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Sample records for acrylic acid-grafted coir

  1. Hemocompatibility of Chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) Grafted Polyurethane Tubing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Tomczyk, Nancy; Kandel, Judith; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The activation and adhesion of platelets or whole blood exposed to chitosan (CH) grafted surfaces is used to evaluate the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. The biomaterial surfaces are polyurethane (PU) tubes grafted with an inner poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and an outer CH or quaternary ammonium modified CH (CH-Q) brush. The CH, CH-Q and PAA grafted layers were characterized by ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy. Material wear tests demonstrate that CH (CH-Q) is stably grafted onto PU tubes upon exposure to saline solution for 7 days. Using quartz-crystal microbalances with dissipation (QCM-D), in-situ adsorption of blood plasma proteins on CH and CH-Q compared to a silicon oxide control was measured. The QCM-D results showed that the physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on CH-Q and CH surfaces is softer and more viscous than the protein layer on the SiO2 surface. The CH-Q layer thus has the weakest interaction with plasma proteins. Whole blood and platelet adhesion was reduced by ~92% on CH-Q, which showed the weakest interaction with plasma protein but more viscous adsorbed plasma protein layer, compared to SiO2. Last, to examine the biologic response of platelets and neutrophils to biomaterial surfaces, CH (CH-Q)/PAA, PAA and PU tubes were tested using a Chandler Loop apparatus as an ex vivo model and flow cytometry. The blood adhesion and biologic response results showed that CH and CH-Q reduced adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils and improved hemocompatibility relative to other surfaces (PU and PAA). Our studies demonstrated that the properties of physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on biomaterial surfaces correlates with blood coagulation on biomaterial surfaces. PMID:24349719

  2. Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber for the removal of dye and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Agarwal, Shilpi; Singh, Prerna; Pathania, Deepak

    2013-10-15

    Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber was utilized for the removal of methylene blue and metal ions from the water system using batch process. The grafted sample used was found to demonstrate a maximum grafting efficiency of 90.8% under concentrations of 0.432×10(-3) mol/L, temperature of 35 °C, time of 60 min and pH of 7.0 respectively. The remarkable improvement in thermal properties of the grafted sample was observed. The formation of new bands in FTIR spectra of grafted sample confirmed the grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulosic fiber. The maximum adsorption capacity of dye onto adsorbent was observed to be 62.15 mg g(-1) at 175 min. A maximum removal of 45.8% was observed for Mg(2+) as compared to other metal ions. High values of correlation coefficient for methylene blue (0.995) and metal ions such as Mg(2+) (0.996), Ni(2+) (0.995), Zn(2+) (0.996) confirmed the applicability of Langmuir isotherm that assumed a monolayer coverage and uniform activity distribution on the adsorbent surface.

  3. Preparation and Biophysical Characterization of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer-Poly(acrylic acid) Graft.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Huu; Do, Le Thanh; Loan, Ta Thi; Yoo, Hoon

    2015-01-01

    A series of PAMAM dendrimer generation 5-poly(acrylic acid) grafts were prepared to evaluate the potential use of dendritic grafts as a drug encapsulated nanocarrier. The structural features of the synthesized polymer graft were identified by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra and the biophysical properties were characterized by measuring its particle size and zeta potential. The prepared dendrimer G5-PAA grafts had particle size in the range of 600 to 900 nm and the size increased proportionally with the number of PAA on dendrimer surface. The electrostatic property of the dendrimer G5-PAA, carried out by HPLC reversed phase column analysis and the measurement of zeta potential, revealed that both migration time and zeta potential were dependent on the number of grafted PAA. The number of free amino groups on dendrimer G5-PAA, determined quantitatively by fluorescamine assay, was in a reverse order with the reaction mole ratio of dendrimer to PAA. In addition, dendrimer G5-PAA showed a pH-dependent solubility in aqueous solution with characteristic pH region of solubility, depending on the dendrimer generation. The observed biophysical properties indicate that PAMAM dendrimer G5-PAA is promising as a drug encapsulated nanocarrier. PMID:26328427

  4. Dyed acrylic-acid grafted polypropylene films for high-dose radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Said, F. I. A.; Ebraheem, S.; El-Kelany, M.; El Miligy, A. A.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polypropylene (PP) film has been carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. The grafted film of PP-g-PAAc was allowed to react with solutions of two ionic dyes, namely malachite green (MALG) or methylene green (METG). The investigations show that these new dosimeter films of PPMALG and PPMETG may be useful for high-dose gamma radiation applications. The useful absorbed dose range of the dyed films extends up to about 400 kGy, with a minimum useful dose of about 5 kGy. The radiation-induced colour bleaching has been analyzed with visible spectrophotometry, either at the maximum of the absorption band peaking at 601 nm (for PPMETG) or that peaking at 623 nm for (PPMALG). The effects of relative humidity during irradiation, shelf-life and post-irradiation storage in dark and indirect daylight conditions on dosimeters performance are discussed.

  5. Synthesis, structure and phase transition property of acrylic acid grafted paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowen; Liu, Pengfei; Ye, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Polar monomer acrylic acid (AA) was used to modify paraffin in order to improve the latent heat of paraffin as phase change materials. The composition and sequence structure of the grafted products were characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR, 1H NMR and GPC analysis, and the thermal properties of paraffin-g-AA were investigated. It was found that AA was confirmed to be grafted onto the molecular chain of paraffin successfully. The mechanism of free radical grafting of AA may be only monomeric grafts. At low grafting ratio, the structure B can be mainly formed as a result of the radical coupling termination; while at the high grafting ratio, structure A was the primary structure as a result of the radical chain growth process. The number-average molecular weight of the grafted samples increased at first but leveled off with increasing grafting ratio, while the weight-average molecular weight increased gradually. The latent heat capacity of the grafted paraffin can be improved obviously at low grafting ratio due to the formation of structure B.

  6. Preparation of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted gum and its flocculation and biodegradation studies.

    PubMed

    Mittal, H; Mishra, Shivani B; Mishra, A K; Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Kalia, S

    2013-10-15

    Biodegradation studies of Gum ghatti (Gg) and acrylamide-co-acrylic acid based flocculants [Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA)] have been reported using the soil composting method. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) was found to degrade 89.76% within 60 days. The progress of biodegradation at each stage was monitored through FT-IR and SEM. Polymer was synthesized under pressure using potassium persulphate-ascorbic acid as a redox initiator and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as a crosslinker. Synthesized polymer was found to show pH, temperature and ionic strength of the cations dependent swelling behavior. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) was utilized for the selective absorption of saline from different petroleum fraction-saline emulsions. The flocculation efficiency of the polymer was studied as a function of polymer dose, temperature and pH of the solution. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) showed maximum flocculation efficiency with 20 mol L(-1) polymer dose in acidic medium at 50 °C. PMID:23987360

  7. Electroactive behavior of poly(acrylic acid) grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) samples, their synthesis using a Ce(IV) glucose redox system and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkuri, Mahaveer D.; Lee, Jae-Rock; Han, Jae Hung; Lee, In

    2006-04-01

    Grafted copolymers of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared using a Ce(IV) glucose redox initiator by free radical polymerization. Three grafted copolymers having 20%, 50% and 80% grafting were selected for this study. Thus-modified polymer was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra, 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis and universal testing machine approaches. The membranes were prepared by a solution casting method, where the cross-linking process was performed through the in situ addition of glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid as the cross-linking agent and catalyst respectively. The following four membranes were prepared: (i) pure PVA; (ii) 20% grafted PVA; (iii) 50% grafted PVA; (iv) 80% grafted PVA. The membranes obtained were employed in the electroactive behavior study under a DC electric stimulus in different concentrations of electrolyte. The equilibrium bending angles (EBA) of these polymers were studied with respect to time, poly(acrylic acid) content, electric voltage applied across the polymer and ionic strength of the electrolyte used. Experimental results show stable reversibility of the bending behavior of these polymers under an applied DC electric field. The EBA increased with increase in the applied electric voltage and poly(acrylic acid) content within the polymer.

  8. pH effect of coagulation bath on the characteristics of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Zhai, Guangqun; Winata, A Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2003-09-15

    The poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAc-g-PVDF) and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (P4VP-g-PVDF) copolymers were obtained by thermally induced molecular graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), respectively, with the ozone-pretreated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution. Microfiltration (MF) membranes were prepared from the respective copolymers by phase inversion in aqueous media. The effects of pH of the coagulation bath on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the membranes were investigated. The surface compositions of the membranes were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface graft concentration of the AAc polymer for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membrane increased with decreasing pH value of the coagulation bath. Completely opposite pH-dependent behavior was observed for the surface graft concentration of the 4VP polymer in the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes. A substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membranes cast in basic coagulation baths of increasing pH. In the case of the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes, a substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for membranes cast in low pH (acidic) baths. The permeation rate of aqueous solutions through the PAAc-g-PVDF and P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes exhibited a reversible dependence on the pH of the solution, with the membranes cast near the neutral pH exhibiting the highest sensitivity to changes in permeate pH. PMID:12962674

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and morphology study of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) "raspberry"-shape like structure microgels by pre-emulsified semi-batch emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Ros Azlinawati; Hashim, Shahrir; Laftah, Waham Ashaier

    2013-02-01

    A novel microgels were polymerized using styrene (St), methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylamide (AAm), and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) cross-linker. Pre-emulsified monomer was first prepared followed by polymerizing monomers using semi-batch emulsion polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to determine the chemical structure and to indentify the related functional group. Grafting and cross-linking of poly(acrylamide-co-acrilic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA)] microgels are approved by the disappearance of band at 1300 cm(-1), 1200 cm(-1) and 1163 cm(-1) of FTIR spectrum and the appearance of CH peaks at 5.5-5.7 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that poly(St-co-MMA) particle was lobed morphology coated by cross-linked poly(AAm-co-AAc) shell. Furthermore, SEM results revealed that poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA) is composite particle that consist of "raspberry"-shape like structure core. Internal structures of the microgels showed homogeneous network of pores, an extensive interconnection among pores, thicker pore walls, and open network structures. Water absorbency test indicated that the sample with particle size 0.43 μm had lower equilibrium water content, % than the sample with particle size 7.39 μm. PMID:23123033

  10. Surfactant mediated synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted xanthan gum and its efficient role in adsorption of soluble inorganic mercury from water.

    PubMed

    Pal, Abhijit; Majumder, Kunal; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Noble copolymers from xanthan gum (XG) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesised through surfactant mediated graft copolymerization. The copolymers were applied as a biosorbent for inorganic Hg(II) at higher concentration level (300ppm). The copolymers were characterized using different analytical techniques which showed, the grafting principally occurred across the amorphous region of XG. Measurement of zeta potential and hydrodynamic size indicated, the copolymers were strong polyanion and possessed greater hydrodynamic size (almost in all cases) than XG, despite a strong molecular degradation that took place simultaneously during grafting. In the dispersed form, all grades of the copolymer displayed higher adsorption capability than XG, however, the grade with maximum grafting produced the highest efficiency (68.03%). Manipulation produced further improvement in efficiency to 72.17% with the same copolymer after 75min at a pH of 5.0. The allowable biosorbent dose, however, was 1000ppm as determined from the experimental evidences. PMID:27516248

  11. Comparison of Pb(II) uptake by coir and dye loaded coir fibres in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-10-17

    The possibility of adsorbing Pb(II) from solution using coir, a cheap lignocellulosic fibre, was assessed in a fixed bed column. The coir fibres were also chemically modified by covalent loading of a reactive dye, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and used as adsorbent. Column adsorption studies were carried out at different initial Pb(II) concentrations and it was observed that the breakthrough time decreased with increase in the initial Pb(II) concentration. The column packed with dye loaded coir fibres was operated for longer duration than the one packed with unmodified coir fibres. The total Pb(II) adsorbed was also higher in a column packed with dye loaded coir fibres. The desorption level in the fixed bed column packed with coir fibres was of the order of 85%, whereas the one packed with dye loaded coir fibres was more than 90%. Both the columns were regenerated and used upto five cycles. PMID:16019143

  12. Biosoftening of coir fiber using selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Akhila; Senan, Resmi C; Pavithran, C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2005-12-01

    Coir fiber belongs to the group of hard structural fibers obtained from coconut husk. As lignin is the main constituent of coir responsible for its stiffness, microbes that selectively remove lignin without loss of appreciable amounts of cellulose are extremely attractive in biosoftening. Five isolated strains were compared with known strains of bacteria and fungi. The raw fiber treated with Pseudomonas putida and Phanerocheate chrysosporium produced better softened fiber at 30+/-2 degrees C and neutral pH. FeSO4 and humic acid were found to be the best inducers for P. chrysosporium and P. putida, respectively, while sucrose and dextrose were the best C-sources for both. Biosoftening of unretted coir fibers was more advantageous than the retted fibers. Unlike the weak chemically softened fiber, microbial treatment produced soft, whiter fibers having better tensile strength and elongation (44.6-44.8%) properties. Scanning electron microscopy photos showed the mycelia penetrating the pores of the fiber, removing the tylose plug and degrading lignin.

  13. Use of coir pith particles in composites with Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Gisela Azevedo Menezes; Vieira, Jhonatas Augusto Rocha; Barreto, Ledjane Silva

    2013-12-15

    Brazil is the fourth largest world's producer of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Coconut crops generate several wastes, including, coir pith. Coir pith and short fibers are the byproducts of extracting the long fibers and account for approximately 70% of the mature coconut husk. The main use of coir pith is as an agricultural substrate. Due to its shape and small size (0.075-1.2 mm), this material can be considered as a particulate material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of coir pith as an aggregate in cementitious composites and to evaluate the effect of the presence of sand in the performance of these composites. Some composites were produced exclusively with coir pith particles and other composites with coir pith partially substituting the natural sand. The cementitious composites developed were tested for their physical and mechanical properties and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of coir pith particles addition in cement paste and sand-cement-mortar. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by multiple comparisons of the means by Tukey's test that showed that the composites with coir pith particles, with or without natural sand, had similar mechanical results, i.e., means were not statistically different at 5% significance level. There was a reduction in bulk density and an improved post-cracking behavior in the composites with coir pith particles compared to conventional mortar and to cement paste. These composites can be used for the production of lightweight, nonstructural building materials, according to the values of compressive strength (3.97-4.35 MPa) and low bulk density (0.99-1.26 g/cm(3)).

  14. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  15. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  16. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luzhong; Dou, Sufeng; Li, Yan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yawei; Wang, Yaling; Yang, Yumin

    2013-07-01

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields.

  17. A clinical and radiographic study of coir workers.

    PubMed Central

    Uragoda, C G

    1975-01-01

    Processing of coir, which is the fibre obtained from the husk of the coconut, is a dusty procedure; 779 workers in two coir processing factories in Sri Lanka were examined clincally and radiographically for evidence of respiratory disease. Respiratory symptoms were present in 20 (2-6%) of them, which is no higher than in the general population. Respiratory disease such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, byssinosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis which may occur from occupational exposures were considered, but there was no evidence to suggest a definite association between these conditions and coir dust. Twenty-two workers had abnormal chest radiographs, but when compared with a control group of 591 workers from an engineering firm where lesions were found in 20 cases, there was no significant difference. In the opinion of the medical officer, management and workers of the large factory investigated, coir dust does not produce any respiratory disability. The chemical composition of coir dust is similar to that of sisal which is also relatively inert. PMID:1125129

  18. Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Hasan, Mahbub; Islam, Md Saiful; Ali, Md Ershad

    2009-10-01

    In this work, palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene bio-composites were manufactured using a single extruder and injection molding machine. Raw palm and coir were chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt to increase their compatibility with the polypropylene matrix. Both raw and treated palm and coir fiber at five level of fiber loading (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 wt.%) was utilized during composite manufacturing. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Comparison has been made between the properties of the palm and coir fiber composites. Treated fiber reinforced specimens yielded better mechanical properties compared to the raw composites, while coir fiber composites had better mechanical properties than palm fiber ones. Based on fiber loading, 30% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties.

  19. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  20. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Robinson Boyer, Louisa; Feng, Wei; Gulbis, Natallia; Hajdu, Klara; Harrison, Richard J.; Jeffries, Peter; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir) under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir. PMID:27594859

  1. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate.

    PubMed

    Robinson Boyer, Louisa; Feng, Wei; Gulbis, Natallia; Hajdu, Klara; Harrison, Richard J; Jeffries, Peter; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir) under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir. PMID:27594859

  2. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Robinson Boyer, Louisa; Feng, Wei; Gulbis, Natallia; Hajdu, Klara; Harrison, Richard J.; Jeffries, Peter; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir) under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir.

  3. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. The protective and attractive covering of a vegetated embankment using coir geotextiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. The results reveal that treatment with geotextile in combination with grass is an effective eco-hydrological measure to protect steep slopes from erosion. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods. This paper analyses the performance of coir geotextile in different treatments with respect to soil moisture content, protection against erosion and biomass production.

  6. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles. PMID:24928058

  7. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles.

  8. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%). PMID:27390647

  9. Preparation and characterization of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified stearic acid-grafted chitosan micelles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Sun, Yong; Wang, Jiangjun; Yan, Guowen; Cui, Zhaoyuan; Yin, Hongli; Wei, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Stearic acid-grafted chitosan (CS-SA) and glycyrrhetinic acid-conjugated stearic acid-grafted chitosan (GA-CS-SA) were synthesized and were further used for the preparation of micelles. The substitution degree (SD) of SA and GA on CS was measured. The physicochemical properties of CS-SA and GA-CS-SA micelles such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), aggregation number of hydrophobic micro-domain (AN), particle size, zeta potential, and morphology were also determined. The CMC of GA-CS-SA was about 17.49 μg/mL, which was relatively low. Its AN was 2.09. The GA-CS-SA micelles showed spherical shape with mean diameter of 121.1 nm and had positive charge, which suggested that GA-CS-SA could be a good carrier of cancer drug.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Sisal/Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites Fabricated by Cold Pressing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Bio-composites have less density and are environmental friendly materials that require less energy during production and subsequent machining. This paper reports the mechanical and water absorption properties of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated sisal and coir fiber reinforced epoxy resin thermo set hybrid composites. The hybrid composites were prepared by traditional cold pressing method at room temperature with applied pressure of 410.4 kg/cm2 for 3 hours pressurization time. The mechanical properties were characterized according to ASTM standards. Hybrid composites with 40wt% of sisal and coir fiber were found to possess higher tensile strength of 48.2MPa and flexural strength of 76.68 MPa among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Absorption of water increases with increasing fiber volume. The experimental result also show that the sisal and coir fibers are promising reinforcement for use in low cost bio-composites which have high strength to weight ratio.

  11. Kinetic study of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated coconut coir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmawati, Akbarningrum; Agustriyanto, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Biomass waste utilization for biofuel production such as bioethanol, has become more prominent currently. Coconut coir is one of lignocellulosic food wastes, which is abundant in Indonesia. Bioethanol production from such materials consists of more than one step. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial steps to produce sugar which can then be fermented into bioethanol. In this research, ground coconut coir was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at 121°C. This pretreatment had increased the cellulose content and decreased the lignin content of coconut coir. The pretreated coconut coir was hydrolyzed using a mix of two commercial cellulase enzymes at pH of 4.8 and temperature of 50°C. The enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted at several initial coconut coir slurry concentrations (0.1-2 g/100 mL) and reaction times (2-72 hours). The reducing sugar concentration profiles had been produced and can be used to obtain reaction rates. The highest reducing sugar concentration obtained was 1,152.567 mg/L, which was produced at initial slurry concentration of 2 g/100 mL and 72 hours reaction time. In this paper, the reducing sugar concentrations were empirically modeled as a function of reaction time using power equations. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis reaction is adopted. The kinetic parameters of that model for sulfuric acid-pretreated coconut coir enzymatic hydrolysis had been obtained which are Vm of 3.587×104 mg/L.h, and KM of 130.6 mg/L.

  12. Structural characterization of lignin isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; del Río, José C

    2013-03-13

    The structure of the isolated milled "wood" lignin from coconut coir has been characterized using different analytical methods, including Py-GC/MS, 2D NMR, DFRC, and thioacidolysis. The analyses demonstrated that it is a p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with a predominance of G units (S/G ratio 0.23) and considerable amounts of associated p-hydroxybenzoates. Two-dimensional NMR indicated that the main substructures present in this lignin include β-O-4' alkyl aryl ethers followed by phenylcoumarans and resinols. Two-dimensional NMR spectra also indicated that coir lignin is partially acylated at the γ-carbon of the side chain with p-hydroxybenzoates and acetates. DFRC analysis showed that acetates preferentially acylate the γ-OH in S rather than in G units. Despite coir lignin's being highly enriched in G-units, thioacidolysis indicated that β-β' resinol structures are mostly derived from sinapyl alcohol. Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses.

  13. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria on rubberized-coir for psychrophilic digestion of night soil.

    PubMed

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Ramana, Karna Venkat; Tomar, Arvind; Waghmare, Chandrakant; Kamboj, Dev Vrat; Singh, Lokendra

    2005-08-01

    Low-ambient temperatures, <30 degrees C, are known to cause drastic reduction in the efficiency of anaerobic biodigesters due to low-growth rate of the constituent bacterial consortium. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria has been attempted in the biodigester operating at 10 degrees C. Various matrices were screened and evaluated for the immobilization of bacteria in digesters. Anaerobic digestion of night soil was carried out with hydraulic retention time in the range of 9-18 days. Among the tested matrices, rubberized-coir was found to be the most useful at 10 degrees C with optimum hydraulic retention time of 15 days. Optimum amount of coir was found as 25 g/L of the working volume of biodigesters. Immobilization of bacteria on the coir was observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. The study indicates that rubberized-coir can be utilized to increase biodegradation of night soil at higher organic loading. Another advantage of using this matrix is that it is renewable and easily available in comparison to other synthetic polymeric matrices.

  14. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2008-12-15

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60cm) and flow rate (10-30ml min(-1)). At 0.05 C(t)/C(0), the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40mg cm(-3) or 137.91mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 10ml min(-1) and 14.05mg cm(-3) or 118.20mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 30ml min(-1). At the highest bed depth (60cm) and the lowest flow rate (10mlmin(-1)), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47mg Cr(VI)g(-1) adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2M HNO(3) after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR). PMID:18406058

  15. A practical acoustical absorption analysis of coir fiber based on rigid frame modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, Md.; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd; Fouladi, Mohammad Hosseini; Zulkifli, Rozli; Amin, Nowshad

    2012-03-01

    An analytical study based on rigid frame model is demonstrated to evaluate the acoustic absorption of coir fiber. Effects of different conditions such as combination of air gap and perforated plate (PP) are studied in this work. Materials used here are treated as rigid rather than elastic, since the flow resistivity of coir fiber is very low. The well-known rigid frame Johnson-Allard equivalent-fluid model is applied to obtain the acoustic impedance of single layer coir fiber. Atalla and Sgard model is employed to estimate the surface impedance of PP. Acoustic transmission approach (ATA) is utilized for adding various consecutive layers in multilayer structure. Models are examined in different conditions such as single layer coir fiber, coir fiber backed with air gap, single layer PP in combination with coir fiber and air gap. Experiments are conducted in impedance tube on normal incidence sound absorption to validate the results. Results from the measurement are found to be in well agreement with the theoretical absorption coefficients. The performance of the rigid frame modeling method is checked more specifically in all conditions, by the mean prediction error rate of normal incidence sound absorption coefficients. Comparison between the measured absorption coefficients and predicted by rigid frame method shows discrepancy lower than 20 and 15% for most of the conditions in the frequency range of 0.2-1.5 and 1.5-5 kHz, respectively. Moreover, acoustic absorption of various single and multilayer structures is compared with the simpler empirical methods such as Delany-Bazley and Miki model; and complicated method such as Biot-Allard Model and Allard Transfer Function (TF) method. Comparisons show that the presented method offers a better accuracy of the results than the empirical models. Subsequently, it can provide almost same absorption plot with Biot-Allard model (single layer combination) and TF method (multilayer combination) proving it to be a

  16. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.; Idris, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

  17. Mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties of polylactic acid (PLA)/coir fibre biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Ghataura, A.; Haroosh, H. J.

    2013-08-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/coir fibre biocomposites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The effects of fibre content (5-30 wt%) and fibre treatment on mechanical, thermal and biodegradable properties of biocomposites were holistically investigated via mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and soil burial method to understand the applicability of manufacturing eco-efficient and sustainable "green composites".

