in detail. Therefore, we hope this mini review provides a helpful overview and insight to readers in this exciting research area. PMID:26076643

  16. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of organofluorine esters of acrylic, methacrylic, and maleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'din, G.S.; Averbakh, K.O.; Lavygin, I.A.; Nekrasova, L.A.

    1985-12-01

    The authors synthesize and study the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates. The organofluorine esters are colorless liquids; their composition and structure were confirmed by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The results of studies of the dependence of the density, surface tension, and viscosity of these compounds on temperature are presented. The results revealed the influence of the length of the fluorocarbon chain on the combination of the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates, and also provided a method for estimating certain thermophysical characteristics of such compounds without recourse to experimental measurements.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXYPROPYL METHYLCELLULOSE-GRAFT-POLY (ACRYLIC ACID/2-ACRYLAMIDO-2-METHYL-1-PROPANESULFONIC ACID) POLYMERIC NETWORK FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF CAPTOPRIL.

    PubMed

    Furqan Muhammad, Iqbal; Mahmood, Ahmad; Aysha, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    A super-absorbent hydrogel was developed by crosslinking of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) for controlled release drug delivery of captopril, a well known antihypertensive drug. Acrylic acid and AMPS were polymerized and crosslinked with HPMC by free radical polymerization, a widely used chemical crosslinking method. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (KPS) were added as cross-linker and initiator, respectively. The hydrogel formulation was loaded with captopril (as model drug). The concentration of captopril was monitored at 205 nm using UV spectrophotometer. Equilibrium swelling ratio was determined at pH 2, 4.5 and 7.4 to evaluate the pH responsiveness of the formed hydrogel. The super-absorbent hydrogels were evaluated by FTIR, SEM, XRD, and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA). The formation of new copolymeric network was determined by FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC analysis. The hydrogel formulations with acrylic acid and AMPS ratio of 4: 1 and lower amounts of crosslinker had shown maximum swelling. Moreover, higher release rate of captopril was observed at pH 7.4 than at pH 2, because of more swelling capacity of copolymer with increasing pH of the aqueous medium. The present research work confirms the development of a stable hydrogel comprising of HPMC with acrylic acid and AMPS. The prepared hydrogels exhibited pH sensitive behav-ior. This superabsorbent composite prepared could be a successful drug carrier for treating hypertension. PMID:27008813

  18. Differential changes in ornithine aminotransferase self-affinity produced by exposure to basic amino acids and increases in the intrinsic electronegativity of the enzyme monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W.E.; Stevens, F.J.; Edwards, J.J.; Peraino, C.

    1982-06-01

    In a previous study ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) was shown to exhibit concentration-dependent self-association in two stages (45,000 M/sub r/ monomers aggregate to form 140,000 to 150,000 M/sub r/ trimers; the trimers then aggregate to form higher-molecular-weight complexes). In an attempt to characterize further the molecular mechanisms involved in OAT aggregation, the present study examined the effects of basic amino acids and keto acids on the aggregation process. Results indicate that basic amino acids (ornithine and lysine) inhibit the association of monomers to form trimers, apparently by interaction with carboxyl groups on the surfaces of the monomers. The aggregation of trimers to form higher-molecular-weight assemblies is not affected by basic amino acids, and neither aggregation stage is affected by the keto acids, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, or oxaloacetate. Two different OAT preparations (one fresh, the other 18 months old) differed in aggregation characteristics; the older preparation showed reduced self-affinity at both aggregation stages, but both preparations had similar catalytic efficiencies. Electrophoretic studies indicated that the older preparation contained variants of the enzyme monomer with greater electronegativity than did the fresh preparation. These findings led to the conclusion that OAT purification exposes ionically labile but catalytically insignificant domains on the monomer surface, and the loss of positively charged groups from such regions diminishes the OAT aggregation potential.

  19. Synthesis of hollow silver spheres using poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ge, Chen; Ren, Min; Liu, Yumin; Jiang, Tingshun

    2010-02-01

    Hollow silver spheres were successfully prepared by reducing AgNO 3 with ascorbic acid and using negatively charged poly-(styrene-methyl acrylic acid) (PSA) spheres as templates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate as a stabilizer. Firstly, silver cations adsorbed on the surface of PSA spheres via electrostatic attraction between the carboxyl groups and silver cations were reduced in situ by ascorbic acid. The silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface of PSA spheres served as seeds for the further growth of silver shells. After that, extra amount of AgNO 3 and ascorbic acid solutions were added to form PSA/Ag composites with thick silver shells. In order to obtain compact silver shells, the as-prepared PSA/Ag composites were heated at 150 °C for 3 h. Then hollow silver spheres were prepared by dissolving PSA templates with tetrahydrofuran.

  20. Luminescent molecular hybrid system derived from 2-furancarboxylic acid and silylated monomer coordinated to rare earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yu-Long; Yan, Bing

    2006-04-01

    In this study, silica-based organic-inorganic hybrids were prepared by the sol-gel method. Tetraethoxysilane (abbreviated as TEOS) and a kind of monomer (abbreviated as FA-APES) derived from modified 2-furancarboxylic acid (abbreviated as FA) with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (abbreviated as APES) were used as the inorganic and organic fragments, respectively. Coordination reaction between lanthanides (europium and terbium ions) and sbnd C dbnd O group of the monomer happened simultaneously. And after days of aging process the resultant materials showed characteristic luminescence of lanthanides. The enhancement of luminescence can be seen by the comparison with simply doped lanthanide hybrid systems. And it can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart. IR, NMR, UV-vis absorption, low-temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy were applied to characterize and the above spectroscopic data revealed that the triplet state energy of organic ligand matches with the emissive energy level of lanthanides (especially of Tb 3+).

  1. Theoretical investigation on functional monomer and solvent selection for molecular imprinting of tramadol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Matheus C.; Nascimento, Clebio S.; Borges, Keyller B.

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this Letter was to study for the first time the interaction process of tramadol (TRM) with distinct functional monomers (FM) in the formation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP), using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). As result we were able to establish that the best MIP synthesis conditions are obtained with acrylic acid as FM in 1:3 molar ratio and with chloroform as solvent. This condition presented the lowest stabilization energy for the pre-polymerization complexes. Besides, the intermolecular hydrogen bonds found between the template molecule and functional monomers play a primary role to the complex stability.

  2. Poly(ethylene glycol)-co-methacrylamide-co-acrylic acid based nanogels for delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Behl, Gautam; Sikka, Manisha; Chhikara, Aruna; Chopra, Madhu

    2016-10-01

    Polymeric nanogels have been widely explored for their potential application as delivery carriers for cancer therapeutics. The ability of nanogels to encapsulate therapeutics by simple diffusion mechanism and the ease of their fabrication to impart target specificity in addition to their ability to get internalized into target cells make them good candidates for drug delivery. The present study aims to investigate the applicability of poly(ethylene glycol)-co-methacrylamide-co-acrylic acid (PMA)-based nanogels as a viable option for the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The nanogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization in an inverse mini-emulsion and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. DOX was physically incorporated into the nanogels (PMA-DOX) and the mechanism of its in vitro release was studied. TEM experiment revealed spherical morphology of nanogels and the hydrodynamic diameter of the neat nanogels was in the range of 160 ± 46.95 nm. The size of the nanogels increased from 235.1 ± 28.46 to 403.7 ± 89.89 nm with the increase in drug loading capacity from 4.68 ± 0.03 to 13.71 ± 0.01%. The sustained release of DOX was observed upto 80 h and the release rate decreased with increased loading capacity following anomalous release mechanism as indicated by the value of diffusion exponent (n = 0.64-0.75) obtained from Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Further, cytotoxicity evaluation of PMA-DOX nanogels on HeLa cells resulted in relatively higher efficacy (IC50~5.88 μg/mL) as compared to free DOX (IC50~7.24 μg/mL) thus demonstrating that the preparation is potentially a promising drug delivery carrier. PMID:27383582

  3. Chemically Cross-Linked Poly(acrylic-co-vinylsulfonic) Acid Hydrogel for the Delivery of Isosorbide Mononitrate

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mahvash; Khan, Ikram Ullah

    2013-01-01

    We report synthesis, characterization, and drug release attributes of a series of novel pH-sensitive poly(acrylic-co-vinylsulfonic) acid hydrogels. These hydrogels were prepared by employing free radical polymerization using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and benzyl peroxide (BPO) as cross-linker and initiator, respectively. Effect of acrylic acid (AA), polyvinylsulfonic acid (PVSA), and EGDMA on prepared hydrogels was investigated. All formulations showed higher swelling at high pHs and vice versa. Formulations containing higher content of AA and EGDMA show reduced swelling, but one with higher content of PVSA showed increased swelling. Hydrogel network was characterized by determining structural parameters and loaded with isosorbide mononitrate. FTIR confirmed absence of drug polymer interaction while DSC and TGA demonstrated molecular dispersion of drug in a thermally stable polymeric network. All the hydrogel formulations exhibited a pH dependent release of isosorbide mononitrate which was found to be directly proportional to pH of the medium and PVSA content and inversely proportional to the AA contents. Drug release data were fitted to various kinetics models. Results indicated that release of isosorbide mononitrate from poly(AA-co-VSA) hydrogels was non-Fickian and that the mechanism was diffusion-controlled. PMID:24250265

  4. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA.

  5. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  6. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  7. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/oligo (ethylene glycol) acrylate) terpolymeric hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, M.; Stamenic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-09-01

    Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers, it is possible to prepare P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels with dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of the obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of terpolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesised by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterised by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature range (20-70 °C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in the swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increased progressively with an increase in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl groups from IA occurs at pH>4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, peptides, proteins, etc.

  8. Radiation-grafting of thermo- and pH-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-acrylic acid) onto silicone rubber and polypropylene films for biomedical purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Caroline C.; Varca, Gustavo H. C.; Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Lopes, Patricia S.; Mathor, Monica B.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Bucio, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    This work focuses on the effects of gamma-ray irradiation conditions on the stimuli-responsiveness of polypropylene (PP) films and silicone (SR) rubber substrates grafted with N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) and acrylic acid (AAc). PP films and SR rubber were modified by simultaneous polymerization and grafting of NVCL and AAc, using pre-irradiation oxidative method at a dose rate of 12.23 kGy h-1 and doses ranging from 5 to 70 kGy. NVCL and AAc solutions (1/1, v/v) at 50% monomer concentration (v/v) in toluene were added to the sample substrates, degassed, sealed and heated at 60 and 70 °C for 12 h. After grafting, the samples were soaked in ethanol and distilled water for 24 h successively, followed by drying under vacuum. Samples were characterized by FTIR-ATR, DSC and swelling measurements. Critical points (pH critical or LCST) of grafts were obtained in a pH-environment (pH ranges from 2.2 to 9) and in a thermo-environment (temperature ranges from 22 to 50 °C). Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using fibroblast BALB/c 3T3 cells. The relationship between NVCL-co-AAc grafting and radiation dose was different for each substrate, PP and SR. At 50% NVCL/AAc concentration in toluene, grafting values were higher for SR than for PP. Despite the fact that PP-g-(NVCL-co-AAc) membrane presented a cytotoxic profile at the highest experimental concentration assayed, cytotoxicity evaluation revealed noncytotoxic profiles for the membranes synthesized highlighting their applications for biomedical purposes.

  9. Segregation of mass at the periphery of N -isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic-acid microgels at high temperatures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hyatt, John S.; Do, Changwoo; Hu, Xiaobo; Choi, Hong Sung; Kim, Jin Woong; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2015-09-29

    Here, we investigate poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) microgels randomly copolymerized with large mol % of protonated acrylic acid (AAc), finding that above the lower critical solution temperature the presence of the acid strongly disrupts pNIPAM's collapse, leading to unexpected new behavior at high temperatures. We see a dramatic increase in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius above the theoretical value for homogeneous spheres, and a corresponding increase of the network length scale, which we attribute to the presence of a heterogeneous polymer distribution that forms due to frustration of pNIPAM's coil-to-globule transition by the AAc. Finally, wemore » analyze this phenomenon using a Debye-Bueche-like scattering contribution as opposed to the Lorentzian term often used, interpreting the results in terms of mass segregation at the particle periphery.« less

  10. Segregation of mass at the periphery of N -isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic-acid microgels at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, John S.; Do, Changwoo; Hu, Xiaobo; Choi, Hong Sung; Kim, Jin Woong; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    We investigate poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) microgels randomly copolymerized with large mol % of protonated acrylic acid (AAc), finding that above the lower critical solution temperature the presence of the acid strongly disrupts pNIPAM's collapse, leading to unexpected new behavior at high temperatures. Specifically, we see a dramatic increase in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius above the theoretical value for homogeneous spheres, and a corresponding increase of the network length scale, which we attribute to the presence of a heterogeneous polymer distribution that forms due to frustration of pNIPAM's coil-to-globule transition by the AAc. We analyze this phenomenon using a Debye-Bueche-like scattering contribution as opposed to the Lorentzian term often used, interpreting the results in terms of mass segregation at the particle periphery.

  11. Epoxy monomers derived from tung oil fatty acids and its regulable thermosets cured in two synergistic ways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Zengshe; Zhang, Jinwen; Li, Shouhai; Li, Mei; Xia, Jianling; Zhou, Yonghong

    2014-03-10

    A novel biobased epoxy monomer with conjugated double bonds, glycidyl ester of eleostearic acid (GEEA) was synthesized from tung oil fatty acids and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were utilized to investigate the curing process of GEEA with dienophiles and anhydrides. DSC indicated that GEEA could cross-link with both dienophiles and anhydrides through Diels-Alder reaction and epoxy/anhydride ring-opening reaction. Furthermore, Diels-Alder cross-link was much more active than the ring-opening of epoxy and anhydride in the curing process. FT-IR also revealed that GEEA successively reacted with dienophiles and anhydrides in both cross-linking methods. Dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical tensile testing were used to study the thermal and mechanical properties of GEEA cured by maleic anhydride, nadic methyl anhydride and 1,1'-(methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide. Due to the independence between the curing agents, dienophile and anhydride, a series of thermosetting polymers with various properties could be obtained by adjusting the composition of these two curing agents. PMID:24484324

  12. Lewis pair polymerization by classical and frustrated Lewis pairs: acid, base and monomer scope and polymerization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuetao; Miyake, Garret M; John, Mallory G; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2012-08-14

    Classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (LPs) of the strong Lewis acid (LA) Al(C(6)F(5))(3) with several Lewis base (LB) classes have been found to exhibit exceptional activity in the Lewis pair polymerization (LPP) of conjugated polar alkenes such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) and γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γ-MMBL), leading to high molecular weight polymers, often with narrow molecular weight distributions. This study has investigated a large number of LPs, consisting of 11 LAs as well as 10 achiral and 4 chiral LBs, for LPP of 12 monomers of several different types. Although some more common LAs can also be utilized for LPP, Al(C(6)F(5))(3)-based LPs are far more active and effective than other LA-based LPs. On the other hand, several classes of LBs, when paired with Al(C(6)F(5))(3), can render highly active and effective LPP of MMA and γ-MMBL; such LBs include phosphines (e.g., P(t)Bu(3)), chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), and phosphazene superbases (e.g., P(4)-(t)Bu). The P(4)-(t)Bu/Al(C(6)F(5))(3) pair exhibits the highest activity of the LP series, with a remarkably high turn-over frequency of 9.6 × 10(4) h(-1) (0.125 mol% catalyst, 100% MMA conversion in 30 s, M(n) = 2.12 × 10(5) g mol(-1), PDI = 1.34). The polymers produced by LPs at RT are typically atactic (P(γ)MMBL with ∼47% mr) or syndio-rich (PMMA with ∼70-75% rr), but highly syndiotactic PMMA with rr ∼91% can be produced by chiral or achiral LPs at -78 °C. Mechanistic studies have identified and structurally characterized zwitterionic phosphonium and imidazolium enolaluminates as the active species of the current LPP system, which are formed by the reaction of the monomer·Al(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct with P(t)Bu(3) and NHC bases, respectively. Kinetic studies have revealed that the MMA polymerization by the (t)Bu(3)P/Al(C(6)F(5))(3) pair is zero-order in monomer concentration after an initial

  13. Detection of lactobacillic acid in low erucic rapeseed oil--A note of caution when quantifying cyclic fatty acid monomers in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Berdeaux, Olivier; Gregoire, Stéphane; Fournier, Cindie; Christie, William W; Lambelet, Pierre; Sébédio, Jean-Louis

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify an unknown component which has been detected during the analysis of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAMs) in low erucic acid rapeseed oils (LEAR). A sample of crude LEAR was transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and hydrogenated using PtO(2). The hydrogenated sample was fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the fraction containing the CFAMs transformed into picolinyl esters. Analysing these picolinyl derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the unknown product observed in LEAR is the 11,12-methylene-octadecanoic acid. This cyclic fatty acid was also found in crude LEAR and in the corresponding seeds but was not detected in crude soya and sunflower oils. As this acid is present in the same fraction as CFAMs, known to be formed during heat treatment, great care must therefore be taken for not including it when quantifying CFAMs. It is thus necessary to verify by mass spectrometry the structures of the CFAMs in the isolated cyclic fatty acid fraction prior to quantification. PMID:20654602

  14. Conformational, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of isophthalic acid (monomer and dimer structures) experimentally and by DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardak, F.; Karaca, C.; Bilgili, S.; Atac, A.; Mavis, T.; Asiri, A. M.; Karabacak, M.; Kose, E.

    2016-08-01

    Isophthalic acid (C6H4(CO2H)2) is a noteworthy organic compound widely used in coating and synthesis of resins and the production of commercially important polymers such as drink plastic bottles. The effects of isophthalic acid (IPA) on human health, toxicology, and biodegradability are the main focus of many researchers. Because structural and spectroscopic investigation of molecules provides a deep understanding of interactional behaviors of compounds, this study stands for exploring those features. Therefore, the spectroscopic, structural, electronic, and thermodynamical properties of IPA were thoroughly studied in this work experimentally using UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman and theoretically via DFT and TD-DFT calculations. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum in water was taken in the region 200-400 nm. The NMR chemical shifts (1H and 13C) were recorded in DMSO solution. The infrared and Raman spectra of the solid IPA were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm- 1 and 3500-50 cm- 1, respectively. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were performed at the level of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) in determination of geometrical structure, electronic structure analysis and normal mode. The 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were estimated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method was used to determine the total energy distribution (TED) to assign the vibrational modes accurately. Weak interactions such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Walls were analyzed via reduced density gradient (RDG) analysis in monomeric and dimeric forms. Furthermore, the excitation energies, density of state (DOS) diagram, thermodynamical properties, molecular electro-static potential (MEP), and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were obtained.

  15. Conformational, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of isophthalic acid (monomer and dimer structures) experimentally and by DFT.

    PubMed

    Bardak, F; Karaca, C; Bilgili, S; Atac, A; Mavis, T; Asiri, A M; Karabacak, M; Kose, E

    2016-08-01

    Isophthalic acid (C6H4(CO2H)2) is a noteworthy organic compound widely used in coating and synthesis of resins and the production of commercially important polymers such as drink plastic bottles. The effects of isophthalic acid (IPA) on human health, toxicology, and biodegradability are the main focus of many researchers. Because structural and spectroscopic investigation of molecules provides a deep understanding of interactional behaviors of compounds, this study stands for exploring those features. Therefore, the spectroscopic, structural, electronic, and thermodynamical properties of IPA were thoroughly studied in this work experimentally using UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman and theoretically via DFT and TD-DFT calculations. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum in water was taken in the region 200-400nm. The NMR chemical shifts ((1)H and (13)C) were recorded in DMSO solution. The infrared and Raman spectra of the solid IPA were recorded in the range of 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-50cm(-1), respectively. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were performed at the level of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) in determination of geometrical structure, electronic structure analysis and normal mode. The (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were estimated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method was used to determine the total energy distribution (TED) to assign the vibrational modes accurately. Weak interactions such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Walls were analyzed via reduced density gradient (RDG) analysis in monomeric and dimeric forms. Furthermore, the excitation energies, density of state (DOS) diagram, thermodynamical properties, molecular electro-static potential (MEP), and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were obtained. PMID:27107533

  16. Thermoresponsive hyperbranched copolymer with multi acrylate functionality for in situ cross-linkable hyaluronic acid composite semi-IPN hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yixiao; Hassan, Waqar; Zheng, Yu; Saeed, Aram Omer; Cao, Hongliang; Tai, Hongyun; Pandit, Abhay; Wang, Wenxin

    2012-01-01

    Thermoresponsive polymers have been widely used for in situ formed hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering as they are easy to handle and their shape can easily conform to tissue defects. However, non-covalent bonding and mechanical weakness of these hydrogels limit their applications. In this study, a physically and chemically in situ cross-linkable hydrogel system was developed from a novel thermoresponsive hyperbranched PEG based copolymer with multi acrylate functionality, which was synthesized via an 'one pot and one step' in situ deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical co-polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, M(n) = 258 g mol(-1)), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA, M(n )= 475 g mol(-1)) and (2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate (MEO(2)MA). This hyperbranched copolymer was tailored to have the lower critical solution temperature to form physical gelation around 37°C. Meanwhile, with high level of acrylate functionalities, a chemically cross-linked gel was formed from this copolymer using thiol functional cross-linker of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (QT) via thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Furthermore, a semi-interpenetrated polymer networks (semi-IPN) structure was developed by combining this polymer with hyaluronic acid (HA), leading to an in situ cross-linkable hydrogel with significantly increased porosity, enhanced swelling behavior and improved cell adhesion and viability both in 2D and 3D cell culture models. PMID:22143908

  17. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). 721.10526 Section 721.10526...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2,2'- hydrochloride (1:2)-initiated (generic). 721.10526 Section 721.10526...

  19. A new coordination mode of (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in copper complex: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Xin; Zhou, Pei; Zheng, Chunying; Li, Hui

    2015-05-15

    A copper complex ([Cu(py){sub 2}(L){sub 2}]·2CH{sub 3}OH){sub n} (HL=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) (1) with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and structurally analyzed by IR, elemental analysis, TGA and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. It is the first time to find that phenolic hydroxyl of L coordinates to Cu(II). Complex 1 exhibits 1D chain by a double-bridge of ligands, and the 3D supramolecular framework in complex 1 is constructed by π–π stacking interactions and van der Waals Contacts among the 1D chains. The magnetic properties of complex 1 have been studied. - Graphical abstract: A copper complex based on (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in a novel coordinated way was synthesized and a ferromagnetic exchange interactions between neighboring Cu(II) ions has be achieved. - Highlights: • A new copper complex with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and analyzed. • We find the phenolic hydroxyl of MCA ligand coordinates to metal ion firstly. • A ferromagnetic exchange interactions between Cu(II) ions has been achieved.

  20. Synthesis of perm-selective membranes by grafting acrylic acid into air-irradiated Teflon-FEP films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzi, Annick; Chapiro, Adolphe

    Grafting acrylic acid into air-irradiated Teflon-FEP films was investigated. Pre-irradiation doses ranged from 0.5 to 10 kGy. Grafting occurred at 45 or 60°C. Homopolymerization inhibitors, ferrous ions or methylene blue, were added to the system. It was found that after completion of the reaction, within 40-100 min, membranes were obtained with very low electric resistivities. The influence of added inhibitors, pre-irradiation dose and grafting temperature was studied. From the results it is concluded that the initiating centers in air-irradiated Teflon-FEP are, on the one hand, peroxides of structure POOP', in which P is a polymeric radical and Pprime; a small fragment, and on the other trapped PO .2 radicals. The latter only react after losing their oxygen. In the presence of polymerization inhibitors, initiation involves a redox process which reduces the overall activation energy.

  1. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  2. Complex Formation Between Lysozyme and Stabilized Micelles with a Mixed Poly(ethylene oxide)/Poly(acrylic acid) Shell.

    PubMed

    Karayianni, Maria; Gancheva, Valeria; Pispas, Stergios; Petrov, Petar

    2016-03-10

    The electrostatic complexation between lysozyme and stabilized polymeric micelles (SPMs) with a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or a mixed poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(acrylic acid) (PEO/PAA) shell (SPMs with a mixed shell, SPMMS) and a temperature-responsive poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) core was investigated by means of dynamic, static, and electrophoretic light scattering. The SPMs and different types of SPMMS used resulted from the self-assembly of PAA-PPO-PAA triblock copolymer chains, or PAA-PPO-PAA and PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer chain mixtures (with varying chain lengths and molar ratios) in aqueous solutions at pH 10 and the subsequent cross-linking of their PPO cores via loading and photo-cross-linking of pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETA). The solution behavior, structure and properties of the formed complexes at pH 7 and 0.01 M ionic strength, were studied as a function of the protein concentration in the solution (the concentration of the stabilized micelles was kept constant) or equivalently the ratio of the two components. The complexation process and properties of the complexes proved to be dependent on the protein concentration, while of particular interest was the effect of the structure of the shell of the SPMs on the stability/solubility of the complexes. Finally, the fluorescence and mid infrared spectroscopic investigation of the structure of the complexed protein showed that, although a small stretching of the protein molecules occurred in some cases, no protein denaturation takes place upon complexation. PMID:26881445

  3. Calcium Phosphate Mineralization in Cellulose Derivative/Poly(acrylic acid) Composites Having a Chiral Nematic Mesomorphic Structure.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Takuya; Katsumura, Ayaka; Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-14

    Calcium phosphate mineralization was conducted by using polymer composites of liquid-crystalline (ethyl)cellulose (EC) or (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a scaffolding medium for the inorganic deposition. The EC/PAA and HPC/PAA samples were prepared in colored film form from EC and HPC lyotropic liquid crystals of left-handed and right-handed chiral nematics, respectively, by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid as the main solvent component. The mineralization was allowed to proceed in a batchwise operation by soaking the liquid-crystalline films in an aqueous salt solution containing the relevant ions, Ca(2+) and HPO4(2-). The calcium phosphate-deposited EC/PAA and HPC/PAA composites (weight gain, typically 15-25% and 6-11%, respectively) retained the chiral nematic organization of the respective original handedness but exhibited selective light-reflection of longer wavelengths relative to that of the corresponding nonmineralized samples. From X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, it was deduced that the calcium and phosphorus were incorporated inside the polymer matrices in three forms: amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and a certain complex of PAA-Ca(2+). Dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetry revealed that the inorganic hybridization remarkably enhanced the thermal and mechanical performance of the optically functionalized cellulosic/synthetic polymer composites; however, the effect was more drastic in the EC/PAA series rather than the HPC/PAA series, reflecting the difference in the deposited mineral amount between the two. PMID:26536381

  4. Preparation and evaluation of MRI detectable poly (acrylic acid) microspheres loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transcatheter arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Qin, Xiao-Ya; Li, Zi-Yuan; Guo, Li-Ying; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Liu, Li-Si; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2016-09-25

    To monitor the spatial distribution of embolic particles inside the target tissues during and after embolization, blank poly (acrylic acid) microspheres (PMs) were initially prepared by inverse suspension polymerization method and then loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles by in situ precipitation method to obtain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detectable SPIO-loaded poly (acrylic acid) microspheres (SPMs). The loading of SPIO nanoparticles in SPMs was confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectrum, respectively. The results showed that SPMs exhibited excellent superparamagnetism and the SPIO embedded in SPMs were proved to be inverse spinel magnetite. The content of SPIO loaded in wet SPMs of subgroups of 100-300, 300-500, 500-700 and 700-900μm was measured to be 11.84±0.07, 10.20±0.05, 9.98±0.00 and 8.79±0.01mg/ml, corresponding to the weight percentage in freeze-dried SPMs to be 18.07±0.28%, 18.54±0.13%, 18.66±0.01% and 18.50±0.07%, respectively. The SPMs were spherical in shape, had smooth surface, and were within the size range of clinical demands for embolization. The compression tests indicated that SPMs were more rigid than PMs and commercially used Embospheres (P<0.01). The MRI detectability of SPMs was evaluated with the SPMs embedded in gel phantom in vitro and injected subcutaneously into the back of mice in vivo. Both the results demonstrated that the SPMs could provide distinct negative contrast enhancement and be sensitively detected by T2-weighted MR imaging. All the results show that SPMs are potential MRI detectable embolic microspheres for the future embolotherapy. PMID:27426106

  5. Facile one-pot preparation and functionalization of luminescent chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) microspheres based on polymer monomer pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun; Mao, Weiyong; Yang, Wuli; Liu, Changjia; Chen, Jiyao

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and robust approach to synthesize multifunctional organic/inorganic composite microspheres with chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) (CS-PMAA) shells and cadmium tellurium/iron oxide nanoparticle cores. Due to the strong electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged nanoparticles and the protonated CS polymers, the CS/nanoparticle complexes were utilized as templates for the subsequent polymerization of methacrylic acid. The resulting composite microspheres with luminescence and magnetic properties have regular morphologies and narrow size distributions. In contrast to previous reports, this route was based on a one-pot strategy without the aid of surfactants, organic solvent, or polymerizable ligands in aqueous solution. The encapsulated CdTe semiconductor nanocrystals inside the microspheres exhibited strong and stable photoluminescence properties in the pH range 5.0-11.0. When the pH was adjusted below 4, the photoluminescence decreased sharply and even quenched completely. However, the weakened fluorescence emission could be recovered to some degree upon an increase of pH above 5. Additionally, when both Fe3O4 and CdTe nanoparticles were encapsulated within CS-PMAA microspheres, the magnetic content of the microspheres could be efficiently controlled by tuning the feeding molar ratio of MAA monomers and glucosamine units of CS. From the preliminary attempts, it was found that the multifunctional microspheres as imaging agents could improve the rate and extent of cellular uptake under short-term exposure to an applied magnetic field, and so exhibit a great potential as bioactive molecule carriers.