  18. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  19. Investigations of plasma induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K. M.; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves; Mozetič, Miran; Junkar, Ita; Primc, Gregor; Gorjanc, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The development of lignocellulosic natural-fibre-reinforced polymers composites are constrained by two limitations: the upper temperature at which the fibre can be processed and the significant differences between the surface energy of the fibre and the polymer matrix. Since the fibres and matrices are chemically different, strong adhesion at their interface is needed for the effective transfer of stress and bond distribution throughout the interface. The present study investigated the plasma induced effects on the surface properties of natural coir fibres. Weakly ionized oxygen plasma was created in two different discharge chambers by an inductively coupled radiofrequency (RF) discharge. The water absorption studies showed an increase of water sorption from 39% to 100%. The morphological study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after the plasma treatment. The topographic measurements and phase imaging done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated difference in topographic features and etching of coir wall, which points to the removal of the first layer of coir fibre. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the oxygen content measured for samples treated at 50 Pa increased from initial 18% to about 32%.

  20. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  1. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. PMID:16406295

  2. Synthesis of a novel acrylated abietic acid-g-bacterial cellulose hydrogel by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abeer, Muhammad Mustafa; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Pandey, Manisha; Martin, Claire

    2014-09-22

    Acrylated abietic acid (acrylated AbA) and acrylated abietic acid-grafted bacterial cellulose pH sensitive hydrogel (acrylated AbA-g-BC) were prepared by a one-pot synthesis. The successful dimerization of acrylic acid (AA) and abietic acid (AbA) and grafting of the dimer onto bacterial cellulose (BC) was confirmed by 13C solid state NMR as well as FT-IR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed characteristic peaks for AbA and BC; further, there was no effect of increasing amorphous AA content on the overall crystallinity of the hydrogel. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a glass transition temperature of 80°C. Gel fraction and swelling studies gave insight into the features of the hydrogel, suggesting that it was suitable for future applications such as drug delivery. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed an interesting interpenetrating network within the walls of hydrogel samples with the lowest levels of AA and gamma radiation doses. Cell viability test revealed that the synthesized hydrogel is safe for future use in biomedical applications.

  3. Molecular dynamics of paclitaxel encapsulated by salicylic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) derivatives have attracted significant interest in drug delivery systems because of their well-known low toxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles based on salicylic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (COS/SA) were synthesized and characterized. Then, in order to understand the mechanism of the actions of the paclitaxel (PTX) encapsulated by COS/SA, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed to analyze the aggregation of COS/SA molecules. The van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions are the major driving forces for the drug encapsulation process. Electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions also play helpful roles in the COS/SA aggregation. Analyses of the radial distribution function and solvent accessible surface area indicate that the COS/SA nanoparticles are highly hydrosoluble and that the nanoparticles can significantly enhance the aqueous solubility of a hydrophobic drug. Different drug loading systems are also investigated in this work, and the best theoretical drug loading is found to be 10% (w/w). The present work provides insights into the mechanism of the atomic structures of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and presents new perspective for the design of drug delivery systems with desirable properties.

  4. Caproic acid grafted chitosan cationic nanocomplexes for enhanced gene delivery: effect of degree of substitution.

    PubMed

    Layek, Buddhadev; Singh, Jagdish

    2013-04-15

    This work was designed to investigate the effect of the degree of substitutions of caproic acid on plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding, cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and transfection efficiency of caproic acid grafted chitosan (CGC). The CGC with three substitution degrees (CGC-5, CGC-15, and CGC-25) were synthesized by coupling caproic acid with chitosan. Chemical characterization of graft polymers was performed using FTIR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The CGC polymers showed good pDNA condensing capacity and efficient protection of pDNA from DNase I. The nanosized CGC/pDNA polyplexes exhibited well-defined spherical shapes and stability in serum. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated reduction in CGC-pDNA binding constant with increase in the degree of caproic acid substitution. Caproic acid substitution resulted in 2-7-fold higher cellular uptake in HEK 293 cells mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway without affecting biocompatibility. In vitro transfection study suggested a dependence of transfection efficiency on the variability of caproic acid substitution. The CGC-15 polymer exhibited 31-fold and 1.33-fold higher gene expression compared to chitosan and the marketed non-viral vector FuGENEHD, respectively. These finding suggests that the CGC-15 graft polymer is a promising non-viral gene delivery vector due to its superior transfection efficiency and biocompatibility.

  5. Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity of phenolic acids grafted carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Tang, Ying-qing; Jin, Chang-hai

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three phenolic acids including gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were grafted onto N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) by a free radical mediated grafting method. The grafted copolymers obtained were all water-soluble samples. UV-vis absorption peaks of the grafted copolymers shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers exhibited additional phenolic characteristics of the aromatic ring CC stretching within 1450-1650 cm(-1). NMR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers showed new peaks at 6.2-7.6 ppm assigned to the phenyl protons of phenolic acids. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of three phenolic acids to NOCC. The conjugation probably occurred at amine of NOCC and carboxyl groups of phenolic acids. The grafted copolymers exhibited decreased crystallinity as compared to NOCC and chitosan. Moreover, antioxidant activity in vitro assays showed that the antioxidant property decreased in the order of GA-g-NOCC>CA-g-NOCC>FA-g-NOCC>NOCC>chitosan. Our results suggested the potential of phenolic acids grafted NOCC for the development of effective antioxidant agents.

  6. Effect of aniline on cadmium adsorption by sulfanilic acid-grafted magnetic graphene oxide sheets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-jiang; Liu, Yun-guo; Zeng, Guang-ming; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xi; Chen, An-wei; Wang, Ya-qin; Guo, Yi-Mming; Li, Ting-ting; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Shao-heng; Zeng, Xiao-xia

    2014-07-15

    Cd(II) has posed severe health risks worldwide. To remove this contaminant from aqueous solution, the sulfanilic acid-grafted magnetic graphene oxide sheets (MGOs/SA) were prepared and characterized. The mutual effects of Cd(II) and aniline adsorption on MGOs/SA were studied. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, ionic strength, contact time and temperature on the Cd(II) enrichment, as well as the adsorption kinetics and isotherm were also investigated. The results demonstrated that MGOs/SA could effectively remove Cd(II) and aniline from the aqueous solution and the two adsorption processes were strongly dependent on solution pH. The Cd(II) adsorption was reduced by the presence of aniline at pH<5.4 but was improved at pH>5.4. The presence of Cd(II) diminished the adsorption capacity for aniline at pH<7.8 but enhanced the aniline adsorption at pH>7.8. The decontamination of Cd(II) by MGOs/SA was influenced by ionic strength. Besides, the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion study revealed that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-limiting step for the adsorption process. Moreover, the experimental data of isotherm followed the Freundlich isotherm model.

  7. Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium (Psy- g-PMA): a novel material for waste water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranvijay; Sharma, Kaushlendra; Tiwary, K. P.; Sen, Gautam

    2013-03-01

    Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium (Psy- g-PMA) was synthesized by microwave assisted method, which involves a microwave irradiation in synergism with silver sulfate as a free radical initiator to initiate grafting reaction. Psy- g-PMA grades have been synthesized and characterized on structural basis (elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, intrinsic viscosity study) as well as morphological and thermal studies, taking psyllium as reference. The effects of reaction time, amount of monomer and silver sulfate (free radical initiator) on grafting of PMA on psyllium backbone have been studied. It is observed that all the grades of Psy- g-PMA have higher intrinsic viscosities than that of psyllium. The best synthesized grade was Psy- g-PMA having intrinsic viscosity of 6.93 and 58 % grafting of PMA on the main polymer backbone. Further Psy- g-PMA applications as flocculants for waste water treatment have been investigated. Psy- g-PMA resulted in higher decrease in the flocculation parameters such as total dissolved solid or total solids compared to psyllium. Hence the result shows the possible application of grafted psyllium in wastewater treatment.

  8. Gallic acid-grafted-chitosan inhibits foodborne pathogens by a membrane damage mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Je, Jae-Young

    2013-07-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activity of gallic acid-grafted-chitosans (gallic acid-g-chitosans) against five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative foodborne pathogens was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of gallic acid-g-chitosans ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL against Gram-positive bacteria and ranged from 128 to 512 μg/mL against Gram-negative bacteria. These activities were higher than those of unmodified chitosan. The bactericidal activity of gallic acid-g-chitosan (I), which showed the highest antimicrobial activity, was evaluated by time-killing assay with multiples of MIC, and it was recognized to depend on its dose. The integrity of cell membrane, outer membrane (OM), inner membrane (IM) permeabilization experiments, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation were conducted for elucidation of the detailed antimicrobial mode of action of gallic acid-g-chitosan. Results showed that treatment of gallic acid-g-chitosan (I) quickly increased the release of intracellular components for both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, gallic acid-g-chitosan (I) also rapidly increased the 1-N-phenylanphthylamine (NPN) uptake and the release of β-galactosidase via increasing the permeability of OM and IM in E. coli. TEM observation demonstrated that gallic acid-g-chitosan (I) killed the bacteria via disrupting the cell membrane.

  9. Effect of Protocatechuic Acid-Grafted-Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality of Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Meng, Chen-Guang; Wang, Xing-Chi; Chen, Yao; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2016-09-28

    Protocatechuic acid-grafted-chitosan (PA-g-CS) solution with antioxidant activity was developed as a novel edible coating material for Pleurotus eryngii postharvest storage. The effect of PA-g-CS coating on the postharvest quality of P. eryngii was investigated by determination of various physicochemical parameters and enzyme activities. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity and viscosity of PA-g-CS solutions were closely related to the grafting degree and were much higher than that of chitosan (CS) solution. At the end of 15 days of storage, serious mushroom browning was observed in the control and CS coating groups. By contrast, PA-g-CS coating groups with medium and high grafting degrees maintained better physical appearance. Among all of the treatment groups, P. eryngii in PA-g-CS III coating group exhibited the highest firmness and the lowest weight loss, browning degree, respiration rate, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage rate, superoxide anion production rate, and hydrogen peroxide content. Moreover, P. eryngii in PA-g-CS III coating group maintained relatively higher antioxidant enzyme activities but lower polyphenol oxidase activity than other treatment groups. Therefore, PA-g-CS III is a promising preservation agent for P. eryngii.

  10. Effect of Protocatechuic Acid-Grafted-Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality of Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Meng, Chen-Guang; Wang, Xing-Chi; Chen, Yao; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2016-09-28

    Protocatechuic acid-grafted-chitosan (PA-g-CS) solution with antioxidant activity was developed as a novel edible coating material for Pleurotus eryngii postharvest storage. The effect of PA-g-CS coating on the postharvest quality of P. eryngii was investigated by determination of various physicochemical parameters and enzyme activities. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity and viscosity of PA-g-CS solutions were closely related to the grafting degree and were much higher than that of chitosan (CS) solution. At the end of 15 days of storage, serious mushroom browning was observed in the control and CS coating groups. By contrast, PA-g-CS coating groups with medium and high grafting degrees maintained better physical appearance. Among all of the treatment groups, P. eryngii in PA-g-CS III coating group exhibited the highest firmness and the lowest weight loss, browning degree, respiration rate, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage rate, superoxide anion production rate, and hydrogen peroxide content. Moreover, P. eryngii in PA-g-CS III coating group maintained relatively higher antioxidant enzyme activities but lower polyphenol oxidase activity than other treatment groups. Therefore, PA-g-CS III is a promising preservation agent for P. eryngii. PMID:27595300

  11. Effect of fiber treatments on tensile and thermal properties of starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers/coir biocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different fiber treatments, namely washing with water, alkali treatment (mercerization) and bleaching, on mechanical and thermal properties of starch/EVA/coir biocomposites were evaluated by tensile tests and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Additionally, the fiber/matrix interfac...

  12. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  13. Acrylic purification and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuźniak, Marcin

    2011-04-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  14. Acrylic purification and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzniak, Marcin

    2011-04-27

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  15. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  16. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications.

  17. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications. PMID:23987440

  18. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  1. Biodegradation of toluene vapor in coir based upflow packed bed reactor by Trichoderma asperellum isolate.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, M; Mohanapriya, C; Sivakumar, K; Baskar, G; Muthukumaran, C; Dhanasekar, R

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a new biofiltration system involving a selective microbial strain isolated from aerated municipal sewage water attached with coir as packing material was developed for toluene degradation. The selected fungal isolate was identified as Trichoderma asperellum by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing method, and pylogenetic tree was constructed using BLASTn search. Effect of various factors on growth and toluene degradation by newly isolated T. asperellum was studied in batch studies, and the optimum conditions were found to be pH 7.0, temperature 30 °C, and initial toluene concentration 1.5 (v/v)%. Continuous removal of gaseous toluene was monitored in upflow packed bed reactor (UFPBR) using T. asperellum. Effect of various parameters like column height, flow rate, and the inlet toluene concentration were studied to evaluate the performance of the biofilter. The maximum elimination capacity (257 g m(-3) h(-1)) was obtained with the packing height of 100 cm with the empty bed residence time of 5 min. Under these optimum conditions, the T. asperellum showed better toluene removal efficiency. Kinetic models have been developed for toluene degradation by T. asperellum using macrokinetic approach of the plug flow model incorporated with Monod model.

  2. Performance evaluation and modelling studies of gravel--coir fibre--sand multimedia stormwater filter.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Tamilmani, D; Mathew, A C

    2012-09-01

    A horizontal flow multimedia stormwater filter was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. Gravel, coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibre and sand were selected as the media and filled in 1:1:1 proportion. A fabric screen made up of woven sisal hemp was used to separate the media. The adsorption behaviour of coir fibre was determined in a series of column and batch studies and the corresponding isotherms were developed. The hydraulic efficiency of the filter showed a diminishing trend as the sediment level in inflow increased. The filter exhibited 100% sediment removal at lower sediment concentrations in inflow water (>6 g L(-1)). The filter could remove NO3(-), SO4(2-) and total solids (TS) effectively. Removal percentages of Mg(2+) and Na(+) were also found to be good. Similar results were obtained from a field evaluation study. Studies were also conducted to determine the pattern of silt and sediment deposition inside the filter body. The effects of residence time and rate of flow on removal percentages of NO3(-) and TS were also investigated out. In addition, a multiple regression equation that mathematically represents the filtration process was developed. Based on estimated annual costs and returns, all financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value and benefit-cost ratio) were found favourable and affordable to farmers for investment in the developed filtration system. The model MUSIC was calibrated and validated for field conditions with respect to the developed stormwater filter.

  3. Study of physical and sound absorbing property of epoxy blended coir dust biocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Mishra, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Reinforcement biocomposite has gained more attention recently due to its low cost, abundantly availability, low density, specific properties, easy method of separation, enhanced energy recovery, CO2 neutrality, biodegradability and recyclable in nature. As a waste product of coconut fruit, the coconut coir dust (CCD) obtained from the coconut husk. The biocomposite material prepared from the CCD modified with the proper blended solution with the help of ultrasonic technique. The study of adiabatic compressibility of acetone / water (70/30) worth its blending property for bleaching of CCD. The biocomposite material of CCD was prepared with epoxy resin. The different physical properties such as sound absorption coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity were measured. The morphological study of biocomposite and measurement of sound absorption coefficient shows good evidence of sound absorbing characteristics of biocomposite of CCD. The sound absorption property of composite material shows a significant result where as the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity executes a weak result. Thus biocomposite of CCD can acts as a good sound absorber and band conductor of heat and electric current.

  4. Effect of stearic acid-grafted starch compatibilizer on properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blown film.

    PubMed

    Khanoonkon, Nattaporn; Yoksan, Rangrong; Ogale, Amod A

    2016-02-10

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of stearic acid-grafted starch (ST-SA) on the rheological, thermal, optical, dynamic mechanical thermal, and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LLDPE/TPS) blends, as well as on their water vapor and oxygen barrier properties. Blends consisting of LLDPE and TPS in a weight ratio of 60:40 and ST-SA at different concentrations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5%, were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The obtained resins were subsequently converted into films via blown film extrusion. Incorporation of ST-SA resulted in a decreased degree of shear thinning, reduced ambient temperature elasticity, and improved tensile strength, secant modulus, extensibility, and UV absorption, as well as diminished water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the LLDPE/TPS blend. These effects are attributed to the enhanced interfacial adhesion between LLDPE and TPS phases through the compatibilizing effect induced by ST-SA, and the good dispersion of the TPS phase in the LLDPE matrix. The results confirmed that ST-SA could potentially be used as a compatibilizer for the LLDPE/TPS blend system.

  5. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  6. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    PubMed

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  7. The effectiveness of jute and coir blankets for erosion control in different field and laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalibová, Jana; Jačka, Lukáš; Petrů, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Vegetation cover is found to be an ideal solution to most problems of erosion on steep slopes. Biodegradable geotextiles (GTXs) have been proved to provide sufficient protection against soil loss in the period before vegetation reaches maturity, so favouring soil formation processes. In this study, 500 g m-2 jute (J500), 400 g m-2 (C400), and 700 g m-2 coir (C700) GTXs were first installed on a 9° slope under "no-infiltration" laboratory conditions, then on a 27° slope under natural field conditions. The impact of GTXs on run-off and soil loss was investigated to compare the performance of GTXs under different conditions. Laboratory run-off ratio (percentage portion of control plot) equalled 78, 83, and 91 %, while peak discharge ratio equalled 83, 91, and 97 % for J500, C700, and C400 respectively. In the field, a run-off ratio of 31, 62, and 79 %, and peak discharge ratio of 37, 74, and 87 % were recorded for C700, J500, and C400 respectively. All tested GTXs significantly decreased soil erosion. The greatest soil loss reduction in the field was observed for J500 (by 99.4 %), followed by C700 (by 97.9 %) and C400 (by 93.8 %). Irrespective of slope gradient or experimental condition, C400 performed with lower run-off and peak discharge reduction than J500 and C700. The performance ranking of J500 and C700 in the laboratory differed from the field, which may be explained by different slope gradients, and also by the role of soil, which was not included in the laboratory experiment.

  8. Effect of proteins with different isoelectric points on the gene transfection efficiency mediated by stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide micelles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingjing; Du, Yong-Zhong; Chen, Feng-Ying; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    A stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CS-SA) micelle has been demonstrated as an effective gene carrier in vitro and in vivo. Although being advantageous for DNA package, protection, and excellent cellular internalization, a CS-SA based delivery system may lead to difficulties in the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes in intracells. In this research, bovine serum albumin (BSA) with a different isoelectric point value (4.7, 6.0 and 9.3) was synthesized and incorporated into a CS-SA based gene delivery system. CS-SA/DNA binary complexes and CS-SA/BSA/DNA ternary complexes were then prepared and characterized. The binding ability of the CS-SA vector with DNA was not affected by the incorporation of BSA. However, referring to the transfection activity, the BSA of different isoelectric point value (pI) had a distinct influence on the CS-SA/BSA/DNA complexes. CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA and CS-SA/BSA(6.0)/DNA complexes had better transfection efficiency than binary complexes, especially CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA complexes which showed the highest transfection efficiency. On the contrary, CS-SA/BSA(9.3)/DNA complexes had undesirable performances. Interestingly, the incorporation of BSA(4.7) in CS-SA/DNA complexes significantly enhanced the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes and improved the release of DNA intracellular without influencing their cellular uptake. The aforementioned results indicated that the acid group in protein played an important role in enhancing the transfection efficiency of CS/BSA/DNA complexes, and the study provided guidelines in the design of an efficient vector for DNA transfection.

  9. Effect of proteins with different isoelectric points on the gene transfection efficiency mediated by stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide micelles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingjing; Du, Yong-Zhong; Chen, Feng-Ying; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    A stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CS-SA) micelle has been demonstrated as an effective gene carrier in vitro and in vivo. Although being advantageous for DNA package, protection, and excellent cellular internalization, a CS-SA based delivery system may lead to difficulties in the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes in intracells. In this research, bovine serum albumin (BSA) with a different isoelectric point value (4.7, 6.0 and 9.3) was synthesized and incorporated into a CS-SA based gene delivery system. CS-SA/DNA binary complexes and CS-SA/BSA/DNA ternary complexes were then prepared and characterized. The binding ability of the CS-SA vector with DNA was not affected by the incorporation of BSA. However, referring to the transfection activity, the BSA of different isoelectric point value (pI) had a distinct influence on the CS-SA/BSA/DNA complexes. CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA and CS-SA/BSA(6.0)/DNA complexes had better transfection efficiency than binary complexes, especially CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA complexes which showed the highest transfection efficiency. On the contrary, CS-SA/BSA(9.3)/DNA complexes had undesirable performances. Interestingly, the incorporation of BSA(4.7) in CS-SA/DNA complexes significantly enhanced the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes and improved the release of DNA intracellular without influencing their cellular uptake. The aforementioned results indicated that the acid group in protein played an important role in enhancing the transfection efficiency of CS/BSA/DNA complexes, and the study provided guidelines in the design of an efficient vector for DNA transfection. PMID:23679858

  10. Reduction of magnetic damping and isotropic coercivity and increase of saturation magnetization in Rh-incorporated CoIr system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H. S.; He, S. K.; Chung, H. J.; Zhang, M. S.; Cher, Kelvin; Low, Melvin; Zhou, T. J.; Yang, Y.; Wong, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Replacing Ir with Rh in a CoIr system possessing negative uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K u ) substantially reduces its magnetic damping and coercivity by more than half while retaining its high negative K u . Moreover, a higher saturation magnetization (M s ) and more isotropic coercivity are achieved. Such material development makes it particularly suitable for use as the soft underlayer (SUL) of magnetic recording media for reducing noise, and as the oscillation layer of a spin-torque oscillator (STO) for achieving higher oscillation frequency, larger AC magnetic field and lower driving current, which can be readily integrated with the current recording head for microwave-assisted magnetic recording. Finally, we recommend a composite free layer by coupling CoIr with a spin polarizer (Co or Co/Cu/Co) for the enhancement of the spin-polarization rate and, therefore, the improvement of STO efficiency. These could pave the way for CoIr-based materials to be implemented in devices requiring a negative Ku with low damping and high ‘softness’, such as oscillators.

  11. Removal of nutrients in denitrification system using coconut coir fibre for the biological treatment of aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manoj, Valsa Remony; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2012-03-01

    Ideal bacterial support medium for fixed film denitrification processes/bioreactors must be inexpensive, durable and possess large surface area with sufficient porosity. The present study has been focussed on removing nitrate nitrogen at two different nitrate nitrogen loading rates (60 (NLR I) and 120 (NLR II) mg l(-1)) from simulated aquaculture wastewater. Coconut coir fibre and a commercially available synthetic reticulated plastic media (Fujino Spirals) were used as packing medium in two independent upflow anaerobic packed bed column reactors. Removal of nitrate nitrogen was studied in correlation with other nutrients (COD, TKN, dissolved orthophosphate). Maximum removal of 97% at NLR-I and 99% at NLR - II of nitrate nitrogen was observed in with either media. Greater consistency in the case of COD removal of upto 81% was observed at NLR II where coconut coir was used as support medium compared to 72% COD removal by Fujino Spirals. The results observed indicate that the organic support medium is just as efficient in nitrate nitrogen removal as conventionally used synthetic support medium. The study is important as it specifically focuses on denitrification of aquaculture wastewater using cheaper organic support medium in anoxic bioreactors for the removal of nitrate nitrogen; which is seldom addressed as a significant problem. PMID:23033693

  12. Removal of nutrients in denitrification system using coconut coir fibre for the biological treatment of aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manoj, Valsa Remony; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2012-03-01

    Ideal bacterial support medium for fixed film denitrification processes/bioreactors must be inexpensive, durable and possess large surface area with sufficient porosity. The present study has been focussed on removing nitrate nitrogen at two different nitrate nitrogen loading rates (60 (NLR I) and 120 (NLR II) mg l(-1)) from simulated aquaculture wastewater. Coconut coir fibre and a commercially available synthetic reticulated plastic media (Fujino Spirals) were used as packing medium in two independent upflow anaerobic packed bed column reactors. Removal of nitrate nitrogen was studied in correlation with other nutrients (COD, TKN, dissolved orthophosphate). Maximum removal of 97% at NLR-I and 99% at NLR - II of nitrate nitrogen was observed in with either media. Greater consistency in the case of COD removal of upto 81% was observed at NLR II where coconut coir was used as support medium compared to 72% COD removal by Fujino Spirals. The results observed indicate that the organic support medium is just as efficient in nitrate nitrogen removal as conventionally used synthetic support medium. The study is important as it specifically focuses on denitrification of aquaculture wastewater using cheaper organic support medium in anoxic bioreactors for the removal of nitrate nitrogen; which is seldom addressed as a significant problem.