  6. The Benzyl Ester Group of Amino Acid Monomers Enhances Substrate Affinity and Broadens the Substrate Specificity of the Enzyme Catalyst in Chemoenzymatic Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Tateishi, Ayaka; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-11

    The chemoenzymatic polymerization of amino acid monomers by proteases involves a two-step reaction: the formation of a covalent acyl-intermediate complex between the protease and the carboxyl ester group of the monomer and the subsequent deacylation of the complex by aminolysis to form a peptide bond. Although the initiation with the ester group of the monomer is an important step, the influence of the ester group on the polymerization has not been studied in detail. Herein, we studied the effect of the ester groups (methyl, ethyl, benzyl, and tert-butyl esters) of alanine and glycine on the synthesis of peptides using papain as the catalyst. Alanine and glycine were selected as monomers because of their substantially different affinities toward papain. The efficiency of the polymerization of alanine and glycine benzyl esters was much greater than that of the other esters. The benzyl ester group therefore allowed papain to equally polymerize alanine and glycine, even though the affinity of alanine toward papain is substantially higher. The characterization of the copolymers of alanine and glycine in terms of the secondary structure and thermal properties revealed that the thermal stability of the peptides depends on the amino acid composition and resultant secondary structure. The current results indicate that the nature of the ester group drastically affects the polymerization efficiency and broadens the substrate specificity of the protease. PMID:26620763

  7. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    PubMed

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue. PMID:24566021

  8. Behavior of Surface-Anchored Poly(acrylic acid) Brushes with Grafting Density Gradients on Solid Substrates: 1. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,T.; Gong, P.; Szleifer, I.; Vicek, P.; Subr, V.; Genzer, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe experiments pertaining to the formation of surface-anchored poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes with a gradual variation of the PAA grafting densities on flat surfaces and provide detailed analysis of their properties. The PAA brush gradients are generated by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by the 'grafting from' polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from these substrate-bound initiator centers, and finally converting the PtBA into PAA. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the wet thickness of the grafted PAA chains in aqueous solutions at three different pH values (4, 5.8, and 10) and a series of ionic strengths (IS). Our measurements reveal that at low grafting densities, s, the wet thickness of the PAA brush (H) remains relatively constant, the polymers are in the mushroom regime. Beyond a certain value of s, the macromolecules enter the brush regime, where H increases with increasing s. For a given s, H exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the IS. At large IS, the H is small because the charges along PAA are completely screened by the excess of the external salt. As IS decreases, the PAA enters the so-called salt brush (SB) regime, where H increases. At a certain value of IS, H reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The latter is a typical brush behavior in so-called osmotic brush (OB) regime. We provide detailed discussion of the behavior of the grafted PAA chains in the SB and OB regimes.

  9. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling. PMID:25847254

  10. Mechanical properties of a waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesive with a percolating poly(acrylic acid)-based diblock copolymer network: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Robert S; Morse, Andrew; Siband, Elodie; Dupin, Damien; Armes, Steven P; Keddie, Joseph L

    2015-06-15

    Copolymerizing an acrylic acid comonomer is often beneficial for the adhesive properties of waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). Here, we demonstrate a new strategy in which poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is distributed as a percolating network within a PSA film formed from a polymer colloid. A diblock copolymer composed of PAA and poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) blocks was synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and adsorbed onto soft acrylic latex particles prior to their film formation. The thin adsorbed shells on the particles create a percolating network that raises the elastic modulus, creep resistance and tensile strength of the final film. When the film formation occurs at pH 10, ionomeric crosslinking occurs, and high tack adhesion is obtained in combination with high creep resistance. The results show that the addition of an amphiphilic PAA-b-PBA diblock copolymer (2.0 wt.%) to a soft latex provides a simple yet effective means of adjusting the mechanical and adhesive properties of the resulting composite film. PMID:25706199

  11. Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters prepared in aqueous poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) solutions: a spectroscopic study of their excited state dynamics, size and local environment.

    PubMed

    Dandapat, Manika; Mandal, Debabrata

    2016-01-28

    Stable, fluorescent Ag nanoclusters were prepared in aqueous solutions of Na(+) salt of the carboxylate-rich polymer poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) under brief spells of UV irradiation. The nanoclusters were nearly spherical, with diameters within 1.90 ± 0.50 nm, but displayed a prominent red edge excitation shift (REES) of fluorescence upon exciting within the visible absorption band, indicating heterogeneity of energy level distributions. Spectroscopic studies revealed that irrespective of whether the nanoclusters are excited in their UV or visible absorption bands, their fluorescence always ensues from the same manifold of emissive states, with a broad range of fluorescence lifetimes from ∼150 fs to 1 ns. PMID:26700465

  12. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  13. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  14. Mechanism of poly(acrylic acid) acceleration of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin: implications for the design of novel heparin mimics.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Cheang, Kai I; Desai, Umesh R

    2005-08-11

    The bridging mechanism of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin is a dominant mechanism contributing a massive approximately 2500-fold acceleration in the reaction rate and is also a key reason for the clinical usage of heparin. Our recent study of the antithrombin-activating properties of a carboxylic acid-based polymer, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), demonstrated a surprisingly high acceleration in thrombin inhibition (Monien, B. H.; Desai, U. R. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1269). To better understand this interesting phenomenon, we have studied the mechanism of PAA-dependent acceleration in antithrombin inhibition of thrombin. Competitive binding studies with low-affinity heparin and a heparin tetrasaccharide suggest that PAA binds antithrombin in both the pentasaccharide- and the extended heparin-binding sites, and these results are corroborated by molecular modeling. The salt-dependence of the K(D) of the PAA-antithrombin interaction shows the formation of five ionic interactions. In contrast, the contribution of nonionic forces is miniscule, resulting in an interaction that is significantly weaker than that observed for heparins. A bell-shaped profile of the observed rate constant for antithrombin inhibition of thrombin as a function of PAA concentration was observed, suggesting that inhibition proceeds through the "bridging" mechanism. The knowledge gained in this mechanistic study highlights important rules for the rational design of orally available heparin mimics. PMID:16078853

  15. Poly(acrylic acid)/polyethylene glycol hygrogel prepared by using gamma-ray irradiation for mucosa adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Park, Jong-Seok; Shin, Jung-Woong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Deok-Won; Ahn, Sung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A buccal delivery system provides a much milder environment for drug delivery compared to an oral delivery which presents a hostile environment for drugs, especially proteins and polypeptides, owing to acid hydrolysis. Local delivery in an oral cavity has particular applications in the treatment of toothaches, periodontal disease, and bacterial infections. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-based hydrogels prepared using a chemical initiator have been attempted for a mucoadhesive system owing to their flexibility and excellent bioadhesion. In this experiment, PAA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were selected to prepare using a radiation process a bioadhesive hydrogel for adhesion to mucosal surfaces. PAA and PEG were dissolved in purified water to prepare a homogeneous PAA/PEG solution, and the solution was then irradiated using an electron beam at dose up to 70 kGy to make the hydrogels. Their physical properties, such as gel percent, swelling percent, and adhesive strength to mucosal surfaces, were investigated. In this experiment, various amounts of PEG were incorporated into the PAA to enhance the mucoadhesive property of the hydrogels. The effect of the molecular weight of PEG on the mucoadhesion was also examined.

  16. Rheology and interfacial properties of aqueous solutions of the diblock polyelectrolyte poly(styrene-block-acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimerling, Abigail

    In aqueous solutions diblock polyelectrolytes with amphiphilic character form aggregate structures, which affect physical properties such as viscosity, elasticity, surface tension, and film hydrophilicity. Potential applications for diblock polyelectrolyte solutions include coatings, inks, oil recovery agents, personal care products, and biomaterials. By varying the diblock polyelectrolyte and solution properties, the solutions can be tuned to meet the needs of particular applications. The research objective was to identify the influences of block length, pH, and ionic strength on the rheological and interfacial properties of poly(styrene- b-acrylic acid) (PS-PAA) solutions. Six polymers with varied PS and PAA block lengths were examined, all at 1.0 wt% in aqueous solutions. The hydrophobicity of the PS block causes the formation of spherical micelles in aqueous solutions. Increasing the solution pH ionizes the PAA block, which leads to an increase in micelle corona thickness due to repulsions between chains. Major trends observed in the rheological and interfacial properties can be understood in terms of expected changes in the micelle size and interfacial self-assembly with pH, ionic strength, and block length. Addition of NaOH was found to increase the solution pH and initially led to increases in solution viscosity, elasticity, surface tension, and film hydrophilicity. This effect was attributed to creation of larger micelles and greater inter-micellar repulsions as the PAA chain became more fully charged. However, when the concentration of NaOH exceeded a critical value, the solution viscosity, elasticity, and film hydrophilicity decreased. It is believed this was due to charge shielding by excess sodium ions, leading to shrinkage of the micelle corona and smaller micelles. Increasing the PS-PAA solution ionic strength by adding NaCl also provided charge shielding, as observed by decreases in solution viscosity and elasticity. Increasing the length of either

  17. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  18. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  19. Characterization and antimicrobial property of poly(acrylic acid) nanogel containing silver particle prepared by electron beam.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Bae; Park, Jong-Seok; Khil, Myung-Seob; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA). The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect. PMID:23708101

  20. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded silica-poly(acrylic acid) brushes for protein biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zheng, Yiqun; Kong, Rongmei; Xia, Lian; Qu, Fengli

    2016-01-15

    We report an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor designed for the detection of protein biomarkers using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded silica-poly(acrylic acid) brushes (SiO2-SPAABs) as labels. HRP could be efficiently and stably accommodated in the three-dimensional architecture of the SiO2-SPAABs and the SiO2-SPAABs-HRP exhibited high catalytic performance towards o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidation in the presence of H2O2, which resulted in significant differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) response change and color change. Using human IgG (HIgG) as a model analyte, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed. In particular, graphene oxide (GO) and SiO2-SPAABs-HRP were used to immobilize capture antibody (Ab1) and bind a layer of detection antibody (Ab2), respectively. The current biosensor exhibited a good linear response of HIgG from 100pg/mL to 100μg/mL with a detection limit of 50pg/mL (S/N=5). The sensitivity was 6.70-fold higher than the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The immunosensor results were validated through the detection of HIgG in serum samples. PMID:26342574

  1. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of poly(butylene succinate) composites with finely dispersed hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Sawako; Hotta, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradability and mechanical properties of aliphatic poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) films with finely dispersed hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were investigated. First, 3.5 wt% of PAA was chemically grafted onto the surface of the PBS films (surface-grafted PBS) by photo grafting polymerization, and then the grafted PAA was homogeneously and finely dispersed into PBS by dissolving the surface-grafted PBS into chloroform before mixing and drying to get solid PAA-dispersed PBS. Degradation of these modified PBS was investigated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and tensile testing. According to the GPC results, it was found that the PAA-dispersed PBS had intermediate biodegradability with the intermediate water intake, and the reaction constant of PAA-dispersed PBS was in between those of untreated PBS and surface-grafted PBS, in fact 25% higher and 17% lower, respectively. The experimental results presented that the biodegradability of PBS could be well controlled by the dispersion of PAA, possibly leading to the widespread use of PBS for biodegradable polymers.

  2. Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

  3. Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating network hydrogel by intrastromal implantation in rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Luo Luo; Vanchinathan, Vijay; Dalal, Roopa; Noolandi, Jaan; Waters, Dale J; Hartmann, Laura; Cochran, Jennifer R; Frank, Curtis W; Yu, Charles Q; Ta, Christopher N

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of a poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) (PEG/PAA) interpenetrating network hydrogel designed for artificial cornea in a rabbit model. PEG/PAA hydrogel measuring 6 mm in diameter was implanted in the corneal stroma of twelve rabbits. Stromal flaps were created with a microkeratome. Randomly, six rabbits were assigned to bear the implant for 2 months, two rabbits for 6 months, two rabbits for 9 months, one rabbit for 12 months, and one rabbit for 16 months. Rabbits were evaluated monthly. After the assigned period, eyes were enucleated, and corneas were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were clear corneas in three of six rabbits that had implantation of hydrogel for 2 months. In the six rabbits with implant for 6 months or longer, the corneas remained clear in four. There was a high rate of epithelial defect and corneal thinning in these six rabbits. One planned 9-month rabbit developed extrusion of implant at 4 months. The cornea remained clear in the 16-month rabbit but histology revealed epithelial in-growth. Intrastromal implantation of PEG/PAA resulted in a high rate of long-term complications. PMID:25778285

  4. Dually cross-linked single network poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties and water absorbency.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Liu, Yi-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Fu-Kuan; Zhang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Mei-Fang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties, based on a single network structure with dual cross-linking, are prepared by one-pot free radical polymerization. The network structure of the PAA hydrogels is composed of dual cross-linking: a dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains enabled by Fe(3+) ions, and a sparse covalent cross-linking enabled by a covalent cross-linker (Bis). Under deformation, the covalently cross-linked PAA chains remain intact to maintain their original configuration, while the Fe(3+)-enabled ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains is broken to dissipate energy and then recombined. It is found that the mechanical properties of the PAA hydrogels are significantly influenced by the contents of covalent cross-linkers, Fe(3+) ions and water, which can be adjusted within a substantial range and thus broaden the applications of the hydrogels. Meanwhile, the PAA hydrogels have excellent recoverability based on the dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking enabled by Fe(3+) ions. Moreover, the swelling capacity of the PAA hydrogels is as high as 1800 times in deionized water due to the synergistic effects of ionic and covalent cross-linkings. The combination of balanced mechanical properties, efficient recoverability, high swelling capacity and facile preparation provides a new method to obtain high-performance hydrogels. PMID:27230478

  5. Synthesis of silica coated zinc oxide–poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) matrix and its UV shielding evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Kim, Yu Jun; Gao, Haiyan; Yi, Dong Kee; An, Jeong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Well layer thickness controlled silica shell was made on ZnO nanoparticles. • PEAA, an interfacial agent is used to make nanocomposite–polymer matrix by twin-screw extruder. • Si-ZnO/PEAA matrix is highly stable and UV protective as compared to ZnO/PEAA matrix. • Nanoparticle embedded polymer matrix is suggested to make UV shielding fabrics with Nylon4. - Abstract: Silica coated zinc oxide nanoparticles (Si-ZnO NPs) (7 nm thick) were synthesized successfully and melt blended with poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEAA resin) to improving ultraviolet (UV) shielding of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). The photostability of both the ZnO NPs and Si-ZnO NPs were analyzed by the difference in photoluminescence (PL) and by methylene blue (MB) degradation. Photo-degradation studies confirmed that Si-ZnO NPs are highly photostable compared to ZnO NPs. The melt blended matrices were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy interfaced with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDX). The UV shielding property was analyzed from the transmittance spectra of UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy. The results confirmed fine dispersion of thick Si-ZnO NPs in the entire resin matrix. Moreover, the Si-ZnO/PEAA showed about 97% UV shielding properties than the ZnO/PEAA.

  6. Capture of Tumor Cells on Anti-EpCAM-Functionalized Poly(acrylic acid)-Coated Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Andree, Kiki C; Barradas, Ana M C; Nguyen, Ai T; Mentink, Anouk; Stojanovic, Ivan; Baggerman, Jacob; van Dalum, Joost; van Rijn, Cees J M; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2016-06-15

    The presence of tumor cells in blood is predictive of short survival in several cancers and their isolation and characterization can guide toward the use of more effective treatments. These circulating tumor cells (CTC) are, however, extremely rare and require a technology that is sufficiently sensitive and specific to identify CTC against a background of billions of blood cells. Immuno-capture of cells expressing the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) are frequently used to enrich CTC from blood. The choice of bio conjugation strategy and antibody clone is crucial for adequate cell capture but is poorly understood. In this study, we determined the binding affinity constants and epitope binding of the EpCAM antibodies VU1D-9, HO-3, EpAb3-5, and MJ-37 by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Glass surfaces were coated using a poly(acrylic acid) based coating and functionalized with anti-EpCAM antibodies. Binding of cells from the breast carcinoma cell line (SKBR-3) to the functionalized surfaces were compared. Although EpAb3-5 displayed the highest binding affinity HO-3 captured the highest amount of cells. Hence we report differences in the performance of the different antibodies and more importantly that the choice of antibody to capture CTC should be based on multiple assays. PMID:27187784

  7. Response of Swelling Behavior of Weak Branched Poly(ethylene imine)/Poly(acrylic acid) Polyelectrolyte Multilayers to Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuanqing; Weinheimer, Emily K; Ji, Xiang; Wiener, Clinton G; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2016-06-21

    Weak polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) prepared by the layer-by-layer technique have attracted a great deal of attention as smart responsive materials for biological and other applications in aqueous medium, but their dynamic behavior as a function of exposure to a wide temperature range is still not well understood. In this work, the thermally dependent swelling behavior of PEMs consisting of branched poly(ethylenimine) and poly(acrylic acid) is studied by temperature controlled in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Because of diffusion and interpenetration of polyelectrolytes during film deposition, the PEMs densify with increasing bilayer number, which further affects their water uptake behavior. Upon heating to temperatures below 60 °C, the worsened solvent quality of the PEM in water causes deswelling of the PEMs. However, once heated above this critical temperature, the hydrogen bonds within the PEMs are weakened, which allows for chain rearrangement within the film upon cooling, resulting in enhanced water uptake and increased film thickness. The current work provides fundamental insight into the unique dynamic behavior of weak polyelectrolyte multilayers in water at elevated temperatures. PMID:27232180

  8. Preparation and swelling behavior of a novel self-assembled β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-11-26

    A novel biodegradable β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate (CSA) hydrogel with a three-dimensional network structure was self-assembled by inverse suspension copolymerization. The CSA resin was pH sensitive and had good water absorption properties in pH 6-8 buffer solutions. At a β-CD:AA:SA mass ratio of 1:9:3 the CSA water absorbency was found to be 1403 g/g and the CSA hydrogel strength was 4.968 N. In 0.005-0.1 mol/L chloride salt and sulfate salt solutions the CSA water absorbencies increased as follows: NaCl>KCl>MgCl2>CaCl2>FeCl3, and Na2SO4>K2SO4>FeSO4>Al2(SO4)3, respectively. The release of water from the CSA hydrogel occurred slowly over 120 h. The biodegradation efficiency of the resin reached 85.3% for Lentinula edodes. The super water absorbency, good salt resistance and excellent water retention properties of CSA make it suitable for application as an agricultural water retention agent in saline soils. PMID:25256504

  9. Hysteretic memory in pH-response of water contact angle on poly(acrylic acid) brushes.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vivek; Harkin, Adrienne V; Robertson, Megan L; Conrad, Jacinta C

    2016-04-13

    We investigated the pH-dependent response of flat polyacid brushes of varying length and dispersity in the extended brush regime. Our model system consisted of poly(acrylic acid) brushes, which change from hydrophobic and neutral at low pH to hydrophilic and negatively charged at high pH, synthesized on silicon substrates using a grafting-from approach at constant grafting density. We observed three trends in the pH-response: first, the dry brush thickness increased as the pH was increased for brushes above a critical length, and this effect was magnified as the dispersity increased; second, the water contact angle measured at low pH was larger for brushes of greater dispersity; and third, brushes of sufficient dispersity exhibited hysteretic memory behavior in the pH-dependence of the contact angle, in which the contact angle upon increasing and decreasing pH differed. As a consequence, the pKa of the brushes measured upon increasing pH was consistently higher than that measured upon decreasing pH. The observed pH response is consistent with proposed changes in the conformation and charge distribution of the polyelectrolyte brushes that depend on the direction of pH change and the dispersity of the brushes. PMID:26979270

  10. Starch-g-Poly-(N, N-dimethyl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid): an efficient Cr (VI) ion binder.

    PubMed

    Kolya, Haradhan; Roy, Anirban; Tripathy, Tridib

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of Starch-g-(Poly N, N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) was carried out by solution polymerization technique using potassium perdisulfate (K(2)S(2)O(8)) as the initiator. The graft copolymer was characterized by measuring molecular weight, using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthetic graft copolymer was used for removal of hexavalent chromium ion [Cr (VI)] from its aqueous solution. Various operating variables affecting the metal sorption such as, the amount of adsorbent, solution pH, contact time, temperature and the Cr (VI) solution concentration were extensively investigated. FTIR and UV-VIS spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed to study the metal complexation. The adsorption data could be well described by the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm model which indicate a chemisorption process. Calculation of the various thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption was also done. The negative value of free energy change (ΔG°) indicates the spontaneous nature of the adsorption. PMID:25224290

  11. Highly hydrophilic ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder and film prepared by radiation grafting of acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglong.; Xu, Lu.; Li, Rong.; Pang, Lijuan.; Hu, Jiangtao.; Wang, Mouhua.; Wu, Guozhong.

    2016-09-01

    The surface properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are very important for its use in engineering or composites. In this work, hydrophilic UHMWPE powder and film were prepared by γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and further neutralization with sodium hydroxide solution. Variations in the chemical structure, grafting yield and hydrophilicity were investigated and compared. FT-IR and XPS analysis results showed that AA was successfully grafted onto UHMWPE powder and film; the powder was more suitable for the grafting reaction in 1 wt% AA solution than the film. Given a dose of 300 kGy, the grafting yield of AA was ∼5.7% for the powder but ∼0.8% for the film under identical conditions. Radiation grafting of a small amount of AA significantly improved the hydrophilicity of UHMWPE. The water contact angle of the UHMWPE-g-PAA powder with a grafting yield of AA at ∼5.7% decreased from 110.2° to 68.2°. Moreover, the grafting powder (UHMWPE-g-PAA) exhibited good dispersion ability in water.

  12. Poly(amide-graft-acrylate) interfacial compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Michael Perez

    Graft copolymers with segments of dissimilar chemistries have been shown to be useful in a variety of applications as surfactants, compatibilizers, impact modifiers, and surface modifiers. The most common route to well defined graft copolymers is through the use of macromonomers, polymers containing a reactive functionality and thus capable of further polymerization. However, the majority of the studies thus far have focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of reacting with vinyl monomers to form graft copolymers. This study focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of participating in condensation polymerizations. A chain transfer functionalization method was utilized. Cysteine was evaluated as a chain transfer agent for the synthesis of amino acid functionalized poly(acrylate) and poly(methacrylate) macromonomers. Low molar mass, functionalized macromonomers were produced. These macromonomers were proven to be capable of reacting with amide precursors to form poly(amide-g-acrylate) graft copolymers. Macromonomers and graft copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The second part of this research involved poly(dimethacrylate) dental restorative materials. Volumetric shrinkage during the cure of these resins results in a poor interface between the resin and the remaining tooth structure, limiting the lifetime of these materials. Cyclic anhydrides were incorporated into common monomer compositions used in dental applications. Volume expansion from the ring opening hydrolysis of these anhydrides was shown to be feasible. The modified dental resins were characterized by swelling, extraction and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and density measurements. Linear poLymers designed to model the crosslinked dental resins were

  13. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(vinyl alcohol) anchored maghemite nanoparticles designed for multi-stimuli triggered drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe; Debuigne, Antoine; de Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Mornet, Stéphane; Vander Elst, Luce; Laurent, Sophie; Labrugère, Christine; Duguet, Etienne; Jérôme, Christine

    2013-11-01

    Original core/corona nanoparticles composed of a maghemite core and a stimuli-responsive polymer coating made of poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(vinyl alcohol) macromolecules were fabricated for drug delivery system (DDS) application. This kind of DDS aims to combine the advantage of stimuli-responsive polymer coating, in order to regulate the drug release behaviours under different conditions and furthermore, improve the biocompatibility and in vivo circulation half-time of the maghemite nanoparticles. Drug loading capacity was evaluated with methylene blue (MB), a cationic model drug. The triggered release of MB was studied under various stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. Local heating generated under alternating magnetic field (AMF) application was studied, and remotely AMF-triggered release was also confirmed, while a mild heating-up of the release medium was observed. Furthermore, their potential application as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents was explored via relaxivity measurements and acquisition of T2-weighted images. Preliminary studies on the cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast-like L929 cell line and also their cellular uptake within human melanoma MEL-5 cell line were carried out. In conclusion, this kind of stimuli-responsive nanoparticles appears to be promising carriers for delivering drugs to some tumour sites or into cellular compartments with an acidic environment.Original core/corona nanoparticles composed of a maghemite core and a stimuli-responsive polymer coating made of poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(vinyl alcohol) macromolecules were fabricated for drug delivery system (DDS) application. This kind of DDS aims to combine the advantage of stimuli-responsive polymer coating, in order to regulate the drug release behaviours under different conditions and furthermore, improve the biocompatibility and in vivo circulation half-time of the maghemite nanoparticles. Drug loading capacity was evaluated with methylene

  15. ACUTE TOXICITY AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACRYLATES AND METHACRYLATES TO JUVENILE FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylate and methacrylate esters are reactive monomers that are used primarily in the synthesis of acrylic plastics and polymers. Ninety-six hour flow-through acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) using 6 acrylates and 6 methacrylates. Nin...

  16. Surgical rubber gloves impervious to methylmethacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Darre, E; Vedel, P

    1984-06-01

    Conventional surgical rubber gloves are permeable to the methylmethacrylate monomer (MMM) of acrylic bone cement. An in vitro technique was used which proved butyl rubber gloves, 0.48 mm thick, to be impervious to MMM. to avoid sensitization, butyl rubber gloves may be recommended to persons who are in contact with MMM. Such gloves should be worn by persons with known contact sensitization to MMM. PMID:6741470

  17. Self-assembled poly(ethylene glycol)-co-acrylic acid microgels to inhibit bacterial colonization of synthetic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qichen; Uzunoglu, Emel; Wu, Yong; Libera, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    We explored the use of self-assembled microgels to inhibit the bacterial colonization of synthetic surfaces both by modulating surface cell adhesiveness at length scales comparable to bacterial dimensions (∼1 μm) and by locally storing/releasing an antimicrobial. Poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] and poly(ethylene glycol)-co-acrylic acid [PEG-AA] microgels were synthesized by suspension photopolymerization. Consistent with macroscopic gels, a pH dependence of both zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter was observed in AA-containing microgels but not in pure PEG microgels. The microgels were electrostatically deposited onto poly(l-lysine) (PLL) primed silicon to form submonolayer surface coatings. The microgel surface density could be controlled via the deposition time and the microgel concentration in the parent suspension. In addition to their intrinsic antifouling properties, after deposition, the microgels could be loaded with a cationic antimicrobial peptide (L5) because of favorable electrostatic interactions. Loading was significantly higher in PEG-AA microgels than in pure PEG microgels. The modification of PLL-primed Si by unloaded PEG-AA microgels reduced the short-term (6 h) S. epidermidis surface colonization by a factor of 2, and the degree of inhibition increased when the average spacing between microgels was reduced. Postdeposition L5 peptide loading into microgels further reduced bacterial colonization to the extent that, after 10 h of S. epidermidis culture in tryptic soy broth, the colonization of L5-loaded PEG-AA microgel-modified Si was comparable to the very small level of colonization observed on macroscopic PEG gel controls. The fact that these microgels can be deposited by a nonline-of-sight self-assembly process and hinder bacterial colonization opens the possibility of modifying the surfaces of topographically complex biomedical devices and reduces the rate of biomaterial-associated infection. PMID:22519439

  18. Nanoclays reinforced glass ionomer cements: dispersion and interaction of polymer grade (PG) montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Fareed, Muhammad A; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite nanoclays (PGV and PGN) were dispersed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) for utilization as reinforcing filler in glass ionomer cements (GICs). Chemical and physical interaction of PAA and nanoclay (PGV and PGN) was studied. PAA–PGV and PAA–PGN solutions were prepared in different weight percent loadings of PGV and PGN nanoclay (0.5-8.0 wt%) via exfoliation-adsorption method. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD results of PAA–PGN demonstrated that the interlayer space expanded from 12.83 to 16.03 Å indicating intercalation whereas the absence of the peak at d(001) in PAA–PGV indicated exfoliation. XPS scans of PGV and PGN nanoclays depicted the main peak of O 1s photoelectron due to Si–O–M (M = Mg, Al, Fe) whereas, Si–O–Al linkages were identified by Si 2p or Si 2s and Al 2p or Al 2s peaks. The disappearance of the Na peak confirmed that PAA molecules exchanged sodium ions present on surface of silicate layers and significantly reduced the electrostatic van-der-Waals forces between silicate plates resulting in intercalation or exfoliation. FTIR spectra of PAA–nanoclay suspensions demonstrated the presence of a new peak at 1,019 cm(-1) associated with Si–O– stretching vibrations which increased with increasing nanoclays concentration. Information concerning the dispersion of nanoclay in PAA aqueous solutions, chemical reaction and increase interlayer space in montmorillonite nanoclay is particularly useful regarding dispersion and reinforcement of nanoclay in PAA. PMID:24077996

  19. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites.