  13. Bonding auto-polymerising acrylic resin to acrylic denture teeth.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Susan; Ray, Noel J; Burke, Francis M; Gorman, Catherine M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of an auto-polymerising acrylic resin cured to acrylic denture teeth. The surface treatments included a combination of grit-blasting and/or wetting the surface with monomer. Samples were prepared and then stored in water prior to shear testing. The results indicated that the application of monomer to the surface prior to bonding did not influence the bond strength. Grit blasting was found to significantly increase the bond strength. PMID:19839190

  14. Drug release behavior of poly (lactic-glycolic acid) grafting from sodium alginate (ALG-g-PLGA) prepared by direct polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gang; Ding, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Luyan; He, Fei; Ni, Caihua

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobically modified sodium alginate, poly (lactic-glycolic acid) grafting from sodium alginate (ALG-g-PLGA), was successfully synthesized through direct one-step polymerization of sodium alginate, glycolic acid, and lactic acid. ALG-g-PLGA self-assembled to colloidal nanoparticles and subsequently hydrogel microspheres were obtained by crosslinking ALG-g-PLGA nanoparticles in the solution of calcium chloride. The modified hydrogel microspheres could be used as the drug delivery vehicles for a hydrophobic ibuprofen. Compared with sodium alginate, ALG-g-PLGA demonstrated an improved drug loading rate, encapsulation efficiency, and prolonged release speed. The products, as novel and highly promising biomaterials, have potential applications.

  15. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  19. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  20. Changes in microbial properties and nutrient dynamics in bagasse and coir during vermicomposting: quantification of fungal biomass through ergosterol estimation in vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, P

    2010-05-01

    In this experiment, different microorganisms viz., Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Bacillus megaterium were inoculated in bagasse and coir with the objective to study their effect on nutrient dynamics and microbial properties, specially effect on fungal status in these waste materials. Fungal biomass (FBC) was calculated from the ergosterol content in the vermicompost samples. Inoculation of B. megaterium registered comparatively higher TP content in the final stabilized product. Vermicomposting increased microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) content in bagasse and coir. Microbial biomass carbon to nitrogen ratio (MBC/ MBN) was comparatively narrower in fungi inoculated vermicomposts and FBC/MBC ratio was increased up to 11.69 from 9.51 of control during vermicomposting.

  1. Carboxylic acid-grafted mesoporous material and its high catalytic activity in one-pot three-component coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Ruth; Dutta, Saikat; Bhaumik, Asim

    2014-11-01

    A new carboxylic acid functionalized mesoporous organic polymer has been synthesized via in situ radical polymerization of divinylbenzene and acrylic acid using a mesoporous silica as a seed during the polymerization process under solvothermal conditions. The mesoporous material MPDVAA-1 has been thoroughly characterized employing powder XRD, solid state 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 sorption, HR-TEM, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption-thermal conductivity detector (TPD-TCD) analysis to understand its porosity, chemical environment, bonding, and surface properties. The mesoporous polymer was used as a catalyst for a three comp onent Biginelli condensation between various aldehydes, β-keto esters, and urea/thioureas to give 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones. The reactions were carried out under conventional heating as well as solvent-free microwave irradiation of solid components, and in both the cases, the mesoporous polymer MPDVAA-1 proved to be a powerful, robust, and reusable catalyst with high catalytic efficiency.

  2. Carboxylic acid-grafted mesoporous material and its high catalytic activity in one-pot three-component coupling reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim; Dutta, Saikat

    2014-11-01

    A new carboxylic acid functionalized mesoporous organic polymer has been synthesized via in situ radical polymerization of divinylbenzene and acrylic acid using a mesoporous silica as a seed during the polymerization process under solvothermal conditions. The mesoporous material MPDVAA-1 has been thoroughly characterized employing powder XRD, solid state {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, FT-IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2} sorption, HR-TEM, and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption-thermal conductivity detector (TPD-TCD) analysis to understand its porosity, chemical environment, bonding, and surface properties. The mesoporous polymer was used as a catalyst for a three comp onent Biginelli condensation between various aldehydes, β-keto esters, and urea/thioureas to give 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones. The reactions were carried out under conventional heating as well as solvent-free microwave irradiation of solid components, and in both the cases, the mesoporous polymer MPDVAA-1 proved to be a powerful, robust, and reusable catalyst with high catalytic efficiency.

  3. A method for preparing sodium acrylate-d3, a useful and stable precursor for deuterated acrylic monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A convenient and economical method for converting propiolic acid to sodium acrylate-d3 is described. Successive D/H exchange of the alkyne proton of sodium propiolate (prepared from propiolic acid) using D2O affords sodium propiolate-d having up to 99 atom% D. Sodium propiolate-d can be partially reduced to sodium acrylate-d3 with 90% conversion and 89% yield, using D2 and the Lindlar catalyst with control of reaction parameters to maximize conversion while minimizing over reduction.

  4. Esterification of acrylic acid with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarov, G.A.; Danov, S.M.; Logutov, V.I.; Obmelyukhina, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    The esterification of acrylic acid with methanol in the absence of catalysis by strong mineral acids has been studied. The esterification rate was estimated from the amount of methyl acrylate formed at the end of a definite time, and the reaction rate was found to be first order with respect to methanol and second order with respect to acrylic acid. Mathematical relationships in good agreement with experimental data were derived from the results of the kinetic studies.

  5. Production of cellulose by Aspergillus niger under submerged and solid state fermentation using coir waste as a substrate

    PubMed Central

    Mrudula, Soma; Murugammal, Rangasamy

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was used for cellulase production in submerged (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The maximum production of cellulase was obtained after 72 h of incubation in SSF and 96 h in Smf. The CMCase and FPase activities recorded in SSF were 8.89 and 3.56 U per g of dry mycelial bran (DBM), respectively. Where as in Smf the CMase & FPase activities were found to be 3.29 and 2.3 U per ml culture broth, respectively. The productivity of extracellular cellulase in SSF was 14.6 fold higher than in SmF. The physical and nutritional parameters of fermentation like pH, temperature, substrate, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized. The optimal conditions for maximum biosynthesis of cellulase by A. niger were shown to be at pH 6, temperature 30 °C. The additives like lactose, peptone and coir waste as substrate increased the productivity both in SmF and SSF. The moisture ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was observed for optimum production of cellulase in SSF. PMID:24031730

  6. Coir geotextile for slope stabilization and cultivation - A case study in a highland region of Kerala, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, K. R.

    A sloping field is not only vulnerable to soil erosion it may also suffer from soil moisture deficiency. Farmers that cultivate on slopes everywhere face similar problems. Conservation technologies may reduce soil and nutrient losses, and thus enhance water holding capacity and soil fertility. But although these technologies promote sustainable crop production on steep slopes, the construction of physical structure such as bench terraces are often labour intensive and expensive to the farmers, since construction and maintenance require high investments. Here we studied the efficiency of coir geotextile with and without crop cultivation in reducing soil moisture deficiency on marginal slopes in Kerala, India. From the results it is evident that the slopes treated with geotextile and crops have the highest moisture retention capacity followed by geotextiles alone, and that the control plot has the lowest moisture retention capacity. As the poor and marginal farmers occupy the highland region, this method provides an economically viable option for income generation and food security along with slope stabilization.

  7. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and... ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  8. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    SciTech Connect

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  11. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  12. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  13. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic...) Identity. For the purpose of this section, n-alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers are copolymers obtained...

  15. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  16. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs. PMID:26876468

  17. Preparation and characterization of antiadhesion barrier film from hyaluronic acid-grafted electrospun poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous membranes for prevention of flexor tendon postoperative peritendinous adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Hao; Shalumon, K T; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Peritendinous adhesion is one of the common complications encountered after tendon injury and subsequent surgery, and it can be minimized by introducing a physical barrier between the injured site and the surrounding tissue. An electrospun hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(caprolactone) (PCL-g-HA) nanofibrous membrane (NFM) is proposed as an alternative to current antiadhesion barrier films. HA is covalently grafted to surface-aminolyzed PCL nanofibers, using carbodiimide as the coupling agent. Pristine PCL and PCL-g-HA NFMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. In vitro cell culture with fibroblasts showed that PCL-g-HA NFMs reduced cellular adhesion on the membrane surface while maintaining cell proliferation. Animal experiments using a rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model confirmed the efficacy of PCL-g-HA in reducing peritendinous adhesion, based on gross observation, histology, joint flexion-angle measurements, gliding tests, and biomechanical evaluation. PMID:25187711

  18. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs.

  19. Guided bone regeneration by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) grafted hyaluronic acid bi-layer films for periodontal barrier applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Kyu; Yeom, Junseok; Oh, Eun Ju; Reddy, Mallikarjuna; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo; Lim, Hyun Pil; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sang Won; Shin, Hong-In; Yang, Dong Jun; Park, Kwang Bum; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2009-11-01

    A novel protocol for the synthesis of biocompatible and degradation controlled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) grafted hyaluronic acid (HA-PLGA) was successfully developed for periodontal barrier applications. HA was chemically modified with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) in the mixed solvent of water and ethanol, which resulted in a high degree of HA modification up to 85 mol.%. The stability of HA-ADH to enzymatic degradation by hyaluronidase increased with ADH content in HA-ADH. When the ADH content in HA-ADH was higher than 80 mol.%, HA-ADH became soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and could be grafted to the activated PLGA with N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The resulting HA-PLGA was used for the preparation of biphasic periodontal barrier membranes in chloroform. According to in vitro hydrolytic degradation tests in phosphate buffered saline, HA-PLGA/PLGA blend film with a weight ratio of 1/2 degraded relatively slowly compared to PLGA film and HA coated PLGA film. Four different samples of a control, OSSIX(TM) membrane, PLGA film, and HA-PLGA/PLGA film were assessed as periodontal barrier membranes for the calvarial critical size bone defects in SD rats. Histological and histomorphometric analyses revealed that HA-PLGA/PLGA film resulted in the most effective bone regeneration compared to other samples with a regenerated bone area of 63.1% covering the bone defect area. PMID:19477304

  20. Effective removal of mercury(II) ions from chlor-alkali industrial wastewater using 2-mercaptobenzamide modified itaconic acid-grafted-magnetite nanocellulose composite.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Shainy, F

    2015-10-15

    A novel adsorbent, 2-mercaptobenzamide modified itaconic acid-grafted-magnetite nanocellulose composite [P(MB-IA)-g-MNCC] was synthesized for adsorbing mercury(II) [Hg(II)] ions selectively from aqueous solutions. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric studies were performed to characterize the adsorbent. The optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption was found to be 8.0, and the adsorption attained equilibrium within 60 min. The kinetic data were found to follow pseudo-second-order which assumes the ion exchange followed by complexation mechanism. The temperature dependence indicates an exothermic process. The well agreement of equilibrium data with Freundlich adsorption model confirms the multilayer coverage of Hg(II) onto P(MB-IA)-g-MNCC. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 240.0 mg/g. Complete removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution was possible with an adsorbent dosage of 2.0 g/L. Spent adsorbent was effectively degenerated with 0.1M HCl. The present investigation shows that P(MB-IA)g-MNCC is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions. PMID:26086434

  1. Effect of kojic acid-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharides as a novel antibacterial agent on cell membrane of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Yu, Peipei

    2015-09-01

    Our work here, for the first time, reported the antibacterial activity of kojic acid-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharides (COS/KA) against three gram-positive and three gram-negative bacteria. Integrity of cell membrane, outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeabilization assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) assay, and SDS-PAGE assay techniques were used to investigate the interactions between COS/KA and bacterial membranes. The antibacterial activity of COS/KA was higher than those of unmodified COS. The electric conductivity of bacteria suspensions increased, followed by increasing of the units of average release for ALP and G6PDH. COS/KA can also rapidly increase the 1-N-phenylanphthylamine (NPN) uptake and the release of β-galactosidase via increasing the permeability of OM and IM in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE indicated the content of cellular soluble proteins decreased significantly in COS/KA-treated bacteria. Hence, COS/KA has potential in food industry and biomedical sciences.

  2. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  3. Encapsulation of photocells with acrylic prepolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Avenel, M.; Evrard, P.; Leca, J.-P.

    1985-10-22

    Acrylic prepolymer comprising: from 10 to 50% by weight of units derived from at least one alkyl acrylate, the alkyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, from 30 to 60% by weight of units derived from at least one alkyl methacrylate, the alkyl group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and from 10 to 40% by weight of units derived from methyl acrylate. The prepolymer is used to encapsulate photocells, connected to one another by conducting wires and positioned on a support plate, by casting a resin into the space located between the support plate and a second protective plate, the resin being obtained by mixing 100 parts of the acrylic prepolymer, from 0.1 to 4 parts of a vanadium arenesulphonate and from 0.5 to 4 parts of a free-radical initiator, at a temperature between 10 and 70 C. and for a sufficient time to solidify the polymeric resin at the temperature selected.

  4. Antibacterial and synergic effects of gallic acid-grafted-chitosan with β-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mog; Kim, Hye Seon; Yim, Mi-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Do-Hyung; Je, Jae-Young

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spreading worldwide, emphasizing the need to search for new antibiotics. The anti-MRSA activities of gallic acid-grafted-chitosans (GA-g-chitosans) were investigated against 2 MRSA standards and 10 MRSA clinical isolates by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). GA-g-chitosan (I), which has the highest gallic acid content, exhibited the strongest anti-MRSA activities, with MICs of 32-64 μg/mL. A time-kill investigation revealed that GA-g-chitosan (I) exhibited a bactericidal effect at twice the MIC, also demonstrating good thermal and pH stability. Investigation of cell envelope integrity showed the release of intracellular components with an increasing absorbance value at 260 nm, indicating cell envelope damage caused by the GA-g-chitosan (I), which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. When GA-g-chitosans were combined with β-lactams, including ampicillin and penicillin, synergistic effects were observed on the 2 standard MRSA strains and on the 10 clinical isolates, with fractional inhibitory indices ranging from 0.125 to 0.625. In the time-kill dynamic confirmation test, synergistic bactericidal effects were observed for the combinations of GA-g-chitosans with β-lactams, and over 4.0 log CFU/mL reductions were observed after 24 h when combination treatment was used. These results may prove GA-g-chitosans to be a potent agent when combined with ampicillin and penicillin for the elimination of MRSA.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  6. Influence of Cu vacancy on knit coir mat structured CuS as counter electrode for quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Savariraj, A Dennyson; Viswanathan, Kodakkal Kannan; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2014-11-26

    Knit-coir-mat-like structured CuS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition with different time duration were used as counter electrode in qunatum dot sensitized solar cells. The film deposited at 4 h exhibited better electrochemical and photovoltaic performance with JSC, VOC, and FF values of 14.584 mA cm(-2), 0.566 V, and 54.57% and efficiency of 4.53%. From the UV-vis absorption spectra, it is observed that CuS thin film exhibits free carrier intraband absorption in the longer wavelengh region. The enhanced performance of CuS counter electrodes is due to Cu vacancies with increased S composition, and the quasi-Fermi energy level in semiconductors with respect to electrolyte redox potential is one of the causes that affects the electrocatalytic activity of counter electrodes.

  7. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is... and acrylic acid, with the greater part of the polymer being composed of acrylamide units. (2)...

  8. Correlation between the distribution of lignin and pectin and distribution of sorbed metal ions (lead and zinc) on coir (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kathrine

    2008-11-01

    Plant fibres are capacious for sorption of metal ions, and can be used in water cleaning. Knowledge about the sorption will help in selection of the fibre and optimisation of its chemical modification, if any. The aim of this paper is to investigate the connection, if any, between the distribution of lignin and pectin and the loading of Pb and Zn on coir (mesocarp fibres from Cocos nucifera L.). The coir consisted mainly of xylem and a fibre sheath. The lignin was evenly distributed in the cell walls of the fibre sheath, but in the xylem, there was no detectable content in the compound middle lamella, and a smaller content of lignin in the secondary walls than in the walls of the fibre sheath. The only detectable content of pectin in the fibre sheath walls was in the middle lamella, cell corners and extracellular matrix, while in the xylem, the pectin was almost evenly distributed in the wall, with a higher concentration in the middle lamella and cell corners. All cell walls facing the lacuna had a high content of pectin. The metal ions were mainly loaded on the xylem and cell walls facing the lacuna, maybe with an additional trend to be loaded on the large fibres. Lead was distributed on and across the whole secondary wall. Zinc was loaded on the secondary walls, but there was no information about the distribution across the wall. If there is a simple correlation between the loading of metal ions and the distribution of lignin or pectin, these investigations point at no correlation with lignin and a positive correlation with pectin. It has to be stressed that these conclusions are made on limited material and are therefore preliminary in nature.

  9. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  11. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014... nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  17. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  20. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  3. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  11. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  14. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  5. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  6. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307... Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate resin (PMN P-01-343) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307... Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate resin (PMN P-01-343) is subject...

  11. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  12. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. 40 CFR 721.405 - Polyether acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 721.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.405 Polyether acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting....

  14. 40 CFR 721.405 - Polyether acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 721.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.405 Polyether acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting....

  15. UV-curable acrylated coating from epoxidized palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurliyana Abd; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-09-01

    The properties of coating film prepared from the incorporation of acrylated palm oil (EPOLA) in commercial epoxy acrylate have been studied. A series of different amount of EPOLA was mixed with commercial epoxy acrylate. The blended acrylates passed through UV light to produce a non-tacky film. The conversion of acrylate double bond was monitored by FTIR. The effect of EPOLA concentration onto coated films were investigated by determination of the pendulum hardness and gel content. The higher the amount of EPOLA, the lower the pendulum hardness and the gel content but to a level acceptable for usage in the high-end applications.

  16. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  17. Intercalation of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate into kaolinite and their in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yanfeng; Pan, Xiaobing; Jia, Xin; Wang, Xiaolong

    2007-02-01

    Novel nano-composites of poly (acrylic acid)-kaolinite were prepared, and intercalation and in situ polymerization were used in this process. The nano-composites were obtained by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium acrylate (AANa) intercalated into organo-kaolinite, which was obtained by refining and chemically modifying with solution intercalation step in order to increase the basal plane distance of the original clay. The modification was completed by using dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO)/methanol and potassium acetate (KAc)/water systems step by step. The materials were characterized with the help of XRD, FT-IR and TEM; the results confirmed that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) were intercalated into the interlamellar spaces of kaolinite, the resulting copolymer composites (CC0 : copolymer crude kaolinite composite, CC1 : copolymer DMSO kaolinite composite, CC2 : copolymer KAc kaolinite composite) of CC2 exhibited a lamellar nano-composite with a mixed nano-morphology, and partial exfoliation of the intercalating clay platelets should be the main morphology. Finally, the effect of neutralization degree on the intercalation behavior was also investigated.

  18. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  19. ICI/BASF PP for acrylics swap

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    ICI (London) and BASF (Ludwigshafen) have announced their long-awaited polypropylene (PP) for acrylics swap deal. ICI is buying BASF's European acrylic resin business, and the German firm will acquire ICI's European PP operations. The deal is due for completion by mid-1993, subject to regulatory approvals. BASF, hitherto a small-scale PP producer, doubles capacity to 600,000 m.t./year and moves up the European PP league to number three, behind Himont and Shell. BASF, whose process is used in the plants, secures a foothold in the UK PP market, where Shell - planning a merger with Himont - is the only other producer, with 170,000 m.t./year. ICI's purchase involves BASF's Resart GmbH and Critesa SA subsidiaries, located at Mainz, Germany and near Barcelona, Spain, respectively. The business - which will add about [Brit pounds]60 million ($93 million) to ICI Acrylics [Brit pounds]300-million revenues - employs 400 people, who will transfer to ICI.

  20. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation.

  1. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation. PMID:27410383

  2. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  3. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  4. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  5. Purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through saccharification of delignified coir pith to glucose.

    PubMed

    Asha, P; Divya, Jose; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    The study describes purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through bioconversion of delignified coir pith to fermentable glucose. The purified processive endoglucanase (AS-HT-Celuz A) and β-glucosidase (AS-HT-Celuz B) were found to have molecular mass of ≈78-kDa and 43-kDa respectively with optimum endoglucanase (35.63U/ml), total cellulase (28.15FPU/ml) and β-glucosidase (15.19U/ml) activities at 40°C/pH 6. The unique feature of AS-HT-Celuz A is the multiple substrate specificity and processivity towards both amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Zymogram indicated both endo and exoglucanase activities residing in different binding sites of a single protein exhibiting sequential synergy with its own β-glucosidase. Accordingly, the identified enzymes could be implemented as synergistic cellulases for complete cellulose saccharification which still considered an unresolved issue in bio-refineries.

  6. Biosorption of Cr(VI) by coconut coir: spectroscopic investigation on the reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) with lignocellulosic material.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Shuian; Wang, Shan-Li; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Jang-Hung

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) from water by coconut coir (CC) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that, upon reaction with CC at pH 3, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either bound to CC or released back into solution. As revealed by the FTIR spectra of CC before and after reacting with Cr(VI), the phenolic methoxyl and hydroxyl groups of lignin in CC are the dominant drivers of Cr(VI) reduction, giving rise to carbonyl and carboxyl groups on CC. These functional groups can subsequently provide binding sites for Cr(III) resulting from Cr(VI) reduction. In conjunction with forming complexes with carbonyl and carboxyl groups, the formation of Cr(III) hydroxide precipitate could also readily occur as revealed by the linear combination fitting of the Cr K-edge XANES spectrum using a set of reference compounds. The phenolic groups in lignin are responsible for initiating Cr(VI) reduction, so lignocellulosic materials containing a higher amount of phenolic groups are expected to be more effective scavengers for removal of Cr(VI) from the environment.

  7. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  8. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails.

    PubMed

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  9. Acrylic Finger Prosthesis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bandela, Vinod; M, Bharathi; S V, Giridhar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Hands basic function is to grasp, hold and manipulate items. Hand gesture is perhaps the most blatant example of non-verbal communication. Finger and partial finger amputations are most frequently encountered forms of partial hand loss. Common causes are traumatic injuries, congenital absence or malformations present great clinical challenges. In addition to immediate loss of grasp strength, finger absence may cause marked psychological trauma. Individuals who desire finger replacement usually have high expectation for the appearance of prosthesis. This clinical report portrays simple method to retain acrylic finger prosthesis. PMID:25302271

  10. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  15. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  17. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307 Section 721.10307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin...

  19. 40 CFR 721.330 - Aromatic acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.330 Aromatic acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aromatic acrylate (PMN P-01-420)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.330 - Aromatic acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.330 Aromatic acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aromatic acrylate (PMN P-01-420)...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177...-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer...

  2. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  4. Flexible, stretchable electroadhesives based on acrylic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duduta, Mihai; Wood, Robert J.; Clarke, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Controllable adhesion is a requirement for a wide variety of applications including robotic manipulation, as well as locomotion including walking, crawling and perching. Electroadhesives have several advantages such as reversibility, low power consumption and controllability based on applied voltage. Most demonstrations of electroadhesive devices rely on fairly rigid materials, which cannot be stretched reversibly, as needed in some applications. We have developed a fast and reliable method for building soft, stretchable electroadhesive pads based on acrylic elastomers and electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The devices produced were tested pre-deformation and in a stretched configuration. The adhesive force was determined to be in the 0.1 - 3.0 N/cm2 range, depending on the adhering surface. The electroadhesive devices were integrated with pre-stretched dielectric elastomer actuators to create a device in which the adhesion force could be tuned by changes in either the applied voltage or total area.