  20. The Chemical and Physical Properties of Poly(ε-caprolactone) Scaffolds Functionalised with Poly(vinyl phosphonic acid-co-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Bassi, A K; Gough, J E; Zakikhani, M; Downes, S

    2011-01-01

    There is a clinical need for a synthetic alternative to bone graft substitute (BGS) derived from demineralised bone matrix. We report the electrospinning of Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to form a 3-dimensional scaffold for use as a synthetic BGS. Additionally, we have used Poly(vinyl phosphonic acid-co-acrylic acid) (PVPA) to improve bone formation. Fibres were formed using a 10% w/v PCL/acetone solution. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the electrospinning process had no effect on the functional groups present in the resulting structure. The electrospun scaffolds were coated with PVPA (PCL/PVPA), and characterised. The stability of the PVPA coating after immersion in culture medium was assessed over 21 days. There was rapid release of the coating until day 2, after which the coating became stable. The wettability of the PCL scaffolds improved significantly, from 123.3 ± 10.8° to 43.3 ± 1.2° after functionalisation with PVPA. The compressive strength of the PCL/PVPA scaffolds (72 MPa) was significantly higher to that of the PCL scaffold (14 MPa), and an intermediate between trabecular and cortical bone (7 MPa and 170 MPa, resp.). The study has demonstrated that the PCL/PVPA scaffold has the desired chemical and biomechanical characteristics required for a material designed to be used as a BGS. PMID:22073379

  1. The Chemical and Physical Properties of Poly(ε-caprolactone) Scaffolds Functionalised with Poly(vinyl phosphonic acid-co-acrylic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, A. K.; Gough, J. E.; Zakikhani, M.; Downes, S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a clinical need for a synthetic alternative to bone graft substitute (BGS) derived from demineralised bone matrix. We report the electrospinning of Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to form a 3-dimensional scaffold for use as a synthetic BGS. Additionally, we have used Poly(vinyl phosphonic acid-co-acrylic acid) (PVPA) to improve bone formation. Fibres were formed using a 10% w/v PCL/acetone solution. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the electrospinning process had no effect on the functional groups present in the resulting structure. The electrospun scaffolds were coated with PVPA (PCL/PVPA), and characterised. The stability of the PVPA coating after immersion in culture medium was assessed over 21 days. There was rapid release of the coating until day 2, after which the coating became stable. The wettability of the PCL scaffolds improved significantly, from 123.3 ± 10.8° to 43.3 ± 1.2° after functionalisation with PVPA. The compressive strength of the PCL/PVPA scaffolds (72 MPa) was significantly higher to that of the PCL scaffold (14 MPa), and an intermediate between trabecular and cortical bone (7 MPa and 170 MPa, resp.). The study has demonstrated that the PCL/PVPA scaffold has the desired chemical and biomechanical characteristics required for a material designed to be used as a BGS. PMID:22073379

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Adsorption of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(methacrylic acid) on Dodecyltrimethylammonium Chloride Micelle in Water: Effect of Charge Density.

    PubMed

    Sulatha, Muralidharan S; Natarajan, Upendra

    2015-09-24

    We have investigated the interaction of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTA) micelle with weak polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid). Anionic as well as un-ionized forms of the polyelectrolytes were studied. Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes were formed within 5-11 ns of the simulation time and were found to be stable. Association is driven purely by electrostatic interactions for anionic chains whereas dispersion interactions also play a dominant role in the case of un-ionized chains. Surfactant headgroup nitrogen atoms are in close contact with the carboxylic oxygens of the polyelectrolyte chain at a distance of 0.35 nm. In the complexes, the polyelectrolyte chains are adsorbed on to the hydrophilic micellar surface and do not penetrate into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Polyacrylate chain shows higher affinity for complex formation with DoTA as compared to polymethacrylate chain. Anionic polyelectrolyte chains show higher interaction strength as compared to corresponding un-ionized chains. Anionic chains act as polymeric counterion in the complexes, resulting in the displacement of counterions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) into the bulk solution. Anionic chains show distinct shrinkage upon adsorption onto the micelle. Detailed information about the microscopic structure and binding characteristics of these complexes is in agreement with available experimental literature. PMID:26355463

  3. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm(-1). These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future. PMID:26895081

  4. Preparation of Poly Acrylic Acid-Poly Acrylamide Composite Nanogels by Radiation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbaniazar, Parisa; Sepehrianazar, Amir; Eskandani, Morteza; Nabi-Meibodi, Mohsen; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nanogel, a nanoparticle prepared from a cross-linked hydrophilic polymer network, has many biomedical applications. A radiation technique has recently been introduced as one of the appropriate methods for the preparation of polymeric nanogels due to its additive-free initiation and easy control procedure. Methods: We have investigated the formation of nano-sized polymeric gels, based on the radiation-induced inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking of the inter-polymer complex (IPC) of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and polyacrylic acide (PAAc). Results: The results indicated that the prepared polymeric complex composed of PAAm and PAAc was converted into nanogel by irradiation under different doses (1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy). This was due to inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking at the range of 446-930 nm as characterized by the photon correlation spectroscopy method. Increasing the irradiation dose reduced the size of nanoparticles to 3 kGy; however, the higher doses increased the size and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated the nanogel formation in the reported size by particle size and showed the microcapsule structure of the prepared nanogels. Biocompatibility of nanogels were assessed and proved by MTT assay. Conclusion: It was concluded that low dose irradiation can be successfully applied for nanometre-ranged hydrogel. PMID:26236667

  5. Self-healing multilayer polyelectrolyte composite film with chitosan and poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanxi; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-11-21

    If self-healing materials can be prepared via simple technology and methods using nontoxic materials, this would be a great step forward in the creation of environmentally friendly self-healing materials. In this paper, the specific structural parameters of the various hydrogen bonds between chitosan (CS) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were calculated. Then, multilayer polyelectrolyte films were fabricated with CS and PAA based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technology at different pH values. The possible influence of pH on the (CS/PAA) × 30 multilayer polyelectrolyte film was investigated. The results show that the interactions between CS and PAA, swelling capacity, microstructure, wettability, and self-healing ability are all governed by the pH of the CS solution. When the pH value of the CS solution is 3.0, the prepared multilayer polyelectrolyte film (CS3.0/PAA2.8) × 30 has fine-tuned interactions, a network-like structure, good swelling ability, good hydrophilicity, and excellent self-healing ability. This promises to greatly widen the future applications of environmentally friendly materials and bio-materials. PMID:26364567

  6. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm-1. These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future.

  7. New polymer for 157-nm single-layer resist based on fluorine-containing acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Endo, Koutaro; Komano, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Toshimasa

    2001-08-01

    We are reporting on the development of acryl polymer based on novel methacrylate and acrylate monomers with various trifluoromethyl groups for the application to 157nm chemically amplified positive-tone resists. The (alpha) - trifluoromethylation of the alkyl ester in methacrylate or acrylate could employ the reduction of acrylpolymer absorbance at 157nm by spectra analysis with the VUV-200 spectrophotometer by JASCO. Although the trifluoromethyl groups could employ the reduction of base polymer absorbance at 157nm, the homopolymers have issued weak etch resistance as a photoresist base polymer. To take account of this issue, we have developed a novel monomer, trifluoromethyl- iso-adamantylmethacrylate (TFIAdMA) and a new co-polymer system with the combination of fluorinated methacrylate derivatives and substituted p-hydroxystyrene. The absorption coefficient of poly(p-tert-butoxystyren-co- hexafluoro-tert-butyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) incicated to be less than 3 micrometers -1 at 157nm. Patterning results were obtained with a 157nm contact exposure system of VUVES-4500 by LTJ. One of the experimental resists, based on a particular polymer ratio and photo acid generator, has clearly achieved 180nm line and space pattern resolution. At 140nm resist film thickness, the sensitivity was 31 mJ/cm2 when using 0,26N tetrametylammonium hydroxide surfactant type developer.

  8. Extending framework based on the linear coordination polymers: Alternative chains containing lanthanum ion and acrylic acid ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui . E-mail: lihui@bit.edu.cn; Guo Ming; Tian Hong; He Feiyue; Lee, G.-H.; Peng, S.-M.

    2006-11-15

    One-dimensional alternative chains of two lanthanum complexes: [La(L{sup 1}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (L{sup 1}=anion of {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid ) 1 and [La(L{sup 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (L{sup 2}=anion of trans-3-(4-methyl-benzoyl)-acrylic acid) 2 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C{sub 31}H{sub 36}LaN{sub 3}O{sub 17}, triclinic, P-1, a=9.8279(4)A, b=11.8278(5)A, c=17.8730(7)A, {alpha}=72.7960(10){sup o}, {beta}=83.3820(10){sup o}, {gamma}=67.1650(10)-bar , Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0377, wR{sub 2}=0.0746; for 2: C{sub 33}H{sub 37}LaO{sub 14}, triclinic, P-1, a=8.7174(5)A, b=9.9377(5)A, c=21.153(2)A, {alpha}=81.145(2){sup o}, {beta}=87.591(2){sup o}, {gamma}=67.345(5){sup o}, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0869, wR{sub 2}=0.220. 1 is a rare example of the alternative chain constructed by syn-syn and anti-syn coordination mode of carboxylato ligand arranged along the chain alternatively. La(III) ions in 2 are linked by two {eta}{sup 3}-O bridges and four bridges (two {eta}{sup 2}-O and two {eta}{sup 3}-O) alternatively. Both of the linear coordination polymers grow into two- and three-dimensional networks by packing through extending hydrogen-bond network directed by ligands.

  9. Superabsorbent hydrogels via graft polymerization of acrylic acid from chitosan-cellulose hybrid and their potential in controlled release of soil nutrients.

    PubMed

    Essawy, Hisham A; Ghazy, Mohamed B M; El-Hai, Farag Abd; Mohamed, Magdy F

    2016-08-01

    Superabsorbent polymers fabricated via grafting polymerization of acrylic acid from chitosan (CTS) yields materials that suffer from poor mechanical strength. Hybridization of chitosan with cellulose (Cell) via chemical bonding using thiourea formaldehyde resin increases the flexibility of the produced hybrid (CTS/Cell). The hybridization process and post graft polymerization of acrylic acid was followed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Also, the obtained structures were homogeneous and exhibited uniform surface as could be shown from imaging with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thus, the polymers derived from the grafting of polyacrylic acid from (CTS/Cell) gave rise to much more mechanically robust structures ((CTS/Cell)-g-PAA) that bear wide range of pH response due to presence of chitosan and polyacrylic acid in one homogeneous entity. Additionally, the obtained structures possessed greater water absorbency 390, 39.5g/g in distilled water and saline (0.9wt.% NaCl solution), respectively, and enhanced retention potential even at elevated temperatures as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This could be explained by the high grafting efficiency (GE%), 86.4%, and grafting yield (GY%), 750%. The new superabsorbent polymers proved to be very efficient devices for controlled release of fertilizers into the soil which expands their use in agriculture and horticultural applications. PMID:27126169

  10. Folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel for site specific delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The hydrogel based system is found to be rarely reported for the delivery of hydrophobic drug due to the incompatibility of hydrophilicity of the polymer network and the hydrophobicity of drug. This problem can be solved by preparing semi-interpenetrating network of cross-linked polymer for tuning the hydrophilicity so as to entrap the hydrophobic drugs. The current study is to develop a folic acid conjugated cross-linked pH sensitive, biocompatible polymeric hydrogel to achieve a site specific drug delivery. For that, we have synthesized a folic acid conjugated PEG cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel and investigated its loading and release of curcumin. The formed polymer hydrogel was then conjugated with folic acid for the site specific delivery of curcumin to cancer cells and then further characterized and conducted the cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). Results In this study, we synthesized folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs to the cancer site. Poly (ethyleneglycol) (PEG) diacrylate cross-linked acrylic polymer (PAA) was prepared via inverse emulsion polymerization technique and later conjugated it with folic acid (FA-CLAP). Hydrophobic drug curcumin is entrapped into it and investigated the entrapment efficiency. Characterization of synthesized hydogel was done by using Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Polymerization and folate conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The release kinetics of drug from the entrapped form was studied which showed initial burst release followed by sustained release due to swelling and increased cross-linking. In vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were conducted in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Conclusions Results showed that curcumin entrapped folate conjugated cross-linked acrylic

  11. TiO2 supported over porous silica photocatalysts for pesticide degradation using solar light: Part 2. Silica prepared using acrylic acid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mangalampalli V Phanikrishna; Kumari, Valluri Durga; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju

    2010-03-15

    An acrylic acid emulsion mixture is used for synthesis of novel porous silica (E-Si) material. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar light irradiation for isoproturon (herbicide) degradation is drastically increased when dispersed over E-Si support using solid state dispersion (SSD) technique. The composite material is characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-vis DRS, SEM and TEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the composite catalysts are evaluated for different parameters. The 5 wt% TiO2/E-Si is found to be highly active for isoproturon degradation. PMID:19962829

  12. The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

  13. Directed self-assembly of poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers for sub-20nm pitch patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Lawson, Richard A.; Yeh, Wei-Ming; Jarnagin, Nathan D.; Peters, Andrew; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2012-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is a promising technology for extending the patterning capability of current lithographic exposure tools. For example, production of sub-40 nm pitch features using 193nm exposure technologies is conceivably possible using DSA methods without relying on time consuming, challenging, and expensive multiple patterning schemes. Significant recent work has focused on demonstration of the ability to produce large areas of regular grating structures with low numbers of defects using self-assembly of poly(styrene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers (PS-b-PMMA). While these recent results are promising and have shown the ability to print pitches approaching 20 nm using DSA, the ability to advance to even smaller pitches will be dependent upon the ability to develop new block copolymers with higher χ values and the associated alignment and block removal processes required to achieve successful DSA with these new materials. This paper reports on work focused on identifying higher χ block copolymers and their associated DSA processes for sub-20 nm pitch patterning. In this work, DSA using polystyrene-b-polyacid materials has been explored. Specifically, it is shown that poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (PS-b-PAA) is one promising material for achieving substantially smaller pitch patterns than those possible with PS-b-PMMA while still utilizing simple hydrocarbon polymers. In fact, it is anticipated that much of the learning that has been done with the PS-b-PMMA system, such as development of highly selective plasma etch block removal procedures, can be directly leveraged or transferred to the PS-b-PAA system. Acetone vapor annealing of PS-b-PAA (Mw=16,000 g/mol with 50:50 mole ratio of PS:PAA) and its self-assembly into a lamellar morphology is demonstrated to generate a pattern pitch size (L0) of 21 nm. The χ value for PS-b-PAA was estimated from fingerprint pattern pitch data to be approximately 0.18 which

  14. Curcumin delivery from poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hollow microparticles prevents dopamine-induced toxicity in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Tzankova, Virginia; Petrov, Petar; Laouani, Mohamed; Halacheva, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    The potential of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-AA) copolymers to form hollow particles and their further formulation as curcumin delivery system have been explored. The particles were functionalized by crosslinking the acrylic acid groups via bis-amide formation with either cystamine (CYS) or 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP) which simultaneously incorporated reversibility due to the presence of disulfide bonds within the crosslinker. Optical micrographs showed the formation of spherical hollow microparticles with a size ranging from 1 to 7 μm. Curcumin was loaded by incubation of its ethanol solution with aqueous dispersions of the cross-linked particles and subsequent evaporation of the ethanol. Higher loading was observed in the microparticles with higher content of hydrophobic PMMA units indicating its influence upon the loading of hydrophobic molecules such as curcumin. The in vitro release studies in a phosphate buffer showed no initial burst effect and sustained release of curcumin that correlated with the swelling of the particles under these conditions. The capacity of encapsulated and free curcumin to protect rat brain synaptosomes against dopamine-induced neurotoxicity was examined. The encapsulated curcumin showed greater protective effects in rat brain synaptosomes as measured by synaptosomal viability and increased intracellular levels of glutathione. PMID:25839414

  15. Synthesis of comb type and semi-interpenetrating networks of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester and poly (acrylic acid) for Cu (II) immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2010-08-01

    Graft copolymer hydrogels and semi-interpenetrating networks (s-IPN) of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe) and poly (acrylic acid) (PAAc) were synthesized in methanol solutions, by ionizing radiation (γ rays from a Co 60 source at room temperature). These systems are thermo and pH-sensitive and the pH sensitivity increases from acidic to basic solutions. The Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST), due to presence of poly (acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) (PA-ProOMe) has been found between 18 and 20 °C and an unexpected Upper Critical Solution Temperature (UCST) due to poly acrylic acid (PAAc) has been found between 21 and 22 °C. Preliminary studies on the immobilization of Cu 2+ for both hydrogels were done at several pH values at room temperature. Other techniques employed to characterize the comb type hydrogels and sIPN included scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and infrared (FTIR-ATR).

  16. A novel positively charged achiral co-monomer for β-cyclodextrin monolithic stationary phase: Improved chiral separation of acidic compounds using capillary electrochromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, William; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented here demonstrates the incorporation of vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium (VBTA) as a novel positively charged achiral co-monomer to a glycidyl methacrylate-beta cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD) based monolith, providing anion exchange sites with reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF) for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The monolithic phases, GMA/β-CD-VBTA and GMA/β-CD (without co-monomer) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, pressure drop/flow-rate curves and nitrogen adsorption analysis. After optimizing the stationary phase and mobile phase parameters, chiral separations of 41 pairs of structurally diverse anionic chiral analytes were compared individually using the GMA/β-CD-VBTA and GMA/β-CD monolithic columns. The GMA/β-CD-VBTA monolith chiral stationary phase separated significantly more acidic compounds compared to the GMA/β-CD column. To-date there has been limited work in the development of chiral monolithic column for CEC-mass spectrometry (MS). Because of good electrodriven flow characteristics, which allow the column to maintain a stable current in the absence of outlet vial, GMA/β-CD-VBTA column was successfully coupled to single quadrupole mass spectrometer for CEC-MS of several chiral test compounds. In addition, the same monolithic CEC column when coupled to a triple quadrupole MS instrument, two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity was observed compared to a single quadrupole MS instrument. PMID:23062876

  17. Standard free energy of the equilibrium between the trans-monomer and the cyclic-dimer of acetic acid in the gas phase from infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goubet, Manuel; Soulard, Pascale; Pirali, Olivier; Asselin, Pierre; Réal, Florent; Gruet, Sébastien; Huet, Thérèse R; Roy, Pascale; Georges, Robert

    2015-03-21

    Survey jet-cooled spectra of acetic acid have been recorded in the infrared region (200-4000 cm(-1)) over a wide range of expansion conditions. From the variations of the relative intensities of the signals, vibrational transitions have been assigned unambiguously to the trans-monomer and cyclic-dimer. The IR-active fundamental frequencies have been determined at the instrumental accuracy of 0.5 cm(-1). This analysis of the jet-cooled spectra supported by electronic structure calculations permitted us to characterize the trans-monomer/cyclic-dimer equilibrium. From static cell spectra at 298 K, variations of the molar fractions ratio as a function of the total pressure were used to estimate the equilibrium constant and the Gibbs free energy of dimerization at 298 K. The very good agreement with the literature data shows that the present method is able to produce, from a single study, a free energy value as reliable as the one obtained from a large collection of data. In addition, the semi-empirical free energy value was used to estimate the accuracy of electronic structure calculations and in turn the accuracy of the derived useful information such as the dissociation energy of the complex (i.e. the strength of the hydrogen bonds) or the relative energies within the conformational landscape. PMID:25704312

  18. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation. PMID:27410383

  19. Adsorption mechanism and dispersion efficiency of three anionic additives [poly(acrylic acid), poly(styrene sulfonate) and HEDP] on zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Dange, C; Phan, T N T; André, V; Rieger, J; Persello, J; Foissy, A

    2007-11-01

    Adsorption on ZnO of sodium poly(acrylate) (PAA), sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and a monomer surfactant [hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP)] was investigated in suspensions initially equilibrated at pH 7. Results demonstrate interplay in the adsorption mechanism between zinc complexation, salt precipitation, and ZnO dissolution. In the case of PAA, the adsorption isotherm exhibits a maximum attributed to the precipitation of zinc polyacrylate. PSS and HEDP formed high-affinity adsorption isotherms, but the plateau adsorption of HEDP was significantly lower than that of PSS. The adsorption isotherm of each additive is divided into two areas. At low additive concentration (high zinc/additive ratio), the total zinc concentration in the solution decreased and the pH increased upon addition. At a higher additive ratio, zinc concentration and pH increased with the organic concentration. The increase in pH is due to the displacement of hydroxyl ions from the surface and the increase in zinc concentration results from the dissolution of ZnO due to the complexation of zinc ions by the organics. The stability of the ZnO dispersions was investigated by measurement of the particle size distribution after addition of various amounts of polymers. The three additives stabilized the ZnO dispersions efficiently once full surface coverage was reached. PMID:17720181

  20. Synthesis of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres by using polyacrylic acid coated iron phosphate nanoparticles derived from iron(III) acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Yan-Bing; Chu, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhaojun; Li, Baohua; He, Jianfu; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4 /C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performance are synthesized from iron phosphate/polyacrylic acid (FePO4 /PAA) nanoparticles. Iron(III) acrylate is used as a precursor for both the iron and carbon sources. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a coprecipitation reaction. The byproduct, acrylic acid ions, is polymerized in situ to form a uniform PAA layer on the surface of the FePO4 nanoparticles. The as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with sizes of 40-50 nm. The nanoparticles are fully coated with a thin, uniform carbon layer derived from the decomposition of the PAA layer. The uniform carbon-coating layer cooperates with interstitial and boundary carbon derived from sucrose successfully to construct an excellent interconnecting conductive network in the microspheres. As a result of the unique structure, the as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres display both high electronic and ionic conductivities, which contribute to their high rate performance (162.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.1C and 126.1 mAh g(-1) at 5C) and excellent cycling stability (97.1% of capacity retention after 500 cycles at 5C/5C). PMID:25469674

  1. Poly (Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel Induced by Glow-Discharge Electrolysis Plasma and Its Adsorption Properties for Cationic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Yang, Gege; Pan, Yuanpei; Lu, Quanfang; Yang, Wu; Gao, Jinzhang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(AM-co-AA)) hydrogel was prepared in an aqueous solution by using glow-discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP) induced copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA), in which N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a crosslinker. A mechanism for the synthesis of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel was proposed. To optimize the synthesis condition, the following parameters were examined in detail: the discharge voltage, discharge time, the content of the crosslinker, and the mass ratio of AM to AA. The results showed that the optimum pH range for cationic dyes removal was found to be 5.0-10.0. The P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel exhibits a very high adsorption potential and the experimental adsorption capacities for Crystal violet (CV) and Methylene blue (MB) were 2974.3 mg/g and 2303.6 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel for cationic dyes was also discussed.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of antigenic influenza A M2e protein peptide-poly(acrylic) acid bioconjugate and determination of toxicity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Yasemin Budama; Akdeste, Zeynep Mustafaeva; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A virus is a critical public health problem that causes epidemics and pandemics, and occurs widely all over the world. Various vaccines against the virus have not provided a solution to the problem. Different approaches, particularly M2e peptide–based vaccines, are available for developing universal vaccines against influenza A. However, it is important to select a suitable carrier to obtain an effective vaccine. Accordingly, studies on the usage of various carriers are ongoing. Particularly, polymer-based carriers have gained importance due to both drug delivery and adjuvant effects. Therefore, bioconjugate of the M2e protein peptide from the influenza A virus covalent bonded with poly(acrylic) acid was synthesized in our study for the first time. The characterization was performed using size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy; subsequently, it was found that the bioconjugate of the examined lower doses (0.05 and 0.5 mg/ml) have no toxic effects on human cell lines. These results suggest that, in the future, the poly(acrylic) acid bioconjugate of the M2e peptide should be studied in vivo for universal vaccine development against the influenza A virus. PMID:25482080

  3. Synthesis and characterization of antigenic influenza A M2e protein peptide-poly(acrylic) acid bioconjugate and determination of toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Yasemin Budama; Akdeste, Zeynep Mustafaeva; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A virus is a critical public health problem that causes epidemics and pandemics, and occurs widely all over the world. Various vaccines against the virus have not provided a solution to the problem. Different approaches, particularly M2e peptide-based vaccines, are available for developing universal vaccines against influenza A. However, it is important to select a suitable carrier to obtain an effective vaccine. Accordingly, studies on the usage of various carriers are ongoing. Particularly, polymer-based carriers have gained importance due to both drug delivery and adjuvant effects. Therefore, bioconjugate of the M2e protein peptide from the influenza A virus covalent bonded with poly(acrylic) acid was synthesized in our study for the first time. The characterization was performed using size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy; subsequently, it was found that the bioconjugate of the examined lower doses (0.05 and 0.5 mg/ml) have no toxic effects on human cell lines. These results suggest that, in the future, the poly(acrylic) acid bioconjugate of the M2e peptide should be studied in vivo for universal vaccine development against the influenza A virus. PMID:25482080

  4. Spray-dried powders of starch and crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) as carriers for nasal delivery of inactivated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Schotsaert, M; Libert, C; Pringels, E; Vervaet, C; Foreman, P; Saelens, X; Remon, J P

    2009-02-18

    Mucosal vaccination has several advantages over parenteral vaccination. In this study, viscosity-enhancing mucosal delivery systems for the induction of an adaptive immune response against viral antigen were investigated. Powder formulations based on spray-dried mixtures of starch (Amioca)/poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol 974P) in different ratios were used as carriers of the viral antigen. A comparison of these formulations for intranasal delivery of heat-inactivated influenza virus combined with LTR192G adjuvant was made in vivo in a rabbit model. Individual rabbit sera were tested for seroconversion against hemagglutinin (HA), the major surface antigen of influenza. The powder vaccine formulations were able to induce systemic anti-HA IgG responses. The presence of Carbopol 974P improved the kinetics of the immune responses and the level of IgG titers in a dose-dependent way which was correlated with moderately irritating capacities of the formulation. In contrast, mucosal IgA responses were not detected. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the use of bioadhesive carriers based on Amioca starch and poly(acrylic acid) facilitates the induction of a systemic anti-HA antibody response after intranasal vaccination with a whole virus influenza vaccine. PMID:19114075

  5. Functional and surface-active membranes from poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(acrylic acid) prepared via RAFT-mediated graft copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Ying, L; Yu, W H; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2004-07-01

    Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with "living" poly (acrylic acid) (PAAc) side chains (PVDF-g-PAAc) was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) with the ozone-pretreated PVDF. The chemical composition and structure of the copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The copolymer could be readily cast into pH-sensitive microfiltration (MF) membranes with enriched living PAAc graft chains on the surface (including the pore surfaces) by phase inversion in an aqueous medium. The surface composition of the membranes was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology of the membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The pore size distribution of the membranes was found to be much more uniform than that of the corresponding membranes cast from PVDF-g-PAAc prepared by the "conventional" free-radical graft copolymerization process. Most important of all, the MF membranes with surface-tethered PAAc macro chain transfer agents, or the living membrane surfaces, could be further functionalized via surface-initiated block copolymerization with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) to obtain the PVDF-g-PAAc-b-PNIPAAM MF membranes, which exhibited both pH- and temperature-dependent permeability to aqueous media. PMID:16459627

  6. Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction Based on β-Cyclodextrins/Acrylic Acid Modified Magnetic Gelatin for Determination of Moxidectin in Milk Samples

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yinzhu; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiaoya; Ye, Cheng; Guo, Shaofei

    2016-01-01

    β-Cyclodextrins/acrylic acid modified magnetic gelatin was prepared and then employed as the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent for extraction of moxidectin in milk samples. Due to the rigidity of hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrins and carboxyl groups of acrylic acid, magnetic composites are prepared to form a complex with target molecules through various kinds of chemical reactions and then showed excellent extraction performance. This method exhibits the advantages of simplicity of implementation, short extraction time (5 min), low solvent consumption, and high extraction efficiency. A rapid, simple, and effective method for the analysis of moxidectin in milk samples was established by MSPE coupled with liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng·mL−1 and the recoveries from milk samples were in the range of 93.8%–112.5%. The relative standard deviation was not higher than 6.4%. In conclusion, magnetic solid-phase extraction is a simple and robust preconcentration technique that can be coupled to other analytical methods for the quantitative determination of target molecules in complex samples. PMID:27437160

  7. Iron-Based Redox Polymerization of Acrylic Acid for Direct Synthesis of Hydrogel/Membranes, and Metal Nanoparticles for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sebastián; Papp, Joseph K.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized polymer materials with ion exchange groups and integration of nano-structured materials is an emerging area for catalytic and water pollution control applications. The polymerization of materials such as acrylic acid often requires persulfate initiator and a high temperature start. However, is generally known that metal ions accelerate such polymerizations starting from room temperature. If the metal is properly selected, it can be used in environmental applications adding two advantages simultaneously. This paper deals with this by polymerizing acrylic acid using iron as accelerant and its subsequent use for nanoparticle synthesis in hydrogel and PVDF membranes. Characterizations of hydrogel, membranes and nanoparticles were carried out with different techniques. Nanoparticles sizes of 30–60 nm were synthesized. Permeability and swelling measurements demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogel mesh size (6.30 to 8.34 nm) and membrane pores (222 to 110 nm). Quantitative reduction of trichloroethylene/chloride generation by Fe/Pd nanoparticles in hydrogel/membrane platforms was also performed. PMID:24954975

  8. Copolymeric hexyl acrylate-methacrylic acid microspheres - surface vs. bulk reactive carboxyl groups. Coulometric and colorimetric determination and analytical applications for heterogeneous microtitration.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Emilia; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2016-10-01

    Copolymeric acrylate microspheres were prepared from hexyl acrylate using different amounts of methacrylic acid, resulting in a series of microspheres of gradually changing properties. The distribution of carboxyl groups - between surface and bulk of microspheres was evaluated. Bulk reactive carboxyl groups were determined using reverse coulometric titration with H(+) ions, following hydroxide ions have been generated and allowed to react with microspheres in the first step. It was found that the number of reactive carboxyl groups available in copolymeric microspheres is lower compared to number of methacrylic acid units used for polymerization process. Moreover, there is correlation between the number of groups introduced and found to be reactive in microspheres. On the other hand, the number of surface reactive groups was proportional to the number of groups introduced in course of polymerization. Thus, the surface reactive groups can be used as reagent, in novel heterogeneous microtitration procedure, in which a constant number of microspheres of different carboxyl groups contents is introduced to the sample to react with the analyte. The applicability of novel proposed method was tested on the example of Ni(2+) determination. PMID:27474305

  9. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  10. Kinetic features of xylan de-polymerization in production of xylose monomer and furfural during acid pretreatment for kenaf, forage sorghums and sunn hemp feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kamireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic study of acid pretreatment was conducted for sorghum non-brown mid rib (SNBMR) (Sorghum bicolor L Moench), sorghum-brown mid rib (SBMR), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L) and kenaf (Gossypiumhirsutum L), focusing on rates of xylose monomer and furfural formation. The kinetics was investigated using two independent variables, reaction temperature (150 and 160°C) and acid concentration (1 and 2 wt%), with a constant dry biomass loading of 10 wt% and a treatment time up to 20 min while sampling the mixture every 2 min. The experimental data were fitted using a two-step kinetic model based on irreversible pseudo first order kinetics at each step. Varied kinetic orders on the acid concentration, ranging from 0.2 to >3, were observed for both xylose and furfural formation, the values depending on the feedstock. The crystallinity index of raw biomass was shown to be a major factor influencing the rate of both xylose and furfural formation. As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the activation energy and biomass crystallinity index for xylose formation.

  11. Kinetic features of xylan de-polymerization in production of xylose monomer and furfural during acid pretreatment for kenaf, forage sorghums and sunn hemp feedstocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kamireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic study of acid pretreatment was conducted for sorghum non-brown mid rib (SNBMR) (Sorghum bicolor L Moench), sorghum-brown mid rib (SBMR), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L) and kenaf (Gossypiumhirsutum L), focusing on rates of xylose monomer and furfural formation. The kinetics was investigated using two independent variables, reaction temperature (150 and 160°C) and acid concentration (1 and 2 wt%), with a constant dry biomass loading of 10 wt% and a treatment time up to 20 min while sampling the mixture every 2 min. The experimental data were fitted using a two-step kinetic model based on irreversible pseudo first ordermore » kinetics at each step. Varied kinetic orders on the acid concentration, ranging from 0.2 to >3, were observed for both xylose and furfural formation, the values depending on the feedstock. The crystallinity index of raw biomass was shown to be a major factor influencing the rate of both xylose and furfural formation. As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the activation energy and biomass crystallinity index for xylose formation.« less

  12. Segregation of mass at the periphery of N -isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic-acid microgels at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, John S.; Do, Changwoo; Hu, Xiaobo; Choi, Hong Sung; Kim, Jin Woong; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2015-09-29

    Here, we investigate poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) microgels randomly copolymerized with large mol % of protonated acrylic acid (AAc), finding that above the lower critical solution temperature the presence of the acid strongly disrupts pNIPAM's collapse, leading to unexpected new behavior at high temperatures. We see a dramatic increase in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius above the theoretical value for homogeneous spheres, and a corresponding increase of the network length scale, which we attribute to the presence of a heterogeneous polymer distribution that forms due to frustration of pNIPAM's coil-to-globule transition by the AAc. Finally, we analyze this phenomenon using a Debye-Bueche-like scattering contribution as opposed to the Lorentzian term often used, interpreting the results in terms of mass segregation at the particle periphery.

  13. Toward "stable-on-the-table" enzymes: improving key properties of catalase by covalent conjugation with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Caterina M; Cole, Kyle S; Benson, Kyle R; Ward, Jessamyn R; Bassett, Kayla M; Zhang, Yiren; Zore, Omkar V; Stromer, Bobbi; Kasi, Rajeswari M; Kumar, Challa V

    2014-08-20

    Several key properties of catalase such as thermal stability, resistance to protease degradation, and resistance to ascorbate inhibition were improved, while retaining its structure and activity, by conjugation to poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, Mw 8000) via carbodiimide chemistry where the amine groups on the protein are appended to the carboxyl groups of the polymer. Catalase conjugation was examined at three different pH values (pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0) and at three distinct mole ratios (1:100, 1:500, and 1:1000) of catalase to PAA at each reaction pH. The corresponding products are labeled as Cat-PAA(x)-y, where x is the protein to polymer mole ratio and y is the pH used for the synthesis. The coupling reaction consumed about 60-70% of the primary amines on the catalase; all samples were completely water-soluble and formed nanogels, as evidenced by gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated substantial retention of protein secondary structure for all samples, which increased to 100% with increasing pH of the synthesis and polymer mole fraction. Soret CD bands of all samples indicated loss of ∼50% of band intensities, independent of the reaction pH. Catalytic activities of the conjugates increased with increasing synthesis pH, where 55-80% and 90-100% activity was retained for all samples synthesized at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0, respectively, and the Km or Vmax values of Cat-PAA(100)-7 did not differ significantly from those of the free enzyme. All conjugates synthesized at pH 7.0 were thermally stable even when heated to ∼85-90 °C, while native catalase denatured between 55 and 65 °C. All conjugates retained 40-90% of their original activities even after storing for 10 weeks at 8 °C, while unmodified catalase lost all of its activity within 2 weeks, under similar storage conditions. Interestingly, PAA surrounding catalase limited access to the enzyme from large molecules like proteases and significantly increased

  14. Effect of the Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract and its monomers quercetin and oleanolic acid on the adhesion and migration of melanocytes and intracellular actin

    PubMed Central

    WU, YANHUA; LI, QILIN; LI, XIANGJUN; HE, DANHUA; NIU, MU; LU, XIAOJUAN; LI, HUI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) extract and its monomers quercetin and oleanolic acid on the adhesion and migration of human epidermal melanocytes (MCs) and intracellular actin. The human epidermal MCs were cultured and identified. The cells were treated with different concentrations of FLL extract, quercetin and oleanolic acid. The adhesion and migration abilities of the cells were determined by the fibronectin-coated culture experiment and Transwell assay, respectively. The structure and distribution of intracellular actin were observed by confocal laser microscopy, with semi-quantitative analysis. Results showed that compared with the control group, 0.0375–0.3 mg/ml of the FLL extract and 40 µM quercetin significantly improved the adhesion rate of MCs (P<0.05). The numbers of MCs permeating the microporous membrane in the 0.15 mg/ml FLL extract and 12 µM oleanolic acid groups were 43.7 and 30.3, respectively, significantly higher compared to the control group (P<0.01). In the control group, the intracellular actin was less, and the stress fiber structure was not clear. In the 0.15 mg/ml FLL extract, 12 µM oleanolic acid and 40 µM quercetin groups, there were numerous bunched stress fibers, indicating the aggregation of filamentous fibrous actin. The mean optical densities of actin expression in the 0.15 mg/ml FLL extract, 12 µM oleanolic acid and 40 µM quercetin groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (P<0.05). The FLL extract has a significant stimulatory effect on the adhesion and migration of human epidermal MCs. The mechanism may be associated with the promotion of intracellular actin cytoskeleton aggregation. PMID:27123251

  15. Metabologenomics: Correlation of Microbial Gene Clusters with Metabolites Drives Discovery of a Nonribosomal Peptide with an Unusual Amino Acid Monomer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For more than half a century the pharmaceutical industry has sifted through natural products produced by microbes, uncovering new scaffolds and fashioning them into a broad range of vital drugs. We sought a strategy to reinvigorate the discovery of natural products with distinctive structures using bacterial genome sequencing combined with metabolomics. By correlating genetic content from 178 actinomycete genomes with mass spectrometry-enabled analyses of their exported metabolomes, we paired new secondary metabolites with their biosynthetic gene clusters. We report the use of this new approach to isolate and characterize tambromycin, a new chlorinated natural product, composed of several nonstandard amino acid monomeric units, including a unique pyrrolidine-containing amino acid we name tambroline. Tambromycin shows antiproliferative activity against cancerous human B- and T-cell lines. The discovery of tambromycin via large-scale correlation of gene clusters with metabolites (a.k.a. metabologenomics) illuminates a path for structure-based discovery of natural products at a sharply increased rate. PMID:27163034

  16. Separation of poly(acrylic acid) salts according to topology using capillary electrophoresis in the critical conditions.

    PubMed

    Maniego, Alison R; Ang, Dale; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Lefay, Catherine; Gigmes, Didier; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R; Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2013-11-01

    Branching was detected in polyacrylates synthesised through radical polymerization via solution-state NMR, while inconsistencies have been reported for the determination of the molar mass of hydrophilic polyacrylates using aqueous-phase and organic-phase size-exclusion chromatography. In this work, poly(sodium acrylate)s, PNaAs, of various topologies were separated for the first time using free-solution capillary electrophoresis (CE). Free-solution CE does not separate the PNaAs by their molar mass, similarly to separations by liquid chromatography in the critical conditions, rather by different topologies (linear, star branched, and hyperbranched). The electrophoretic mobility of PNaAs increases as the degree of branching decreases. Separation is shown to be not only by the topology but also by the end groups as expected for a separation in the critical conditions: replacing a relatively bulky nitroxide end group with hydrogen atom yielded a higher electrophoretic mobility. This novel method, capillary electrophoresis in the critical conditions enabled, for the first time, the separation of hydrophilic polyacrylates according to their topology (branching) and their chain ends. This will allow meaningful and accurate characterization of their branched topologies as well as molar masses and progress in for advanced applications such as drug delivery or flocculation. PMID:23732867

  17. Recovery of olefin monomers

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Johnson, Charles Henry

    2004-03-16

    In a process for the production of a polyolefin, an olefin monomer is polymerised said polyolefin and residual monomer is recovered. A gas stream comprising the monomer and nitrogen is subjected to a PSA process in which said monomer is adsorbed on a periodically regenerated silica gel or alumina adsorbent to recover a purified gas stream containing said olefin and a nitrogen rich stream containing no less than 99% nitrogen and containing no less than 50% of the nitrogen content of the gas feed to the PSA process.

  18. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  19. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polymerized copolymer of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to... Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose Mineral oil Paraffin wax Potassium hydroxide Potassium...

  20. Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Fengju; Meng, Weiwei; Yang, Xinlin; Li, Peng; Jiang, Jianxin; Tan, Huimin; Zheng, Yongfa

    2016-06-01

    The volume phase transition of a hydrogel initiated by shrinking may result in complex patterns on its surface. Based on this unique property of hydrogel, we have developed a novel solvent precipitation method to prepare a kind of novel superabsorbent polymers with excellent hemostatic properties. A porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CMCTS-g-PAA) superabsorbent polymer was prepared by precipitating CMCTS-g-PAA hydrogel with ethanol. Its potential application in hemostatic wound dressing was investigated. The results indicate that the modified superabsorbent polymer is non-cytotoxic. It showed a high swelling capacity and better hemostatic performance in the treatments of hemorrhage model of ear artery, arteria cruralis and spleen of the New Zealand white rabbit than the unmodified polymer and other commonly used clinic wound dressings. The hemostatic mechanism of the porous CMCTS-g-PAA polymer was also discussed. PMID:27040191

  1. Surfactant mediated synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted xanthan gum and its efficient role in adsorption of soluble inorganic mercury from water.

    PubMed

    Pal, Abhijit; Majumder, Kunal; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Noble copolymers from xanthan gum (XG) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesised through surfactant mediated graft copolymerization. The copolymers were applied as a biosorbent for inorganic Hg(II) at higher concentration level (300ppm). The copolymers were characterized using different analytical techniques which showed, the grafting principally occurred across the amorphous region of XG. Measurement of zeta potential and hydrodynamic size indicated, the copolymers were strong polyanion and possessed greater hydrodynamic size (almost in all cases) than XG, despite a strong molecular degradation that took place simultaneously during grafting. In the dispersed form, all grades of the copolymer displayed higher adsorption capability than XG, however, the grade with maximum grafting produced the highest efficiency (68.03%). Manipulation produced further improvement in efficiency to 72.17% with the same copolymer after 75min at a pH of 5.0. The allowable biosorbent dose, however, was 1000ppm as determined from the experimental evidences. PMID:27516248

  2. Dynamics of the layer-by-layer assembly of a poly(acrylic acid)-lanthanide complex colloid and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiali; Wang, Zhiliang; Wen, Lingang; Zhou, Xianju; Xu, Jian; Yang, Shuguang

    2016-01-21

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and lanthanide (Ln) ions, such as Ce(3+), Eu(3+), and Tb(3+), were prepared as dispersed complex colloidal particles through three different protocols with rigorous control of the pH value and mixing ratio. The negatively charged PAA-Ln complex particles were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with positively charged poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) to prepare a thin film. The film thickness growth is much quicker than PDDA/PAA film. Due to the incorporation of Ln(3+) ions, the film exhibits fluorescence. During LbL assembly, PDDA-PAA association based on electrostatic force and PAA-Ce association based on coordination are in competition, which leads to the LbL assembly of PDDA and PAA-Ln complex colloidal particles being a complicated dynamic process. PMID:26549538

  3. A Novel Route for Preparing Highly Stable Fe3O4 Fluid with Poly(Acrylic Acid) as Phase Transfer Ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanh, Vuong Thi Kim; Lam, Tran Dai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lu, Le Trong; Nam, Pham Hong; Tam, Le The; Manh, Do Hung; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan

    2016-08-01

    Highly stable Fe3O4 liquid was synthesized by thermal decomposition using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a phase transfer ligand. The crystalline structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of the as-prepared samples were thoroughly characterized. Results demonstrated that the magnetic Fe3O4 nanomaterial was formed in liquid phase with a spinel single-phase structure, average size of 8-13 nm, and high saturation magnetization (up to 75 emu/g). The PAA-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles displayed high stability over a wide pH range (from 4 to 7) in 300 mM salt solution. More importantly, the heat-generating capacity of the nanoparticle systems was quantified at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 70.22 W/g, which is 35% higher than magnetic nanoparticles coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). These findings suggest the potential application of PAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic hyperthermia.

  4. pH-sensing properties of cascaded long- and short-period fiber grating with poly acrylic acid/poly allylamine hydrochloride thin-film overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the mode coupling mechanism and the reflection spectral properties of coated cascaded long- and short-period gratings (CLBG) are discussed. The effects of the thin-film parameters (film refractive index and film thickness) on the reflection spectra of the coated CLBG are simulated. By using electrostatic self-assembly method, poly acrylic acid (PAA) and poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayer molecular pH-sensitive thin-films are assembled on the surface of the partial corroded CLBG. When the CLBG coated with PAA/PAH films are used to sense pH values, the resonant wavelengths of the CLBG have almost no shift, whereas the resonance peak reflectivities change with pH values. In addition, the sensitivities of the resonance peak reflectivities responding to pH values are improved by an order of magnitude.

  5. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Eugen; Verestiuc, Liliana; Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca; Lungu, Adriana; Tsibouklis, John

    2009-06-01

    Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

  6. Reusable nanocomposite of CoFe2O4/chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid) for removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Cuong; Huynh, Thi Kim Ngoc

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, CoFe2O4/chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (CoFe2O4/CS-graft-PAA) nanocomposites were prepared successfully by coprecipitation of the compounds in alkaline solution and were used for removal of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solution. The sorption rate was affected significantly by the initial concentration of the solution, sorbent amount, and pH value of the solution. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption capacity under different initial concentration (ranging from 25 to 150 mg L-1), solution pH (4.1, 5.3, 6.4 and 7.6), and contact time. These nanocomposites can be recycled conveniently from water with the assistance of an external magnet because of their exceptional properties. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  7. A Novel Route for Preparing Highly Stable Fe3O4 Fluid with Poly(Acrylic Acid) as Phase Transfer Ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanh, Vuong Thi Kim; Lam, Tran Dai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lu, Le Trong; Nam, Pham Hong; Tam, Le The; Manh, Do Hung; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan

    2016-05-01

    Highly stable Fe3O4 liquid was synthesized by thermal decomposition using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a phase transfer ligand. The crystalline structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of the as-prepared samples were thoroughly characterized. Results demonstrated that the magnetic Fe3O4 nanomaterial was formed in liquid phase with a spinel single-phase structure, average size of 8-13 nm, and high saturation magnetization (up to 75 emu/g). The PAA-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles displayed high stability over a wide pH range (from 4 to 7) in 300 mM salt solution. More importantly, the heat-generating capacity of the nanoparticle systems was quantified at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 70.22 W/g, which is 35% higher than magnetic nanoparticles coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). These findings suggest the potential application of PAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic hyperthermia.

  8. Structural changes of polyacids initiated by their neutralization with various alkali metal hydroxides. Diffusion studies in poly(acrylic acid)s.

    PubMed

    Masiak, Michal; Hyk, Wojciech; Stojek, Zbigniew; Ciszkowska, Malgorzata

    2007-09-27

    The changes in the three-dimensional structure of the poly(acrylic acid), PAA, induced by incorporation of various alkali-metal counterions have been evaluated by studying diffusion of an uncharged probe (1,1'-ferrocenedimethanol) in the polymeric media. The studies are supported by the measurements of conductivity and viscosity of the polymeric media. Solutions of linear PAA of four different sizes (molecular weights: 450,000, 750,000, 1,250,000, 4,000,000) were neutralized with hydroxides of alkali metals of group 1 of the periodic table (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) to the desired neutralization degree. The transport properties of the obtained polyacrylates were monitored by measuring the changes in the probe diffusion coefficient during the titration of the polyacids. The probe diffusivity was determined from the steady-state current of the probe voltammetric oxidation at disk microelectrodes. Diffusivity of the probe increases with the increase in the degree of neutralization and with the increase in viscosity. It reaches the maximum value at about 60-80% of the polyacid neutralization. The way the probe diffusion coefficients change is similar in all polyacid solutions and gels. The increase in the size of a metal cation causes, in general, an enhancement in the transport of probe molecules. The biggest differences in the probe diffusivities are between lithium and cesium polyacrylates. The differences between the results obtained for cesium and rubidium are not statistically significant due to lack of good precision of the voltammetric measurements. The measurements of the electric conductivity of polyacrylates and the theoretical predictions supplemented the picture of electrostatic interactions between the polyanionic chains and the metal cations of increasing size. In all instances of the PAAs, the viscosity of the solutions rapidly increases in the 0-60% range of neutralization and then becomes constant in the 60-100% region. With the exception of the shortest

  9. Controlled release camptothecin tablets based on pluronic and poly(acrylic acid) copolymer. Effect of fabrication technique on drug stability, tablet structure, and release mode.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan; Barreiro-Iglesias, Rafael; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel

    2007-06-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-(polyethylene oxide)-g-poly(acrylic acid), a graft-comb copolymer of Pluronic 127 and poly(acrylic acid) (Pluronic-PAA), was explored as an excipient for tablet dosage form of camptothecin (CPT). The tablets were prepared by either direct compression of the drug-polymer physical blend, suspension in ethanol followed by evaporation, or compression after kneading and characterized with respect to their physical structures, drug stability, and release behavior. Porosity and water uptake rate were strongly dependent on the fabrication procedure, ranking in the order: direct compression of physical blend > compression after suspension/evaporation in ethanol > compression after kneading. Tablets prepared by compression of physical blends swelled in water with a rapid surface gel layer formation that impeded swelling and disintegration of the tablets core. These tablets were able to sustain the CPT release for a period of time longer than those observed with the tablets made by either suspension/evaporation or kneading, which disintegrated within a few minutes. Despite the tablet disintegration, the CPT release was impeded for at least 6 hr, which was attributed to the ability of the Pluronic-PAA copolymers to form micellar aggregates at the hydrated surface of the particles. Physical mixing did not alter the fraction of CPT being in the pharmaceutically active lactone form, whilst the preparation of the tablets by the other two methods caused a significant reduction in the lactone form content. Tablets prepared from the physical blends demonstrated CPT release rates increasing with the pH due to the PAA ionization leading to the increase in the rate and extent of the tablet swelling. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of the Pluronic-PAA copolymers for the oral administration of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17613025

  10. Patterned Poly(acrylic acid) Brushes Containing Gold Nanoparticles for Peptide Detection by Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sangsuwan, Arunee; Narupai, Benjaporn; Sae-ung, Pornpen; Rodtamai, Sasithon; Rodthongkum, Nadnudda; Hoven, Voravee P

    2015-11-01

    Patterned poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes was successfully generated via photolithography and surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of acrylic acid as verified by water contact angle measurements and FT-IR analysis. The carboxyl groups of PAA brushes can act as reducing moieties for in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), without the use of additional reducing agent. The formation of AuNPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The glass surface-modified by PAA brushes and immobilized with AuNPs (AuNPs-PAA) can be used as a substrate for SALDI-MS analysis, which is capable of detecting both small peptides having m/z ≤ 600 (glutathione) and large peptides having m/z ≥ 1000 (bradykinin, ICNKQDCPILE) without the interference from matrix signal suggesting that AuNPs were stably trapped within the PAA brushes and the carboxyl groups of PAA can serve as internal proton source. By employing AuNPs as the capture probe, the AuNPs-PAA substrate can selectively identify thiol-containing peptides from the peptide mixtures with LOD as low as 0.1 and 0.05 nM for glutathione and ICNKQDCPILE, respectively. An ability to selectively detect ICNKQDCPILE in a diluted human serum is also demonstrated. The patterned format together with its high sensitivity and selectivity render this newly developed substrate a potential platform for high-throughput analysis of other biomarkers, especially those with low molecular weight in complex biological samples. PMID:26434604

  11. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  12. Studies on surface grafting of AAc/SSS binary monomers onto polytetrafluoroethylene by dielectric barrier discharge initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Zhen-Yu; Xu, You-Yi; Zhu, Li-Ping; Liu, Fu; Zhu, Bao-Ku

    2008-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were pre-treated by dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure with air as carrier gas. And then the hydrophilic sulfonate groups were introduced by the single step grafting method with binary monomer solution of acrylic acid (AAc) and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SSS). The effects of binary monomer ratio, reaction solution concentration and polymerization time on the degree of grafting were investigated. The surface chemical change was determined by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Morphological changes on the film surface were described using field emitting scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface hydrophilicity of the modified film was characterized through water contact angle measurement. It was found that the water contact angle of the film surface reduced significantly when compared with the original one, indicating the introduction of hydrophilic groups and improvement of the surface hydrophilicity.

  13. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with bilayer coating of poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid) and human serum albumin (HSA): A pH-sensitive carrier for gemcitabine delivery.

    PubMed

    Pourjavadi, Ali; Tehrani, Zahra Mazaheri

    2016-04-01

    Novel bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MCM-41) based on pH sensitive poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid) and human serum albumin (HSA) was designed for controlled delivery of gemcitabine (anticancer drug) to cancer cells. The shell around the mesoporous silica has bilayer structure. Poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid) was used as pH-sensitive inner shell and human serum albumin, HSA, was used as outer shell. The core-shell structure was formed due to electrostatic interaction between ammonium groups of modified MCM-41 and carboxylate groups of copolymer. Also, the albumin layer was wrapped around the copolymer coated nanoparticle by electrostatic interaction between ammonium groups from protein and carboxylate ions of copolymer shell. Moreover, the maximum release occurred at pH 5.5 (pH of endosomes) because the bilayer shell collapsed at this pH. The drug nanocarrier would be a good candidate for tumor therapy due to its biocompatibility, controlled release and pH responsive behavior. PMID:26838909

  14. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  15. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). Materials and Methods: The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness. PMID:25512737

  16. Superhydrophocity via gas-phase monomers grafting onto carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Jinlong; Batisse, Nicolas; Claves, Daniel; Dubois, Marc; Frezet, Lawrence; Kharitonov, Alexander P.; Alekseiko, Leonid N.

    2016-05-01

    Superhydrophobic films were prepared using dispersions of fluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or nanofibers (CNFs) in toluene. The grafting of polystyrene allowed stable dispersions to be obtained. The grafting of polystyrene (PS), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyaniline (PANI) onto nanofibers and MWCNTs was first evidenced by solid state NMR and Infrared Spectroscopy. The graft polymerization of styrene, acrylic acid and aniline monomers was initiated by radicals (dangling bonds) formed due to the initial fluorination. The process appeared as highly versatile and efficient for different polymers. The consumption of those radicals in the course of grafting was evidenced by EPR, through decrease of the spin density. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic character was tuned according to the grafted polymer nature, i.e. hydrophobic with PS or hydrophilic with PAA. Finally, in order to reach superhydrophobicity, films were prepared from CNFs or MWCNTs, irrespective of their average diameter, that allowed adequate structuring of the surface. The presence of fluorine atoms on their surface also favors superhydrophobicity. Water contact angles of 155 ± 2° and 159 ± 2° were measured for the films casted from fluorinated CNFs or MWCNTs with grafted polystyrene, respectively.

  17. Industrially relevant epoxy-acrylate hybrid resin photopolymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiboye, Gbenga I.

    Photopolymerization of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins takes advantages of inherent properties present in the free-radical and cationic reactions to reduce oxygen inhibition problems that plague free-radical reactions. Similarly, the combined reaction mechanisms reduce moisture sensitivity of the cationic reactions. Despite the advantages of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins, problems persist that need to be addressed. For example, low conversion and polymerization rate of the epoxides are a problem, because the fast acrylate conversion prevents the epoxide from reaching high conversion. Controlling phase separation is challenging, since two moieties with different properties are reacting. The physical properties of the polymer will be impacted by the availability of different moieties. High shrinkage stress results from the acrylate moiety, causing buckling and cracking in film and coating applications. The overall goal of this study is to use the fundamental knowledge of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins to formulate industrially viable polymers. In order to achieve this goal, the study focuses on the following objectives: (I) determine the apparent activation energy of the hybrid monomer METHB, (II) increase epoxide conversion and polymerization rate of hybrid formulations, and (III) control physical properties in epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins. In order to increase the epoxide conversion and rate of polymerization, the sensitivity of epoxides to alcohol is used to facilitate the activated monomer (AM) mechanism and induce a covalent bond between the epoxide and acrylate polymers through the hydroxyl group. It is hypothesized that if the AM mechanism is facilitated, epoxide conversion will increase. As a result, the resins can be tailored to control phase separation and physical properties, and shrinkage stress can be reduced. In pursuit of these objectives, the hybrid monomer METHB was polymerized at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 70°C to obtain apparent activation

  18. Study on monomer suitability toward the template in molecularly imprinted polymer: An ab initio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Rai, Garima

    2012-03-01

    Study of monomer-template interactions in molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is inevitable to comprehend best selectivity at the molecular level in pre-polymer solution. In the present work, binding energies of tryptophan, an amino acid template, complexed with different monomers were computed using second order Moller Plesset theory (MP2) at 6-311++g** level in gas phase. This helped in recommending a generic MIP, suitable for the selective and sensitive diagnosis of tryptophan, in clinical setting as disease biomarker, at primitive level. The tryptophan is an important biomarker owing to its highly regulated physiological process in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and pellagra like diseases. Frequency calculations were performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP employing 6-31+g (2d, 2p) level including thermal and entropy corrections. The monomer, p-nitrophenyl acrylate (2 mol), was adjudged having giving best binding score for the complexation at ground state with tryptophan (1 mol) for MIP development.

  19. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-Vis spectra and DFT calculations of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (monomer and dimer structures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sas, E. B.; Kose, E.; Kurt, M.; Karabacak, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (5Br2EPBA) are recorded in the solid phase in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-10 cm-1, respectively. The 1H, 13C and DEPT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of 5Br2EPBA is saved in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol and water. The following theoretical calculations for monomeric and dimeric structures are supported by experimental results. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies in the ground state are calculated by using DFT methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. There are four conformers for the present molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 5Br2EPBA as Trans-Cis (TC) form. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method in parallel quantum solutions (PQS) program. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of 5Br2EPBA molecule are calculated by using the Gauge Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method in DMSO and gas phase for monomer and dimer structures of the most stable conformer. Moreover, electronic properties, such as the HOMO and LUMO energies (by TD-DFT and CIS methods) and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPs) are investigated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization is analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and thermodynamic features are presented. All calculated results are compared with the experimental data of the title molecule. The correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the title molecule.

  20. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-Vis spectra and DFT calculations of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (monomer and dimer structures).