  5. Custom cranioplasty using stereolithography and acrylic.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, P S; Earwaker, W J; Barker, T M; Redmond, M J; Thompson, R G; Effeney, D J; Tomlinson, F H

    2000-04-01

    Numerous methods of cranioplasty have been described. Customization and prefabrication have been reported to reduce operating time and improve cosmesis. An original technique for the manufacture of customized cranioplastic implants has been developed and tested in 30 patients.Thirty patients requiring cranioplasties were selected. Data acquired from computed tomography (CT) were used to manufacture exact plastic replicas (biomodels) of craniotomy defects and master cranioplastic implants using the rapid prototyping technology of stereolithography (SL). The three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques of mirroring and interpolation were used to extrapolate on existing anatomy to design the master implants. The master implants were hand finished to fit the defect in the corresponding cranial biomodel exactly and were then used to create a cavity mould. The mould was used to cast thermally polymerised custom acrylic implants. The surgeons reported that the customized implants reduced operating time, afforded excellent cosmesis and were cost effective. The patients reported that the opportunity to see the biomodel and implant preoperatively improved their understanding of the procedure. Two complications were noted, one infection and one implant required significant trimming. The simultaneous manufacture of the master implant (male) and biomodel (female) components from SL allowed custom accurate implants to be manufactured. Disadvantages identified were the time required for computer manipulations of the CT data (up to 2 h), difficulty in assessing the accuracy of the computer generated master as a 3D rendering, the potential for SL parts to warp, manufacturing time (minimum 2 days) and the cost of approximately $1300 US per case ($1000 for the SL biomodel and $300 for the acrylic casting). PMID:10738323

  6. Poly(amide-graft-acrylate) interfacial compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Michael Perez

    Graft copolymers with segments of dissimilar chemistries have been shown to be useful in a variety of applications as surfactants, compatibilizers, impact modifiers, and surface modifiers. The most common route to well defined graft copolymers is through the use of macromonomers, polymers containing a reactive functionality and thus capable of further polymerization. However, the majority of the studies thus far have focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of reacting with vinyl monomers to form graft copolymers. This study focused on the synthesis of macromonomers capable of participating in condensation polymerizations. A chain transfer functionalization method was utilized. Cysteine was evaluated as a chain transfer agent for the synthesis of amino acid functionalized poly(acrylate) and poly(methacrylate) macromonomers. Low molar mass, functionalized macromonomers were produced. These macromonomers were proven to be capable of reacting with amide precursors to form poly(amide-g-acrylate) graft copolymers. Macromonomers and graft copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The second part of this research involved poly(dimethacrylate) dental restorative materials. Volumetric shrinkage during the cure of these resins results in a poor interface between the resin and the remaining tooth structure, limiting the lifetime of these materials. Cyclic anhydrides were incorporated into common monomer compositions used in dental applications. Volume expansion from the ring opening hydrolysis of these anhydrides was shown to be feasible. The modified dental resins were characterized by swelling, extraction and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and density measurements. Linear poLymers designed to model the crosslinked dental resins were

  7. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Thomas; Erpelding, Michael; Schmid, Josef; Chin, Andrew; Sammons, Rhea; Rockafellow, Erin

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  8. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  9. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated acrylate salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2014-09-09

    A method for synthesizing a deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1), the method comprising: (i) deuterating a propiolate compound of Formula (2) to a methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in the presence of a base and D.sub.2O: and (ii) reductively deuterating the methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in a reaction solvent in the presence of deuterium gas and a palladium-containing catalyst to afford the deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1). The resulting deuterated acrylate compounds, derivatives thereof, and polymers derived therefrom are also described.

  10. A simple solubility tests for the discrimination of acrylic and modacrylic fibers.

    PubMed

    Suga, Keisuke; Narita, Yuji; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    In a crime scene investigation, single fibers play an important role as significant trace physical evidence. Acrylic fibers are frequently encountered in forensic analysis. Currently, acrylic and modacrylic are not discriminated clearly in Japan. Only results of FT-IR, some of acrylics were difficult to separate clearly to acrylic and modacrylic fibers. Solubility test is primitive but convenient useful method, and Japan Industrial Standards (JIS) recommends FT-IR and solubility test to distinguish acrylic and modacrylic fibers. But recommended JIS dissolving test using 100% N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent, some acrylics could not be discriminated. In this report, we used DMF and ethanol (90:10, v/v) solvent. The JIS method could not discriminate 6 acrylics in 60 acrylics; hence, DMF and ethanol (90:10, v/v) solvent discriminated 59 of the 60 fibers (43 acrylic and 16 modacrylic fibers) clearly, but only one modacrylic fiber incorrectly identified as acrylic.

  11. [Determination of 9 residual acrylic monomers in acrylic resins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with microwave assisted extraction].

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Lin, Rui; Cai, Luxin; Ge, Xiuxiu; Huang, Changchun

    2012-01-01

    A reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 9 residual acrylic monomers (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid) in acrylic resins. Solid resin was precipitated with methanol after microwave assisted extraction with ethyl acetate for 30 min, and liquid resin was diluted with methanol directly. The nine acrylic monomers got a good separation within 20 min on a DB-WAX column. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) of the method were in the range of 1-10 mg/kg for liquid resin and 3-50 mg/kg for solid resin. The calibration curves were linear within 1-500 mg/L range with correlation coefficients above 0. 995. The recoveries ranged from 84.4% to 108.6% at five spiked levels. The sensitivity, recovery and selectivity of the method can fully meet the requirements of practical work.

  12. [Treatment of acrylate wastewater by electrocatalytic reduction process].

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Na; Song, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Shu-Quan; Zheng, Sheng-Zhi; Ll, Si-Min

    2011-10-01

    High-concentration acrylate wastewater was treated by an electrocatalytic reduction process. The effects of the cation exchange membrane (CEM) and cathode materials on acrylate reduction were investigated. It indicated that the acrylate could be reduced to propionate acid efficiently by the electrocatalytic reduction process. The addition of CEM to separator with the cathode and anode could significantly improve current efficiency. The cathode materials had significant effect on the reduction of acrylate. The current efficiency by Pd/Nickel foam, was greater than 90%, while those by nickel foam, the carbon fibers and the stainless steel decreased successively. Toxicity of the wastewater decreased considerably and methane production rate in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test increased greatly after the electrocatalytic reduction process.

  13. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  14. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics.

  15. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  16. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

  17. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  18. Industrially relevant epoxy-acrylate hybrid resin photopolymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiboye, Gbenga I.

    Photopolymerization of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins takes advantages of inherent properties present in the free-radical and cationic reactions to reduce oxygen inhibition problems that plague free-radical reactions. Similarly, the combined reaction mechanisms reduce moisture sensitivity of the cationic reactions. Despite the advantages of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins, problems persist that need to be addressed. For example, low conversion and polymerization rate of the epoxides are a problem, because the fast acrylate conversion prevents the epoxide from reaching high conversion. Controlling phase separation is challenging, since two moieties with different properties are reacting. The physical properties of the polymer will be impacted by the availability of different moieties. High shrinkage stress results from the acrylate moiety, causing buckling and cracking in film and coating applications. The overall goal of this study is to use the fundamental knowledge of epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins to formulate industrially viable polymers. In order to achieve this goal, the study focuses on the following objectives: (I) determine the apparent activation energy of the hybrid monomer METHB, (II) increase epoxide conversion and polymerization rate of hybrid formulations, and (III) control physical properties in epoxy-acrylate hybrid resins. In order to increase the epoxide conversion and rate of polymerization, the sensitivity of epoxides to alcohol is used to facilitate the activated monomer (AM) mechanism and induce a covalent bond between the epoxide and acrylate polymers through the hydroxyl group. It is hypothesized that if the AM mechanism is facilitated, epoxide conversion will increase. As a result, the resins can be tailored to control phase separation and physical properties, and shrinkage stress can be reduced. In pursuit of these objectives, the hybrid monomer METHB was polymerized at temperatures ranging from 30°C to 70°C to obtain apparent activation

  19. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  20. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  1. Fracture properties of an acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Bialoblocka-Juszczyk, E; Baleani, M; Cristofolini, L; Viceconti, M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated experimentally the fracture properties, i.e., the fatigue strength, the resistance to crack propagation and the fracture toughness, of an acrylic bone cement (Cemex RX). The mean endurance limit was determined following the staircase method. The endurance limit was estimated at 9.2 MPa. The fatigue crack propagation rate was measured according to the ASTM E647 standard. The equation of the line fitting the crack growth per cycle (da/dN) versus the stress-intensity factor range (delta K), in a log-log graph, was used to calculate the empirical constants of Paris' law for the selected bone cement: da/dN (m/cycle) = 3.56 x 10(-7) x delta K (MPa x m1/2)5.79. This power-law relationship described well (R2 = 0.96) the growth rate in the stable crack growth region, i.e., in the mid delta K range. The fracture toughness K(IC) of the bone cement was determined according to the ASTM E399 standard. The K(IC) mean value was 1.38 MPa x m1/2. These experimental results provide the set of necessary inputs for numerical studies aimed to investigate the damage accumulation process in the mantle fixing cemented prostheses.

  2. Effect of curing cycle on the tensile strength of the bond between heat cured denture base acrylic resin and acrylic resin denture teeth.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Ayesha; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R; Clark, Robert K F

    2009-12-01

    The effect of different curing cycles on the tensile strength of the bond between one brand of cross-linked acrylic resin teeth and three heat cured denture base acrylic resins was tested. There were differences in the tensile bond strength between the three heat cured denture base acrylic resins and the three curing cycles used. The bond strength of the acrylic resin denture base material made by the same manufacturer as the cross-linked acrylic resin denture teeth was higher. The bond strength following the short cycle was lowest in all cases, individual differences between curing cycles failed to reach statistical significance. PMID:20158054

  3. Acrylic Resin Cytotoxicity for Denture Base--Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo C; Freitas, Emily; dos Santos, Daniela; de Medeiros, Rodrigo; Sonego, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic resin is a widely used material in clinical practice, and a satisfactory biocompatibility is essential. When the resin polymerization reaction is incomplete, residual monomers are released into the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through a literature review, the cytotoxicity caused by the denture base acrylic resin used, and its components. The selection of published studies was performed on the Pubmed database from January 2008 to July 2013. The keywords used were: "cytotoxicity and acrylic resins", "cytotoxicity and denture base resins" and "cytotoxicity and oral prosthesis". Inclusion criteria were: in vitro studies and literature reviews published in English that evaluated the acrylic resin cytotoxicity for denture base and its components. Studies with no reference to the search strategy were excluded. A total of 182 articles were found. Among these, only 13 were included for writing this review. The MTT test is the most common test used to evaluate acrylic resin cytotoxicity. Auto-polymerized resin is more cytotoxic than heat-polymerized resin because of its higher quantity of residual monomers which cause cell and tissue changes in the oral mucosa. However, more studies are necessary for the development of biocompatible materials.

  4. Impact Delamination and Fracture in Aluminum/Acrylic Sandwich Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Benjamin; Zeichner, Glenn; Liu, Yanxiong; Bowles, Kenneth J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Impact-induced delamination and fracture in 6061-T6 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy were generated in an instrumented drop-weight impact machine. Although only a small dent was produced on the aluminum side when a hemispherical penetrator tup was dropped onto it from a couple of inches, a large ring of delamination at the interface was observed. The delamination damage was often accompanied by severe shattering in the acrylic substratum. Damage patterns in the acrylic layer include radial and ring cracks and, together with delamination at the interface, may cause peeling-off of acrylic material from the sandwich plate. Theory of stress-wave propagation can be used to explain these damage patterns. The impact tests were conducted at various temperatures. The results also show clearly that temperature effect is very important in impact damage. For pure cast acrylic nil-ductile transition (NDT) occurs between 185-195 F. Excessive impact energy was dissipated into fracture energy when tested at temperature below this range or through plastic deformation when tested at temperature above the NDT temperature. Results from this study will be used as baseline data for studying fiber-metal laminates, such as GLARE and ARALL for advanced aeronautical and astronautical applications.

  5. Biosynthetic pathway for acrylic acid from glycerol in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenhua; Xu, Ying; Xian, Mo; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Acrylic acid is an important industrial feedstock. In this study, a de novo acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source glycerol was constructed in Escherichia coli. The acrylic acid was produced from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, and acrylyl-CoA. The acrylate production was improved by screening and site-directed mutagenesis of key enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase and chromosomal integration of some exogenous genes. Finally, our recombinant strain produced 37.7 mg/L acrylic acid under shaking flask conditions. Although the acrylate production is low, our study shows feasibility of engineering an acrylate biosynthetic pathway from inexpensive carbon source. Furthermore, the reasons for limited acrylate production and further strain optimization that should be performed in the future were also discussed. PMID:26782744

  6. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    PubMed

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  7. Properties of the modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tabasum, Shazia; Zuber, Mohammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2013-05-15

    Polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PAC) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization following three step synthesis process using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, hydroxy terminated poly(caprolactone) diol, 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and butyl acrylate (BuA). Structural characteristics of the synthesized polyurethane acrylate copolymer (PAC) were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and are with accordance with the proposed PAC structure. The physicochemical properties such as solid contents (%), tackiness, film appearance and emulsion stability were studied, discussed and co-related with other findings. The plain weave poly-cotton printed fabrics after application of PAC was evaluated applying colorfastness standard test method. The results revealed that emulsion stability is the main controlling factor of the synthesized material in order to get better applications and properties. The emulsion stability of the synthesized material increased with increase in molecular weight of the polycaprolactone diol. PMID:23544644

  8. Properties of the modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tabasum, Shazia; Zuber, Mohammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2013-05-15

    Polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PAC) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization following three step synthesis process using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, hydroxy terminated poly(caprolactone) diol, 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and butyl acrylate (BuA). Structural characteristics of the synthesized polyurethane acrylate copolymer (PAC) were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and are with accordance with the proposed PAC structure. The physicochemical properties such as solid contents (%), tackiness, film appearance and emulsion stability were studied, discussed and co-related with other findings. The plain weave poly-cotton printed fabrics after application of PAC was evaluated applying colorfastness standard test method. The results revealed that emulsion stability is the main controlling factor of the synthesized material in order to get better applications and properties. The emulsion stability of the synthesized material increased with increase in molecular weight of the polycaprolactone diol.

  9. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1). PMID:27422352

  10. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1).

  11. Colour Stability of Heat and Cold Cure Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Sivakumar, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Materials and Methods: Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. Results: The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. Conclusion: ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes. PMID:25738078

  12. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    PubMed

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue. PMID:24566021

  13. The creep behavior of acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Sadiku, E R; Biotidara, F O

    1996-01-01

    The creep behavior of acrylic dental base resins, at room temperature and at different loading conditions, has been examined. The behaviors of these resins are similar to that of "commercial perspex" at room temperature over a period of 1000 seconds. The pseudo-elastic moduli of the blends of PMMA VC show a significant increase compared with PMMA alone. The addition of the PVC powder to the heat-cured acrylic resin increased the time-dependent elastic modulus. This increase in elastic modulus is advantageous in the production of denture based resins of improv mechanical properties.

  14. Kinetic relationships governing addition of methanol to methyl acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarov, G.A.; Danov, S.M.; Kutnyaya, M.Yu.

    1988-11-10

    The kinetic relationships governing the addition of methanol to methyl acrylate and the reverse reaction, i.e., the elimination of methanol from methyl /beta/-methoxypropionate catalyzed by sulfuric and p-toluenesulfonic acids, were investigated. The rate of the forward reaction depends on the concentrations of methyl acrylate, methanol, and the catalyst, and the rate of the reverse reaction depends on the concentration of methyl /beta/-methoxypropionate and of the catalyst. A kinetic expression which describes the process well was obtained.

  15. Corrosion resistant properties of polyaniline acrylic coating on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Azim, S. Syed; Venkatachari, G.

    2006-12-01

    The performance of the paint coating based on acrylic-polyaniline on magnesium alloy ZM 21 has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5% NaCl solution. The polyaniline was prepared by chemical oxidative method of aniline with ammonium persulphate in phosphoric acid medium. The phosphate-doped polyaniline was characterized by FTIR and XRD methods. Acrylic paint containing the phosphate-doped polyaniline was prepared and coated on magnesium ZM 21 alloy. The coating was able to protect the magnesium alloy and no base metal dissolution was noted even after 75 days exposure to sodium chloride solution.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of acrylic bone cement in rabbits and cats.

    PubMed

    Pelling, D; Butterworth, K R

    1973-06-16

    The cardiovascular responses to forcing acrylic bone cement, Plasticine, or soft paraffin wax into the medullary cavity of the femur have been studied in rabbits and cats. An acute fall in blood pressure, occurring within a few seconds of insertion, was demonstrated with each substance. In a few of the animals the blood pressure response had a second more protracted component and it is suggested that more than one mechanism is involved. The cardiovascular effects that have been observed in man when acrylic cement is used in prosthetic hip surgery also may be due to more than one mechanism. PMID:4714847

  17. Lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction on acrylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R

    2013-04-19

    A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.

  18. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components of...) For the purpose of this section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins consist of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl... section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  3. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  19. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  20. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34636... substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate copolymer (PMNs P-00-0333 and P-00-0334) are...

  1. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  2. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  7. Tensile bond strength between auto-polymerized acrylic resin and acrylic denture teeth treated with MF-MA solution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effect of chemical surface treatment using methyl formate-methyl acetate (MF-MA) solution on the tensile bond strength between acrylic denture teeth and auto-polymerized acrylic resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy maxillary central incisor acrylic denture teeth for each of three different brands (Yamahachi New Ace; Major Dent; Cosmo HXL) were embedded with incisal edge downwards in auto-polymerized resin in polyethylene pipes and ground with silicone carbide paper on their ridge lap surfaces. The teeth of each brand were divided into seven groups (n=10): no surface treatment (control group), MF-MA solution at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) for 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 120 seconds, 180 seconds, and MMA for 180 seconds. Auto-polymerized acrylic resin (Unifast Trad) was applied to the ground surface and polymerized in a pressure cooker. A tensile strength test was performed with a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Dunnett T3 test (α=.05). RESULTS The surface treatment groups had significantly higher mean tensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P<.05) when compared within the same brand. Among the surface treatment groups of each brand, there were no significantly different tensile bond strengths between the MF-MA groups and the MMA 180 second group (P>.05), except for the Yamahachi New Ace MF-MA 180-second group (P<.05). CONCLUSION 15-second MF-MA solution can be an alternative chemical surface treatment for repairing a denture base and rebonding acrylic denture teeth with auto-polymerized acrylic resin, for both conventional and cross-linked teeth. PMID:27555897

  8. Degradation of a Sodium Acrylate Oligomer by an Arthrobacter sp

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mukouyama, Masaharu; Sakano, Kouichi; Tani, Yoshiki

    1993-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain NO-18 was first isolated from soil as a bacterium which could degrade the sodium acrylate oligomer and utilize it as the sole source of carbon. When 0.2% (wt/wt) oligomer was added to the culture medium, the acrylate oligomer was found to be degraded by 70 to 80% in 2 weeks, using gel permeation chromatography. To determine the maximum molecular weight for biodegradation, the degradation test was done with the hexamer, heptamer, and octamer, which were separated from the oligomer mixture by fractional gel permeation chromatography. The hexamer and heptamer were consumed to the extents of 58 and 36%, respectively, in 2 weeks, but the octamer was not degraded. Oligomers with three different terminal groups were synthesized to examine the effect of the different terminal groups on biodegradation, but few differences were found. Arthrobacter sp. NO-18 assimilated acrylic acid, propionic acid, glutaric acid, 2-methylglutaric acid, and 1,3,5-pentanetricarboxylic acid. Degradation of the acrylic unit structure by this strain is discussed. PMID:8517751

  9. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    HADDAD, Marcela Filié; GOIATO, Marcelo Coelho; dos SANTOS, Daniela Micheline; CREPALDI, Nádia de Marchi; PESQUEIRA, Aldiéris Alves; BANNWART, Lisiane Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an adhesive system on the bond strength between acrylic resin and facial silicone. Material and Methods A total of 120 samples were fabricated with auto-polymerized acrylic resin and MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. Both materials were bonded through mechanical retentions and/or application of primers (DC 1205 primer and Sofreliner primer S) and adhesive (Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A) or not (control group). Samples were divided into 12 groups according to the method used to attach the silicone to the acrylic resin. All samples were subjected to a T-peel test in a universal testing machine. Failures were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. The data were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's HSD test (α=.05). Results The highest bond strength values (5.95 N/mm; 3.07 N/mm; 4.75 N/mm) were recorded for the samples that received a Sofreliner primer application. These values were significantly higher when the samples had no scratches and did not receive the application of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A. Conclusions The most common type of failure was adhesive. The use of Sofreliner primer increased the bond strength between the auto-polymerized acrylic resin and the Silastic MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. PMID:23329247

  10. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  11. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  12. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  13. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  14. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). 721.329 Section 721.329 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance may cause internal organ effects (kidney and blood). The requirements of this section do not...

  15. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and holding food, including heating of prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging and holding food, including heating of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and holding food, including heating of prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and holding food, including heating of prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens.

  20. JKR studies of adhesion with model acrylic elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, K.R.; Ahn, D.

    1996-12-31

    Acrylic elastomers are widely used in coating applications because of their inherent thermal stability, oil resistance and adhesive properties. These same features make acrylic elastomers attractive for fundamental studies of polymer adhesion. This endeavor has been simplified recently by the development of techniques for producing monodisperse acrylic homopolymers and block copolymers from anionically synthesized parent polyacrylates, thus allowing precise microstructural control of adhering surfaces. In terms of the adhesion measurement itself, an adhesion test based upon the theory of Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR), henceforth referred to as the JKR technique, is well suited for probing the molecular origins of adhesion in elastomeric systems. This technique is quite practical, and minimizes the sample volume to reduce bulk viscoelastic losses. Further, the JKR technique permits testing at very low crack velocities, where interfacial effects are unobscured by bulk effects. In this paper, the authors report the results of JKR adhesion tests between poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PNBA) elastomers and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The latter is employed as a control substrate because its inertness and low surface energy (relative to metallic or silicon based surfaces) are conducive to the creation of reproducible solid surfaces.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene in... identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate... less than 0.920 nor more than 0.935, as determined by ASTM method D1505-68 (Reapproved 1979),...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure.

  3. 40 CFR 721.336 - Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.336 Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  4. 40 CFR 721.336 - Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.336 Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  5. LC50 values for rats acutely exposed to vapors of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Oberly, R.; Tansy, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Acute exposure studies were conducted using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to obtain LC50/24 concentrations for the common esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The order of acute toxicity was determined to be methyl acrylate > ethyl acrylate > butyl acrylate > butyl methacrylate > methyl methacrylate > ethyl methacrylate. Four-hour daily exposures (excluding weekends) of young adult male rats to 110 ppm methyl acrylate in air over a period of 32 d failed to produce significant differences in body or tissue weights, blood chemistries, gross metabolic performance, and spontaneous small-intestinal motor activities when compared with a sham-exposed group.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyurethane Acrylates for UV Curable Coating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi Na; Kang, Young Soo; Oh, Sun Wha; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Moon, Myung Jun

    The single hydroxyl-terminated urethane acrylate oligomers were synthesized from 2-mercaptoethanol (2-MEOH), alkyl (methyl, butyl, and 2-ethylhexyl) acrylate, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator), with dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. 2-MEOH was used as a functional chain transfer agent. Poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers were obtained by the reaction of single hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylates and 2-isocyanatoethyl acrylate. They were characterized by NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, rheometer, and DSC. Because poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers have lower Tg and viscosity than hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylate oligomers (HTPAO) non-containing urethane groups, they can be used for ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings, inks, and adhesives.

  7. Wavelength Shifters and Interactions of EDTA with Acrylic & LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Yuvraj; SNO+ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA had negligible effects on the Young's Modulus of acrylic. EDTA is also slightly soluble in LAB, but can be completely removed by rinsing with water. Additionally, the study of the light yield and alpha/beta timing profiles of two wavelength shifters - bisMSB and perylene - is critical to determining which should be added to the 0 νββ isotope (tellurium) LAB cocktail. Small-scale results hint that perylene might be better, but this is being confirmed with larger-scale tests. The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA

  8. Chronic pulmonary dysfunction following acute inhalation of butyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ravindra; Ducatman, Alan; Finkel, Mitchell S; Petsonk, Edward; Hunt, Janet; Beto, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Butyl Acrylate (BA) (2-propionic acid; CH2 = CHCOOC4H9) is a colorless liquid commonly used in impregnation agents and adhesives. Dermal contact with BA has previously been reported to cause moderate skin irritation with skin sensitizing potential in humans. Health effects of inhalation of BA have not been previously reported. Accordingly, we document the health conditions of a bystander, first responder and landfill worker exposed to butyl acrylate (BA) released to the atmosphere following a collision and roadside spill in October 1998. Retrospective data were collected via chart review and analyzed for exposure, symptoms, physical findings and radiological, laboratory and spirometry results over a ten-year period. All three patients had similar respiratory symptoms including a dramatic hacking cough and dyspnea. Findings included abnormal pulmonary function tests and breath sounds. These data underscore the potential hazards of BA inhalational exposure and the need to wear additional protective equipment. PMID:23472539

  9. A New Process for Acrylic Acid Synthesis by Fermentative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunelli, B. H.; Duarte, E. R.; de Toledo, E. C. Vasco; Wolf Maciel, M. R.; Maciel Filho, R.