    PubMed

    Sas, E B; Kose, E; Kurt, M; Karabacak, M

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (5Br2EPBA) are recorded in the solid phase in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-10 cm(-1), respectively. The (1)H, (13)C and DEPT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of 5Br2EPBA is saved in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol and water. The following theoretical calculations for monomeric and dimeric structures are supported by experimental results. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies in the ground state are calculated by using DFT methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. There are four conformers for the present molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 5Br2EPBA as Trans-Cis (TC) form. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method in parallel quantum solutions (PQS) program. The (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 5Br2EPBA molecule are calculated by using the Gauge Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method in DMSO and gas phase for monomer and dimer structures of the most stable conformer. Moreover, electronic properties, such as the HOMO and LUMO energies (by TD-DFT and CIS methods) and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPs) are investigated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization is analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and thermodynamic features are presented. All calculated results are compared with the experimental data of the title molecule. The correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the title molecule. PMID:25305625

  1. Star-shaped polymers of bio-inspired algae core and poly(acrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid) as arms in dissolution of silica/silicate.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Kalpana; Patiyal, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S; Sharma, Praveen

    2014-06-01

    Silica, in natural waters (due to weathering of rocks) decreases system performance in water processing industry due to scaling. In view of that, the present work involves the synthesis of novel green star shaped additives of algae core (a bio-inspired material as diatom maintains silicic acid equilibrium in sea water) as silica polymerization inhibitors. Star shaped materials with bio-inspired core and poly(acrylamide) [poly(AAm)] and poly(acrylic acid) [poly(AAc)] arms were synthesized by economical green approach. The proficiency was evaluated in 'mini lab' scale for the synthesized APAAm (Algae-g-poly(AAm)) and APAAc (Algae-g-poly(AAc)) dendrimers (star shaped) in colloidal silica mitigation/inhibition at 35 °C and 55 °C. Synthesized dendrimers were equally proficient in silica inhibition at 12 h and maintains ≥450 ppm soluble silica. However, APAAm dendrimers of generation 0 confirmed better results (≈300 ppm) in contrast to APAAc dendrimers in silica inhibition at 55 °C. Additionally, dendrimers also worked as a nucleator for heterogeneous polymerization to inhibit silica homo-polymerization. APAAm dendrimer test set showed no silica deposit for more than 10 days of inhibition. EDX characterization results support nucleator mechanism with Si content of 6.97%-10.98% by weight in silica deposits (SiO2-APAAm dendrimer composites). PMID:24681378

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of biocompatible europium-doped calcium hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite luminescent nanospindles functionalized with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Escudero, Alberto; Calvo, Mauricio E; Rivera-Fernández, Sara; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Ocaña, Manuel

    2013-02-12

    Europium-doped calcium hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite nanophosphors functionalized with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been synthesized through a one-pot microwave-assisted hydrothermal method from aqueous basic solutions containing calcium nitrate, sodium phosphate monobasic, and PAA, as well as sodium fluoride in the case of the fluoroapatite particles. In both cases a spindlelike morphology was obtained, resulting from an aggregation process of smaller subunits which also gave rise to high specific surface area. The size of the nanospindles was 191 (32) × 40 (5) nm for calcium hydroxyapatite and 152 (24) × 38 (6) nm for calcium fluoroapatite. The luminescent nanoparticles showed the typical red luminescence of Eu(3+), which was more efficient for the fluoroapatite particles than for the hydroxyapatite. This is attributed to the presence of OH(-) quenchers in the latter. The nanophosphors showed negligible toxicity for Vero cells. Both PAA-functionalized nanophosphors showed a very high (up to at least 1 week) colloidal stability in 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) at pH 6.5, which is a commonly used buffer for physiological pH. All these features make both kinds of apatite-based nanoparticles promising tools for biomedical applications, such as luminescent biolabels and tracking devices in drug delivery systems. PMID:23317411

  3. A novel pulsatile drug delivery system based on the physiochemical reaction between acrylic copolymer and organic acid: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziwei; Qi, Xiaole; Li, Xiangbo; Xing, Jiayu; Zhu, Xuehua; Wu, Zhenghong

    2014-02-28

    Multilayer-coating technology is the traditional method to achieve pulsatile drug release with the drawbacks of time consuming, more materials demanding and lack of efficiency. The purpose of this study was to design a novel pulsatile drug delivery system based on the physiochemical interaction between acrylic copolymer and organic acid with relatively simpler formulation and manufacturing process. The Enalapril Maleate (EM) pulsatile release pellets were prepared using extruding granulation, spheronization and fluid-bed coating technology. The ion-exchange experiment, hydration study and determination of glass transition temperature were conducted to explore the related drug release mechanism. Bioavailability experiment was carried out by administering the pulsatile release pellets to rats compared with marketed rapid release tablets Yisu. An obvious 4h lag time period and rapid drug release was observed from in vitro dissolution profiles. The release mechanism was a combination of both disassociated and undisassociated forms of succinic acid physiochemically interacting with Eudragit RS. The AUC0-τ of the EM pulsatile pellets and the market tablets was 702.384 ± 96.89 1 hn g/mL and 810.817 ± 67.712 h ng/mL, while the relative bioavailability was 86.62%. These studies demonstrate this novel pulsatile release concept may be a promising strategy for oral pulsatile delivery system. PMID:24368107

  4. Application of pH-responsive poly(2-dimethyl-aminoethylmethacrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) coatings for the open-tubular capillary electrochromatographic analysis of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sepehrifar, Roshanak; Boysen, Reinhard I; Danylec, Basil; Yang, Yuanzhong; Saito, Kei; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-04-21

    A new type of stimuli-responsive polymeric (SRP) coating has been prepared for use in open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC), by grafting poly(2-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PDMAEMA-b-PAA) as a Y-shaped block copolymer with two dissimilar chain compositions onto the inner walls of aminopropyl-modified silica capillaries. The grafting process introduced weakly charged functional groups from the PAA and PDMAEMA, enabling the generation of electroendosmotic flow with magnitude and direction adjustable by changing the pH of the running buffer electrolyte. This stimuli-responsive PDMAEMA-b-PAA block copolymer was found to provide excellent resolution of various acidic and basic compounds, leading to efficient analyte separation. When operated in the OT-CEC mode, separation selectivities could be readily manipulated via differential contributions from chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms, simply by changing the pH or the ionic strength of the running buffer electrolyte. PMID:27026608

  5. Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption properties of starch incorporated acrylic gels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Several hydrogels were prepared by a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), sodium acrylate (SA) and AA/hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of starch in water. These starch incorporated acrylic gels were prepared by varying the concentration of the initiator, monomer, crosslinker and the starch. The resulting gels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA, pH at point zero charge (PZC), swelling and the diffusion in water. The gels showed high adsorption and removal% of Safranine T (ST) and Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) dyes from water. The swelling and the adsorption data were fitted to different kinetic models and isotherms. Amongst the three kinds of gels, the starch incorporated sodium polyacrylate gel showed the highest adsorption of 9.7-85.3mg/L (97-61% removal) of BCB dye and 9.1-83mg/L (91-60% removal) of ST dye for a feed dye concentration of 10-140mg/L. PMID:26318665

  6. Efficient production of the Nylon 12 monomer ω-aminododecanoic acid methyl ester from renewable dodecanoic acid methyl ester with engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ladkau, Nadine; Assmann, Miriam; Schrewe, Manfred; Julsing, Mattijs K; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The expansion of microbial substrate and product scopes will be an important brick promoting future bioeconomy. In this study, an orthogonal pathway running in parallel to native metabolism and converting renewable dodecanoic acid methyl ester (DAME) via terminal alcohol and aldehyde to 12-aminododecanoic acid methyl ester (ADAME), a building block for the high-performance polymer Nylon 12, was engineered in Escherichia coli and optimized regarding substrate uptake, substrate requirements, host strain choice, flux, and product yield. Efficient DAME uptake was achieved by means of the hydrophobic outer membrane porin AlkL increasing maximum oxygenation and transamination activities 8.3 and 7.6-fold, respectively. An optimized coupling to the pyruvate node via a heterologous alanine dehydrogenase enabled efficient intracellular L-alanine supply, a prerequisite for self-sufficient whole-cell transaminase catalysis. Finally, the introduction of a respiratory chain-linked alcohol dehydrogenase enabled an increase in pathway flux, the minimization of undesired overoxidation to the respective carboxylic acid, and thus the efficient formation of ADAME as main product. The completely synthetic orthogonal pathway presented in this study sets the stage for Nylon 12 production from renewables. Its effective operation achieved via fine tuning the connectivity to native cell functionalities emphasizes the potential of this concept to expand microbial substrate and product scopes. PMID:26969251

  7. Monitoring of workers exposure to low levels of airborne monomers in a polystyrene production plant

    SciTech Connect

    Samimi, B.; Falbo, L.

    1982-11-01

    Exposure of workers to sub-ppm levels of airborne monomers, namely ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, styrene, ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene, and 20 ethylhexyl acrylate, in a polystyrene production plant was measured in the same sample on a single gas chromatographic column. The best separation and sensitivity were obtained with a 3 m x 3.175 mm stainless steel column packed with 10% FFAP on Chromosorb and a temperature programmed from 70/sup 0/C to 110/sup 0/C. A total of 106 air samples were collected on 150 mg charcoal tubes from the breathing zone of workers, from areas near reactors, and from places where monomers were unloaded from trucks and tank cars. Samples were analyzed in a manner similar to the method recommended by NIOSH. The mean TWA concentrations in a worker's breathing zone were 89, 66, 49, 120, 41, 1 ppb for ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, styrene, ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, respectively. The highest TWA breathing zone concentration was 14.8 ppm for styrene, which occurred during unloading and sampling of the monomer for a quality check. The mean TWA concentration of monomers in the air of the workplace were 1.1 ppm, 169,36,54,10, and 30 ppb for the same 6 compounds mentioned above. The highest area TWA concentration was 57 ppm for ethyl acrylate, which occurred outdoors at the truck and tank car unloading site. It was concluded that use of two separate local exhaust ventilating systems in this polymerization process were effecive in maintaining negative pressure within the reactors under all circumstances of use. These engineering controls and care in handling monomers have resulted in a relatively safe working environment.

  8. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics. PMID:24661889

  9. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Rivolo, Paola; Nisticò, Roberto; Barone, Fabrizio; Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella; Martorana, Selanna; Ricciardi, Serena; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV-Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. PMID:27157754

  10. Fabrication of magnetic hydroxypropyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) porous spheres via Pickering high internal phase emulsion for removal of Cu(2+) and Cd(2.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Zheng, Yian; Zong, Li; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-09-20

    A series of magnetic hydroxypropyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) porous spheres were prepared via O/W Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) integrated precipitation polymerization. The structure and composition of modified Fe3O4 and porous structures were characterized by TEM, XRD, TGA and SEM. The results indicated that the silanized Fe3O4 can influence greatly the pore structure of magnetic porous sphere in addition to non-negligible impacts of the proportion of mixed solvent and co-surfactant. The adsorption experiment demonstrated that the adsorption equilibrium can be reached within 40min and the maximal adsorption capacity was 300.00mg/g for Cd(2+) and 242.72mg/g for Cu(2+), suggesting its fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, no significant changes in the adsorption capacity were observed, suggesting its excellent reusability. The magnetic porous sphere can be easily separated from the solution and then find its potential as a recyclable material for highly efficient removal of heavy metals. PMID:27261748

  11. Structural tailoring of hydrogen-bonded poly(acrylic acid)/poly(ethylene oxide) multilayer thin films for reduced gas permeability.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fangming; Ward, Sarah M; Givens, Tara M; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen bonded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer-by-layer assemblies are highly elastomeric, but more permeable than ionically bonded thin films. In order to expand the use of hydrogen-bonded assemblies to applications that require a better gas barrier, the effect of assembling pH on the oxygen permeability of PAA/PEO multilayer thin films was investigated. Altering the assembling pH leads to significant changes in phase morphology and bonding. The amount of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PAA and PEO is found to increase with increasing pH due to reduction of COOH dimers between PAA chains. This improved bonding leads to smaller PEO domains and lower gas permeability. Further increasing the pH beyond 2.75 results in higher oxygen permeability due to partial deprotonation of PAA. By setting the assembling pH at 2.75, the negative impacts of COOH dimer formation and PAA ionization on intermolecular hydrogen bonding can be minimized, leading to a 50% reduction in the oxygen permeability of the PAA/PEO thin film. A 20 bilayer coating reduces the oxygen transmission rate of a 1.58 mm natural rubber substrate by 20 ×. These unique nanocoatings provide the opportunity to impart a gas barrier to elastomeric substrates without altering their mechanical behavior. PMID:25519816

  12. Micron- and nano-sized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) latex syntheses and their applications for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Chen, Bo-Wei; Shih, Chao-Ming; Chou, Feng-Yi; Lai, Jui-Yang; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAAm-co-AAc)) latex particles were prepared with and without sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant via an emulsion polymerization method. The P(NIPAAm-co-AAc) latex particle sizes were approximately 1.1 microm without SDS addition and the particle sizes were in the nanometer range (59 nm) with SDS at its critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 8 mM. We propose a scheme to demonstrate how the SDS concentration affects the synthesized latex particle size. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was hardly influenced by the SDS level but increased with the AAc concentration. The PNIPAAm-co-AAc latex particles were employed as thermo-sensitive drug carriers and 4-acetamidophenol was loaded to study the drug release rates from the nano-gels. The effective drug diffusion coefficients within the nano-gels varied as a function of particle size, AAc content, and temperature. The smaller or AAc-rich hydrogel particles provided sustainable drug release property and have potential use in biomedical applications. PMID:23882758

  13. “Stable-on-the-Table” Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Ananta; Zore, Omkar V.; Thilakarathne, Vindya K.; Briand, Victoria A.; Lenehan, Patrick J.; Lei, Yu; Kasi, Rajeswari M.; Kumar, Challa V.

    2015-01-01

    In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, MW 450k), and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17–20 psi) without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at −0.279 and −0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications. PMID:26393601

  14. Poly(acrylic acid)-regulated Synthesis of Rod-Like Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Yao, Chenxue; Cui, Zhengyang; Luo, Dandan; Lee, In-Seop; Yao, Juming; Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate, especially with nanostructure, has been considered as a good candidate material for bone regeneration due to its excellent biodegradability and osteoconductivity. In this study, rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Rod-CC NPs) with desired water dispersibility were achieved with the regulation of poly (acrylic acid). Characterization results revealed that the Rod-CC NPs had an average length of 240 nm, a width of 90 nm with an average aspect ratio of 2.60 and a negative ζ-potential of -22.25 ± 0.35 mV. The degradation study illustrated the nanoparticles degraded 23% at pH 7.4 and 45% at pH 5.6 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution within three months. When cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells, the Rod-CC NPs exhibited a positive effect on the proliferation of osteoblast cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays together with the osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression observations demonstrated the nanoparticles could induce the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Our study developed well-dispersed rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles which have great potential to be used in bone regeneration. PMID:27164090

  15. Covalent immobilization of redox enzyme on electrospun nonwoven poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Gang; Ke, Bei-Bei; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2007-07-01

    In this work, novel conductive composite nanofiber mesh possessing reactive groups was electrospun from solutions containing poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PANCAA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for redoxase immobilization, assuming that the incorporated MWCNTs could behave as electrons transferor during enzyme catalysis. The covalent immobilization of catalase from bovine liver on the neat PANCAA nanofiber mesh or the composite one was processed in the presence of EDC/NHS. Results indicated that both the amount and activity retention of bound catalase on the composite nanofiber mesh were higher than those on the neat PANCAA nanofiber mesh, and the activity increased up to 42%. Kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), for the catalases immobilized on the composite nanofiber mesh were lower and higher than those on the neat one, respectively. This enhanced activity might be ascribed to either promoted electron transfer through charge-transfer complexes and the pi system of carbon nanotubes or rendered biocompatibility by modified MWCNTs. Furthermore, the immobilized catalases revealed much more stability after MWCNTs were incorporated into the polymer nanofiber mesh. However, there was no significant difference in optimum pH value and temperature, thermal stability and operational stability between these two immobilized preparations, while the two ones appeared more advantageous than the free in these properties. The effect of MWCNTs incorporation on another redox enzyme, peroxidase, was also studied and it was found that the activity increased by 68% in comparison of composite one with neat preparation. PMID:17171660

  16. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N4-Sulfonamido-Succinamic, Phthalamic, Acrylic and Benzoyl Acetic Acid Derivatives as Potential DPP IV Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Reema Abu; Sheikha, Ghassan Abu; Al-Sha'er, Mahmoud; Taha, Mutasem

    2013-01-01

    As incidence rate of type II diabetes mellitus continues to rise, there is a growing need to identify novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy and reduced side effects. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a multifunctional protein involved in many physiological processes. It deactivates the natural hypoglycemic incretin hormone effect. Inhibition of this enzyme increases endogenous incretin level, incretin activity and should restore glucose homeostasis in type II diabetic patients making it an attractive target for the development of new antidiabetic drugs. One of the interesting reported anti- DPP IV hits is Gemifloxacin which is used as a lead compound for the development of new DPP IV inhibitors. In the current work, design and synthesis of a series of N4-sulfonamido-succinamic, phthalamic, acrylic and benzoyl acetic acid derivatives was carried out. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-DPP IV activity. Some of them have shown reasonable bioactivity, where the most active one 17 was found to have an IC50 of 33.5 μM. PMID:24358058

  17. Poly(acrylic acid)-modified Fe3O4 microspheres for magnetic-targeted and pH-triggered anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiao-Jiao; Dai, Yun-Lu; Ma, Ping-An; Yang, Dong-Mei; Li, Chun-Xia; Hou, Zhi-Yao; Cheng, Zi-Yong; Lin, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Monodisperse poly(acrylic acid)-modified Fe(3)O(4) (PAA@Fe(3)O(4)) hybrid microspheres with dual responses (magnetic field and pH) were successfully fabricated. The PAA polymer was encapsulated into the inner cavity of Fe(3)O(4) hollow spheres by a vacuum-casting route and photo-initiated polymerization. TEM images show that the samples consist of monodisperse porous spheres with a diameter around 200 nm. The Fe(3)O(4) spheres, after modification with the PAA polymer, still possess enough space to hold guest molecules. We selected doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug to investigate the drug loading and release behavior of as-prepared composites. The release of DOX molecules was strongly dependent on the pH value due to the unique property of PAA. The HeLa cell-uptake process of DOX-loaded PAA@Fe(3)O(4) was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). After being incubated with HeLa cells under magnet magnetically guided conditions, the cytotoxtic effects of DOX-loaded PAA@Fe(3)O(4) increased. These results indicate that pH-responsive magnetic PAA@Fe(3)O(4) spheres have the potential to be used as anticancer drug carriers. PMID:23080514

  18. pH-responsive drug delivery system based on luminescent CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)-poly(acrylic acid) hybrid microspheres.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunlu; Zhang, Cuimiao; Cheng, Ziyong; Ma, Ping'an; Li, Chunxia; Kang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Dongmei; Lin, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we design a controlled release system based on CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) composite microspheres, which were fabricated by filling the pH-responsive PAA inside CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+) hollow spheres via photopolymerization route. The CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+) hollow spheres prepared by hydrothermal route possess mesoporous structure and show strong green fluorescence from Tb(3+) under UV excitation. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a widely used anti-cancer drug, was used as a model drug to evaluate the loading and controlled release behaviors of the composite microspheres due to the good biocompatibility of the samples using MTT assay. The composite carriers provide a strongly pH-dependent drug release behavior owing to the intrinsic property of PAA and its interactions with DOX. The endocytosis process of drug-loaded microspheres was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the in vitro cytotoxic effect against SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells of the DOX-loaded carriers was investigated. In addition, the extent of drug release could be monitored by the altering of photoluminescence (PL) intensity of CaF(2):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+). Considering the good biocompatibility, high drug loading content and pH-dependent drug release of the materials, these hybrid luminescent microspheres have potential applications in drug controlled release and disease therapy. PMID:22196902

  19. Poly(acrylic acid) modified lanthanide-doped GdVO4 hollow spheres for up-conversion cell imaging, MRI and pH-dependent drug release.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Dongmei; Dai, Yunlu; Shang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Ziyong; Zhang, Xiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Ma, Ping'an; Lin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, multifunctional poly(acrylic acid) modified lanthanide-doped GdVO(4) nanocomposites [PAA@GdVO(4): Ln(3+) (Ln = Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, Yb/Tm)] were constructed by filling PAA hydrogel into GdVO(4) hollow spheres via photoinduced polymerization. The up-conversion (UC) emission colors (green, red and blue) can be tuned by changing the codopant compositions in the matrices. The composites have potential applications as bio-probes for cell imaging. Meanwhile, the hybrid spheres can act as T(1) contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) owing to the existence of Gd(3+) ions on the surface of composites. Due to the nature of PAA, DOX-loaded PAA@GdVO(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) system exhibits pH-dependent drug releasing kinetics. A lower pH offers a faster drug release rate. Such character makes the loaded DOX easily released at cancer cells. The cell uptake process of drug-loaded composites was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicate the potential application of the multifunctional composites as theragnostics (effective bimodal imaging probes and pH-responsive drug carriers). PMID:23154448

  20. Ultrasonic Velocity, Viscosity and Refractive Index Investigation on Interacting Blend Solutions of PAA (Poly Acrylic Acid) and PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) in Solvent DMSO (Di methyl Sulphoxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamani, Chakrala

    2010-11-01

    The present study provides a great insight into the major new research areas like Plasma research (which is yielding a greater understanding of the universe) and Nano Technology Research (which provides many practical uses like Drug Delivery System). The Ultrasonic Velocities, Viscosities and Refractive indices of Poly (Acrylic Acid) and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) blends in DMSO solutions have been measured over a wide range of composition, concentration and at different temperatures. The variation of Ultrasonic Velocity, derived acoustical parameters, adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, Rao number, molar compressibility and relaxation strength with composition of blend solution was found not linear. This non-linearity has been attributed to incompatibility in conformity with the earlier findings. This behavior was confirmed by Viscometric and interaction parameters studies, as well as by investigation of Refractive index studies. These investigations offer an entirely new and simple approach to the study of the compatibility of polymer blends which is in general obtained by sophisticated techniques of thermal dynamic mechanical and electron microscopic analysis.

  1. "Stable-on-the-Table" Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Ananta; Zore, Omkar V; Thilakarathne, Vindya K; Briand, Victoria A; Lenehan, Patrick J; Lei, Yu; Kasi, Rajeswari M; Kumar, Challa V

    2015-01-01

    In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, M(W) 450k), and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17-20 psi) without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at -0.279 and -0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications. PMID:26393601

  2. pH- and ionic-strength-induced structural changes in poly(acrylic acid)-lipid-based self-assembled materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Crisci, A.; Hay, D. N. T.; Seifert, S.; Firestone, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a polyanion introduced as a lipid conjugate (poly(acrylic acid)- dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, PAA-DMPE) on the structure of a self-assembled, biomembrane mimetic has been evaluated using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). At high grafting density (8-11 mol.%), the PAA chains were found to produce significant changes in structure in response to changes in pH and electrolyte composition. At low pH and in the absence of salt (NaCl), the neutral PAA chains adopt a coil conformational state that leads to the formation of a swollen lamellar structure. Upon the addition of salt at low to intermediate pH values, two lamellar phases, a collapsed and an expanded structure, coexist. Finally, when the polymer is fully ionized (at high pH), the extended conformation of the polymer generates a cubic phase. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of how polyelectrolytes may ultimately be harnessed for the preparation of self-assembling materials responsive to external stimuli.

  3. Strategy for identifying unknown hemoglobin adducts using adductome LC-MS/MS data: Identification of adducts corresponding to acrylic acid, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 1-octen-3-one.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2016-06-01

    Electrophilic compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA in tissues, and thereby constitute risks for toxic effects. Adductomic approaches are developed for systematic screening of adducts to DNA and blood proteins, with the aim to detect unknown internal exposures to electrophiles. In a previous adductomic screening of adducts to N-terminals in hemoglobin, using LC-MS/MS, 19 unknown adducts were detected in addition to seven previously identified adducts. The present paper describes the identification of four of these unknown adducts, as well as the strategy used to identify them. Using LC-MS data from the screening, hypotheses about adduct identities were formulated: probable precursor electrophiles with matching molecular weights were suggested based on the molecular weights of the modifications and the retention times of the analytes, in combination with comparisons of theoretical Log P calculations and databases. Reference adducts were generated by incubation of blood samples with the hypothesized precursor electrophiles. The four identified precursor electrophiles, corresponding to the observed unknown adducts, were glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acrylic acid and 1-octen-3-one. Possible origins/exposure sources and toxicological information concerning the electrophilic precursors are discussed. The identified adducts could be explored as possible biomarkers for exposure. PMID:27046699

  4. Phase-transfer behavior of cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) particles prepared by dispersion polymerization from ionic liquid to water.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hideto; Mizuta, Yusuke; Kimura, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The phase-transfer behavior of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles from the hydrophobic ionic liquid N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide phase to the water phase in the particle state, which we reported previously, was examined in more detail. PAA particles were prepared in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([Bmim][TFSA]) and the organic solvent chloroform and were extracted. The transfer of PAA particles to water in the particle state was also observed in [Bmim][TFSA] systems. In contrast, the transfer phenomenon was not observed in the chloroform system. It was clarified that water/oil interfacial tension γ(wo) is an important parameter in the extraction of PAA in the particle state from the viewpoint of free energy. When the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, aqueous solution was used as the extraction medium, the PAA particles were extracted in the particle state from chloroform to water, in which γ(wo) became as low as that of the ionic liquid. This suggests that the phase-transfer phenomenon of PAA particles in the particle state was induced by the ionic liquid's unique property of low interfacial tension with water despite its high hydrophobic character. PMID:22235893

  5. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95 MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20 MPa after immersing for 30 days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37 °C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption. PMID:27040248

  6. Poly(acrylic acid) Bridged Gadolinium Metal-Organic Framework-Gold Nanoparticle Composites as Contrast Agents for Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chixia; Zhu, Liping; Lin, Feng; Boyes, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) have received significant attention in the development of techniques for early-stage cancer diagnosis. Gadolinium (Gd) (III), which has seven unpaired electrons and a large magnetic moment, can dramatically influence the water proton relaxation and hence exhibits excellent MRI contrast. On the other hand, gold (Au), which has a high atomic number and high x-ray attenuation coefficient, is an ideal contrast agent candidate for x-ray based CT imaging. Gd metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles with tunable size, high Gd (III) loading and multivalency can potentially overcome the limitations of clinically utilized Gd chelate contrast agents. In this work, we report for the first time the integration of GdMOF nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the preparation of a MRI/CT bimodal imaging agent. Highly stable hybrid GdMOF/AuNPs composites have been prepared by using poly(acrylic acid) as a bridge between the GdMOF nanoparticles and AuNPs. The hybrid nanocomposites were then evaluated in MRI and CT imaging. The results revealed high longitudinal relaxivity in MRI and excellent CT imaging performance. Therefore, these GdMOF/AuNPs hybrid nanocomposites potentially provide a new platform for the development of multi-modal imaging probes. PMID:26147906

  7. Sono-assisted photocatalytic degradation of styrene-acrylic acid copolymer in aqueous media with nano titania particles and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Saien, J; Delavari, H; Solymani, A R

    2010-05-15

    The ultrasonic irradiation (28 kHz, 50 W) in pre-cavitations regime was employed to enhance the degradation rate of styrene-acrylic acid copolymer in aqueous media with nano titania photocatalyst particles. A stainless steel cylindrical sono-photo reactor with capacity of about 1.25 L, equipped with a UV lamp (250 W) was used. The influence of operational parameters, i.e. catalyst concentration, pH and temperature was studied and the role of active species was also distinguished. For an initial substrate concentration of 30 mg L(-1), under mild applied conditions of 30 mg L(-1) of photocatalyst, 25 degrees C and natural pH, a degradation and mineralization conversion of 96% and 91%, respectively, was achieved using sono-assisted photocatalysis process in about only 60 min. These efficiencies are much higher than those obtained with only photocatalysis process. Meanwhile, the threshold of cavitations was found corresponded to catalyst concentration of about 70 mg L(-1). Kinetic studies based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood and power law models in addition to the results from radical scavenger usage revealed that for sono-assisted process, the substrate undergoes degradation mainly via electron-hole redox on the surface of titania particles. It is while for the only photocatalysis process, the reaction proceeds via hydroxyl radicals in the solution bulk. PMID:20092940

  8. Metal ions doped chitosan-poly(acrylic acid) nanospheres: Synthesis and their application in simultaneously electrochemical detection of four markers of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rong, Qinfeng; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a one-pot method was designed to synthesize copper ions, cadmium ions, lead ions and zinc ions doped chitosan-poly(acrylic acid) nanospheres. Those nanospheres can not only produce independent electrochemical signals, but also react with glutaraldehyde (GA) to immobilize different labeled antibodies. Using the modified nanospheres as immunoprobes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was fabricated to simultaneous detection of four tumor markers (CEA, CA199, CA125 and CA242) of pancreatic cancer. This designed immunosensor exhibited good linear relationships in range from 0.1 to 100ng mL(-1) for CEA, 1 to 150UmL(-1) for CA199, CA125 and CA242, corresponding detection limits 0.02ng mL(-1), 0.4UmL(-1), 0.3UmL(-1) and 0.4UmL(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the immunosensor was applied in analysis of clinical serum samples, whose results were well agreed with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicating that the proposed immunosensor gave a hope for the identification and validation of specific early cancer. PMID:26318783

  9. Poly(acrylic acid)-regulated Synthesis of Rod-Like Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Yao, Chenxue; Cui, Zhengyang; Luo, Dandan; Lee, In-Seop; Yao, Juming; Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate, especially with nanostructure, has been considered as a good candidate material for bone regeneration due to its excellent biodegradability and osteoconductivity. In this study, rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Rod-CC NPs) with desired water dispersibility were achieved with the regulation of poly (acrylic acid). Characterization results revealed that the Rod-CC NPs had an average length of 240 nm, a width of 90 nm with an average aspect ratio of 2.60 and a negative ζ-potential of −22.25 ± 0.35 mV. The degradation study illustrated the nanoparticles degraded 23% at pH 7.4 and 45% at pH 5.6 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution within three months. When cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells, the Rod-CC NPs exhibited a positive effect on the proliferation of osteoblast cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays together with the osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression observations demonstrated the nanoparticles could induce the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Our study developed well-dispersed rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles which have great potential to be used in bone regeneration. PMID:27164090

  10. Palladium Nanoparticles Embedded in a Layer-by-Layer Nanoreactor Built with Poly(Acrylic Acid) Using "Electro-Click Chemistry".

    PubMed

    Villalba, Matias; Bossi, Mariano; Pozo, Maria Del; Calvo, Ernesto J

    2016-07-12

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were formed by electrochemical reduction of Pd(NH3)4(3+) ions entrapped by ion exchange in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer films grown by the Sharpless "click reaction." The alkyne (PAAalk) and azide (PAAaz) groups were covalently bound to the PAA, and the catalyzed buildup of the multilayer film was performed by electrochemical reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+). The size of the Pd NPs formed in Au/(PAAalk)3(PAAaz)2 multilayer films by the click reaction, that is, 50 nm, is larger than that of similar Pd NPs formed in electrostatically bound Au/(PAA)3(PAH)2 nanoreactors, that is, 6-9 nm, under similar conditions. A combination of electrochemical methods and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), ellipsometry, and scanning electron microscopy has been used to follow these processes. Cyclic voltammetry of the resulting Pd NPs in a 0.1 M H2SO4 solution at 0.1 V·s(-1) shows the PdO reduction peak at the same potential as that on the clean Pd surface unlike the NPs formed in electrostatically self-assembled Au/(PAA)3(PAH)2 nanoreactors with a 0.2 V shift in the cathodic direction most probably because of the strong adsorption of amino groups on the Pd NP surfaces. PMID:27308840

  11. Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive and antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes blended with poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Qihua

    2014-11-15

    Functional terpolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-HEMA-AA)) was synthesized via a radical polymerization method. The terpolymer could be directly blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to prepare the microfiltration (MF) membranes via phase separate process. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the nuclear magnetic resonance proton spectra ((1)H NMR). The membrane had the typical asymmetric structure and the hydrophilic side chains tended to aggregate on the membrane surface. The surface enrichment of amphiphilic copolymer and morphology of MF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle (CA) and water uptake were also tested to assess the hydrophilicity and wetting characteristics of the polymer surface. The water filtration properties were measured. It was found the modified membranes showed excellent pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility behavior. Furthermore, the hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased, and the membranes showed good protein antifouling property. PMID:25203908

  12. Characterization of the oxide formed in the presence of poly acrylic acid over the steam generator structural materials of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Akhilesh C.; Rufus, Appadurai L.; Suresh, Sumathi; Chandramohan, Palogi; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2013-06-01

    On-line addition of polymeric dispersants, such as poly acrylic acid (PAA), to the steam generator (SG) results in the formation of a better protective inner oxide layer that reduces subsequent corrosion of structural materials. Its dispersive action inhibits the growth of a secondary oxide layer thereby facilitating their easy removal. This paper discusses the effect of PAA on the nature of oxides formed over the surfaces of SG. In the case of carbon steel, the inner oxide layer (magnetite) formed in the presence of PAA was protective. Electrochemical studies showed a minimum concentration of 350 ppb of PAA was found to be optimum. On the monel surface, in the absence of PAA, nickel ferrite was formed while in the presence of PAA, the oxide formed was a mixture of oxides of copper and nickel. A concentration of 700 ppb of PAA was found to be optimum for monel. In the case of incoloy, the effect of PAA was not discernible except for the size and morphology of the crystallites formed.

  13. Measurement of non-DLVO force on a silicon substrate coated with ammonium poly(acrylic acid) using scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Toshihiro; Nakano, Yosuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2009-07-01

    The repulsive force originating from steric hindrance of polymers in aqueous solvent was investigated using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The contact angle (CA) of ammonium poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) solution on the Si surface was measured to estimate the state of the Si substrate. Results of CA measurement show that the Si surface was fully covered with PAA at 0.1 mass% in aqueous solution. The interaction force between the Si tip and the wafer was estimated using the SPM force curve mode. The force curve measured in the ion-exchanged purified water showed the typical relation predicted by Derjaguin-Landau-Verway-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. However, the force curve shape in the 0.1 mass% PAA solution was significantly different. Only a repulsive force was observed at less than about 4 nm of separation distance between the Si wafer and cantilever tip. This distance originated from the steric repulsions of PAA adsorbed onto the Si wafer and cantilever tip.

  14. pH-responsive controlled-release fertilizer with water retention via atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylic acid on mussel-inspired initiator.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-yuan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Zhang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-06-12

    This work reports a polydopamine-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (Pdop-g-PAA)-coated controlled-release multi-element compound fertilizer with water-retention function by a combination of mussel-inspired chemistry and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) techniques for the first time. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometry. The results revealed that the stimuli-responsive layer formed by a Pdop inner layer and a PAA outer corona exhibit outstanding selective permeability to charged nutrients and the release rate of encapsulated elements can be tailored by the pH values. At low pH, the Pdop-g-PAA layer can reduce nutrient loss, and at high pH, the coating restrains transportation of negative nutrients but favors the release of cations. Moreover, PAA brushes provide good water-retention property. This Pdop-graft-polymer brushes coating will be effective and promising in the research and development of multi-functional controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23692274

  15. Un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine, alanine, serine, threonine, and aspartic acid in gas phase: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Snehasis; Singh, Ajeet; Ojha, Animesh K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present report, un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and aspartic acid (Asp) has been investigated in gas phase via two steps reaction mechanism and concerted mechanism at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. The peptide bond is formed through a nucleophilic reaction via transition states, TS1 and TS2 in stepwise mechanism. The TS1 reveals formation of a new C-N bond while TS2 illustrate the formation of C=O bond. In case of concerted mechanism, C-N bond is formed by a single four-centre transition state (TS3). The energy barrier is used to explain the involvement of energy at each step of the reaction. The energy barrier (20-48 kcal/mol) is required for the transformation of reactant state R1 to TS1 state and intermediate state I1 to TS2 state. The large value of energy barrier is explained in terms of distortion and interaction energies for stepwise mechanism. The energy barrier of TS3 in concerted mechanism is very close to the energy barrier of the first transition state (TS1) of the stepwise mechanism for the formation of Gly-Gly and Ala-Ala di- peptide. However, in case of Ser-Ser, Thr-Thr and Asp-Asp di-peptide, the energy barrier of TS3 is relatively high than that of the energy barrier of TS1 calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. In both the mechanisms, the value of energy barrier calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is greater than that of the value calculated at M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory.

  16. Preparation and dielectric analysis of microphase-separated poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, D.Shiaw-Guang; Lin, Yow-Shi

    1993-12-31

    The acidic hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile was carried out to yield a variety of terpolymers made up of nitriles, amides and acids. The formation of block structure was shown to follow a ripper mechanism occurring to acrylamide groups, that is more pronounced for a certain range of acrylamide content, evidenced by the composition analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR and base titration. The rates of formation of acrylamide fraction and acid fraction in the consecutive mode are approximately the same, yielding the content of ionic groups from 0.8 to 2.2. mole percent, dependent on the time of hydrolysis. The dielectric relaxation measurement on swollen gels shows three relaxation transitions, {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, over -150{degrees}C to 0{degrees}C, as influenced by the chemical composition and water absorption. The {beta} and {gamma} are associated with the polymer-water interaction and short-range motion of polymers and water.

  17. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  18. Functional Lactide Monomers: Methodology and Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Warren W.; Noga, David E.; Hardcastle, Kenneth I.; García, Andrés J.; M. Collard, David; Weck, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Side-chain functionalized lactide analogues have been synthesized from commercially available amino acids and polymerized using stannous octoate as a catalyst. The synthetic strategy presented allows for the incorporation of any protected amino acid for the preparation of functionalized diastereomerically pure lactide monomers. The resulting functionalized cyclic monomers can be homopolymerized, and copolymerized with lactides, then quantitatively deprotected forming new functional poly(lactide)-based materials. This strategy allows for the introduction of functional groups along a poly(lactide) (PLA) backbone that after deprotection can be viewed as chemical handles for further functionalization of PLA, yielding improved biomaterials for a variety of applications. PMID:16768392

  19. Improving the hydrophilicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) porous membranes by electron beam initiated surface grafting of AA/SSS binary monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

    2006-12-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were pre-irradiated by electron beam in vacuum, and then the hydrophilic sulfonate groups were introduced by the single step grafting method with binary monomer solution of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SSS). The effect of binary monomer ratio and pH of reaction solution on the degree of grafting was investigated. The surface chemical change was characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Morphological changes on the membrane surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface hydrophilicity of the modified membrane was characterized through water contact angle measurement. It was found that the water contact angle of the membrane surface decreased significantly when compared with the original one, indicating the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity.

  20. Properties and mechanisms of drug release from matrix tablets containing poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(acrylic acid) as release retardants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Meng, Fan; Lubach, Joseph; Koleng, Joseph; Watson, N A

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in aqueous medium at pH 6.8 were investigated in the current study. We have also studied the effect of interpolymer interactions and various formulation variables, including the molecular weight of PEO, the ratio between PEO and PAA, the crystallinity of PEO, and the presence of an acidifying agent, on the release of theophylline from matrix tablets containing both PEO and PAA as release retardants. At pH 6.8, the synergy in solution viscosity between PEO and PAA as the result of ion-dipole interaction was observed in this study. The release of theophylline from the matrix tablets containing physical mixtures of PEO and PAA was found to be a function of dissolution medium pH because of the pH-dependent interactions between these two polymers. Because of the formation of water insoluble interpolymer complex between PEO and PAA in aqueous medium at pH below 4.0, the release of theophylline was independent of PEO molecular weight and was controlled by Fickian diffusion mechanism in 0.01N hydrochloric acid solution. In comparison, the drug release was a function of PEO molecular weight and followed the anomalous transport mechanism in phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The presence of PAA exerted opposite effects on the release of theophylline in phosphate buffer pH 6.8. In one aspect, theophylline release was accelerated because the erosion of PAA was much faster than that of PEO at pH6.8. On the opposite aspect, theophylline release was slowed down because of the formation of insoluble complex inside the gel layer as the result of the acidic microenvironment induced by PAA, and the increase in the viscosity of the gel layer as the result of the synergy between PEO and PAA. These two opposite effects offset each other. As a result, the release of theophylline remained statistically the same even when 75% PEO in the formulation was replaced with PAA. In phosphate buffer pH 6.8, the release of

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis due to urethane acrylate in ultraviolet cured inks.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J R; Jakubovic, H R; Pilger, C; Smith, J W

    1983-01-01

    Seven workers exposed to ultraviolet printing inks developed contact dermatitis. Six cases were allergic and one irritant. A urethane acrylate resin accounted for five cases of sensitisation, one of which was also sensitive to pentaerythritol triacrylate and another also to an epoxy acrylate resin. One instance of allergy to trimethylpropane triacrylate accounted for the sixth case of contact dermatitis in this group of workers. An irritant reaction is presumed to account for the dermatitis in the individual not proved to have cutaneous allergy by patch tests. In this instance trimethylpropane triacrylate was thought to be the most likely irritating agent. Laboratory investigation proved urethane acrylate to be an allergen. The results of investigations of the sensitisation potentials of urethane acrylate, methylmethacrylate, epoxy acrylate resins, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, and other multifunctional acrylic monomers in the albino guinea pig are presented. The interpretation of such predictive tests is discussed. Images PMID:6223656

  2. Optical limiting response of multi-walled carbon nanotube-phthalocyanine nanocomposite in solution and when in poly (acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhosana, Kutloano Edward; Nyokong, Tebello

    2016-08-01

    Bis{23-(3,4-di-yloxybenzoic acid)-(2(3), 9(10), 16(17), 23(24)-(hexakis-pyridin-3-yloxy phthalocyaninato)} dineodymium (III) acetate (3) is linked to amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to form 3-MWCNT. Z-scan technique was employed to experimentally determine the nonlinear absorption coefficient from the open-aperture data. The limiting threshold values as low as 0.045 J cm-2 were found in solution. The conjugate (3-MWCNT) gave better optical limiting behavior than complex 3 alone.

  3. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylic acid) microgel/Ag nanoparticle hybrids for the colorimetric sensing of H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, De-Man; Matthew Zhang, Qiang; Serpe, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylic acid) (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microgels composed of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been synthesized and employed for the colorimetric sensing of H2O2. Each pNIPAm-co-AAc microgel, which exhibited a diameter of ~800 nm, contained multiple Ag NPs (diameter of ~5 nm), and solutions of these hybrid materials showed a UV-vis absorption band at ~400 nm. This is due to the excitation of the Ag NP surface plasmon. We go on to show that the intensity of this absorption band is dependent on the concentration of H2O2 in solution. Specifically, in the presence of H2O2 the magnitude of the absorption peak dramatically decreases in a linear fashion over the concentration range of 0.30 to 3.00 μM H2O2 (r2 = 0.9918). We go on to show that the response is selective for H2O2 and can still function in complex mixtures, e.g., we showed that the response is still robust in milk samples. While Ag NPs themselves can exhibit similar responses, this system has many benefits including sample processing and long term stability - i.e., Ag NPs are destabilized in solutions of a certain pH, and aggregate readily. Our microgel/Ag NP hybrids have been shown to be extremely stable and are easily purified prior to use by simple centrifugation/washing protocols. This system is simple and straightforward to use, is low cost, and can be used in complex media, which makes it practical for analyzing complex biological and environmental samples.Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylic acid) (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microgels composed of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been synthesized and employed for the colorimetric sensing of H2O2. Each pNIPAm-co-AAc microgel, which exhibited a diameter of ~800 nm, contained multiple Ag NPs (diameter of ~5 nm), and solutions of these hybrid materials showed a UV-vis absorption band at ~400 nm. This is due to the excitation of the Ag NP surface plasmon. We go on to show that the intensity of this absorption band is dependent on the concentration

  4. Formation of High-Capacity Protein-Adsorbing Membranes Through Simple Adsorption of Poly(acrylic acid)-Containing Films at low pH

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Dong, Jinlan; Ma, Yiding; Hovde, Stacy; Geiger, James H; Baker, Gregory L.; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2012-01-01

    Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte adsorption is a simple, convenient method for introducing ion-exchange sites in porous membranes. This study demonstrates that adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-containing films at pH 3 rather than pH 5 increases the protein-binding capacity of such polyelectrolyte-modified membranes 3- to 6-fold. The low adsorption pH generates a high density of –COOH groups that function as either ion-exchange sites or points for covalent immobilization of metal-ion complexes that selectively bind tagged proteins. When functionalized with nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-Ni2+ complexes, membranes containing PAA/polyethyleneimine (PEI)/PAA films bind 93 mg of histidine6-tagged (His-tagged) ubiquitin per cm3 of membrane. Additionally these membranes isolate His-tagged COP9 signalosome complex subunit 8 from cell extracts and show >90% recovery of His-tagged ubiquitin. Although modification with polyelectrolyte films occurs by simply passing polyelectrolyte solutions through the membrane for as little as 5 min, with low-pH deposition the protein binding capacities of such membranes are as high as for membranes modified with polymer brushes and 2–3 fold higher than for commercially available IMAC resins. Moreover, the buffer permeabilities of polyelectrolyte-modified membranes that bind His-tagged protein are ~30% of the corresponding permeabilities of unmodified membranes, so protein capture can occur rapidly with low pressure drops. Even at a solution linear velocity of 570 cm/h, membranes modified with PAA/PEI/PAA exhibit a lysozyme dynamic binding capacity (capacity at 10% breakthrough) of ~ 40 mg/cm3. Preliminary studies suggest that these membranes are stable under depyrogenation conditions (1 M NaOH). PMID:22468687

  5. Heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid--structure, function and dynamics of the V-Mo-W mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Kampe, Philip; Giebeler, Lars; Samuelis, Dominik; Kunert, Jan; Drochner, Alfons; Haass, Frank; Adams, Andreas H; Ott, Joerg; Endres, Silvia; Schimanke, Guido; Buhrmester, Thorsten; Martin, Manfred; Fuess, Hartmut; Vogel, Herbert

    2007-07-21

    The major objective of this research project was to reach a microscopic understanding of the structure, function and dynamics of V-Mo-(W) mixed oxides for the partial oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid. Different model catalysts (from binary and ternary vanadium molybdenum oxides up to quaternary oxides with additional tungsten) were prepared via a solid state preparation route and hydrochemical preparation of precursors by spray-drying or crystallisation with subsequent calcination. The phase composition was investigated ex situ by XRD and HR-TEM. Solid state prepared samples are characterised by crystalline phases associated to suitable phase diagrams. Samples prepared from crystallised and spray-dried precursors show crystalline phases which are not part of the phase diagram. Amorphous or nanocrystalline structures are only found in tungsten doped samples. The kinetics of the partial oxidation as well as the catalysts' structure have been studied in situ by XAS, XRD, temperature programmed reaction and reduction as well as by a transient isotopic tracing technique (SSITKA). The reduction and re-oxidation kinetics of the bulk phase have been evaluated by XAS. A direct influence not only of the catalysts' composition but also of the preparation route is shown. Altogether correlations are drawn between structure, oxygen dynamics and the catalytic performance in terms of activity, selectivity and long-term stability. A model for the solid state behaviour under reaction conditions has been developed. Furthermore, isotope exchange experiments provided a closer image of the mechanism of the selective acrolein oxidation. Based on the in situ characterisation in combination with micro kinetic modelling a detailed reaction model which describes the oxygen exchange and the processes at the catalyst more precisely is discussed. PMID:17612723

  6. Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide through Surface Modification: Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Functionalization is Superior to PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Zhu, Jianqiang; Wang, Fanfan; Xiong, Yunjing; Wu, Yakun; Wang, Qiuquan; Weng, Jian; Zhang, Zhihong; Chen, Wei; Liu, Sijin

    2016-03-22

    The unique physicochemical properties of two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) could greatly benefit the biomedical field; however, recent research demonstrated that GO could induce in vitro and in vivo toxicity. We determined the mechanism of GO induced toxicity, and our in vitro experiments revealed that pristine GO could impair cell membrane integrity and functions including regulation of membrane- and cytoskeleton-associated genes, membrane permeability, fluidity and ion channels. Furthermore, GO induced platelet depletion, pro-inflammatory response and pathological changes of lung and liver in mice. To improve the biocompatibility of pristine GO, we prepared a series of GO derivatives including aminated GO (GO-NH2), poly(acrylamide)-functionalized GO (GO-PAM), poly(acrylic acid)-functionalized GO (GO-PAA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized GO (GO-PEG), and compared their toxicity with pristine GO in vitro and in vivo. Among these GO derivatives, GO-PEG and GO-PAA induced less toxicity than pristine GO, and GO-PAA was the most biocompatible one in vitro and in vivo. The differences in biocompatibility were due to the differential compositions of protein corona, especially immunoglobulin G (IgG), formed on their surfaces that determine their cell membrane interaction and cellular uptake, the extent of platelet depletion in blood, thrombus formation under short-term exposure and the pro-inflammatory effects under long-term exposure. Overall, our combined data delineated the key molecular mechanisms underlying the in vivo and in vitro biological behaviors and toxicity of pristine GO, and identified a safer GO derivative that could be used for future applications. PMID:26855010

  7. Electrospun Poly(acrylic acid)/Silica Hydrogel Nanofibers Scaffold for Highly Efficient Adsorption of Lanthanide Ions and Its Photoluminescence Performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Li, Xiong; Hua, Weikang; Shen, Lingdi; Yu, Xufeng; Wang, Xuefen

    2016-09-14

    Combined with the features of electrospun nanofibers and the nature of hydrogel, a novel choreographed poly(acrylic acid)-silica hydrogel nanofibers (PAA-S HNFs) scaffold with excellent rare earth elements (REEs) recovery performance was fabricated by a facile route consisting of colloid-electrospinning of PAA/SiO2 precursor solution, moderate thermal cross-linking of PAA-S nanofiber matrix, and full swelling in water. The resultant PAA-S HNFs with a loose and spongy porous network structure exhibited a remarkable adsorption capacity of lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) triggered by the penetration of Ln(3+) from the nanofiber surface to interior through the abundant water channels, which took full advantage of the internal adsorption sites of nanofibers. The effects of initial solution pH, concentration, and contact time on adsorption of Ln(3+) have been investigated comprehensively. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacities for La(3+), Eu(3+), and Tb(3+) were 232.6, 268.8, and 250.0 mg/g, respectively, at pH 6, and the adsorption data were well-fitted to the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order models. The resultant PAA-S HNFs scaffolds could be regenerated successfully. Furthermore, the proposed adsorption mechanism of Ln(3+) on PAA-S HNFs scaffolds was the formation of bidentate carboxylates between carboxyl groups and Ln(3+) confirmed by FT-IR and XPS analysis. The well-designed PAA-S HNFs scaffold can be used as a promising alternative for effective REEs recovery. Moreover, benefiting from the unique features of Ln(3+), the Ln-PAA-S HNFs simultaneously exhibited versatile advantages including good photoluminescent performance, tunable emission color, and excellent flexibility and processability, which also hold great potential for applications in luminescent patterning, underwater fluorescent devices, sensors, and biomaterials, among others. PMID:27537710

  8. Unusually Stable Hysteresis in the pH-Response of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes Confined within Nanoporous Block Polymer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jacob L; Mulvenna, Ryan A; Boudouris, Bryan W; Phillip, William A

    2016-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive soft materials are a highly studied field due to their wide-ranging applications; however, only a small group of these materials display hysteretic responses to stimuli. Moreover, previous reports of this behavior have typically shown it to be short-lived. In this work, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains at extremely high grafting densities and confined in nanoscale pores displayed a unique long-lived hysteretic behavior caused by their ability to form a metastable hydrogen bond network. Hydraulic permeability measurements demonstrated that the conformation of the PAA chains exhibited a hysteretic dependence on pH, where different effective pore diameters arose in a pH range of 3 to 8, as determined by the pH of the previous environment. Further studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the fraction of ionized PAA moieties depended on the thin film history; this was corroborated by metal adsorption capacity, which demonstrated the same pH dependence. This hysteresis was shown to be persistent, enduring for days, in a manner unlike most other systems. The hypothesis that hydrogen bonding among PAA units contributed to the hysteretic behavior was supported by experiments with a urea solution, which disrupted the metastable hydrogen bonded state of PAA toward its ionized state. The ability of PAA to hydrogen bond within these confined pores results in a stable and tunable hysteresis not previously observed in homopolymer materials. An enhanced understanding of the polymer chemistry and physics governing this hysteresis gives insight into the design and manipulation of next-generation sensors and gating materials in nanoscale applications. PMID:27172428

  9. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks for improving optrode-neural tissue interface in optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Li, Yanling; Pan, Jianqing; Wei, Pengfei; Liu, Nan; Wu, Bifeng; Cheng, Jinbo; Lu, Caiyi; Wang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The field of optogenetics has been successfully used to understand the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric diseases through the precise spatial and temporal control of specific groups of neurons in a neural circuitry. However, it remains a great challenge to integrate optogenetic modulation with electrophysiological and behavioral read out methods as a means to explore the causal, temporally precise, and behaviorally relevant interactions of neurons in the specific circuits of freely behaving animals. In this study, an eight-channel chronically implantable optrode array was fabricated and modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks (PEDOT/PSS-PVA/PAA IPNs) for improving the optrode-neural tissue interface. The conducting polymer-hydrogel IPN films exhibited a significantly higher capacitance and lower electrochemical impedance at 1 kHz as compared to unmodified optrode sites and showed significantly improved mechanical and electrochemical stability as compared to pure conducting polymer films. The cell attachment and neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells on the IPN films were clearly observed through calcein-AM staining. Furthermore, the optrode arrays were chronically implanted into the hippocampus of SD rats after the lentiviral expression of synapsin-ChR2-EYFP, and light-evoked, frequency-dependant action potentials were obtained in freely moving animals. The electrical recording results suggested that the modified optrode arrays showed significantly reduced impedance and RMS noise and an improved SNR as compared to unmodified sites, which may have benefited from the improved electrochemical performance and biocompatibility of the deposited IPN films. All these characteristics are greatly desired in optogenetic applications, and the fabrication method of conducting polymer-hydrogel IPNs can be easily integrated with other modification methods to build a

  10. Physicochemical properties of pH-controlled polyion complex (PIC) micelles of poly(acrylic acid)-based double hydrophilic block copolymers and various polyamines.

    PubMed

    Warnant, J; Marcotte, N; Reboul, J; Layrac, G; Aqil, A; Jerôme, C; Lerner, D A; Gérardin, C

    2012-05-01

    The physicochemical properties of polyion complex (PIC) micelles were investigated in order to characterize the cores constituted of electrostatic complexes of two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The pH-sensitive micelles were obtained with double hydrophilic block copolymers containing a poly(acrylic acid) block linked to a modified poly(ethylene oxide) block and various polyamines (polylysine, linear and branched polyethyleneimine, polyvinylpyridine, and polyallylamine). The pH range of micellization in which both components are ionized was determined for each polyamine. The resulting PIC micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments (SAXS). The PIC micelles presented a core-corona nanostructure with variable polymer density contrasts between the core and the corona, as revealed by the analysis of the SAXS curves. It was shown that PIC micelle cores constituted by polyacrylate chains and polyamines were more or less dense depending on the nature of the polyamine. It was also determined that the density of the cores of the PIC micelles depended strongly on the nature of the polyamine. These homogeneous cores were surrounded by a large hairy corona of hydrated polyethylene oxide block chains. Auramine O (AO) was successfully entrapped in the PIC micelles, and its fluorescence properties were used to get more insight on the core properties. Fluorescence data confirmed that the cores of such micelles are quite compact and that their microviscosity depended on the nature of the polyamine. The results obtained on these core-shell micelles allow contemplating a wide range of applications in which the AO probe would be replaced by various cationic drugs or other similarly charged species to form drug nanocarriers or new functional nanodevices. PMID:22453608

  11. Hydrophilic surface modification of acrylate-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Arnal-Pastor, M; Comín-Cebrián, S; Martínez-Ramos, C; Monleón Pradas, M; Vallés-Lluch, A

    2016-04-01

    Acrylic polymers have proved to be excellent with regard to cell adhesion, colonization and survival, in vitro and in vivo. Highly ordered and regular pore structures thereof can be produced with the help of polyamide templates, which are removed with nitric acid. This treatment converts a fraction of the ethyl acrylate side groups into acrylic acid, turning poly(ethyl acrylate) scaffolds into a more hydrophilic and pH-sensitive substrate, while its good biological performance remains intact. To quantify the extent of such a modification, and be able to characterize the degree of hydrophilicity of poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate) was treated with acid for different times (four, nine and 17 days), and compared with poly(acrylic acid) and a 90/10%wt. EA/AAc copolymer (P(EA-co-AAc)). The biological performance was also assessed for samples immersed in acid up to four days and the copolymer, and it was found that the incorporation of acidic units on the material surface was not prejudicial for cells. This surface modification of 3D porous hydrophobic scaffolds makes easier the wetting with culture medium and aqueous solutions in general, and thus represents an advantage in the manageability of the scaffolds. PMID:26767395

  12. Interference of functional monomers with polymerization efficiency of adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hanabusa, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Okihara, Takumi; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Momoi, Yasuko; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives is affected by acidic functional monomers as a result of inactivation of the amine co-initiator through an acid-base reaction. During bonding, functional monomers of self-etch adhesives chemically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Here, we tested in how far the latter interaction of functional monomers with HAp counteracts the expected reduction in DC of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives. The DC of three experimental adhesive formulations, containing either of the two functional monomers [10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) or 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid anhydride (4-META)] or no functional monomer (no-FM; control), was measured with and without HAp powder added to the adhesive formulations. Both the variables 'functional monomer' and 'HAp' were found to be significant, with the functional monomer reducing the DC and HAp counteracting this effect. It is concluded that the functional monomers 10-MDP and 4-META interfere with the polymerization efficiency of adhesives. This interference is less prominent in the presence of HAp, which would clinically correspond to when these two functional monomers of the adhesive simultaneously interact with HAp in tooth tissue. PMID:26864705

  13. Rapid removal of copper with magnetic poly-acrylic weak acid resin: quantitative role of bead radius on ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lichun; Shuang, Chendong; Liu, Fuqiang; Li, Aimin; Li, Yan; Zhou, Yang; Song, Haiou

    2014-05-15

    A novel magnetic weak acid resin NDMC was self-synthesized for the removal of Cu(2+) from aqueous solutions. NDMC showed superior properties on the removal of Cu(2+) compared to commercial resins C106 and IRC-748, which was deeply investigated by adsorption isotherms and kinetic tests. The equilibrium adsorption amount of Cu(2+) onto NDMC (267.2mg/g) was almost twice as large as that onto IRC-748 (120.0mg/g). The adsorption kinetics of Cu(2+) onto the three resins fitted well with the pseudo-second-order equation. The initial adsorption rate h of NDMC was about 4 times that of C106 and nearly 8 times that of IRC-748 at the initial concentration of 500mg/L. External surface area was determined to be the key factor in rate-controlling by further analyzing the adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics parameters and physicochemical properties of the resins. NDMC resin with the smallest bead radius possessed the largest external surface and therefore exhibited the fastest kinetics. The adsorption amount of Cu(2+) onto NDMC was not influenced as the concentration of Na(+) increased from 1.0 to 10.0mM/L. Dilute HCl solution could effectively desorb Cu(2+). NDMC demonstrated high stability during 10 adsorption/desorption cycles, showing great potential in the rapid removal of Cu(2+) from wastewater. PMID:24681592

  14. Surface functionalisation of polypropylene hernia-repair meshes by RF-activated plasma polymerisation of acrylic acid and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Rosellini, Andrea; Rivolo, Paola; Faga, Maria Giulia; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna; Castellino, Micaela; Virga, Alessandro; Mandracci, Pietro; Malandrino, Mery; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2015-02-01

    Hernia diseases are among the most common and diffuse causes of surgical interventions. Unfortunately, still nowadays there are different phenomena which can cause the hernioplasty failure, for instance post-operative prostheses displacements and proliferation of bacteria in the surgical site. In order to limit these problems, commercial polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene/Teflon (PP/PTFE) bi-material meshes were surface functionalised to confer adhesive properties (and therefore reduce undesired displacements) using polyacrylic acid synthesized by plasma polymerisation (PPAA). A broad physico-chemical and morphological characterisation was carried out and adhesion properties were investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) used in force/distance (F/D) mode. Once biomedical devices surface was functionalised by PPAA coating, metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antimicrobial properties were synthesised and loaded onto the polymeric prostheses. The effect of the PPAA, containing carboxylic functionalities, adhesive coating towards AgNPs loading capacity was verified by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Preliminary measurement of the Ag loaded amount and release in water were also investigated via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Promising results were obtained for the functionalised biomaterials, encouraging future in vitro and in vivo tests.