    With the synthesis of chemical products through biotechnological processes, it is possible to discover and to explore innumerable routes that can be used to obtain products of high addes value. Each route may have particular advantages in obtaining a desired product, compared with others, especially in terms of yield, productivity, easiness to separate the product, economy, and environmental impact. The purpose of this work is the development of a deterministic model for the biochemical synthesis of acrylic acid in order to explore an alternative process. The model is built-up with the tubular reactor equations together with the kinetic representation based on the structured model. The proposed process makes possible to obtain acrylic acid continuously from the sugar cane fermentation.

  10. Dimensional stability of autopolymerizing acrylic resin impression trays.

    PubMed

    Fehling, A W; Hesby, R A; Pelleu, G B

    1986-05-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the optimal interval between fabrication of an autopolymerizing acrylic resin custom impression tray and making a final impression. Twenty mandibular arch-shaped trays, 10 each of Fastray and Formatray resin, were evaluated for dimensional change. Both materials behaved similarly. Cross-arch contraction of the borders of buccal flanges and unilateral expansion of the borders of buccal-to-lingual flanges were observed. These changes indicate distortion. Linear dimensional changes occurred throughout 6 hours, which suggests that any impression made in a methyl methacrylate acrylic resin custom impression tray should be poured as soon as is conveniently possible. Significant linear dimensional changes were observed for only 40 minutes from the initiation of tray fabrication. This study concludes that while an aged tray is preferred, it is acceptable to make an impression in an autopolymerizing resin custom impression tray after 40 minutes.

  11. Cytotoxicity of denture base acrylic resins: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Janaina Habib; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2003-08-01

    Acrylic resins are widely used in the fabrication of denture bases and have been shown to be cytotoxic as a result of substances that leach from the resin. The primary eluate is residual monomer. Numerous reports suggest that residual monomer may be responsible for mucosal irritation and sensitization of tissues. This information is important, not only to assess the biologic effects of such materials, but also to enable a comparison among the different polymerization methods, thus assisting the clinician in selecting a material with minimal cytotoxicity. This article reviews the literature published from 1973 to 2000, selected by use of a Medline search, associated with cytotoxic effects usually ascribed to acrylic denture base materials.

  12. Surface modification of nanoparticles for radiation curable acrylate clear coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F.; Gläsel, H.-J.; Hartmann, E.; Bilz, E.; Mehnert, R.

    2003-08-01

    To obtain transparent, scratch and abrasion resistant coatings a high content of nanosized silica and alumina filler was embedded in radiation-curable acrylate formulations by acid catalyzed silylation using trialkoxysilanes. 29SiMAS NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were employed to elucidate the structure of the surface-grafted methacryloxypropyl-, vinyl- and n-propyl-trimethoxysilane. In accordance with NMR findings, MALDI-TOF MS showed highly condensed oligomeric siloxanes of more than 20 monomeric silane units. A ladder-like structure of bound polysiloxanes is proposed rather than a simplified picture of tridentate silane bonding. Hence, silane coupling agents do not only modify the chemical nature of the filler surface but also strongly effect the rheological properties of the acrylate nanodispersions.

  13. Cellular Response to Linear and Branched Poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Whitty, Elizabeth G; Maniego, Alison R; Bentwitch, Sharon A; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Jones, Mark R; Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Poly(acrylic acid-co-sodium acrylate) (PNaA) is a pH-responsive polymer with potential in anticancer drug delivery. The cytotoxicity and intracellular effects of 3-arm star, hyperbranched and linear PNaA were investigated with L1210 progenitor leukemia cells and L6 myoblast cells. Free solution capillary electrophoresis demonstrated interactions of PNaA with serum proteins. In a 72 h MTT assay most PNaAs exhibited a IC50 between 7 and 14 mmol L(-1), showing that precipitation may be a sufficient purification for PNaA dilute solutions. Dialyzed 3-arm star and hyperbranched PNaA caused an increase in L6 cell viability, challenging the suitability of MTT as cytotoxicity assay for PNaA. Fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed merging of cellular lipids after exposure to PNaA, likely caused by serum starvation.

  14. Precipitation polymerization of acrylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Romack, T.J.; Maury, E.E.; DeSimone, J.M.

    1995-02-13

    Increasing concern regarding the dissemination of chemical waste (both aqueous and organic) into their environment has prompted considerable interest in new technologies aimed at reducing current waste streams. Processes utilizing carbon dioxide in lieu of conventional solvents for chemical manufacturing and processing provide a viable route to achieving near-zero waste production for these important industries. The authors report the successful precipitation polymerization of acrylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at pressure ranging from 125 to 345 bar utilizing AIBN as a free radical initiator. Analyses by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that for the pressure range studied there is no appreciable effect on product molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, or particle size or morphology. In addition, effective molecular weight control was demonstrated for precipitation polymerizations of acrylic acid in CO{sub 2} through the use of ethyl mercaptan as a chain transfer agent.

  15. Polymerization of acrylic acid using atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, M.; Bashir, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper polymerization of acrylic acid was performed using non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology. The goal of this study is to deposit organic functional coatings for biomedical applications using a low cost and rapid growth rate plasma jet technique. The monomer solution of acrylic acid was vaporized and then fed into the argon plasma for coating. The discharge was powered using a laboratory made power supply operating with sinusoidal voltage signals at a frequency of 10 kHz. The optical emission spectra were collected in order to get insight into the plasma chemistry during deposition process. The coatings were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and growth rates analysis. A high retention of carboxylic functional groups of the monomer was observed at the surface deposited using this low power technique.

  16. Acrylate functionalized tetraalkylammonium salts with ionic liquid properties.

    PubMed

    Grothe, Dorian C; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Janietz, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Acrylate functionalized ionic liquids based on tetraalkylammonium salts with terminal acrylates- and methylacrylates were synthesized. Melting points and ionic conductivity of twenty compounds in six groups were determined. Within one group the effect of three different counterions was investigated and discussed. The groups differ in cationic structure elements because of their functional groups such as acrylate and methacrylate, alkyl residues at the nitrogen and number of quaternary ammonium atoms within the organic cation. The effect of these cationic structure elements has been examined concerning the compiled parameters with a view to qualifying them as components for solid state electrolytes. The newly synthesized ionic liquids were characterized by NMR and FTIR analysis. The exchange of halide ions like bromide as counter ions to weakly coordinating [PF₆]⁻, [OTf]⁻ or [TFSI]⁻ reduces the melting points significantly and leads to an ion conductivity of about 10⁻⁴ S/cm at room temperature. In the case of the dicationic ionic liquid, an ion conductivity of about 10⁻³ S/cm was observed.

  17. Light-curing acrylic resin as an orthodontic baseplate material.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Kerr, W J

    1998-08-01

    Heat-curing autopolymerizing (self-cure or cold-cure), thermoplastic, and light-curing acrylic resin are the most commonly used orthodontic baseplate materials. While cured acrylic resins present few problems to the patient, in the laboratory acrylic resin has to be sprayed, mixed, or packed in a fume-extraction unit because of the harmful fumes emitted by the raw inflammable chemicals. Light-curing material, on the other hand, is virtually nonflammable and has virtually no aroma. A light-cure technique for the construction of orthodontic baseplates is described. While buildup of the baseplate is slightly slower than for self-cured material, the shorter time involved in trimming and polishing means that overall construction is faster. It is easier to obtain a uniform thickness with light-cured material, and it provides superior fit. These results, however, are subject to more extensive clinical trials. The only apparent disadvantage is the fine powder produced during trimming. Even with a bench equipped with an extraction unit, it is advisable to use a face mask to prevent the inhalation of dust.

  18. Synthesis and properties of acrylic copolymers for ocular implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboul, Adam C.

    There is a need for flexible polymers with higher refractive index and extended UV absorbing properties for improved intraocular lenses (IOLs). This research was devoted to the synthesis of new acrylic copolymers for foldable IOLs and to studies concerning IOL polymer properties. New polymers were synthesized from phenylated acrylates copolymerized with N-vinyl carbazole derivatives using bulk free radical addition methods. The copolymers had low Tg values, high refractive index, and were flexible. The N-vinyl carbazole derivatives were characterized by NMR and copolymers were characterized by DSC, UV-Vis, and refractometry. New phenothiazine based UV absorbers with high extinction coefficients were also synthesized for incorporation into ocular materials. Patent disclosures on UV absorbers and high refractive index polymers were prepared. A so called "glistening" phenomenon that occurs in all foldable intraocular lenses currently in clinical use is poorly understood and was studied. Research on this microvoid forming behavior included studies and development of methods to inhibit glistening in low Tg acrylic based copolymers. Glistenings were characterized using SEM and optical microscopy. A novel technique for inhibiting glistening was found and a patent disclosure was prepared.

  19. Acrylic microspheres-based optosensor for visual detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nur Syarmim Mohamed; Tan, Ling Ling; Heng, Lee Yook; Chong, Kwok Feng; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam

    2016-09-15

    A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6 μm up to 1.8 μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100 ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples. PMID:27080889

  20. Formation of acrylic acid from lactic acid in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. ); Jones, M. Jr. )

    1989-09-15

    Supercritical (SC) water is an unusual medium in which fast and specific heterolytic reactions can be conducted at temperatures as high as 400{degree}C. In supercritical water, lactic acid decomposes into gaseous and liquid products via three primary reaction pathways. Products of the acid-catalyzed heterolytic decarbonylation pathway are carbon monoxide, water, and acetaldehyde. Products of the homolytic, decarboxylation pathway are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and acetaldehyde. Products of the heterolytic, dehydration pathway are acrylic acid and water. The intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the {alpha}-hydroxyl by the carbonyl group of lactic acid, producing {alpha}-propiolactone as an unstable intermediate which subsequently rearranges to become the unsaturated acid, is a likely mechanism for acrylic acid formation, although an intramolecular E2 elimination initiated by attack of the carbonyl oxygen on a methyl hydrogen cannot be ruled out. Support for the former mechanism comes in part from the observed 100% relative yield of acrylic acid from {beta}-propiolactone in SC water.

  1. [Effect of acrylate industry wastes on the environment and the prevention of their harmful action].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirov, Iu P

    1991-01-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic++ acids and monomers as raw materials for production of polymers and copolymers are highly and extremely dangerous substances causing chronic intoxication. At low concentrations, acrylates and methacrylates++ have been found to produce not only systemic toxic, but embryotoxic effects. Manufacture of methacrylic++ and acrylic acids and monomers yields waste gases and waters that contain various acrylic compounds as impurities. The sewage treatment system introduced prevents the pollution of reservoirs with these compounds. High concentrations of acrylates and methacrylates are recorded in the sources of waste gases. It is required that fundamentally new waste--free technological processes for production of methacrylates++ and acrylates be designed and introduced and that the waste gas decontamination systems be improved in order to enhance the efficiency of measures to prevent environmental pollution.

  2. Preparation and properties of UV curable acrylic PSA by vinyl bonded graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Beili; Ryu, Chong-Min; Jin, Xin; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2013-11-01

    Acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with higher thermal stability for thin wafer handling were successfully prepared by forming composite with the graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles modified to have vinyl groups via subsequent reaction with isophorone diisocyanate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The acrylic copolymer was synthesized as a base resin for PSAs by solution radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and acrylic acid followed by further modification with GMA to have the vinyl groups available for UV curing. The peel strength of PSA decreased with the increase of gel content which was dependent on both modified GO content and UV dose. Thermal stability of UV-cured PSA was improved noticeably with increasing the modified GO content mainly due to the strong and extensive interfacial bonding formed between the acrylic copolymer matrix and GO fillers

  3. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions. PMID:27078740

  4. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions.

  5. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  6. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  7. Studies on the hydrolysis of biocompatible acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z W; Li, F M; Feng, X D; Voong, S T

    1983-01-01

    Both the homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis of five new acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties, i.e. polymers of beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate,beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) ethyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl acrylate were investigated in acidic or alkaline medium at 30 degrees C or 60 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the chief hydrolyzed product is always aspirin with minor amount of salicylic acid.

  8. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  9. Acrylic coatings compositions containing polymer-bound hindered amine light stabilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Callais, P.A.

    1993-12-31

    Unique acrylic coatings resins with attached hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) groups have been developed. They are readily prepared by reacting a hydrazide functionalized HALS with an acrylic polyol resin containing anhydride and/or epoxy groups or with a peroxide functionalized HALS as the polymerization initiator. As a result, the HALS moiety is rendered nonvolatile and nonextractable. Acrylic melamine and acrylic urethane coatings prepared from the polymer-bound light stabilizer resins exhibit outstanding weatherability and durability in both accelerated and outdoor weathering.

  10. Effect of 5.25 % sodium hypochlorite on color stability of acrylic and silicone based soft liners and a denture base acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a chemical disinfectant (sodium hypochlorite 5.25 %) on color stability of a denture base acrylic resin and two processed soft denture lining materials of two different types (acrylic-based and silicone-based). Ten specimens from each type of materials tested were made (2 × 20 × 20 mm). All specimens were immersed in sodium hypochlorite (5.25 %). Colorimetric measurements for each specimen were taken before immersion, and after 24 h and 7 days of immersion. Color changes were evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05). ANOVA was followed by Bonferroni test to determine which groups differed from each other. ΔE and ΔL* of the silicone-based liner at the 1st and 7th days of immersion were significantly more than of denture base acrylic resin and acrylic-based liner. Change in ΔL* values of denture base acrylic resin and acrylic-based liner was small and statistically insignificant after 24 h of its immersion. However, the increase in ΔL* values of the acrylic-based liner after 7 days of immersion was considerably more than of denture base acrylic resin. Color changes in denture base acrylic resin and soft denture liners tended to increase with longer immersion times, and the color stability of the soft denture liners was influenced by its chemical type.

  11. Anomerization of Acrylated Glucose During Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chendo, Christophe; Moreira, Guillaume; Tintaru, Aura; Posocco, Paola; Laurini, Erik; Lefay, Catherine; Gigmes, Didier; Viel, Stéphane; Pricl, Sabrina; Charles, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Anomerization of simple sugars in the liquid phase is known as an acid- and base-catalyzed process, which highly depends on solvent polarity. This reaction is reported here to occur in the gas phase, during traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) experiments aimed at separating α- and β-anomers of penta-acrylated glucose generated as ammonium adducts in electrospray ionization. This compound was available in two samples prepared from glucose dissolved in solvents of different polarity, namely tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC), and analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as traveling wave ion mobility (ESI-TWIMS-MS). In MS/MS, an anchimerically-assisted process was found to be unique to the electrosprayed α-anomer, and was only observed for the THF sample. In ESI-TWIMS-MS, a signal was measured at the drift time expected for the α-anomer for both the THF and DMAC samples, in apparent contradiction to the MS/MS results, which indicated that the α-anomer was not present in the DMAC sample. However, MS/MS experiments performed after TWIMS separation revealed that ammonium adducts of the α-anomer produced from each sample, although exhibiting the same collision cross section, were clearly different. Indeed, while the α-anomer actually present in the THF sample was electrosprayed with the ammonium adducted at the C2 acrylate, its homologue only observed when the DMAC sample was subjected to TWIMS hold the adducted ammonium at the C1 acrylate. These findings were explained by a β/α inter-conversion upon injection in the TWIMS cell, as supported by theoretical calculation and dynamic molecular modeling.

  12. Photostabilization of polymeric materials by photoset acrylate coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, C.; Zahouily, K.

    2002-01-01

    Different types of polymeric materials have been made more resistant to photodegradation by protecting their surface with a UV-cured coating containing a HALS radical scavenger and a phenyltriazine UV absorber. The tridimensional polymer network formed by photopolymerization of an aliphatic polyurethane-acrylate telechelic oligomer proved to be very resistant to accelerated weathering in the presence of these light stabilizers. The chemical modifications occurring upon QUV-ageing were monitored by infrared spectroscopy, a very sensitive technique well suited for quantitative analysis at an early stage of the photodegradation.

  13. Bond strength of denture teeth to acrylic bases.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J L

    1993-10-01

    The literature relating to the determination of the bond strength of plastic denture teeth to acrylic resin denture material is reviewed. The papers are presented in chronological order with information on specimen preparation, batch sizes and methods of testing. The lack of uniformity in experimental techniques and the diverse range of products assessed makes recommendations for laboratory practice difficult to formulate. One consistent observation is that tooth surface contamination with wax decreases the bond strength between the teeth and the denture base material. A universal testing method needs to be formulated to replace the various techniques now employed.

  14. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jillings, Chris; DEAP Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10-46cm2 for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk 210Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10-20g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10397 - Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro methacrylate-poly(oxyalkylenediyl)-methacrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro methacrylate... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10397 Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10397 - Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro methacrylate-poly(oxyalkylenediyl)-methacrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro methacrylate... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10397 Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10397 - Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro methacrylate-poly(oxyalkylenediyl)-methacrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro methacrylate... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10397 Alkyl acrylate-polyfluoro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile... rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile... rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile... rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1480 Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile... rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  5. Preparation and properties of acrylic resin coating modified by functional graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Rui; Liu, Lili

    2016-04-01

    To improve the dispersion and the strength of filler-matrix interface in acrylic resin, the functional graphene oxide (FGO) was obtained by surface modification of graphene oxide (GO) by γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (KH-570) and then the acrylic nanocomposites containing different loadings of GO and FGO were prepared. The structure, morphology and dispersion/exfoliation of the FGO were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated that the KH-570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of GO sheets. Furthermore, the corresponding thermal, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the acrylic nanocomposites filled with the FGO were studied and compared with those of neat acrylic and GO/acrylic nanocomposites. The results revealed that the loading of FGO effectively enhanced various properties of acrylic resin. These findings confirmed that the dispersion and interfacial interaction were greatly improved by incorporation of FGO, which might be the result of covalent bonds between the FGO and the acrylic matrix. This work demonstrates an in situ polymerization method to construct a flexible interphase structure, strong interfacial interaction and good dispersion of FGO in acrylic nanocomposites, which can reinforce the polymer properties and be applied in research and industrial areas.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  8. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup −46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10{sup −20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10389 Styrene, copolymer with acrylic... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as styrene, copolymer with...

  10. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Salih, Ashraf M; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated. PMID:26248072

  11. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  12. Effect of Beverages on the Hardness and Tensile Bond Strength of Temporary Acrylic Soft Liners to Acrylic Resin Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    Safari, A; Vojdani, M; Mogharrabi, S; Iraji Nasrabadi, N; Derafshi, R

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Two potential problems commonly identified with a denture base incorporating a resilient liner are failure of the bond between acrylic resin and soft liner material, and loss of resiliency of the soft liner over time. Since patients may drink different beverages, it is important to evaluate their effects on physical properties of soft lining materials. Purpose: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different beverages on the hardness of two temporary acrylic-based soft lining materials and their bond strength to the denture base resin. Materials and Method: For the hardness test; a total of 80 rectangular specimens (40mm×10mm×3mm) were fabricated from a heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate. Two commercially auto-polymerized acrylic resin-based resilient liners; Coe-Soft and Visco-gel were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions and applied on the specimens. For the tensile test, 160 cylindrical specimens (30mm×10mm) were prepared. The liners were added between specimens with a thickness of 3 mm. The specimens of both soft liners were divided into 4 groups (n=10) and immersed in distilled water as the control group, Coca-Cola, 8% and 50% ethanol. All groups were stored in separate containers at 37oC for 12 days. All beverages were changed daily. The hardness was determined using a Shore A durometer and tensile bond strength was determined in a ZwickRoell testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results: There was no significant interaction between the soft liners and the drinks for both hardness (p= 0.748) and bond strength (p= 0.902). There were statistically significant differences between all drinks for both hardness (p< 0.001) and bond strength (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it seems that drinking Coca-Cola and alcoholic beverages would not be potentially causing any problems for the temporary

  13. Fluoride Release from Hollow Silica Microsphere-Containing Dental Restorative Acrylate Resin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuqin; Gao, Jun; Yin, Hengbo; Wang, Aili; Jiang, Tingshun; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhanao

    2015-05-01

    Hollow silica microspheres with mesoporous shells were prepared by the sacrificial template method. Hollow silica microsphere-containing acrylate resin-based dental restoration materials were prepared by using hollow silica microspheres as NaF reservoirs. Fluoride release performances from naked hollow silica microspheres, acrylate resin, and hollow silica microsphere-containing acrylate resin-based dental restorative materials in an artificial saliva were investigated. The results showed that hollow silica microsphere-containing acrylate resin-based dental restorative materials had higher cumulative fluoride release quantities and sustained fluoride release rates than traditional acrylate resin-based dental restorative materials. Fluoride release could be tuned by changing the mesoporous shell thickness of hollow silica microsphere.

  14. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  15. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  16. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  17. Acrylic Resin Molding Based Head Fixation Technique in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Roh, Mootaek; Lee, Kyungmin; Jang, Il-Sung; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Maan-Gee

    2016-01-12

    Head fixation is a technique of immobilizing animal's head by attaching a head-post on the skull for rigid clamping. Traditional head fixation requires surgical attachment of metallic frames on the skull. The attached frames are then clamped to a stationary platform resulting in immobilization of the head. However, metallic frames for head fixation have been technically difficult to design and implement in general laboratory environment. In this study, we provide a novel head fixation method. Using a custom-made head fixation bar, head mounter is constructed during implantation surgery. After the application of acrylic resin for affixing implants such as electrodes and cannula on the skull, additional resins applied on top of that to build a mold matching to the port of the fixation bar. The molded head mounter serves as a guide rails, investigators conveniently fixate the animal's head by inserting the head mounter into the port of the fixation bar. This method could be easily applicable if implantation surgery using dental acrylics is necessary and might be useful for laboratories that cannot easily fabricate CNC machined metal head-posts.

  18. Characteristics and mechanisms of acrylate polymer damage to maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qin; Liao, Zongwen; He, Zhenli

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent acrylate polymers (SAPs) have been widely used to maintain soil moisture in agricultural management, but they may cause damage to plants, and the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, seed germination, soil pot culture, hydroponic experiments, and SAPs degradation were conducted to investigate damage characteristics and mechanisms associated with SAPs application. The Results showed that SAPs inhibited maize growth and altered root morphology (irregular and loose arrangement of cells and breakage of cortex parenchyma), and the inhibitory effects were enhanced at higher SAPs rates. After 1h SAP hydrogels treatment, root malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) content were significantly decreased. Hydroponics experiment indicated that root and shoot growth was inhibited at 2.5mgL(-1) acrylic acid (AA), and the inhibition was enhanced with increasing AA rates. This effect was exacerbated by the presence of Na(+) at a high concentration in the hydrogels. Release and degradation of AA were enhanced at higher soil moisture levels. A complete degradation of AA occurred between 15 and 20 days after incubation (DAI), but it took longer for Na(+) concentration to decrease to a safe level. These results indicate that high concentration of both AA and Na(+) present in the SAPs inhibits plant growth. The finding of this study may provide a guideline for appropriate application of SAPs in agriculture. PMID:27057990

  19. Direct fermentation route for the production of acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hun Su; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jiae; Choi, In Suk; Nam, Tae-Wook; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-11-01

    There have been growing concerns regarding the limited fossil resources and global climate changes resulting from modern civilization. Currently, finding renewable alternatives to conventional petrochemical processes has become one of the major focus areas of the global chemical industry sector. Since over 4.2 million tons of acrylic acid (AA) is annually employed for the manufacture of various products via petrochemical processes, this chemical has been the target of efforts to replace the petrochemical route by ecofriendly processes. However, there has been limited success in developing an approach combining the biological production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and its chemical conversion to AA. Here, we report the first direct fermentative route for producing 0.12 g/L of AA from glucose via 3-HP, 3-HP-CoA, and Acryloyl-CoA, leading to a strain of Escherichia coli capable of directly producing acrylic acid. This route was developed through extensive screening of key enzymes and designing a novel metabolic pathway for AA. PMID:26319589

  20. Color difference threshold determination for acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiabao; Lin, Hong; Huang, Qingmei; Liang, Qifan; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to set evaluation indicators, i.e., perceptibility and acceptability color difference thresholds, of color stability for acrylic denture base resins for a spectrophotometric assessing method, which offered an alternative to the visual method described in ISO 20795-1:2013. A total of 291 disk specimens 50±1 mm in diameter and 0.5±0.1 mm thick were prepared (ISO 20795-1:2013) and processed through radiation tests in an accelerated aging chamber (ISO 7491:2000) for increasing times of 0 to 42 hours. Color alterations were measured with a spectrophotometer and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Color differences were calculated through the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Thirty-two dental professionals without color vision deficiencies completed perceptibility and acceptability assessments under controlled conditions in vitro. An S-curve fitting procedure was used to analyze the 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Furthermore, perceptibility and acceptability against the differences of the three color attributes, lightness, chroma, and hue, were also investigated. According to the S-curve fitting procedure, the 50:50% perceptibility threshold was 1.71ΔE00 (r(2)=0.88) and the 50:50% acceptability threshold was 4.00 ΔE00 (r(2)=0.89). Within the limitations of this study, 1.71/4.00 ΔE00 could be used as perceptibility/acceptability thresholds for acrylic denture base resins.

  1. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto polyamide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Chahira; Marais, Stéphane; Roudesli, Sadok

    2007-04-01

    The grafting of acrylic acid (AA) monomer (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd COOH) on polyamide 6.6 monofilaments (PA 6.6) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator was carried out in order to enhance the hydrophilic nature of fibers. The grafting rate depends on the AA concentration, the BPO concentration, the time and the temperature of reaction. The best conditions for optimum rate of grafting were obtained with a AA concentration of 0.5 M, a BPO concentration of 0.03 M, a reaction temperature of T = 85 °C and a reaction time of 120 mn. The fiber surface has been investigated by many experimental techniques of characterization such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), calorimetric analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. The effect of grafting of acrylic acid onto PA 6.6 fibers on their moisture and mechanical resistances was analyzed from water sorption and elongation at break measurements. The analysis of the experimental data shows clearly the efficiency of the grafting reaction used, leading to a significant increase of the hydrophilic character of the PA 6.6 surface.

  2. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of saccharide acrylate monomers from nonedible biomass.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Wouter M J; Brouwer, Sander G M; Loos, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol % of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by using TLC and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction resulted in two products. The minor product originated from transglycosidation to hemicellulose and was found to be 2-(β-xylosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. The major product was identified as 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate and the yield of the product was 5 wt % based on the amount of consumed cellulose. Glycosidation products with oligosaccharide moieties could not be detected in the reaction mixture. This result can be explained by the hydrolytic activities of the used cellulase preparation. Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei was found to possess, in addition to endoglucanase activity, cellobiosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Five other cellulase preparations from different origins were tested as well for catalysis of oligosaccharide acrylate synthesis. For most cellulase preparations the major transglycosidation product appeared to be 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Nevertheless, the endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum was found to catalyze the synthesis of 2-(β-cellobiosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Unlike the other cellulase preparations, endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from T. longibrachiatum showed no detectable β-glucosidase activity and therefore oligosaccharide acrylate monomers were not further hydrolyzed into the monosaccharide acrylate 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. PMID:24866837

  3. The reactivity of selected acrylate esters toward glutathione and deoxyribonucleosides in vitro: structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T J; Hayes, E P; Schwartz, C S; Witz, G

    1994-05-01

    Acrylate esters are alpha,beta-unsaturated esters used as plastic monomers whose toxicity may involve reaction with tissue nucleophiles via Michael addition. Structure-activity relationships for reactivity of selected esters with glutathione (GSH) and deoxyribonucleosides were investigated in the present studies. The esters investigated were methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate, tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. To compare their reactivities toward GSH, esters were incubated for up to 1 hr at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 with either GSH or red blood cells in phosphate-buffered saline followed by measurement of free thiol. In both systems acrylate electrophilic reactivity decreased with alpha-methyl substitution; however, the decrease in electrophilic reactivity was more evident in the cell-free system than in the red blood cell model. Increased alcohol chain length moderately affected the apparent second-order rate constant for the spontaneous reaction of acrylate esters with GSH, but did not affect potency relative to cellular GSH depletion. The apparent second-order rate constants of bifunctional esters are more than twice the rate constants of the much smaller monofunctional esters. Ethyl acrylate, a reactive acrylate ester based upon glutathione alkylation, has been designated a class 2B (suspect human) carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. To detect possible DNA alkylation by acrylate esters in vitro, ethyl acrylate was incubated with deoxyribonucleosides for up to 24 hr at pH 6.7 or 7.4 and 37 degrees C or up to 8 hr and 50 degrees C. HPLC analysis revealed no detectable adduct formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Investigation of fluorinated (Meth)acrylate monomers and macromonomers suitable for a hydroxy-containing acrylate monomer in UV nanoimprinting.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shunya; Kaneko, Shu; Yun, Cheol Min; Kobayashi, Kei; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2014-06-24

    We investigated reactive fluorinated (meth)acrylate monomers and macromonomers that caused segregation at the cured resin surface of a viscous hydroxy-containing monomer, glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate (GDD), and decreased the demolding energy in ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting with spin-coated films under a condensable alternative chlorofluorocarbon gas atmosphere. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements used to determine the surface free energy suggested that a nonvolatile silicone-based methacrylate macromonomer with fluorinated alkyl groups segregated at the GDD-based cured resin surface and decreased the surface free energy, while fluorinated acrylate monomers hardly decreased the surface free energy because of their evaporation during the annealing of the spin-coated films. The average demolding energy of GDD-based cured resins with the macromonomer having fluorinated alkyl groups was smaller than that with the macromonomer having hydrocarbon alkyl groups. The fluorinated alkyl groups were responsible for decreasing the demolding energy rather than the polysiloxane main chains. We demonstrated that the GDD-based UV-curable resin with the fluorinated silicone-based macromonomer was suitable for step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting with a bare silica mold, in addition to silica molds treated by chemical vapor surface modification with trifluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydropropyltrimethoxysilane (FAS3) and tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrimethoxysilane (FAS13). PMID:24892792

  5. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-ying; Tonggu, Lige; Niu, Li-na; Gong, Shi-qiang; Fan, Bing; Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Ji-hong; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS)-containing acrylic resin demonstrated contact-killing antimicrobial ability in vitro after three months of water storage. The objective of the present double-blind randomised clinical trial was to determine the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of QAMS-containing orthodontic acrylic by using custom-made removable retainers that were worn intraorally by 32 human subjects to create 48-hour multi-species plaque biofilms, using a split-mouth study design. Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. After 48 hours, the disks were retrieved and examined for microbial vitality using confocal laser scanning microscopy. No harm to the oral mucosa or systemic health occurred. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo. The QAMS-containing acrylic may also be used for fabricating removable acrylic dentures. PMID:26903314

  7. The photocatalytic enhancement of acrylic and PET solar water disinfection (SODIS) bottles.

    PubMed

    Carey, J M; Perez, T M; Arsiaga, E G; Loetscher, L H; Boyd, J E

    2011-01-01

    The solar water disinfection method (SODIS) was modified by the addition of a photocatalytic layer of titania on the interior surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylic bottles. Titania was solvent deposited on the interior of commercially available PET bottles, as well as bottles that were constructed from acrylic. Uncoated and titania-coated acrylic bottles removed 3,000,000-5,000,000 colony forming units per milliliter of K12 E. coli from 670 mL of contaminated water in 40 min of solar irradiance. After five hours of sunlight exposure, the concentration of 10 ppm methyl orange (a representative organic water contaminant), was reduced by 61% using the titania-coated acrylic bottles. The concentration of 87 ppb microcystin-LR (a representative algal toxin) was reduced by 70% after 7 hours of sunlight exposure in the titania-coated acrylic bottles. Acrylic is an effective alternative to PET for use in the SODIS method due to its greater UV transparency. The addition of titania to PET and acrylic bottles confers the ability to remove chemical contaminants in addition to inactivating microbiological contaminants.

  8. Effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on microhardness of acrylic resin denture base.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Baptista, Gabriella Trunckle; Moreno, Amália; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Dekon, Stéfan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on the microhardness of acrylic resins denture base. Four different brands of acrylic resins were evaluated: Onda Cryl, QC 20, Classico and Lucitone. Each brand of acrylic resin was divided into four groups (n = 7) according to the disinfection method (microwave, Efferdent, 4% chlorhexidine and 1% hypochlorite). Samples were disinfected during 60 days. Before and after disinfection, samples were thermal cycled between 5-55 °C with 30-s dwell times for 1000 cycles. The microhardness was measured using a microhardener, at baseline (B), after first thermal cycling (T1), after disinfection (D) and after second thermal cycling (T2). The microhardness values of all groups reduced over time. QC-20 acrylic resin exhibited the lowest microhardness values. At B and T1 periods, the acrylic resins exhibited statistically greater microhardness values when compared to D and T2 periods. It can be concluded that the microhardness values of the acrylic resins denture base were affected by the thermal cycling and disinfection procedures. However, all microhardness values obtained herein are within acceptable clinical limits for the acrylic resins.

  9. An ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin with concomitant improvements in antimicrobial and fracture toughness properties.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Epasinghe, Jeevani; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Blizzard, John D; Wu, Christine D; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances.

  10. An ORMOSIL-Containing Orthodontic Acrylic Resin with Concomitant Improvements in Antimicrobial and Fracture Toughness Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; Blizzard, John D.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances. PMID:22870322

  11. Base-Mediated Stereospecific Synthesis of Aryloxy and Amino substituted Ethyl Acrylates

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Verma, Ranjit; Lorenz, Michael; Tiruveedhula, V. V. N. Phani Babu; Monte, Aaron; Bertz, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted E- and Z-ethyl-3-acrylates is of interest because of their potential in the polymer industry and in medicinal chemistry. During work on a copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of E- and Z-ethyl-3-iodo-acrylates with phenols and N-heterocycles, we discovered a very simple (non-metallic) method for the stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates. To study this long standing problem on the stereoselectivity of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates, a series of O- and N-substituted nucleophiles was allowed to react with E- and Z-ethyl-3-iodo-acrylates. Screening of different bases indicated that DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) afforded successful conversion of E- and Z- ethyl-3-iodoacrylates into aryloxy and amino substituted ethyl acrylates in a stereospecific manner. Herein are the details of this DABCO-mediated stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted E- or Z-acrylates. PMID:22073965

  12. Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-ying; Tonggu, Lige; Niu, Li-na; Gong, Shi-qiang; Fan, Bing; Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Ji-hong; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2016-02-23

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS)-containing acrylic resin demonstrated contact-killing antimicrobial ability in vitro after three months of water storage. The objective of the present double-blind randomised clinical trial was to determine the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of QAMS-containing orthodontic acrylic by using custom-made removable retainers that were worn intraorally by 32 human subjects to create 48-hour multi-species plaque biofilms, using a split-mouth study design. Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. After 48 hours, the disks were retrieved and examined for microbial vitality using confocal laser scanning microscopy. No harm to the oral mucosa or systemic health occurred. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo. The QAMS-containing acrylic may also be used for fabricating removable acrylic dentures.

  13. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dul-Sun; Woo, Jang Chang; Youk, Ji Ho; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  14. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Bijan; Firouz, Farnaz; Izadi, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Shahbaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a common clinical occurrence, which often develops in the midline of the denture base. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold-cure and heat-cure acrylic resins, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were considered as controls, and 80 were divided into 8 experimental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated. Results: The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement. Conclusion: Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fibers increases the flexural strength of denture base. PMID:26877726

  15. [Acrylic resin reinforcement with metallic and nonmetallic inserts].

    PubMed

    Preoteasa, Elena; Murariu, Cătălina Măgureanu; Ionescu, Ecaterina; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora

    2007-01-01

    In the current use of acrylic resin for removable dentures and orthodontic treatments we are frequently facing the fact of base fracture. The repairing of this, determine most of the time, discomfort of the patient, by excluding the prosthetic device, affecting the treatment, loosing patient's time, doctor's time, implying the dental laboratory and extra expenses. The causes of fractures are many, from clinical cases with some specific anatomic and functional particularities, or parafunctional, to the incorrect designing, manufacturing or wearing of the prosthetic part, being connected with the materials characteristics. The consequences and costs of these fractures are leading to unsatisfying results in some of the clinical cases, in presence of parafunctions like bruxism or clenching and specifically for the new types of prosthetic rehabilitation, on natural teeth or implants. PMID:17983190

  16. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  17. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yunhai; Huang, Yusen; Liu, Ting; Xie, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed. PMID:25005210

  18. Spectral filters based on ethylene/acrylic acid copolymer ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.O.; Walkup, C.M.; Hagen, W.F.; Jessop, E.S.

    1988-09-01

    We are investigating the possibility of utilizing ionomers as inexpensive, easily replaced optical filters for applications in large fusion lasers as well as high average power solid state lasers. To this end we have synthesized a number of other derivatives of the ethylene/acrylic acid (EAA) copolymer system. Specifically, we prepared several ionomers at nominal 3 wt. % metal ion concentration, including Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Ce(III), by reacting aqueous solutions of metal acetates or nitrates with aqueous ammonia dispersions (1) of EAA as described previously. The products were compression molded into thin optically clear films under the above-described conditions. A gel was formed in a similar reaction with samarium (III) nitrate. Accordingly, the samarium ionomer was synthesized by a melt phase reaction between the EAA resin and the metal nitrate. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Cerenkov Light Collection With an Acrylic Wavelength Shifting Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Michael; Reinhold, Joerg

    2003-04-01

    Collection of Cerenkov light with an acrylic wavelength shifting plate was investigated. The test setup consisted of a plate, 30cm long, 10cm wide, and 1 cm thick placed behind a 5 cm deep stack of aerogel tiles. On the long ends the wavelength shifter was read out by two 5 inch photomultipliers. The response of the system to pions and protons at 1.2 GeV/c momentum was measured at the KEK PS facility in Japan. On average 6 photoelectrons radiated from the aerogel could be detected. The results will be presented and possible designs for future detectors will be discussed with emphasis on particle identification for high momentum spectrometers at an upgraded Jefferson Lab facility.

  20. Swelling behaviors of porous lignin based poly (acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanli; Sun, Yajie; Fu, Yujie; Fang, Guizhen; Yan, Xingru; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-11-01

    Supramolecular cross-linked porous lignin based poly (acrylic acid) [LBPAA] was lab-synthesized by copolymerizing lignin grafted N, N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (LM) and acrylic acid. LBPAA successfully acted as a water retention agent with salt resistance and biodegradation for agricultural applications. Lignin was found to improve its swelling behaviors with higher water retention, fast swelling and de-swelling rates. The salt tolerance was stronger in the case of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) [60 wt% PAA/40 wt% LM], i.e., 145.79 g·g(-1) higher than PAA at 0.09 mM KCl solution. The effect of ion charges on the LBPAA swelling ratio was greater than that of ionic radius. The weight loss of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) was 5.47%, 4.96%, and 4.56% in the soil of Tangshan, Harbin, and Sian, respectively. The soil moisture content and clay content were observed to decrease gradually with increasing the burial time. The biodegradation test of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) composite exhibited different bacterial colony forming units (CFU), the soil of Tangshan was 2.0 × 10(3) CFU·g(-1) soil, 7.0 × 10(3) CFU·g(-1) soil for Harbin, and 6.10 × 10(4) CFU·g(-1) soil for Sian. However, the organic matter contents in the soils did not have significant changes (Tangshan 6.21 mg·g(-1), Harbin 0.61 mg·g(-1), and Sian 0.405 mg·g(-1)). PMID:27587327

  1. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, K.; Okada, T.; Sakurada, I.

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual γ-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 {kcal}/{mol} between 20 and 60°C and 10 {kcal}/{mol} between 60 and 80°C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70°C, show maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130°C and then breaks off at 136°C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt such as sodium and calcium, the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300°C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and its metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption, however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. The sodium salt of 15% graft shows the same level of moisture regain as cotton. The AA-grafted PE filament and its metallic salts can be dyed with cationic dyes even at 1% graft. Tensile properties of PE filament is impaired neither by grafting nor by conversion to metallic salts.

  2. The rising trend in allergic contact dermatitis to acrylic nail products.

    PubMed

    Le, Quynh; Cahill, Jennifer; Palmer-Le, Amanda; Nixon, Rosemary

    2015-08-01

    Shellac is a newly available type of long-wearing nail polish, which is becoming increasingly popular. We describe four cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to acrylates found in Shellac nail products, involving three beauticians and one consumer who purchased the product over the internet. Increasing use of these new acrylic nail products means that dermatologists need to be aware of the possibility of ACD occurring. Testing with hydroxyethyl methacrylate alone, which is included in the Australian Baseline Series, is adequate for screening for acrylate allergy. PMID:25752641

  3. Impression techniques for multiple implants: a photoelastic analysis. Part II: comparison of four acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Júnior, Itamar; de Lima Lucas, Barbara; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Gomes, Vanderlei Luiz

    2013-10-01

    Four commercial brands of chemically activated acrylic resin were compared through photoelastic analysis. Photoelastic resin blocks were made with 2 implants placed parallel to each other and 2 square transfer copings splinted. Both transfers were splinted with chemically activated acrylic resin: Dencrilay, Duralay I, Duralay II, and GC. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P < .05). Statistically significant differences were found among the 3 brands of chemically activated acrylic resin. Dencrilay showed greater dimensional alteration. Duralay I and GC are recommended for the transfer of the position of the multi-implants.

  4. Measuring the mutual diffusion coefficient for dodecyl acrylate in low molecular weight poly(dodecyl acrylate) with laser line deflection (Wiener's Method) and the fluorescence of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Antrim, Daniel; Bunton, Patrick; Lewis, Lydia Lee; Zoltowski, Brian D; Pojman, John A

    2005-06-16

    Diffusion of small molecules into glassy polymers is quite complicated and almost always non-Fickian. Little work has been done with the diffusion of low molecular weight polymers that are liquids at room temperature (such as poly(dodecyl acrylate)) into their miscible monomers. We have studied three molecular weights under 20 000 to determine if poly(dodecyl acrylate) diffusion into dodecyl acrylate could be treated with Fick's law and if so to determine the values of the diffusion coefficients. We compare two methods for measuring the diffusion of dodecyl acrylate into poly(dodecyl acrylate): We used laser line deflection (Wiener's method) and improved upon the method from published reports. We also used the dependence of pyrene's fluorescence on the viscosity to measure the concentration distribution, and thus to extract the diffusion coefficient. After an initial relaxation period, diffusion in all cases followed Fick's law with a single concentration-independent diffusion coefficient. Comparison of the diffusion coefficients obtained by both methods yielded the same order of magnitude for the diffusion coefficients (10(-7) cm2/s) and showed the same trend in the dependence on the average molecular weight of the polymer (a decrease in the diffusion coefficient with an increase in the molecular weight).

  5. Synthesis and characterization of amylose grafted poly(acrylic acid) and its application in ammonia adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Yu, Haojie; Wang, Li; Abdin, Zain-Ul; Yang, Xinpeng; Wang, Junhua; Zhou, Weidong; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Xiao

    2016-11-20

    Amylose grafted poly(acrylic acid) (Am-g-PAA) was synthesized by graft copolymerization of amylose with acrylic acid. The structure of Am-g-PAA was confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectra. The morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of amylose and Am-g-PAA were investigated by SEM, XRD and TGA, respectively. The highest degree of substitution (DS) of carboxyl group was 1.96 which was obtained after reacted for 1h at 60°C. Acrylic acid to anhydroglucose mole ratio for DS was 19.81. It was found that a large number of carboxyl groups were grafted on the backbone of amylose. It was also found that ammonia adsorption capacity of amylose increased by grafting poly(acrylic acid) on the backbone of amylose. PMID:27561514

  6. Dielectric studies of alkyl acrylates with primary alcohols using time domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmalingam, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Sivagurunathan, P.; Prabhakar Undre, B.; Khirade, P. W.; Mehrotra, S. C.

    Binary polar-polar liquid mixtures of alkyl acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate and butyl acrylate) with primary alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and hexan-1-ol) were subjected to dielectric studies at 303 K for different concentrations using time domain reflectometry (TDR) over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 10 GHz. Static permittivity (ɛ0) dielectric constant at high frequency (ɛ∞) and relaxation time (τ) were found through dielectric measurements for different concentrations of each system. The Bruggeman dielectric factor, Kirkwood correlation factor and the excess inverse relaxation time were determined and discussed to yield information on the molecular interactions of the systems. Deviations from the linearity of various models suggest molecular association through hydrogen bonding between the -OH group of alcohols and C=O group of esters. The results also show a dependence of dielectric parameters on the alkyl chain length of both the alcohols and esters.

  7. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  8. Removal of methyl acrylate by ceramic-packed biotrickling filter and their response to bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhenhao; Quan, Yue; Fang, Yingyu; Yin, Chengri

    2016-06-01

    Methyl acrylate is a widely used raw chemical materials and it is toxic in humans. In order to treat the methyl acrylate waste gas, a 3-layer BTF packed with ceramic particles and immobilized with activated sludge was set up. The BTF exhibited excellent removal efficiency that no methyl acrylate could be detected when EBRT was larger than 266s and inlet concentration was lower than 0.19g/m(3). The 1st layer performed the best at fixed inlet concentration of 0.42g/m(3). PCR combined with DGGE was performed to detect the differences in different layers of the BTF. Phylum Proteobacteria (e.g. α-, β-, γ-, δ-) was predominantly represented in the bacterial community, followed by Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Desulfovibrio gigas, Variovorax paradoxus, Dokdonella koreensis, Pseudoxanthomonas suwonensis, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Hyphomicrobium denitrificans, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Comamonas testosteroni formed the bacteria community to treat methyl acrylate waste gas in the BTF. PMID:26970927

  9. Novel (meth)acrylate monomers for ultrarapid polymerization and enhanced polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beckel, E. R.; Berchtold, K. A.; Nie, J.; Lu, H.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is known to be one of the most efficient methods to initiatc polymeric reactions in the presence of a photonitiator. Photopolymerizations are advantageous because the chemistry of the materials can be tailored to design liquid monomers for ultrarapid polymerization into a solid polymer material. One way to achieve rapid photopolymerizations is to utilize multifunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. which form highly crosslinked polymers; however, these monomers typically do not achieve complete functional group conversion. Recently, Decker et al. developed novel monovinyl acrylate monomers that display polyriicrization kinetics that rival those of multifunctional acrylate monomers. These novel acrylate monomers incorporate secondary functionalities and end groups such as carbonates, carbamates, cyclic carbonates and oxazolidone which promote the increased polymerization kinetics of these monomers. In addition to thc polynierization kinetics, these novel monovinyl monomers form crosslinked polymers, which are characterized by having high strength and high flexibility. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the polymerization kinetics and crosslinking are not well understood.

  10. Synthesis and self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zicheng; Ono, Robert J.; Wu, Zong-Quan; Bielawski, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    A modular and convenient synthesis of ethynyl end functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) in high purity is reported; this material facilitated access to poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) which self-assembled into hierarchical structures.

  11. Optical properties of UV transmitting acrylics for use in a heavy water Cerenkov detector

    SciTech Connect

    Zwinkels, J.C.; Davidson, W.F.; Dodd, C. )

    1990-08-01

    The absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of several UV transmitting acrylics have been investigated over the wavelength range 300--700 nm using a combination of near-normal incidence regular transmittance and reflectance and diffuse-only reflectance measurements, followed by a Fresnel and a Kubelka-Munk analysis. The samples were evaluated in the as-cast and thermoformed forms, and both before and after an accelerated aging procedure. The results show significant differences in the optical behavior of the various acrylics in the UV region and stress the importance of carefully characterizing acrylic from different sources for each intended use. In our case, acrylic is the proposed material for a heavy water containment vessel for the detection of solar neutrinos. The significance of our findings to the overall performance of this Cerenkov detector, known as the Sudbury neutrino observatory detector, is discussed.

  12. Optical properties of UV transmitting acrylics for use in a heavy water Cerenkov detector.

    PubMed

    Zwinkels, J C; Davidson, W F; Dodd, C X

    1990-08-01

    The absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of several UV transmitting acrylics have been investigated over the wavelength range 300-700 nm using a combination of near-normal incidence regular transmittance and reflectance and diffuse-only reflectance measurements, followed by a Fresnel and a Kubelka-Munk analysis. The samples were evaluated in the as-cast and thermoformed forms, and both before and after an accelerated aging procedure. The results show significant differences in the optical behavior of the various acrylics in the UV region and stress the importance of carefully characterizing acrylic from different sources for each intended use. In our case, acrylic is the proposed material for a heavy water containment vessel for the detection of solar neutrinos. The significance of our findings to the overall performance of this Cerenkov detector, known as the Sudbury neutrino observatory detector, is discussed.