  15. Analytical investigations of poly(acrylic acid) coatings electrodeposited on titanium-based implants: a versatile approach to biocompatibility enhancement.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, E; Cometa, S; Cioffi, N; Torsi, L; Sabbatini, L

    2007-12-01

    A polyacrylic acid film was synthesized on titanium substrates from aqueous solutions via an electroreductive process for the first time. This work was done in order to develop a versatile coating for titanium-based orthopaedic implants that acts as both an effective bioactive surface and an effective anti-corrosion barrier. The chemical structure of the PAA coating was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to evaluate the effect of annealing treatment on the morphology of the coatings in terms of their uniformity and porosity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure ion concentrations in ion release tests performed on Ti-6Al-4V sheets modified with PAA coatings (annealed and unannealed). Results indicate that the annealing process produces coatings that possess considerable anti-corrosion performance. Moreover, the availability and the reactivity of the surface carboxylic groups were exploited in order to graft biological molecules onto the PAA-modified titanium implants. The feasibility of the grafting reaction was tested using a single aminoacid residue. A fluorinated aminoacid was selected, and the grafting reaction was monitored both by XPS, using fluorine as a marker element, and via quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The success of the grafting reaction opens the door to the synthesis of a wide variety of PAA-based coatings that are functionalized with selected bioactive molecules and promote positive reactions with the biological system interfacing the implant while considerably reducing ion release into surrounding tissues. PMID:17516054

  16. Antistatic coating for acrylics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Somono, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    After immersion in low molecular-weight solvents such as acetonitril or nitromethane, clear acrylic plastics dissipate up to 70% of induced electric charge within one minute, yet retain optical clarity.

  17. Matrix tablets based on thiolated poly(acrylic acid): pH-dependent variation in disintegration and mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Guggi, Davide; Marschütz, Michaela K; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2004-04-15

    This study examined the influence of the pH on the mucoadhesive and cohesive properties of polyarcylic acid (PAA) and thiolated PAA. The pH of PAA (molecular mass: 450 kDa) and of a corresponding PAA-cysteine conjugate was adjusted to 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The amount of immobilised thiol groups and disulfide bonds was determined via Ellman's reagent. Tablets were compressed out of each pH-batch of both thiolated and unmodified PAA and the swelling behaviour, the disintegration time and the mucoadhesiveness were evaluated. The amount of thiol/disulfide groups per gram thiolated PAA of pH 3 and pH 8 was determined to be 332 +/- 94 micromol and 162 +/- 46 micromol, respectively. The thiolated PAA tablets displayed a minimum four-fold higher water uptake compared to unmodified PAA tablets. A faster and higher water uptake of both polymer types was observed above pH 5. Thiolated polymer tablets showed a 3-20-fold more prolonged disintegration time than unmodified PAA tablets. The cohesiveness of PAA-cysteine conjugate increased at higher pH, whereas the unmodified PAA behaved inversely. A 3-7-fold stronger mucoadhesiveness was observed for the PAA-cysteine conjugate tablets compared to unmodified PAA tablets. For both thiolated and unmodified polymer the mucoadhesiveness was 2-4-fold enhanced below pH 5. The difference in mucoadhesion between the two polymer types was most pronounced at these lower pH values. In this study substantial information regarding the pH-dependence of mucoadhesion and cohesion of unmodified polyacrylates and of thiolated polyacrylates is provided, representing helpful basic information for an ameliorated deployment of these polymers. PMID:15072786

  18. The acrylic jacket crown.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M

    1975-04-01

    An attempt has been made to cover briefly the many applications of the acrylic jacket crown. It is readily understandable that this type of restoration has many shortcomings but at the same time it has many useful and important applications in dentistry when properly employed. It is hoped that the specialist and generalist alike will have found some new and useful applications of the acrylic jacket crown. PMID:1090464

  19. Preparation and characterization of hybrid pH-sensitive hydrogels of chitosan-co-acrylic acid for controlled release of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Ranjha, Nazar M; Ayub, Gohar; Naseem, Shahzad; Ansari, Muhammad Tayyab

    2010-10-01

    In the present work crosslinked hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) and acrylic acid (AA) were prepared by free radical polymerization with various feed compositions using N,N methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent. Benzoyl peroxide was used as catalyst. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) confirmed the formation of the crosslinked hydrogels. This hydrogel is formed due to electrostatic interaction between cationic groups in CS and anionic groups in AA. Prepared hydrogels were used for dynamic and equilibrium swelling studies. For swelling behavior, effect of pH, polymeric and monomeric compositions and degree of crosslinking were investigated. Swelling studies were performed in USP phosphate buffer solutions of varying pH 1.2, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5. Results showed that swelling increased by increasing AA contents in structure of hydrogels in solutions of higher pH values. This is due to the presence of more carboxylic groups available for ionization. On the other hand by increasing the chitosan content swelling increased in a solution of acidic pH, but this swelling was not significant and it is due to ionization of amine groups present in the structure of hydrogel. Swelling decreased with increase in crosslinking ratio owing to tighter hydrogel structure. Porosity and sol-gel fraction were also measured. With increase in CS and AA contents porosity and gel fraction increased, whereas by increasing MBA content porosity decreased and gel fraction increased. Furthermore, diffusion coefficient (D) and the network parameters i.e., the average molecular weight between crosslinks (M(c)), polymer volume fraction in swollen state (V(2s)), number of repeating units between crosslinks (M(r)) and crosslinking density (q) were calculated using Flory-Rehner theory. Selected samples were loaded with a model drug verapamil. Release of verapamil depends on the ratios of CS/AA, degree of crosslinking and pH of the medium. The release mechanisms were studied by fitting

  20. Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide/acrylic Acid Copolymers for the Generation of Nanostructures at Mica Surfaces and as Hydrophobic Host Systems for the Porin MspA from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Pubudu; Basel, Matthew T; Lovell, Kimberly; Pokhrel, Megh Raj; Battle, Deletria; Ito, Takashi; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Niederweis, Michael; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2009-09-17

    The work presented here aims at utilizing poly-N-isopropyl-acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers to create nanostructured layers on mica surfaces by a simple spin-casting procedure. The average composition of the copolymers determined by elemental analysis correlates excellently with the feed composition indicating that the radical polymerization process is statistical. The resulting surfaces were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (magnetic AC-mode) at the copolymer/air interface. Postpolymerization modification of the acrylic acid functions with perfluoro-octyl-iodide decreased the tendency towards spontaneous formation of nanopores. Crosslinking of individual polymer chains permitted the generation of ultraflat layers, which hosted the mycobacterial channel protein MspA, without compromising its channel function. The comparison of copolymers of very similar chemical composition that have been prepared by living radical polymerization and classic radical polymerization indicated that differences in polydispersity played only a minor role when poly-N-isopropyl-acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers were spincast, but a major role when copolymers featuring the strongly hydrophobic perfluoro-octyl-labels were used. The mean pore diameters were 23.8+/-4.4 nm for P[(NIPAM)(95.5)-co-(AA)(4.5)] (PDI (polydispersity index)=1.55) and 21.8+/-4.2 nm for P[(NIPAM)(95.3)-co-(AA)(4.7)] (PDI=1.25). The depth of the nanopores was approx. 4 nm. When depositing P[(NIPAM)(95)-co-(AA)(2.8)-AAC(8)F(17 2.2)] (PDI=1.29) on Mica, the resulting mean pore diameter was 35.8+/-7.1 nm, with a depth of only 2 nm. PMID:20161351

  1. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  2. Thermo- and pH-sensitive gel membranes based on poly-(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester)- graft-poly(acrylic acid) for selective permeation of metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Katakai, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2005-04-01

    Thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes were synthesized by γ-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (AAc) onto thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). The gel membranes of poly(A-ProOMe) with 15 mol% graft chains of AAc exhibited both thermo- and pH-responses. Under the condition (pH 6.0, 30°C) in which the thermo-sensitive unit shrinks and the pH-sensitive unit swells, the selective permeation of Li ion over Co and Ni ions can be achieved.

  3. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  4. Synthesis, properties, and applications of composite materials based on grafted copolymers of perfluoropolymers and perfluorinated monomers with functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Mislavsky, B.V.; Melnikov, V.P.

    1993-12-31

    Statistic copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene and perfluorinated alkyl vinyl ethers (PFAVEFG) with functional groups are of wide application as membranes for chloro-alkali cells, fuel cells, etc., due to their unique properties of high thermal and chemical stability. These polymers are also used as catalysts for a wide range of organic reactions. Synthesis of the graft copolymers of PFAVEFG onto fluoropolymers would maintain the advantages of these catalysts while producing insoluble materials and decreasing expensive fluoro-monomer content without reducing the catalytic activity of the copolymers. The structure and catalytic properties of radiation induced graft copolymerization of perfluorinated alkyl vinyl ethers with sulfonyl fluoride (PFAVESF) were studied. Specific catalytic activity of the grafted copolymer was up to 40 times more than the same value for the statistic copolymer. Esterification of acrylic acid, alkylation of substituted phenol were also performed using the grafted copolymers.

  5. Acrylic purification and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzniak, Marcin

    2011-04-27

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  6. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  7. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  8. Synthesis of linear low-density polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organo-montmorillonite hydrogel composite as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(ΙΙ) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Irani, Maryam; Ismail, Hanafi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Fan, Maohong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to remove Pb(II) from the aqueous solution using a type of hydrogel composite. A hydrogel composite consisting of waste linear low density polyethylene, acrylic acid, starch, and organo-montmorillonite was prepared through emulsion polymerization method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Solid carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CNMR)), silicon(-29) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Si NMR)), and X-ray diffraction spectroscope ((XRD) were applied to characterize the hydrogel composite. The hydrogel composite was then employed as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from the aqueous solution. The Pb(II)-loaded hydrogel composite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ((XPS)). From XPS results, it was found that the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of the hydrogel composite participated in the removal of Pb(II). Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) followed the pseudo-second-order equation. It was also found that the Langmuir model described the adsorption isotherm better than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum removal capacity of the hydrogel composite for Pb(II) ions was 430mg/g. Thus, the waste linear low-density polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organo-montmorillonite hydrogel composite could be a promising Pb(II) adsorbent. PMID:25597658

  9. Synthesis of liquid crystalline epoxy monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabia, J.; Galina, H.; Mossety-Leszczak, B.; Ulanski, J.; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Wlochowicz, Andrzej

    2002-06-01

    A two-stage method of synthesis of liquid-crystalline diepoxy monomers has been developed. In the first stage, esterification of 4-hydroxyphenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate or 4,4'- biphenol or 4,4'-dihydroxyazobenzene was carried out using 4-penetenoic acid. The resulting olefinic precursors were oxidized with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to introduce the epoxy groups. The structure of products was confirmed by FT- IR and 1H NMR. Examinations on a polarization microscope with a hot plate confirmed the presence of mesomorphic phases in both the precursors and monomers. The phase transition temperatures were in the range of 73.5 (at cooling) to 128.0 degree(s)C for olefinic precursors and in the range 57.1 (at cooling) to 143 degree(s)C for epoxy compounds, as determined by DSC and thermo-optical analysis (TOA).

  10. Microbial transformation of 8:2 fluorotelomer acrylate and methacrylate in aerobic soils.

    PubMed

    Royer, Laurel A; Lee, Linda S; Russell, Mark H; Nies, Loring F; Turco, Ronald F

    2015-06-01

    Biotransformation of fluorotelomer (FT) compounds, such as 8:2 FT alcohol (FTOH) is now recognized to be a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids. In this study, microbially mediated hydrolysis of FT industrial intermediates 8:2 FT acrylate (8:2 FTAC) and 8:2 FT methacrylate (8:2 FTMAC) was evaluated in aerobic soils for up to 105d. At designated times, triplicate microcosms were sacrificed by sampling the headspace for volatile FTOHs followed by sequential extraction of soil for the parent monomers as well as transient and terminal degradation products. Both FTAC and FTMAC were hydrolyzed at the ester linkage as evidenced by 8:2 FTOH production. 8:2 FTAC and FTMAC degraded rapidly with half-lives ⩽5d and 15d, respectively. Maximum 8:2 FTOH levels were 6-13mol% within 3-6d. Consistent with the known biotransformation pathway of 8:2 FTOH, FT carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were subsequently generated including up to 10.3mol% of PFOA (105d). A total mass balance (parent plus metabolites) of 50-75mol% was observed on the last sampling day. 7:2 sFTOH, a direct precursor to PFOA, unexpectedly increased throughout the incubation period. The likely, but unconfirmed, concomitant production of acrylic acids was proposed as altering expected degradation patterns. Biotransformation of 8:2 FTAC, 8:2 FTMAC, and previously reported 8:2 FT-stearate for the same soils revealed the effect of the non-fluorinated terminus group linked to the FT chain on the electronic differences that affect microbially-mediated ester cleavage rates. PMID:25449186

  11. The sensitizing capacity of multifunctional acrylates in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B

    1984-10-01

    The multifunctional acrylates used in ultraviolet (UV) curable resins act as cross-linkers and "diluents". They are usually based on di(meth)acrylate esters of dialcohols or tri- and tetra-acrylate esters of polyalcohols. In UV-curable coatings, the most commonly used are pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA). In other uses, such as dental composite resin materials, the dimethacrylic monomers based on n-ethylene glycol are the most useful. The sensitizing capacity of various multifunctional acrylates and their cross-reactivity pattern have been investigated with the guinea pig maximization test. The tests show that BUDA (1,4-butanediol diacrylate) and HDDA are moderate to strong sensitizers and that they probably cross-react with each other. The n-ethylene glycol diacrylates and methacrylates tested are weak or non-sensitizers. Tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) is a moderate and neopentyl glycol diacrylate (NPGDA) a strong sensitizer, whereas neopentyl glycol dimethacrylate is a non-sensitizer. The commercial PETA is a mixture of pentaerythritol tri- and tetra-acrylate (PETA-3 and PETA-4). PETA-3 is a much stronger sensitizer than PETA-4. Simultaneous reactions were seen between PETA-3, PETA-4 and TMPTA. The oligotriacrylate OTA 480 is a moderate sensitizer, but no concomitant reactions were seen with PETA-3, PETA-4 or TMPTA. Of the multifunctional acrylates tested, the di- and triacrylic compounds should be regarded as potent sensitizers. The methacrylated multifunctional acrylic compounds are weak or non-sensitizers. PMID:6499426

  12. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Thomas; Erpelding, Michael; Schmid, Josef; Chin, Andrew; Sammons, Rhea; Rockafellow, Erin

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  13. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  14. Hybrid resist systems based on α-substituted acrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sundberg, Linda K.; Bozano, Luisa; Lofano, Elizabeth M.; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Terui, Yoshiharu; Fujiwara, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    Classical electron-beam resists such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Nippon Zeon's ZEP function as high resolution and low roughness positive resists on the basis of radiation induced main chain scission to reduce the molecular weight while chemical amplification resists utilized in device manufacturing function on the basis of acidcatalyzed deprotection to change the polarity. In an attempt to increase the resolution and reduce the line roughness of chemical amplification resists, we prepared copolymers that undergo radiation induced main chain scission and acidcatalyzed deprotection. In another word, we wanted to increase the sensitivity of the PMMA resist by incorporating the acid-catalyzed deprotection mechanism in polymers that undergo main chain scission, maintaining the high resolution and low roughness of PMMA. To synthesize such hybrid resist polymers, we selected α-substituted acrylates and α- substituted styrenes. The former included methyl methacrylate (MMA), t-butyl methacrylate (TBMA), methyl α- fluoroacrylate (MFA), t-butyl α-fluoroacrylate (TBFA), and t-butyl α-trifluoromethylacrylate (TBTFMA) and the latter α-methylstyrene (αMEST), α-methyleneindane (αMEIN), and α-methylenetetralin (αMETL). The α-substituted tbutyl acrylic esters were copolymerized with the methyl esters and also with α-substituted styrenic monomers using 2, 2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN). Hybrid resists were formulated by adding a photochemical acid generator and a base quencher to the copolymers and developers were selected by studying the dissolution behavior of unexposed and 254 nm exposed resist films using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). In addition to the difference in the imaging mechanism, PMMA and ZEP differ from the chemical amplification resists in developers; organic solvent vs. aqueous base. We were interested in looking also into the influence of the developer on the lithographic performance. Contrast curves were generated by exposing

  15. A self-crosslinking thermosetting monomer with both epoxy and anhydride groups derived from Tung oil fatty acids: Synthesis and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A self-crosslinking compound with epoxy groups and anhydride groups (GEMA) has been successfully synthesized from Tung oil fatty acid by reacting with maleic anhydride via the Diels-Alder reaction. GEMA has very good storage stability and can be cured with trace amounts of tertiary amine. This advan...

  16. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jillings, Chris; DEAP Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10-46cm2 for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk 210Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10-20g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  17. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup −46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10{sup −20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  18. pH effect of coagulation bath on the characteristics of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Zhai, Guangqun; Winata, A Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2003-09-15

    The poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAc-g-PVDF) and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (P4VP-g-PVDF) copolymers were obtained by thermally induced molecular graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), respectively, with the ozone-pretreated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution. Microfiltration (MF) membranes were prepared from the respective copolymers by phase inversion in aqueous media. The effects of pH of the coagulation bath on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the membranes were investigated. The surface compositions of the membranes were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface graft concentration of the AAc polymer for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membrane increased with decreasing pH value of the coagulation bath. Completely opposite pH-dependent behavior was observed for the surface graft concentration of the 4VP polymer in the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes. A substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membranes cast in basic coagulation baths of increasing pH. In the case of the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes, a substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for membranes cast in low pH (acidic) baths. The permeation rate of aqueous solutions through the PAAc-g-PVDF and P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes exhibited a reversible dependence on the pH of the solution, with the membranes cast near the neutral pH exhibiting the highest sensitivity to changes in permeate pH. PMID:12962674

  19. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  20. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  1. Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fibre: Application in dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vinod; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, A. K.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-08-01

    Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L×10-1 for EMA and 2.76 mol/L×10-1 for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fibre were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behaviour and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fibre and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system.

  2. Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fiber: application in dye removal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, Amar Singh; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L × 10−1 for EMA and 2.76 mol/L × 10−1 for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fiber were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behavior and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fiber and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system. PMID:25157348

  3. Investigations on dendrimer space reveal solid and liquid tumor growth-inhibition by original phosphorus-based dendrimers and the corresponding monomers and dendrons with ethacrynic acid motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Brahmi, Nabil; Mignani, Serge M.; Caron, Joachim; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto M.; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Cresteil, Thierry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The well-known reactive diuretic ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), with low antiproliferative activities, was chemically modified and grafted onto phosphorus dendrimers and the corresponding simple branched phosphorus dendron-like derivatives affording novel nanodevices showing moderate to strong antiproliferative activities against liquid and solid tumor cell lines, respectively.The well-known reactive diuretic ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), with low antiproliferative activities, was chemically modified and grafted onto phosphorus dendrimers and the corresponding simple branched phosphorus dendron-like derivatives affording novel nanodevices showing moderate to strong antiproliferative activities against liquid and solid tumor cell lines, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05983b

  4. The reaction mechanism for the SCR process on monomer V(5+) sites and the effect of modified Brønsted acidity.

    PubMed

    Arnarson, Logi; Falsig, Hanne; Rasmussen, Søren B; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Moses, Poul Georg

    2016-06-22

    The energetics, structures and activity of a monomeric VO3H/TiO2(001) catalyst are investigated for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction by the use of density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore we study the influences of a dopant substitute in the TiO2 support and its effects on the known properties of the SCR system such as Brønsted acidity and reducibility of vanadium. We find for the reduction part of the SCR mechanism that it involves two Ti-O-V oxygen sites. One is a hydroxyl possessing Brønsted acidity which contributes to the formation of NH4(+), while the other accepts a proton which charge stabilizes the reduced active site. In the reduction the proton is donated to the latter due to a reaction between NH3 and NO that forms a H2NNO molecule which decomposes into N2(g) and H2O(g). A dopant substitution of 10 different dopants: Si, Ge, Se, Zr, Sn, Te, Hf, V, Mo and W at each of the sites, which participate in the reaction, modifies the energetics and therefore the SCR activity. We find that Brønsted acidity is a descriptor for the SCR activity at low temperatures. Based on this descriptor we find that Zr, Hf and Sn have a positive effect as they decrease the activation energy for the SCR reaction. PMID:27297567

  5. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

  6. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  8. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca(2+) ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch--part I.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-25

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca(2+) ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca(2+) ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds. PMID:25123942

  9. Constrained photophysics of partially and fully encapsulated charge transfer probe (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester inside cyclodextrin nano-cavities: Evidence of cyclodextrins cavity dependent complex stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-12-01

    The polarity sensitive intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) emission from (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) is found to show distinct changes once introduced into the nano-cavities of cyclodextrins in aqueous environment. Movement of the molecule from the more polar aqueous environment to the less polar, hydrophobic cyclodextrin interior is marked by the blue shift of the CT emission band with simultaneous fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission spectral changes on complexation with the α- and β-CD show different stoichiometries as observed from the Benesi-Hildebrand plots. Fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime measurements were performed to probe the different behaviors of MAPAME in aqueous α- and β-CD solutions.

  10. Constrained photophysics of partially and fully encapsulated charge transfer probe (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester inside cyclodextrin nano-cavities: evidence of cyclodextrins cavity dependent complex stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-12-15

    The polarity sensitive intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) emission from (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) is found to show distinct changes once introduced into the nano-cavities of cyclodextrins in aqueous environment. Movement of the molecule from the more polar aqueous environment to the less polar, hydrophobic cyclodextrin interior is marked by the blue shift of the CT emission band with simultaneous fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission spectral changes on complexation with the α- and β-CD show different stoichiometries as observed from the Benesi-Hildebrand plots. Fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime measurements were performed to probe the different behaviors of MAPAME in aqueous α- and β-CD solutions. PMID:21996591

  11. [Treatment of acrylate wastewater by electrocatalytic reduction process].

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Na; Song, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Shu-Quan; Zheng, Sheng-Zhi; Ll, Si-Min

    2011-10-01

    High-concentration acrylate wastewater was treated by an electrocatalytic reduction process. The effects of the cation exchange membrane (CEM) and cathode materials on acrylate reduction were investigated. It indicated that the acrylate could be reduced to propionate acid efficiently by the electrocatalytic reduction process. The addition of CEM to separator with the cathode and anode could significantly improve current efficiency. The cathode materials had significant effect on the reduction of acrylate. The current efficiency by Pd/Nickel foam, was greater than 90%, while those by nickel foam, the carbon fibers and the stainless steel decreased successively. Toxicity of the wastewater decreased considerably and methane production rate in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test increased greatly after the electrocatalytic reduction process. PMID:22279908

  12. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  13. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. PMID:24107720

  14. A complete assignment of the vibrational spectra of 2-furoic acid based on the structures of the more stable monomer and dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalla, Houcine; Issaoui, Noureddine; Castillo, María Victoria; Brandán, Silvia Antonia; Flakus, Henryk T.

    2014-03-01

    The structural and vibrational properties of cyclic dimer of 2-furoic acid (2FA) were predicted by combining the available experimental infrared and Raman spectra in the solid phase and ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with Pople's basis sets. The calculations show that there are two cyclic dimers for the title molecule that have been theoretically determined in the gas phase, and that only one of them, cis conformer, is present in the solid phase. The complete assignment of the 66 normal vibrational modes for the cis cyclic dimer was performed using the Pulay's Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology. Four strong bands in the infrared spectrum at 1583, 1427, 1126 and 887 cm-1 and the group of bands in the Raman spectrum at 1464, 1452, 1147, 1030, 885, 873, 848, 715 and 590 cm-1 are characteristic of the dimeric form of 2FA in the solid phase. In this work, the calculated structural and vibrational properties of both dimeric species were analyzed and compared between them. In addition, three types of atomic charges, bond orders, possible charge transfer, topological properties of the furan rings, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Atoms in Molecules (AIM) theory calculations were employed to study the stabilities and intermolecular interactions of the both dimers of 2FA.

  15. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, AIM, HOMO-LUMO, NBO, UV, first order hyperpolarizability, analysis of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid monomer and dimer by Hartree-Fock and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, Noureddine; Ghalla, Houcine; Muthu, S.; Flakus, H. T.; Oujia, Brahim

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the molecular structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies, UV, NBO and AIM of 3-thiophenecarboxilic acid (abbreviated as 3-TCA) monomer and dimer has been investigated. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The ground-state molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies have been calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP methods and 6-311++G(d,p) as a basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with VEDA program. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 3-TCA with calculated results by HF and DFT methods indicates that B3LYP is better to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound have been constructed. A study on the Mulliken atomic charges, the electronic properties were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties have been performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been also computed.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and swelling properties of guar gum-g-poly(sodium acrylate-co-styrene)/muscovite superabsorbent composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Kang, Yuru; Wang, Aiqin

    2010-04-01

    A series of novel guar gum-g-poly(sodium acrylate-co-styrene)/muscovite (GG-g-P(NaA-co-St)/MVT) superabsorbent composites were prepared by free-radical grafting copolymerization of natural guar gum (GG), partially neutralized acrylic acid (NaA), styrene (St) and muscovite (MVT) using ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the crosslinker. Optical absorption spectra confirmed that NaA and St had been grafted onto the GG main chain and MVT participated in the polymerization reaction. The simultaneous introduction of St and MVT into the GG-g-PNaA matrix could clearly improve the surface morphologies of the composites, and MVT led to better dispersion in the polymeric matrix without agglomeration, as revealed by electron microscopy. The effects of St and MVT on the water absorption and swelling behavior in various saline solutions, aqueous solutions of hydrophilic organic solvents and surfactant solutions were investigated. Results indicated that the swelling rate and capabilities of the composites were markedly enhanced by the incorporation of the hydrophobic monomer St and inorganic MVT clay mineral. The superabsorbent composite showed a clearer deswelling characteristic in solutions of multivalent saline, acetone and ethanol, and cationic surfactant than that in the solutions of multivalent saline, methanol and anionic surfactant.

  17. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barleany, Dhena Ria; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Heriyanto, Heri; Rahmayetty, Erizal

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w-1 acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g-1 of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g-1 and 523 g g-1 for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  18. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barleany, Dhena Ria Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Rahmayetty; Heriyanto, Heri; Erizal

    2015-12-29

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w{sup −1} acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g{sup −1} of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g{sup −1} and 523 g g{sup −1} for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  19. Preparation and properties of UV curable acrylic PSA by vinyl bonded graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Beili; Ryu, Chong-Min; Jin, Xin; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2013-11-01

    Acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with higher thermal stability for thin wafer handling were successfully prepared by forming composite with the graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles modified to have vinyl groups via subsequent reaction with isophorone diisocyanate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The acrylic copolymer was synthesized as a base resin for PSAs by solution radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and acrylic acid followed by further modification with GMA to have the vinyl groups available for UV curing. The peel strength of PSA decreased with the increase of gel content which was dependent on both modified GO content and UV dose. Thermal stability of UV-cured PSA was improved noticeably with increasing the modified GO content mainly due to the strong and extensive interfacial bonding formed between the acrylic copolymer matrix and GO fillers

  20. Prevention of thermally induced aggregation of IgG antibodies by noncovalent interaction with poly(acrylate) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas; Ma, Dewang; Herbet, Amaury; Boquet, Didier; Winnik, Françoise M; Tribet, Christophe

    2014-08-11

    Prevention of thermal aggregation of antibodies in aqueous solutions was achieved by noncovalent association with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylate) copolymers. Using a polyclonal immunoglobin G (IgG) as a model system for antibodies, we have studied the mechanisms by which this multidomain protein interacts with polyanions when incubated at physiological pH and at temperatures below and above the protein unfolding/denaturation temperature, in salt-free solutions and in 0.1 M NaCl solutions. The polyanions selected were sodium poly(acrylates), random copolymers of sodium acrylate and N-n-octadecylacrylamide (3 mol %), and a random copolymer of sodium acrylate, N-n-octylacrylamide (25 mol %), and N-isopropylacrylamide (40 mol %). They were derived from two poly(acrylic acid) parent chains of Mw 5000 and 150000 g·mol(-1). The IgG/polyanion interactions were monitored by static and dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, capillary zone electrophoresis, and high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. In salt-free solutions, the hydrophilic PAA chains form complexes with IgG upon thermal unfolding of the protein (1:1 w/w IgG/PAA), but they do not interact with native IgG. The complexes exhibit a remarkable protective effect against IgG aggregation and maintain low aggregation numbers (average degree of oligomerization <12 at a temperature up to 85 °C). These interactions are screened in 0.1 M NaCl and, consequently, PAAs lose their protective effect. Amphiphilic PAA derivatives (1:1 w/w IgG/polymer) are able to prevent thermal aggregation (preserving IgG monomers) or retard aggregation of IgG (formation of oligomers and slow growth), revealing the importance of both hydrophobic interactions and modulation of the Coulomb interactions with or without NaCl present. This study leads the way toward the design of new formulations of therapeutic proteins using noncovalent 1:1 polymer/protein association that are transient and require a

  1. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  2. Preparation of porous carbons from polymeric precursors modified with acrylated kraft lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.

    2016-04-01

    The presented studies concern the preparation of porous carbons from a BPA.DA-St polymer containing acrylated kraft lignin as a monomer. The porous polymeric precursor in the form of microspheres was synthesized in suspension polymerization process. Next samples of the polymer were impregnated with acetic acid or aqueous solution of acetates (potassium or ammonia), dried and carbonised in nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C. After carbonization microspherical shape of the materials was remained, that is desired feature for potential application in chromatography or SPE technique. Chemical and textural properties of the porous carbon adsorbents were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetry analyses with mass spectrometry of released gases (TG-MS) and nitrogen sorption experiments. The presented studies revealed the impregnation is useful method for development of porous structure of carbonaceous materials. The highest values of porous structure parameters were obtained when acetic acid and ammonium acetate were used as impregnating substances. On the surface of the materials oxygen functional groups are present that is important for specific interactions during sorption processes. The highest contents of functionalities were observed for carbon BPA.DA-St-LA-C-AcNH4.