  13. Color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasp denture

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dae-Eun; Lee, Ji-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seon; Lee, Jang-Jae

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp dentures to those of thermoplastic polyamide and conventional heat-polymerized denture base resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three types of denture base resin, which are conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20), thermoplastic polyamide resin (Bio Tone), thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) were used as materials for this study. One hundred five specimens were fabricated. For the color stability test, specimens were immersed in the coffee and green tee for 1 and 8 weeks. Color change was measured by spectrometer. Water sorption was tested after 1 and 8 weeks immersion in the water. For the test of cytotoxicity, cell viability assay was measured and cell attachment was analyzed by FE-SEM. RESULTS All types of denture base resin showed color changes after 1 and 8 weeks immersion. However, there was no significant difference between denture base resins. All specimens showed significant color changes in the coffee than green tee. In water sorption test, thermoplastic acrylic resin showed lower values than conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin and thermoplastic polyamide resin. Three types of denture base showed low cytotoxicity in cell viability assay. Thermoplastic acrylic resin showed the similar cell attachment but more stable attachment than conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin. CONCLUSION Thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp denture showed acceptable color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity. To verify the long stability in the mouth, additional in vitro studies are needed. PMID:26330974

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Methods Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm). Results There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Conclusion Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material. PMID:25279523

  15. Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, R.; Levy, N.; Pruitt, P.M.

    1987-07-01

    The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of those glove materials tested.

  16. Mucoadhesive acrylated block copolymers micelles for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-03-01

    Blockpolymer micelles having acrylated end groups were fabricated for the development of mucoadhesive drug loaded vehicle. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Pluronic(®) F127 modified with acrylate end groups (F127DA) was found to be similar to that of the unmodified Pluronic(®) F127 (F127). Small angle X-ray scattering verified existence of micelles with an inner core of 4.9±0.2 and 5.5±0.3 for F127 and F127DA respectively. Indomethacin, a hydrophobic drug, was incorporated into the micelles using the thin-film hydration method. In vitro drug release assay demonstrated that the micelles sustained the release of the drug in comparison with free drug in solution. Several methods were used for mucoadhesion evaluation. Viscosity profiling was performed by shear rate sweep experiment of hydrated commercial mucin, F127 or F127DA, and combination of both mucin and a copolymer. Elevated viscosity was achieved for acrylated micelles with mucin compared to mixtures of non-acrylated micelles with mucin. The mucoadhesivity of the acrylated micelles was further characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); data affirmed the Michael type addition reaction occurred between acrylates on the micelles corona and thiols present in the mucin. SAXS scattering data further showed a modification in the scattering of F127DA micelles with the addition of pig gastric mucin. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) data detected increase in the aggregates size while using acrylated micelles enhance mucoadhesion. Thus acrylated F127DA micelles were found to be mucoadhesive, and a suitable and preferred candidate for micellar drug delivery to mucosal surfaces. PMID:26700232

  17. Silver hollow optical fibers with acrylic silicone resin coating as buffer layer for sturdy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    For sturdy silver hollow optical fibers, acrylic silicone resin is newly used as a buffer layer between an inner silver layer and a silica capillary. This acrylic silicone resin film prevents the glass surface from chemical and mechanical micro damages during silver plating process, which deteriorate mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. In addition, it keeps high adhesion of the silver layer with the glass surface. We discuss improvement of mechanical strength of the hollow glass fibers without deterioration of optical properties.

  18. Structure and properties of binary polystyrene-epoxy acrylate oligomer mixtures irradiated by electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lomonosova, N.V.

    1995-03-01

    The change in the structure of oriented polymer-oligomer systems based on polystyrene (PS) with M > 10{sup 6} and epoxy acrylate oligomers (aliphatic and aromatic) under irradiation by accelerated electrons was studied using birefringence, isometric heating, IR dichroism, and thermooptical analysis. Mechanical properties of these systems were investigated. It was found that, by adding aliphatic epoxy acrylate to PS and further irradiating this mixture, one can obtain both isotropic and oriented composites with higher strengths, elasticity moduli, and glass transition temperatures.

  19. Structure-activity relationships in the hydrolysis of acrylate and methacrylate esters by carboxylesterase in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T J; Witz, G

    1997-01-15

    Acrylate esters are important chemicals in the plastics industry, whose toxicity is theorized to involve alkylation of critical cellular nucleophiles via the Michael addition. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of acrylates may be a detoxification mechanism as the unsaturated acid produced is not electrophilic under physiological conditions. Using purified porcine liver carboxylesterase, the enzymatic hydrolysis of several acrylate esters was characterized to determine Km and Vmax values for each ester. The Km (microM) and Vmax (nmol/min) values observed for ethyl acrylate were 134 +/- 16 (S.D.) and 8.9 +/- 2.0, respectively. While the Km for ethyl methacrylate was not significantly different, the Vmax 5.5 +/- 2.5, was significantly lower compared with the corresponding value for ethyl acrylate. The Km and Vmax for butyl acrylate were 33.3 +/- 8.5 microM and 1.49 +/- 0.83 nmol/min, respectively, and the corresponding values for its alpha-methyl analog were not significantly different. The Km and Vmax for tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate were 39 +/- 15 microM and 2.9 +/- 1.0 nmol/min, respectively. The Vmax for ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 6.9 +/- 2.4 nmol/min, was significantly higher than that of the larger bifunctional ester tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, but the Km was not significantly different. These results indicate that alpha-methyl substitution appears to have a minor effect in the enzymatic hydrolysis of acrylates, and suggest that the relative toxicity of acrylates is not due to differences in carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis.

  20. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  1. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions.

  2. MM and QM: Conformational and vibrational spectra analysis of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belaidi, O.; Adjim, M.; Bouchaour, T.; Maschke, U.

    2015-02-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is generally used with other acrylic and methacrylic products in order to get the desired characteristics of the final product. In this work we are about to make an assignment of experimental infrared bands with the help of a theoretical quantum chemistry calculations. The exact knowledge of some bands which are not characteristics of acrylic materials will enable us to make a quick analysis with available techniques of low costs for mixtures of polymers based on acrylate and methacrylate molecules. In the experimental part, the infrared spectrum of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate is obtained by using a FTIR Perkin Elmer model 2000. In the computational part and as first step, the theoretical calculations are performed by the semi-empirical AM1 method for excluding similar structures of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate molecule by a meticulous conformational analysis. As a second step the obtained structures are optimized using DFT. The simulated frequencies are then scaled and a tentative assignment is made based on band intensities and PED percentages. The theoretical calculations predict the existence of thirteen conformations two of them represent the majority of experimental bands in the infrared spectrum. Two neighbor experimental bands located at 1301 and 1207 cm-1 maybe used as characteristic bands to locate and distinguish the existence of one or both conformations.

  3. Hybrid resist systems based on α-substituted acrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sundberg, Linda K.; Bozano, Luisa; Lofano, Elizabeth M.; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Terui, Yoshiharu; Fujiwara, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    Classical electron-beam resists such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Nippon Zeon's ZEP function as high resolution and low roughness positive resists on the basis of radiation induced main chain scission to reduce the molecular weight while chemical amplification resists utilized in device manufacturing function on the basis of acidcatalyzed deprotection to change the polarity. In an attempt to increase the resolution and reduce the line roughness of chemical amplification resists, we prepared copolymers that undergo radiation induced main chain scission and acidcatalyzed deprotection. In another word, we wanted to increase the sensitivity of the PMMA resist by incorporating the acid-catalyzed deprotection mechanism in polymers that undergo main chain scission, maintaining the high resolution and low roughness of PMMA. To synthesize such hybrid resist polymers, we selected α-substituted acrylates and α- substituted styrenes. The former included methyl methacrylate (MMA), t-butyl methacrylate (TBMA), methyl α- fluoroacrylate (MFA), t-butyl α-fluoroacrylate (TBFA), and t-butyl α-trifluoromethylacrylate (TBTFMA) and the latter α-methylstyrene (αMEST), α-methyleneindane (αMEIN), and α-methylenetetralin (αMETL). The α-substituted tbutyl acrylic esters were copolymerized with the methyl esters and also with α-substituted styrenic monomers using 2, 2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN). Hybrid resists were formulated by adding a photochemical acid generator and a base quencher to the copolymers and developers were selected by studying the dissolution behavior of unexposed and 254 nm exposed resist films using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). In addition to the difference in the imaging mechanism, PMMA and ZEP differ from the chemical amplification resists in developers; organic solvent vs. aqueous base. We were interested in looking also into the influence of the developer on the lithographic performance. Contrast curves were generated by exposing

  4. Bone Marrow Nails Created by Percutaneous Osteoplasty for Long Bone Fracture: Comparisons Among Acrylic Cement Alone, Acrylic-Cement-Filled Bare Metallic Stent, and Acrylic-Cement-Filled Covered Metallic Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Kouhei; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Cao, Guang; Sahara, Shinya; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the strength among bone marrow nails created to treat long bone fractures using interventional procedures. Methods: Twelve resected intact tibiae of healthy swine were used. A circumferential bone fracture was made in nine tibiae and restored with the following created bone marrow nails: acrylic cement alone (ACA) (n = 3), acrylic-cement-filled bare metallic stent (AC-FBMS) (n = 3), and acrylic-cement-filled covered metallic (AC-FCMS) stent (n = 3). The remaining intact tibiae (n = 3) were used as controls. Results: A bone marrow nail was successfully achieved within 30 min in all swine. The maximum injection volume of acrylic cement for creating ACA, AC-FBMS, and AC-FCMS was 1.7 {+-} 0.3, 3.2 {+-} 0.4, and 2.9 {+-} 0.4 mL, respectively. The thickness of bone marrow nail created in the ACA, AC-FBMS, and AC-FCMS groups was 3.6 {+-} 1.0, 10.3 {+-} 0.26, and 9.6 {+-} 0.32 mm, respectively (AC-FBMS group versus AC-FCMS group, p = 0.038), probably because of leakage of acrylic cement surrounding the interstices. The maximum bending power (kilonewton) and bending strength (newton/mm{sup 2}) in the normal long bone, ACA, AC-FBMS, and AC-FCMS groups were: 1.70 {+-} 0.25 and 79.2 {+-} 16.1; 0.21 {+-} 0.11 and 8.8 {+-} 2.8; 0.46 {+-} 0.06 and 18.2 {+-} 1.6; and 0.18 {+-} 0.04 and 7.8 {+-} 2.7, respectively. Conclusions: Although the maximum bending power and bending strength of AC-FBMS were not satisfactory, it was the most robust of the three marrow nails for restoring fractured long bone.

  5. [Adaptation of acrylic resin dentures polymerized using various activation modes].

    PubMed

    Takamata, T; Inoue, Y; Hashimoto, K; Sugitou, S; Arakawa, H; Kurasawa, I

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dimensional accuracy of maxillary dentures made using a conventional heat-activated PMMA resin, a pour resin, a visible light-activated resin, and a microwave-activated acrylic resin. Two simple methods for measuring dimensional accuracy were used: (1) weight of impression material entrapped between the base and master die and (2) measurement of the posterior border gap at five locations. The volume of space between the denture base and the master die was determined by (1) computation and (2) estimation. Statistical analysis (Bartlett, ANOVA and Tukey's Tests) supported the following conclusions: (1) all groups showed a processing contraction, most apparent from buccal flange to buccal flange, (2) the poorest fitting group was processed in a brass flask and a water bath at a temperature which rose from 70 to 100 degrees C, using a heat activated resin (Acron), (3) the visible light activated resin (Triad) produced dentures of intermediate accuracy, as did Acupac 20 when either heat or microwave activated, (4) the two best fitting groups were prepared from a chemically activated resin system using pressure at low heat (PER form), and the resin developed for microwave activation (Acron MC).

  6. Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, N. H.; Dessouki, A. M.; Khalil, F. H.

    A study has been made for the preparation of membranes by the direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polypropylene (PP) films. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. The effect of different solvents such as benzene, methanol/water mixture, isopropanol/water mixture, dimethyl formalide and distilled water on the swelling and grafting process of AAc onto PP films was investigated. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) and ferric chloride were used as inhibitors to minimize the homopolymerization of AAc and the suitable concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 1.0 and 1.5 wt% for Mohr's salt and ferric chloride, respectively. Also, the effect of monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was investigated. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 1.1 order. This grafting system proceeded by diffusion controlled process. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behavior, gel determination, mechanical and electrical properties were also investigated. It was found that the grafted membranes possess good hydrophilic properties which may make them promising in some practical applications.

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the gagging patient using acrylic training plates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rahat; Altaie, Asmaa; Morrow, Leean

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a hyper-responsive gag reflex pose dentists with a challenging problem. The gag reflex of some patients may be so severe that patients (and operating clinician) may favour extraction of any painful, infected teeth as opposed to more lengthy and complicated procedures such as root canal therapy. However, consistently adopting this approach may render the gagging patient completely edentulous. Such patients may then present to the dental surgeon requesting tooth replacement with some form of denture. This in itself can be a challenging task given the difficulties one may experience whilst taking impressions in this cohort of patients. This article will discuss the prosthetic management of the maxillary arch in edentulous patients with a severe gag reflex. There will be particular emphasis on the aetiology and physiology of the gag reflex, impression-taking techniques to allow the construction of an acrylic training plate (as an interim measure), principles of training plate design and construction of the definitive removable denture. Clinical Relevance: Removable training plates can be used as an interim measure to desensitize edentulous gagging patients before providing them with a definitive removable denture.

  8. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  9. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  10. Color stability of acrylic resin adhesives with different initiation modes.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Naomi; Koishi, Yoshikazu; Yanagida, Hiroaki; Atsuta, Mitsuru; Shimada, Kazuki; Matsumura, Hideo

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of two acrylic resin adhesives with different activation systems: a benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-amine redox system and a tri-n-butylborane (TBB) derivative system. The colorimetric values of the two resins in different shades (Clear and Ivory) were determined (n=5) 24 hours after polymerization as a baseline using the L*a*b* system of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE). The specimens were thereafter immersed in distilled water, and the color difference (deltaE*) values were calculated. After 24 weeks, the TBB-initiated material showed a significantly (p<0.05) lower color change than the BPO-amine-initiated material. The deltaE* values for the BPO-amine-initiated materials were 6.9 for Clear and 15.8 for Ivory, whereas those for the TBB-initiated materials were 1.3 and 1.8 respectively. Thus, it was concluded that the TBB-initiated material had superior color stability to that of the BPO-amine-initiated material.

  11. Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Mendieta, Irasema; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Castaño, Víctor M

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition of Candida albicans on denture resins could play a significant role in preventing the development of denture stomatitis. The safety of a new dental material with antifungal properties was analyzed in this work. Methods Poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] discs and PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs were formulated, with the commercial acrylic resin, Nature-CrylTM, used as a control. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay). Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles. Results The results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs significantly reduce adherence of C. albicans and do not affect metabolism or proliferation. They also appear not to cause genotoxic damage to cells. Conclusion The present work has developed a new biocompatible antifungal PMMA denture base material. PMID:22969297

  12. Spallation Characteristics of Poly-Methyl Meth-Acrylic (PMMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowski, Peter; Dandekar, D. P.

    1999-06-01

    This work describes the results derived from plane shock wave spallation experiments performed on Poly-Methyl Meth-Acrylic (PMMA) Polymer. These experiments were conducted using the Army Research Laboratories 102 mm Bore, 8 m long Light Gas Gun located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. The PMMA used in this work was manufactured by Rohm & Haas as their Ultra-Violet Absorbing (UVA), Type II Plexiglass. Its density is 1.188 Mg/m3 and longitudinal shock velocity is 2.72 mm/μ s. Spallation experiments were conducted at impact stresses between 0.2 and 2.0 GPa. The PMMA appears to exhibit a constant tensile strength of 0.15 GPa up to an impact stress of 0.75 GPa. Unlike metal and ceramic materials, the PMMA exhibits a dwell time in the spallation inversly proportional to the impact stress. At a low impact stress of 0.40 GPa, spallation of the PMMA occurs over a time period of 0.80 micro-seconds. At an impact stress of 0.75 GPa, the spallation occurs over 0.40 micro-seconds. This variation in time required to spall the PMMA will be analyzed and theories discussed.

  13. Thiol-ene/acrylate substrates for softening intracortical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ware, Taylor; Simon, Dustin; Liu, Clive; Musa, Tabassum; Vasudevan, Srikanth; Sloan, Andrew; Keefer, Edward W; Rennaker, Robert L; Voit, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neural interfaces have traditionally been fabricated on rigid and planar substrates, including silicon and engineering thermoplastics. However, the neural tissue with which these devices interact is both 3D and highly compliant. The mechanical mismatch at the biotic-abiotic interface is expected to contribute to the tissue response that limits chronic signal recording and stimulation. In this work, novel ternary thiol-ene/acrylate polymer networks are used to create softening substrates for neural recording electrodes. Thermomechanical properties of the substrates are studied through differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis both before and after exposure physiological conditions. This substrate system softens from more than 1 GPa to 18 MPa on exposure to physiological conditions: reaching body temperature and taking up less than 3% fluid. The impedance of 177 µm(2) gold electrodes electroplated with platinum black fabricated on these substrates is measured to be 206 kΩ at 1 kHz. Specifically, intracortical electrodes are fabricated, implanted, and used to record driven neural activity. This work describes the first substrate system that can use the full capabilities of photolithography, respond to physiological conditions by softening markedly after insertion, and record driven neural activity for 4 weeks.

  14. Acrylic bone cement in total joint arthroplasty: A review.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Khaled J; El Othmani, Mouhanad M; Tzeng, Tony H; Mihalko, William M; Chambers, Monique C; Grupp, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Acrylic bone cement has a variety of applications in orthopedic surgery. Primary uses in total arthroplasties are limited to prostheses fixation and antibiotic delivery. With the large number of total joint arthroplasties expected to continue to rise, understanding the role bone cement plays in the success of total joint arthroplasty can have a significant impact on daily practice. The literature is inconclusive on whether cemented or cementless fixation technique is superior, and choice of fixation type is mainly determined by surgeon preference and experience. Surgeons should understand that if poor techniques exist, short-term outcomes of the replaced joint may be at risk. Statement of clinical significance: This article attempts to clarify some points of bone cement use through a review of the mechanical properties related to bone cement, a comparison to alternative materials, influence of additives, and the effects on surgical outcomes. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:737-744, 2016. PMID:26852143

  15. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules. PMID:25669583

  16. Controlled Transdermal Iontophoresis by Polypyrrole/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chansai, Phithupha; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-03-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system delivers a drug into a body at desired site and rate. The conductive polymer-hydrogel blend between polypyrrole (PPy) doped with anionic drug and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were developed as a matrix/carrier of drug for the transdermal drug delivery in which the characteristic releases depend on the electrical field applied. The PAA films and their blend films were prepared by solution casting using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinking agent. A mechanical blending of PPy particles and PAA matrix was then carried out. Drug diffusions in the blended PPy/PAA hydrogel and the non-blended one were investigated and determined by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell with an acetate buffer, pH 5.5, at 37 0C, for a period of 48 hours to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. Amounts of the released drug were measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The diffusion coefficient of drug was determined through the Higuchi equation via different conditions, with and without an electric field. Moreover, thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the polypyrrole and drug-loaded polypyrrole were investigated by means of the thermogravimetric analysis and by using a two-point probe meter, respectively.

  17. [Comparative analysis of tissue reaction to acrylic resin materials in studies on Wistar strain rats].

    PubMed

    Sobolewska, E

    1999-01-01

    The study takes up the issue of assessing rat tissue reaction to operatively inserted implants of different acrylic resin materials used in prosthetic dentistry. The materials subjected to analysis were polyacrylics: Vertex Soft, Vertex R.S., Vertex S.C., Superacryl and silicone material Molloplast B. The prolongation of life and the dynamic development of prosthetic treatment have caused removable dentures to be used longer and among more people. Polymerised acrylic resin material of these dentures is a potential pathogenic factor to the oral cavity mucosa which is in contact with it. As many as 20 to 70% of patients using removable acrylic dentures suffer from prosthetic stomatopathy. It is considered that the mucosa irritation may be caused by denture trauma, a mycotic infection or toxic action of some components of acrylic materials. Therefore the use of new generation acrylic materials in producing prosthetic dentures needs a precise assessment of undesirable local and systemic effects. A comparative analysis of the effect of correctly polymerised acrylic material on rat mucosa, parotid glands and lymphatic nodes was carried out. Systemic toxicity of these materials was assessed. Acrylic plates were prepared from the most often used acrylic resin materials in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry PAM and a silicone material (these materials were polymerised precisely according to the producers instruction). Before implantation the plates underwent a thermodynamic analysis in order to ensure that the polymerisation process was carried out correctly and to determine thermal resistance of particular materials. Next sterile acrylic plates were implanted in rats under general anaesthesia. The animals were divided into 6 groups, 10 rats each. In four groups acrylic plates were implanted, in one group silicone material plates were implanted and it represented the comparative group, in one control group an incision of the buccal mucosa was made. The rats were

  18. [Comparative analysis of tissue reaction to acrylic resin materials in studies on Wistar strain rats].

    PubMed

    Sobolewska, E

    1999-01-01

    The study takes up the issue of assessing rat tissue reaction to operatively inserted implants of different acrylic resin materials used in prosthetic dentistry. The materials subjected to analysis were polyacrylics: Vertex Soft, Vertex R.S., Vertex S.C., Superacryl and silicone material Molloplast B. The prolongation of life and the dynamic development of prosthetic treatment have caused removable dentures to be used longer and among more people. Polymerised acrylic resin material of these dentures is a potential pathogenic factor to the oral cavity mucosa which is in contact with it. As many as 20 to 70% of patients using removable acrylic dentures suffer from prosthetic stomatopathy. It is considered that the mucosa irritation may be caused by denture trauma, a mycotic infection or toxic action of some components of acrylic materials. Therefore the use of new generation acrylic materials in producing prosthetic dentures needs a precise assessment of undesirable local and systemic effects. A comparative analysis of the effect of correctly polymerised acrylic material on rat mucosa, parotid glands and lymphatic nodes was carried out. Systemic toxicity of these materials was assessed. Acrylic plates were prepared from the most often used acrylic resin materials in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry PAM and a silicone material (these materials were polymerised precisely according to the producers instruction). Before implantation the plates underwent a thermodynamic analysis in order to ensure that the polymerisation process was carried out correctly and to determine thermal resistance of particular materials. Next sterile acrylic plates were implanted in rats under general anaesthesia. The animals were divided into 6 groups, 10 rats each. In four groups acrylic plates were implanted, in one group silicone material plates were implanted and it represented the comparative group, in one control group an incision of the buccal mucosa was made. The rats were

  19. Thermo-Optic Coefficient of Different Photosensitive Acrylate Polymers for Optical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, N.; Mohamed, R.; Ehsan, A. A.; Kuang, C. S.; Shaari, S.

    Thermo-optic (TO) effect in materials can be exploited in the fabrication of optical devices such as optical switches and couplers. These optical devices play a key function in communication networks because by changing the temperature they have control over the optical path. Recently, polymer materials have begun to receive attention for the application of the TO switch in integrated optics. The polymers exploited for the variation of refractive index with temperature in our work involve the use of cyclomer acrylate, which is compared to the fluorinated acrylate available in the market. We focus the on cyclomer acrylate resin potential to be employed in fabricating optical devices especially the optical waveguide and optical switch. Formerly, this polymer is used as an adhesive and coating only. Different acrylate formulations from cyclomer acrylates have been exploited. Both acrylates show negative TO effects with temperature i.e. decrease of refractive index result in the increase in temperature. This is expected as the refractive index of the polymers are reduced, as density typically decreases with increasing temperature. This is in accordance to the dependence of polarizability and density of a particular material, to its refractive index. For both types of polymers, the change of the refractive index as a function of temperature is linear. The slope can give the dn/dT of the film. The dn/dT of polymers are as high as the order of 10-4, which is comparable to those of optical polymers. Higher values are shown by the cyclomer acrylate compared to the fluorinated type.