  3. Degradation of a Sodium Acrylate Oligomer by an Arthrobacter sp

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mukouyama, Masaharu; Sakano, Kouichi; Tani, Yoshiki

    1993-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain NO-18 was first isolated from soil as a bacterium which could degrade the sodium acrylate oligomer and utilize it as the sole source of carbon. When 0.2% (wt/wt) oligomer was added to the culture medium, the acrylate oligomer was found to be degraded by 70 to 80% in 2 weeks, using gel permeation chromatography. To determine the maximum molecular weight for biodegradation, the degradation test was done with the hexamer, heptamer, and octamer, which were separated from the oligomer mixture by fractional gel permeation chromatography. The hexamer and heptamer were consumed to the extents of 58 and 36%, respectively, in 2 weeks, but the octamer was not degraded. Oligomers with three different terminal groups were synthesized to examine the effect of the different terminal groups on biodegradation, but few differences were found. Arthrobacter sp. NO-18 assimilated acrylic acid, propionic acid, glutaric acid, 2-methylglutaric acid, and 1,3,5-pentanetricarboxylic acid. Degradation of the acrylic unit structure by this strain is discussed. PMID:8517751

  4. Properties of extruded starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers prepared from spherulites formed from amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of high amylose corn starch and oleic acid were processed by steam jet-cooking, and the dispersions were rapidly cooled to yield amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes as sub-micron spherulites and spherulite aggregates. Dispersions of these spherulite particles were then graft polymerized ...

  5. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Salih, Ashraf M; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated. PMID:26248072

  6. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-10-15

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  7. Monomers of cutin biopolymer: sorption and esterification on montmorillonite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara; Chefetz, Benny

    2013-04-01

    One of the important precursors for soil organic matter is plant cuticle, a thin layer of predominantly lipids that cover all primary aerial surfaces of vascular plants. In most plant species cutin biopolymer is the major component of the cuticle (30-85% weight). Therefore cutin is the third most abundant plant biopolymer (after lignin and cellulose). Cutin is an insoluble, high molecular weight bio-polyester, which is constructed of inter-esterified cross linked hydroxy-fatty acids and hydroxyepoxy-fatty acids. The most common building blocks of the cutin are derivatives of palmitic acid, among them 9(10),16 dihydroxy palmitic acid (diHPA) is the main component. These fatty acids and their esters are commonly found in major organo-mineral soil fraction-humin. Hence, the complexes of cutin monomers with minerals may serve as model of humin. Both cutin and humin act as adsorption efficient domains for organic contaminants. However, only scarce information is available about the interactions of cutin with soil mineral surfaces, in particular with common soil mineral montmorillonite. The main hypothesize of the study is that adsorbed cutin monomers will be reconstituted on montmorillonite surface due to esterification and oligomerization, and that interactions of cutin monomers with montmorillonite will be affected by the type of exchangeable cation. Cutin monomers were obtained from the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Adsorption of monomers was measured for crude Wyoming montmorillonites and montmorillonites saturated with Fe3+ and Ca2+. To understand the mechanism of monomer-clay interactions and to evaluate esterification on the clay surface, XRD and FTIR analyses of the montmorillonite-monomers complexes were performed. Our results demonstrated that the interactions of cutin monomers with montmorillonite are affected by the type of exchangeable cation. Isotherms of adsorption of cutin monomers on montmorillonites were fitted by a dual mode model of

  8. Characterization of Native and Modified Extensin Monomers and Oligomers by Electron Microscopy and Gel Filtration 1

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, J. W.; Terhune, Brian T.; Lamport, Derek T. A.

    1988-01-01

    We isolated hydroxyproline-rich extensin precursors from suspension-cultured tomato, cucumber, and sycamore-maple by salt-elution of intact cells and cell wall preparations. Cation exchange chromatography and HPLC gel filtration resolved these precursors into monomeric and oligomeric fractions, confirmed by amino acid analysis, immunological cross-reactivity, and TEM visualization. After rotary shadowing monomers appeared as flexuous rods with a contour length of 70 to 100 nanometers and a `persistence length' (maximum linear displacement) of 44 to 51 nanometers. Oligomers were larger branched assemblies with occasional pores. Native extensin monomers gave uniform gel filtration retention times (Rts), but the Rts of HF-deglycosylated monomers varied depending on concentration, implying ionic interaction between the highly basic deglycosylated monomers and a weakly cationic gel matrix. Succinylation of the deglycosylated monomers reversed the net charge, and restored the retention time to that of glycosylated monomers, confirming the ionic interaction. Succinylation enhanced visualization of the deglycosylated monomers, which previously were barely discernible flexuous rods. The persistence length:contour length ratios of succinylated deglycosylated monomers (tomato sdP2) and glycosylated monomers (sP2) were the same, implying a similar molecular flexibility for both glycosylated and deglycosylated monomers at room temperature. These molecular properties are consistent with suggestions that extensin monomers reptate into the wall as a transmural protein `weft' which becomes progressively cross-linked forming a network penetrated by the cellulose `warp.' Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16665999

  9. RAFT copolymerization of itaconic anhydride and 2-methoxyethyl acrylate: a multifunctional scaffold for preparation of "clickable" gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Kasama, Takeshi; Jankova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-05-25

    RAFT copolymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate and itaconic anhydride - a monomer derived from renewable resources - is carried out in a controlled fashion. The copolymer allows preparation of gold nanoparticles with abundant surficial carboxyl and alkyne functional groups that are dendronized via Cu(I)-mediated "click" reaction. PMID:23588100

  10. Aquatic toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates: quantitative structure-activity relationships based on Kow and LC50

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, K.H.

    1987-12-01

    Recent EPA scrutiny of acrylate and methacrylate monomers has resulted in restrictive consent orders and Significant New Use Rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act, based on structure-activity relationships using mouse skin painting studies. The concern is centered on human health issues regarding worker and consumer exposure. Environmental issues, such as aquatic toxicity, are still of concern. Understanding the relationships and environmental risks to aquatic organisms may improve the understanding of the potential risks to human health. This study evaluates the quantitative structure-activity relationships from measured log Kow's and log LC50's for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Carassius auratus (goldfish). Scientific support of the current regulations is also addressed. Two monomer classes were designated: acrylates and methacrylates. Spearman rank correlation and linear regression were run. Based on this study, an ecotoxicological difference exists between acrylates and methacrylates. Regulatory activities and scientific study should reflect this difference.

  11. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions. PMID:14715032

  12. Effects of monomers on the properties of palm-oil-based radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) — a prepolymer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmi Mahmood, Mohd; Abdullah, Zahid; Sakurai, Yasuo; Zaman, Khairul; Mohd. Dahlan, Hj

    2001-01-01

    Various low glass transition temperature ( Tg) acrylate and methacrylate monomers were mixed with epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) with the ratio of 50/50 prior to curing with electron beam (EB) irradiation. Methacrylate monomers such as dicyclopentenyloxyethyl methacrylate (DCPOEMA) and isobornyl methacrylate (ISBMA), although displaying relatively high adhesive properties were finally excluded from being further utilised as monomers for PSA because of a very slow curing speed. Literally, it is suggested that poorer adhesive performances of the cured films made from 50/50 : EPOLA/monomer mixture as compared to that of 100% monomer was attributed to the lack of compatibility between EPOLA and the particular monomers. Further compatibility investigations were continued using formulations prepared via the prepolymer route cured by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and the results showed that several monoacrylate monomers with polar and non-polar groups exhibited high curing speed as well as good compatibility with EPOLA as shown by their cured film properties such as surface tackiness, peel adhesion and creep resistance. It is also suggested that these monomers were acting as surfactants for EPOLA which consequently enhance their compatibility upon mixing.

  13. Investigation of Changes in the Microscopic Structure of Anionic Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylic acid) Microgels in the Presence of Cationic Organic Dyes toward Precisely Controlled Uptake/Release of Low-Molecular-Weight Chemical Compound.

    PubMed

    Kureha, Takuma; Shibamoto, Takahisa; Matsui, Shusuke; Sato, Takaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke

    2016-05-10

    Changes in a microscopic structure of an anionic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgel were investigated using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). The scattering profiles of the microgels were analyzed in a wide scattering vector (q) range of 0.07 ≤ q/nm(-1) ≤ 20. In particular, the microscopic structure of the microgel in the presence of a cationic dye rhodamine 6G (R6G) was characterized in terms of its correlation length (ξ), which represents the length scale of the spatial correlation of the network density fluctuations, and characteristic distance (d*), which originated from the local packing of isopropyl groups of two neighboring chains. In the presence of cationic R6G, ξ exhibited a divergent-like behavior, which was not seen in the absence of R6G, and d* was decreased with decreasing the volume of the microgel upon increasing temperature. At the same time, the amount of R6G adsorbed per unit mass of the microgel increased upon heating. These results suggested that a coil-to-globule transition of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains in the present anionic microgel occurred because of efficiently screened, thus, short ranged electrostatic repulsion between the charged groups, and hydrophobic interaction between the isopropyl groups in the presence of cationic R6G. The combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the cationic dye and the microgel affected the separation and volume transition behavior of the microgel. PMID:27101468

  14. Selective electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in water based on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) PSA/SiO2/Fe3O4/AuNPs/lignin-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Khaled A; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A new versatile electrochemical sensor based on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) PSA/SiO2/Fe3O4/AuNPs/lignin (L-MMS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the selective detection of trace trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media with high sensitivity. The fabricated magnetic microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). L-MMS films were cast on the GCE surface to fabricate the TNT sensing electrode. The limit of detection (LOD) of TNT determined by the amperometric i-t curve reached 35 pM. The lignin film and well packed Fe3O4/AuNPs facilitated the pre-concentration of trace TNT on the electrode surface resulting in a fast amperometric response of 3 seconds near the detection limit. The high sensitivity and excellent catalytic activity of the modified electrode could be attributed to the lignin layer and highly packed Fe3O4/AuNPs on the electrode surface. The total recovery of TNT from tapwater and seawater matrices was 98% and 96%, respectively. The electrode film was highly stable after five repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. The new electrochemical sensing scheme provides a highly selective, sensitive and versatile assay for the in-situ detection of TNT in complex water media. PMID:26540539

  15. Synthesis of tetraalkyl vinylidene diphosphonate monomer

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1993-10-26

    A method of making a monomer of tetraalkyl vinylidene-1, 1-diphosphonate. The monomer is manufactured by combining an aqueous secondary amine solution with a formaldehyde and a tetra (alkyl) methylene diphosphonate. The resulting mixture is maintained at a pH above about 6 and refluxed for two hours to enable reaction to produce the monomer of tetraalkyl vinylidene-1, 1-diphosphonate. The product monomer is then purified to produce the final end product.

  16. Effect of Food Stimulated Liquids and Thermocycling on the Monomer Elution from a Nanofilled Composite

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Masumeh Hasani; Sadrai, Sima; Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Veisy, Nadia; Dehghan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of food simulating liquids and thermocycling on the elution of monomers from a nanofilled resin composite in different immersion times. Five Specimen discs were made from a nano-hybrid composite (Supreme 3M) for each group (Total = 180) and immersed in distilled water (control), citric acid, lactic acid, and 75% aqueous ethanol solution. The discs were removed after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 wk, 4 wk, and 12 wk. Three groups of samples underwent thermocycling for 1000, 2000 and 3000 cycles. The solutes were analyzed with HPLC for detection of eluted monomers. The results showed that the amount of released TEGDMA was significantly higher than that of Bis-GMA; however, there were not any significant differences between the amount of released Bis-GMA and UDMA. Moreover, the highest amount of monomers was released from samples immersed in ethanol solution; samples immersed in citric acid and lactic acid significantly released more monomers than those immersed in distilled water. Furthermore, the immersion time in aqueous ethanol solution had an increasing effect on the release of monomers. In addition, the higher amounts of monomers were release from samples immersed in ethanol and citric acid which underwent a higher number of thermal cycles. In conclusion, food and drink stimulated liquids used in this study increased the amount of some of the monomers released from composite resin. Thermal shocks and storage time are other factors that increased the release of monomers from the composite resin PMID:23986791

  17. Graft copolymers of polyurethane with various vinyl monomers via radiation-induced miniemulsion polymerization: Influential factors to grafting efficiency and particle morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2009-02-01

    Graft copolymers of polyurethane (PU) with various vinyl monomers were synthesized through a one-pot but two-step miniemulsion polymerization process. Firstly, the polycondensation of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) had been performed in aqueous miniemulsion at 40 °C in order to obtain PU dispersions. Consecutively, an in-situ graft copolymerization of the vinyl monomers with the synthesized PU was initiated by γ-ray radiation at room temperature. The grafting efficiency of PU with vinyl monomer ( GPU/monomer) was calculated from 1H NMR spectra and the particle morphology of the final hybrid latex was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As there was no monomer transferring in miniemulsion system, homogenous hybrid particles would be synthesized provided that the monomer was miscible with PU, such as styrene. With the increase of the polarity of the monomer, the compatibility of PU with monomer decreased. GPU/monomer varied as GPU/styrene(37%)> GPU/butyl acrylate (BA)(21%)> GPU/methyl methacrylate (MMA)(12%). The proportion of homogeneous nucleation would increase as the hydrophilicity of the monomer increased. High temperature would destabilize the miniemulsion so as to result in a less grafting efficiency. Compared to the phase separation during the seeded emulsion polymerization, the miniemulsion polymerization method facilitated the preparation of homogeneous materials owing to its monomer droplet nucleation mechanism.

  18. Lactate and Acrylate Metabolism by Megasphaera elsdenii under Batch and Steady-State Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Rupal; Altman, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The growth of Megasphaera elsdenii on lactate with acrylate and acrylate analogues was studied under batch and steady-state conditions. Under batch conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and propionate, and acrylate was converted into propionate. Acrylate analogues 2-methyl propenoate and 3-butenoate containing a terminal double bond were similarly converted into their respective saturated acids (isobutyrate and butyrate), while crotonate and lactate analogues 3-hydroxybutyrate and (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate were not metabolized. Under carbon-limited steady-state conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and butyrate with no propionate formed. As the acrylate concentration in the feed was increased, butyrate and hydrogen formation decreased and propionate was increasingly generated, while the calculated ATP yield was unchanged. M. elsdenii metabolism differs substantially under batch and steady-state conditions. The results support the conclusion that propionate is not formed during lactate-limited steady-state growth because of the absence of this substrate to drive the formation of lactyl coenzyme A (CoA) via propionyl-CoA transferase. Acrylate and acrylate analogues are reduced under both batch and steady-state growth conditions after first being converted to thioesters via propionyl-CoA transferase. Our findings demonstrate the central role that CoA transferase activity plays in the utilization of acids by M. elsdenii and allows us to propose a modified acrylate pathway for M. elsdenii. PMID:23023753

  19. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1). PMID:27422352

  20. Using NMR chemical shift imaging to monitor swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid): methodology and effects of polymer (in)solubility.

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Topgaard, Daniel; Wahlgren, Marie; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2013-11-12

    A new technique has been developed using NMR chemical shift imaging (CSI) to monitor water penetration and molecular transport in initially dry polymer tablets that also contain small low-molecular weight compounds to be released from the tablets. Concentration profiles of components contained in the swelling tablets could be extracted via the intensities and chemical shift changes of peaks corresponding to protons of the components. The studied tablets contained hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) as the polymer component and griseofulvin and ethanol as hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively, low-molecular weight model compounds. The water solubility of HMPAA could be altered by titration with NaOH. In the pure acid form, HMPAA tablets only underwent a finite swelling until the maximum water content of the polymer-rich phase, as confirmed by independent phase studies, had been reached. By contrast, after partial neutralization with NaOH, the polyacid became fully miscible with water. The solubility of the polymer affected the water penetration, the polymer release, and the releases of both ethanol and griseofulvin. The detailed NMR CSI concentration profiles obtained highlighted the clear differences in the disintegration/dissolution/release behavior for the two types of tablet and provided insights into their molecular origin. The study illustrates the potential of the NMR CSI technique to give information of importance for the development of pharmaceutical tablets and, more broadly, for the general understanding of any operation that involves the immersion and ultimate disintegration of a dry polymer matrix in a solvent. PMID:24106807

  1. Pathogenesis of neurotoxicity of acrylates acrylonitrile and acrylamide: from cell to organism.

    PubMed

    Tarskikh, M M; Klimatskaya, L G; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-08-01

    The incubation of 10 mM acrylamide (in vitro) with rat brain homogenate was followed by a decrease in catalase activity by 48% as soon as 5 min after addition of acrylate to the incubation medium. Activity of this enzyme remained low 30 min after the start of the experiment. Acute poisoning with this acrylate was accompanied by LPO activation in rat brain 24 h after injection. Exposure to acrylonitrile during occupational contacts with this monomer was followed by accumulation of adducts of acrylate with erythrocytic hemoglobin in human blood. In accordance with previously observed data, modern scheme of neurotropic effects of acrylonitrile and acrylamide was proposed. This scheme explained specific features of clinical syndromes induced by acute and chronic exposure to these toxic agents. PMID:24143365

  2. Mutagenicity assessment of acrylate and methacrylate compounds and implications for regulatory toxicology requirements.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, F R; Vogt, Barbara; Waite, Maureen; Deskin, Randy

    2008-04-01

    Esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, more commonly known as acrylates and methacrylates, respectively, are key raw materials in the coatings and printing industry, with several of its chemical class used in food packaging. The results of over 200 short-term in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies available in the open literature have been evaluated. Despite differences in acrylate or methacrylate functionality or in the number of functional groups, a consistent pattern of test response was seen in a typical regulatory battery of mutagenicity tests. No evidence of point mutations was observed when acrylic acid or over 60 acrylates and methacrylates were investigated in Salmonella bacterial tests or in hprt mutation tests mammalian cells, and no evidence of a mutagenic effect was seen when tested in whole animal clastogenicity and/or aneuploidy (chromosomal aberration/micronucleus) studies. Consistent with the in vivo testing results, acrylic acid exhibited no evidence of carcinogenicity in chronic rodent cancer bioassays. In contrast, acrylic acid and the entire acrylate and methacrylate chemical class produced a consistently positive response when tested in the mouse lymphoma assay and/or other in vitro mammalian cell assays designed to detect clastogenicity. The biological relevance of this in vitro response is questioned based on the non-concordance of in vitro results with those of in vivo studies addressing the same mutagenic endpoint (clastogenicity). Thus, in short-term mutagenicity tests, the acrylates and methacrylates behave as a single chemical category, and genotoxicity behavior of a similar chemical can be predicted with confidence by inclusion within this chemical class, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. PMID:18346829

  3. Inhibition of the polymerization of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate by mixtures of chloranil with phenothiazine

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.A; Lysenko, G.M.; Zholina, I.N.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the kinetic peculiarities of inhibited polymerization of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate in the presence of mixtures of chloranil with phenothiazine. It is shown that depending on the structure of the monomer and the concentrations of the electron donor and electron acceptor, the radicals of propagation may form complexes with chloranil or with phenothiazine at the first step of the inhibition reaction or may interact with the complex (phenothiazine to chloranil).

  4. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  5. Comparative study on adhesive performance of functional monomers.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Nagakane, K; Fukuda, R; Nakayama, Y; Okazaki, M; Shintani, H; Inoue, S; Tagawa, Y; Suzuki, K; De Munck, J; Van Meerbeek, B

    2004-06-01

    Mild self-etch adhesives demineralize dentin only partially, leaving hydroxyapatite around collagen within a submicron hybrid layer. We hypothesized that this residual hydroxyapatite may serve as a receptor for chemical interaction with the functional monomer and, subsequently, contribute to adhesive performance in addition to micro-mechanical hybridization. We therefore chemically characterized the adhesive interaction of 3 functional monomers with synthetic hydroxyapatite, using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We further characterized their interaction with dentin ultra-morphologically, using transmission electron microscopy. The monomer 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) readily adhered to hydroxyapatite. This bond appeared very stable, as confirmed by the low dissolution rate of its calcium salt in water. The bonding potential of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4-MET) was substantially lower. The monomer 2-methacryloxyethyl phenyl hydrogen phosphate (phenyl-P) and its bond to hydroxyapatite did not appear to be hydrolytically stable. Besides self-etching dentin, specific functional monomers have additional chemical bonding efficacy that is expected to contribute to their adhesive potential to tooth tissue. PMID:15153451

  6. Synthesis of a liquid-crystalline resin monomer with the property of low shrinkage polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Chen, Su; Liu, Yiran; Ma, Yuanping; Wang, Na; Zhang, Zhenting; Yang, Yuzhe

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the polymerization shrinkage of the dental resin composites, a new liquid-crystalline resin monomer was developed. The acrylate liquid crystalline resin monomer (ALCRM), (4-3-(acryloyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy) phenyl 4-(3-(acryloyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy) benzoate, was synthesized by a three-step method. Using the ALCRM as the main monomer, the degree of conversion (DC) and the volume shrinkage of the resin matrix were compared with the traditional composite resin monomer (Bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxy-propoxy)-phenyl] propane. The new monomer showed liquid crystalline characteristics with a mesomorphic phasetransition temperature between 18ºC and 42ºC. When copolymerized with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) at a weight ratio of 7:3, the DC of ALCRM was higher and the volume shrinkage was 3.62±0.26%, which was less than that of the Bis-GMA. The ALCRM exhibits promising potential for the development of superior dental resins with low volume shrinkage. PMID:23903635

  7. Synthesis of a resin monomer-soluble polyrotaxane crosslinker containing cleavable end groups

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hun; Nakagawa, Shino; Hirata, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary A resin monomer-soluble polyrotaxane (PRX) crosslinker with cleavable end groups was synthesized to develop degradable photosetting composite resins. The PRX containing 50 α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) with disulfide end groups was initially modified with n-butylamine to obtain a resin monomer-soluble PRX. The PRX containing 13 n-butyl groups per α-CD molecule was completely soluble in conventional resin monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA). The synthesized n-butyl-containing PRX was further modified with 2-aminoethyl methacrylate to provide crosslinkable acrylic groups onto PRX. The prepared resin monomer-soluble PRX crosslinker was successfully polymerized with a mixture of HEMA and UDMA to provide photosetting plastic. It was confirmed that the Vickers hardness of the prepared plastic was greatly decreased after treatment with dithiothreitol. This indicates that the resin monomer-soluble PRX crosslinker can be applied to design degradable photosetting plastics potentially used in the industrial or biomedical field. PMID:25550723

  8. PMMA-based composite materials with reactive ceramic fillers: IV. Radiopacifying particles embedded in PMMA beads for acrylic bone cements.

    PubMed

    Abboud, M; Casaubieilh, L; Morvan, F; Fontanille, M; Duguet, E

    2000-01-01

    New acrylic bone cements were prepared from alumina particles previously treated by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (gamma-MPS) and embedded in poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylacrylate) beads with about 7 mol% of ethyl acrylate repeating units. The encapsulation was performed through a conventional suspension polymerization process. The influence of (i) the concentration of the dispersion stabilizer and (ii) the alumina content upon the shape, size, and size distribution of the acrylic beads was studied. Cements were prepared from each batch by hand-mixing alumina-filled acrylic beads with a liquid monomer mixture containing methyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Benzoyl peroxide was previously added to the solid part. The powder-to-liquid ratio was equal to 2 for each formulation. Compressive strength of cured cement decreases with alumina content, whereas compressive modulus remains roughly constant. These results are in contradiction to those obtained for cements based on a mixture of gamma-MPS-treated alumina and unfilled acrylic beads. Nevertheless, they are interpreted in terms of alumina arrangement in the cement. In the first case, alumina particles contribute to the reinforcement of the dispersed acrylic phase, with poor benefits for the whole materials. In the second case, they allow the reinforcement of the continuous acrylic phase and, therefore, the cement's one. PMID:11074433

  9. Cationic RAFT polymerization using ppm concentrations of organic acid.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2015-02-01

    A metal-free, cationic, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization was proposed and realized. A series of thiocarbonylthio compounds were used in the presence of a small amount of triflic acid for isobutyl vinyl ether to give polymers with controlled molecular weight of up to 1×10(5) and narrow molecular-weight distributions (Mw /Mn <1.1). This "living" or controlled cationic polymerization is applicable to various electron-rich monomers including vinyl ethers, p-methoxystyrene, and even p-hydroxystyrene that possesses an unprotected phenol group. A transformation from cationic to radical RAFT polymerization enables the synthesis of block copolymers between cationically and radically polymerizable monomers, such as vinyl ether and vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate. PMID:25511364

  10. Chelating compounds as potential flash rust inhibitors and melamine & aziridine cure of acrylic colloidal unimolecular polymers (CUPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Jigar Kishorkumar

    Waterborne coatings on ferrous substrates usually show flash rusting which decreases the adhesion of the coating and the corrosion products can form a stain. Chelating compounds were investigated as potential flash rust inhibitors. Compounds being evaluated include amine alcohols, diamines and sulfur containing amines. A new corrosion inhibitor 2,5-bis(thioaceticacid)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (H2ADTZ) was synthesized and its performance characteristics were evaluated. It was noted that the observed structure of 1,3,4-thiadiazolidine-2,5-dithione (also known as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD or DMcT)) has been previously reported in three different tautomeric forms including -dithiol and -dithione. The relative stability of each form as well as the synthesis and characterization of the structures of mono- and dialkylated forms of 5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thione (MTT) were examined. The methods of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and ab-initio electronic structure calculations were combined to understand the reactivity and structure of each compound. Polymers were synthesized with a 1:7 or 1:8 ratio of acrylic acid to acrylate monomers to produce an acid rich resin. The polymers were reduced and solvent stripped to produce Colloidal Unimolecular Polymers (CUPs). These particles are typically 3-9 nanometers in diameter depending upon the molecular weight. They were then formulated into a clear coating with either a melamine (bake) or an aziridine (ambient cure) and then cured. The melamine system was solvent free, a near zero VOC and the aziridine system was very low to near zero VOC. The coatings were evaluated for their MEK resistance, adhesion, hardness, gloss, flexibility, wet adhesion, abrasion and impact resistance properties.

  11. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  13. pH-dependent immobilization of proteins on surfaces functionalized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of poly(acrylic acid)- and poly(ethylene oxide)-like films.

    PubMed

    Belegrinou, Serena; Mannelli, Ilaria; Lisboa, Patricia; Bretagnol, Frederic; Valsesia, Andrea; Ceccone, Giacomo; Colpo, Pascal; Rauscher, Hubert; Rossi, François

    2008-07-15

    The interaction of the proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Lys), lactoferrin (Lf), and fibronectin (Fn) with surfaces of protein-resistant poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and protein-adsorbing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been studied with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We focus on several parameters which are crucial for protein adsorption, i.e., the isoelectric point (pI) of the proteins, the pH of the solution, and the charge density of the sorbent surfaces, with the zeta-potential as a measure for the latter. The measurements reveal adsorption stages characterized by different segments in the plots of the dissipation vs frequency change. PEO remains protein-repellent for BSA, Lys, and Lf at pH 4-8.5, while weak adsorption of Fn was observed. On PAA, different stages of protein adsorption processes could be distinguished under most experimental conditions. BSA, Lys, Lf, and Fn generally exhibit a rapid initial adsorption phase on PAA, often followed by slower processes. The evaluation of the adsorption kinetics also reveals different adsorption stages, whereas the number of these stages does not always correspond to the structurally different phases as revealed by the D- f plots. The results presented here, together with information obtained in previous studies by other groups on the properties of these proteins and their interaction with surfaces, allow us to develop an adsorption scenario for each of these proteins, which takes into account electrostatic protein-surface and protein-protein interaction, but also the pH-dependent properties of the proteins, such as shape and exposure of specific domains. PMID:18549295

  14. Transparent acrylic enamel slide holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares Pérez, A.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Toxqui-López, S.

    2006-02-01

    We present holograms generated in a computer to an acrylic enamel slide (Comex (R)), getting phase holograms. The information in the mask is transferred to the material by temperature gradients generated by rubbing. The refraction index is transformed at each material point by the temperature changes, thus the film is recorded and developed by itself. this material can be used for soft lithography.

  15. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  16. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Darab, John G.; Gross, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer.

  17. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Gross, M.E.

    1999-05-11

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer. 3 figs.

  18. Monomer-dimer problem on some networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ruijuan; Yan, Weigen

    2016-09-01

    Zhang et al. (2012) obtained the exact formula for the number of all possible monomer-dimer arrangements and the asymptotic growth constant on a scale-free small-world network. In this note, we generalize this result and obtain the exact solution on the monomer-dimer model on many networks. Particularly, we prove that these networks have the same asymptotic growth constant of the number of monomer-dimer arrangements.

  19. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  20. Generalized peripheral neuropathy in a dental technician exposed to methyl methacrylate monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Donaghy, M.; Rushworth, G.; Jacobs, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    A 58-year-old dental prosthetic technician developed generalized sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiologic studies showed a generalized sensorimotor neuropathy of axonal degeneration type. Examination of a sural nerve biopsy showed a moderately severe axonal neuropathy with loss of large myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. There was evidence of slow ongoing degeneration and considerable fiber regeneration. Electron microscopy showed increased numbers of filaments in a few fibers. These findings show resemblances to the nerve changes caused by another acrylic resin, acrylamide. They suggest that the neuropathy may have been caused by 30 years of occupational cutaneous and inhalational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer since they excluded other recognized causes of neuropathy.