  20. Structural degradation of acrylic bone cements due to in vivo and simulated aging.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kerry F; Ries, Michael D; Pruitt, Lisa A

    2003-05-01

    Acrylic bone cement is the primary load-bearing material used for the attachment of orthopedic devices to adjoining bone. Degradation of acrylic-based cements in vivo results in a loss of structural integrity of the bone-cement-prosthesis interface and limits the longevity of cemented orthopedic implants. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of in vivo aging on the structure of the acrylic bone cement and to develop an in vitro artificial aging protocol that mimics the observed degradation. Three sets of retrievals are examined in this study: Palacos brand cement retrieved from hip replacements, and Simplex brand cement retrieved from both hip and knee replacement surgeries. In vitro aging is performed using oxidative and acidic environments on three acrylic-based cements: Palacos, Simplex, and CORE. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to examine the evolution of molecular weight and chemical species within the acrylic cements due to both in vivo and simulated aging. GPC analysis indicates that molecular weight is degraded in the hip retrievals but not in the knee retrievals. Artificial aging in an oxidative environment best reproduces this degradation mechanism. FTIR analysis indicates that there exists a chemical evolution within the cement due to in vivo and in vitro aging. These findings are consistent with scission-based degradation schemes in the cement. Based on the results of this study, a pathway for structural degradation of acrylic bone cement is proposed. The findings from this investigation have broad applicability to acrylic-based cements and may provide guidance for the development of new bone cements that resist degradation in the body.

  1. Effect of light-curing, pressure, oxygen inhibition, and heat on shear bond strength between bis-acryl provisional restoration and bis-acryl repair materials

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to discover a way to increase the bond strength between bis-acryl resins, using a comparison of the shear bond strengths attained from bis-acryl resins treated with light curing, pressure, oxygen inhibition, and heat. MATERIALS AND METHODS Self-cured bis-acryl resin was used as both a base material and as a repair material. Seventy specimens were distributed into seven groups according to treatment methods: pressure - stored in a pressure cooker at 0.2 Mpa; oxygen inhibition- applied an oxygen inhibitor around the repaired material,; heat treatment - performed heat treatment in a dry oven at 60℃, 100℃, or 140℃. The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine, and the shear bond strength (MPa) was calculated from the peak load of failure. A comparison of the bond strength between the repaired specimens was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in the shear bond strength between the control group and the light curing, pressure, and oxygen inhibition groups. However, the heat treatment groups showed statistically higher bond strengths than the groups treated without heat, and the groups treated at a higher temperature resulted in higher bond strengths. Statistically significant differences were seen between groups after different degrees of heat treatment, except in groups heated at 100℃ and 140℃. CONCLUSION Strong bonding can be achieved between a bis-acryl base and bis-acryl repair material after heat treatment. PMID:25722837

  2. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (p<0.05). However, the amount of residual monomer in group F3 was significantly higher than that of the F1, F4, and PC groups (p<0.05). In contrast, ultrasonic treatment did not reduce the amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin (p>0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time.

  3. Glubran 2: A New Acrylic Glue for Neuroradiological Endovascular Use

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, M.; Barbara, C.; Simonetti, L.; Giardino, R.; Nicoli Aldini, N.; Fini, M.; Martini, L.; Masetti, L.; Joechler, M.; Roncaroli, F.

    2002-01-01

    Summary A new acrylic glue, Glubran 2, is now available on the European market. It bears the CE mark with several surgical indications and the specific indication for neuroradiological endovascular use. Despite this approval, to our knowledge its use is still limited to surgery and no injections have been made in human patients. This study was designed to evaluate the behavior of Glubran 2 in endovascular injection in a simulation of brain AVM. Six sheep were operated on opening a fistula between the right common carotid artery and the jugular vein. This fistula modifies blood flow in the skull base rete mirabilis, which then functions as an AVM. In two sheep, the rete mirabilis was occluded by injection of 1.5 ml of Histoacryl diluted 1:1 and 1:3 with Lipiodol. In two sheep, the rete was embolized by injection of 1.5 ml of Glubran 2 diluted 1:1 with Lipiodol. The last two sheep were embolized by injection of Glubran 2 diluted 1:3 with Lipiodol. The procedures were documented by DSA angiographic acquisitions and by fluoroscopic VHS. The sheep were killed immediately after the procedures and the rete mirabilis isolated for histologic examination. Embolization was obtained with both kinds of glue. Glubran 2 diffuses in a very similar way to Histoacryl with an apparently more complete diffusion. Reflux in the ascending pharyngeal artery showed that Glubran 2 tended not to produce bubbles but diffused more homogeneously. The subjective conclusion of this work is that Glubran 2 can be used in endovascular embolizations. Before approaching brain AVMs, a further study will investigate embolization of the external carotid territory. PMID:20594482

  4. Comparison of impact strength of acrylic resin reinforced with kevlar and polyethylene fibres.

    PubMed

    Kamath, G; Bhargava, K

    2002-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the impact strengths of heat-activated acrylic resins reinforced with Kevlar fibres, polyethylene fibres and unreinforced heat activated acrylic resin. Each of three groups had 25 specimens. Brass rods of uniform length of 40 mm and diameter of 8 mm were used to prepare the moulds. A combination of long fibres (40 mm length) and short fibres (6 mm length) were used. The total amount of fibres incorporated was limited to 2% by weight of the resin matrix. Short and long fibres of equal weight were incorporated. The short fibres were mixed with polymer and monomer and packed into the mould, while, the long axis of the specimen, perpendicular to the applied force. The specimens were then processed. Impact strength testing was done on Hounsfield's impact testing machine. Kevlar fibre reinforced heat activated acrylic resin specimens recorded higher mean impact strength of 0.8464 Joules, while polyethylene fibres reinforced heat activated acrylic resin recorded mean impact strength of 0.7596 joules. The unreinforced heat activated acrylic resin recorded mean impact strength of 0.3440 Joules.

  5. The antimicrobial effect of benzalkonium chloride on some pathogenic microbes observed on fibers of acrylic carpet.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Ramin; Sattari, Morteza; Ashjaran, Ali

    2007-02-15

    In the presented research, the main aim is to investigate the antibacterial effectiveness of BAC solutions on acrylic fibers used in machinery carpet. An acrylic pile carpet laid in a public place for 30 days and the existence of some microbes were investigated on it. The antimicrobial effect of different BAC solutions for identified microbes was studied in vitro. The acrylic fibers were treated with the same different solutions of BAC as before and the antibacterial effectiveness was assessed by the zone of inhibition method in different times. Two pieces of carpet untreated and treated with BAC solution sewed together and laid for one week in the public place and the amounts of bacterial growth determined by colony count method and the results compared. Finally some mechanical properties of treated acrylic fibers measured after 30 days and compared with untreated one. The results showed the presence of some pathogenic microbes on the laid carpet such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhalation time for treated acrylic fibers improved. The amount of colony growth on treated carpet reduced considerably and besides the mechanical tests results showed no significant deterioration effect of studied properties in comparing with untreated yarn.

  6. Effect of sealant application and thermal cycling on bond strength of tissue conditioners to acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Francisca Neta Cruz Soares; Pinto, José Renato Ribeiro; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sealer application and thermal cycling on the bond strength between tissue conditioners and acrylic resin, and to observe the type of bond failure. Two hundred eighty-eight specimens (10x16x3 mm) were made of an acrylic resin (Lucitone 500, Dentsply) using a metal muffle. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the tissue conditioner (Coe-Comfort, GC or Dentusoft, Densell) used and whether or not a sealer (Eversoft Soft Liner Sealer, Myerson) was applied. Each of the four groups was subdivided into other six subgroups (n=12) to undergo thermocycling for 45, 90, 135, 180 or 210 cycles with a dwell time of 60 s, or to be left non thermocycled (control). Tensile bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Sealant application had no effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin, regardless of the tissue conditioner used (Coe-Comfort: p=0.306 and Dentusoft: p=0.1501). The number of thermal cycles had a significant effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin (Coe-Comfort: p=0.002 and Dentusoft: p<0.001). Both tissue conditioners presented similar bond strength to acrylic resin. For both tissue conditioners, sealer coatings had no influence on bond strength, while different numbers of thermal cycles affected that mechanical property.

  7. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

    2000-10-01

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

  8. In Vitro Antifungal Evaluation of Seven Different Disinfectants on Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim-Bicer, A. Z.; Peker, I.; Akca, G.; Celik, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of denture-based materials. Material and Methods. Two different denture-based materials were included in the study. Before microbial test, the surface roughness of the acrylic resins was evaluated. Then, the specimens were divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10), according to microorganism considered and disinfection methods used. The specimens were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Candida albicans ATCC#90028 and Candida albicans oral isolate. The following test agents were tested: sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 1%), microwave (MW) energy, ultraviolet (UV) light, mouthwash containing propolis (MCP), Corega Tabs, 50% and 100% white vinegar. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated in CFU/mL. Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA, and Dunn's test were used for multiple comparisons. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the surface roughness. Results. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between autopolymerised and heat-cured acrylic resins. The autopolymerised acrylic resin surfaces were rougher than surfaces of heat-cured acrylic resin. The most effective disinfection method was 100% white vinegar for tested microorganisms and both acrylic resins. Conclusion. This study showed that white vinegar 100% was the most effective method for tested microorganisms. This agent is cost-effective and easy to access and thus may be appropriate for household use. PMID:24995305

  9. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  11. Evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction process for separating acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E T; Moraes, E B; Machado, A B; Maciel Filho, R; Wolf-Maciel, M R

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method universal quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  12. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  13. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  14. Pathogenesis of neurotoxicity of acrylates acrylonitrile and acrylamide: from cell to organism.

    PubMed

    Tarskikh, M M; Klimatskaya, L G; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-08-01

    The incubation of 10 mM acrylamide (in vitro) with rat brain homogenate was followed by a decrease in catalase activity by 48% as soon as 5 min after addition of acrylate to the incubation medium. Activity of this enzyme remained low 30 min after the start of the experiment. Acute poisoning with this acrylate was accompanied by LPO activation in rat brain 24 h after injection. Exposure to acrylonitrile during occupational contacts with this monomer was followed by accumulation of adducts of acrylate with erythrocytic hemoglobin in human blood. In accordance with previously observed data, modern scheme of neurotropic effects of acrylonitrile and acrylamide was proposed. This scheme explained specific features of clinical syndromes induced by acute and chronic exposure to these toxic agents. PMID:24143365

  15. Acrylic bone cements: the role of nanotechnology in improving osteointegration and tunable mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lissarrague, María H; Fascio, Mirta L; Goyanes, Silvia; D'Accorso, Norma B

    2014-12-01

    Nanotechnology is an extremely powerful emerging technology, which is expected to have a substantial impact on biomedical technology, especially in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The use of nanocompounds and nanoparticles in the synthesis of improved bone cements to be applied in vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty and arthroplasty, is of great interest due to the increasing incidence of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review reports new advances in the development of acrylic bone cements, using different radio-opalescent nanomaterials taking into consideration their influence on the mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of the resulting acrylic bone cement. Furthermore, other non-radiopaque nanoparticles capable of mechanically reinforcing the bone cement as well as induce osteointegration, are also reviewed. Additionally, nanoparticles used to improve the controlled release of antibiotics contained in acrylic bone cements are briefly described. PMID:26000369

  16. Testing and Characterization of Acrylic for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, Michael; Littlejohn, Bryce; Heeger, Karsten

    2011-10-01

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment will determine the last unknown neutrino mixing angle T13 with a sensitivity of.01 or better. The measurement of T13 is important for theoretical model building and for possible searches of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Poly(methyl methacrylate), otherwise known as acrylic, is an important component for the construction of the target vessels in the antineutrino detectors and we have performed multiple tests that determined its unique properties. My project has been to understand the properties of acrylic in order to minimize systematic errors and test mechanical and materials compatibility issues in the Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment. These tests address both the mechanical and technical issues of the detector as well as the systematic affects introduced by the acrylic.

  17. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from ˜320 to ˜800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction (˜80%) and very high EDS (˜800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  18. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAT MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE TONGUE EARLY AFFECTED BY ACRYLIC RESIN MONOMER].

    PubMed

    Davydenko, V; Nidzelskiy, M; Starchenko, I; Davydenko, A; Kuznetsov, V

    2016-03-01

    Base materials, made on the basis of various derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acids, have been widely used in prosthetic dentistry. Free monomer, affecting the tissues of prosthetic bed and the whole body, is always found in dentures. Therefore, study of the effect of acrylic resins' monomer on mucous membrane of the tongue is crucial. Rat tongue is very similar to human tongue, and this fact has become the basis for selecting these animals to be involved into the experiment. The paper presents the findings related to the effect of "Ftoraks" base acrylic resin monomer on the state of rat mucous membrane of the tongue and its regeneration. The microscopy has found that the greatest changes in the mucous membrane of the tongue occur on day 3 and 7 day after applying the monomer and are of erosive and inflammatory nature. Regeneration of tongue epithelium slows down. PMID:27119844

  19. Processing factors affecting the clarity of a rapid-curing clear acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Keng, S B; Cruickshanks-Boyd, D W; Davies, E H

    1979-10-01

    The difficulty in repeatedly producing unblemished, clear acrylic resin in the dental laboratory has hindered its wider use, despite its many advantages over coloured material. Recently, rapid-cure dental acrylics have been introduced, which are available in both clear and coloured forms. This investigation examined various factors which may influence the production of unblemished, rapid-curing, clear acrylic resin. Utilizing a quantitative assessment of clarity, the most important factor influencing the clarity of the resin is shown to be the choice of separating medium. Tin-foil produces extremely high clarity, but alginate mould separator causes surface blanching. However, this surface blanching can be removed by polishing. Porosity, caused by too rapid curing, and stone model dryness are of only secondary importance. Possible water contamination of the monomer liquid due to accidental exposure only affects clarity at very high levels of contamination.

  20. Applications of Blue Light-curing Acrylic Resin to Forensic Sample Preparation and Microtomy.

    PubMed

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the results of an evaluation of a one-part blue light-curing acrylic resin for embedding trace evidence prior to the preparation of thin sections with a microtome. Through a comparison to several epoxy resins, the physical properties relevant to both trace evidence examination and analytical microscopy in general, including as viscosity, clarity, color, hardness, and cure speed, were explored. Finally, thin sections from paint samples embedded in this acrylic resin were evaluated to determine if, through smearing or impregnation, the resin contributed to the infrared spectra. The results of this study show that blue light-curing acrylic resins provide the desired properties of an embedding medium, generate high-quality thin sections, and can significantly simplify the preparation of paint chips, fibers and a multitude of other types of microscopic samples in the forensic trace evidence laboratory.

  1. Applications of Blue Light-curing Acrylic Resin to Forensic Sample Preparation and Microtomy.

    PubMed

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the results of an evaluation of a one-part blue light-curing acrylic resin for embedding trace evidence prior to the preparation of thin sections with a microtome. Through a comparison to several epoxy resins, the physical properties relevant to both trace evidence examination and analytical microscopy in general, including as viscosity, clarity, color, hardness, and cure speed, were explored. Finally, thin sections from paint samples embedded in this acrylic resin were evaluated to determine if, through smearing or impregnation, the resin contributed to the infrared spectra. The results of this study show that blue light-curing acrylic resins provide the desired properties of an embedding medium, generate high-quality thin sections, and can significantly simplify the preparation of paint chips, fibers and a multitude of other types of microscopic samples in the forensic trace evidence laboratory. PMID:27404623

  2. Optical contouring of an acrylic surface for non-intrusive diagnostics in pipe-flow investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Benjamin J.; Coronado-Diaz, Haydee; Hugo, Ronald J.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, an acrylic surface was optically contoured to correct for the optical distortion caused by a transparent pipe wall. This method can be applied to non-invasive viewing/imaging techniques for fluid flow experiments. Software tools were developed to aid in the design of an optically contoured acrylic test section for pipe-flow experiments. Numerical models were computed for a standard acrylic pipe, inner diameter 57.15 mm, with water enclosed. An optical contour prototype was machined on a 5-axis CNC machine, and polished with 1-15 μm diamond paste, alleviating any surface imperfections without significantly altering the contoured surface. Experiments were then performed to measure the emerging optical wavefront and was found to emerge planar when utilizing the optical contour. It was determined that the wavefront was corrected to within ten wavelengths of a Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser beam.

  3. Synthesis of acrylic and allylic bifunctional cross-linking monomers derived from PET waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Aguilar, A.; Herrera-González, A. M.; Vázquez-García, R. A.; Navarro-Rodríguez, D.; Coreño, J.

    2013-06-01

    An acrylic and two novel allylic monomers synthesized from bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BHET, are reported. This was obtained by glycolysis of post-consumer PET with boiling ethylene glycol. The bifunctional monomer bis(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl) terephthalate was obtained from acryloyl chloride, while the allylic monomers 2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy) ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate and bis(2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy)ethyl) terephthalate, from allyl chloroformate. Cross-linking was studied in bulk polymerization using two different thermal initiators. Monomers were analyzed by means of 1H NMR and the cross-linked polymers by infrared spectroscopy. Gel content higher than 90% was obtained for the acrylic monomer. In the case of the mixture of the allylic monomers, the cross-linked polymer was 80 % using BPO initiator, being this mixture 24 times less reactive than the acrylic monomer.

  4. Nitrile Hydratase and Amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous Hydrolyze Acrylic Fibers and Granular Polyacrylonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, M. M.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Robra, K.-H.; Gübitz, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 11216 produced nitrile hydratase (320 nkat mg of protein−1) and amidase activity (38.4 nkat mg of protein−1) when grown on a medium containing propionitrile. These enzymes were able to hydrolyze nitrile groups of both granular polyacrylonitriles (PAN) and acrylic fibers. Nitrile groups of PAN40 (molecular mass, 40 kDa) and PAN190 (molecular mass, 190 kDa) were converted into the corresponding carbonic acids to 1.8 and 1.0%, respectively. In contrast, surfacial nitrile groups of acrylic fibers were only converted to the corresponding amides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 16% of the surfacial nitrile groups were hydrolyzed by the R. rhodochrous enzymes. Due to the enzymatic modification, the acrylic fibers became more hydrophilic and thus, adsorption of dyes was enhanced. This was indicated by a 15% increase in the staining level (K/S value) for C.I. Basic Blue 9. PMID:10742253

  5. Real-time monitoring of the penetration of amphiphilic acrylate copolymer in leather using a fluorescent copolymer as tracer.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin-Xia; Shi, Lu; Peng, Bi-Yu

    2015-12-01

    A fluorescent tracer, poly (acrylic-co-stearyl acrylate-co-3-acryloyl fluorescein) [poly (AA-co-SA-co-Ac-Flu)], used for real-time monitoring the penetration of amphiphilic acrylate copolymer, poly (acrylic-co-stearyl acrylate) [poly (AA-co-SA)], in leather was synthesized by radical polymerization of acrylic, stearyl acrylate and fluorescent monomer, 3-acryloyl fluorescein (Ac-Flu). The structure, molecular weight, introduced fluorescent group content and fluorescent characteristics of the fluorescent tracer and target copolymer, amphiphilic acrylate copolymer, were also characterized. The results show that the tracer presents the similar structural characteristics to the target and enough fluorescence intensity with 1.68 wt % of the fluorescent monomer introduced amount. The vertical section of the leather treated with the target copolymer mixing with 7% of the tracer exhibits evident fluorescence, and the change of fluorescence intensity along with the vertical section with treating time increasing can reflect the penetration depth of the target copolymer. The introduction of the fluorescent group in polymer structure through copolymerization with a limited amount of fluorescent monomer, Ac-Flu, is an effective way to make a tracer to monitor the penetration of the target in leather, which provides a new thought for the penetration research of syntans such as vinyl copolymer materials in leather manufacture.

  6. Molecular dissection of bacterial acrylate catabolism--unexpected links with dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism and dimethyl sulfide production.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jonathan D; Curson, Andrew R J; Nikolaidou-Katsaraidou, Nefeli; Brearley, Charles A; Watmough, Nicholas J; Chan, Yohan; Page, Philip C B; Sun, Lei; Johnston, Andrew W B

    2010-02-01

    A bacterium in the genus Halomonas that grew on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) or acrylate as sole carbon sources and that liberated the climate-changing gas dimethyl sulfide in media containing DMSP was obtained from the phylloplane of the macroalga Ulva. We identified a cluster that contains genes specifically involved in DMSP catabolism (dddD, dddT) or in degrading acrylate (acuN, acuK) or that are required to break down both substrates (dddC, dddA). Using NMR and HPLC analyses to trace 13C- or 14C-labelled acrylate and DMSP in strains of Escherichia coli with various combinations of cloned ddd and/or acu genes, we deduced that DMSP is imported by the BCCT-type transporter DddT, then converted by DddD to 3-OH-propionate (3HP), liberating dimethyl sulfide in the process. As DddD is a predicted acyl CoA transferase, there may be an earlier, unidentified catabolite of DMSP. Acrylate is also converted to 3HP, via a CoA transferase (AcuN) and a hydratase (AcuK). The 3HP is predicted to be catabolized by an alcohol dehydrogenase, DddA, to malonate semialdehyde, thence by an aldehyde dehydrogenase, DddC, to acyl CoA plus CO2. The regulation of the ddd and acu genes is unusual, as a catabolite, 3HP, was a co-inducer of their transcription. This first description of genes involved in acrylate catabolism in any organism shows that the relationship between the catabolic pathways of acrylate and DMSP differs from that which had been suggested in other bacteria.

  7. Patients' adherence to hard acrylic interocclusal appliance treatment in general dental practice in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Erik; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (> or = 20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71% and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91%. In general dental practice, 97% of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted.

  8. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  9. Acrylation of pre-irradiated polypropylene and its application for removal of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Hossam M.; Sokker, Hesham H.; El-Hag Ali, Amr

    2010-04-01

    Reactive extrusion of pre-irradiated polypropylene (PP) at different doses of gamma radiation was studied in the presence of different concentrations of acrylic acid monomer (AAc). Preliminary investigations study the feasibility or removal of organic pollutants. The optical properties and surface morphology of the grafted polypropylene were observed by FT-IR, UV/vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The affinity of this membrane to the basic dye was found to be increased with increase in the dose of gamma irradiation and the ratio of acrylic acid monomer (AAc).

  10. Using acrylic resin tooth veneers in patients with an abnormal jaw relationship: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Lan, Yi-Hao; Wang, Tong-Mei; Tu, Ching-Yu; Lin, Li-Deh

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes and evaluates a method of arranging artificial teeth in patients with an abnormal jaw relationship in which a wider maxillary arch opposes a narrower mandibular arch. First, the fossa of mandibular posterior teeth was positioned on the crest of the mandibular edentulous ridge. The maxillary posterior teeth were then placed palatally to maximize occlusal contacts with the opposing mandibular teeth. Finally, acrylic resin tooth veneers were attached on the buccal surface of posterior maxillary teeth to improve the arch discrepancy. This method addresses functional considerations with the inner aspect of teeth and esthetic considerations with acrylic resin tooth veneers.

  11. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of organofluorine esters of acrylic, methacrylic, and maleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'din, G.S.; Averbakh, K.O.; Lavygin, I.A.; Nekrasova, L.A.

    1985-12-01

    The authors synthesize and study the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates. The organofluorine esters are colorless liquids; their composition and structure were confirmed by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The results of studies of the dependence of the density, surface tension, and viscosity of these compounds on temperature are presented. The results revealed the influence of the length of the fluorocarbon chain on the combination of the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates, and also provided a method for estimating certain thermophysical characteristics of such compounds without recourse to experimental measurements.

  12. Chemical Fixation of CO{sub 2} to Acrylates Using Low-Valent Molybdenum Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bernskoetter, Wesley

    2013-09-30

    The kinetic, mechanistic, and reactivity experiments to access the viability and possible reaction design of coupling of carbon dioxide and ethylene at a zerovalent molybdenum for the production of acrylates are described. A general model of the reaction mechanism has been outlined, including assessment of the rate limiting step in the reaction. Kinetic and computational data have valuated the influence of a range of tridentate ligand platforms on the rate of coupling. An in situ reduction and acrylate formation activity screen protocol has also been developed to aid in the technology development of this process. Portions of descriptions of the research products presented here have also been adapted with permission from journal publications.

  13. Enhanced dielectric strength and actuation of acrylic elastomer with silicone gel encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2016-04-01

    Use of dielectric gel encapsulation is reported to make acrylic elastomer (VHB 4905) electrically stronger. Acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) with silicone gel encapsulation can sustain an electrical breakdown field of up to 532MV/m, higher than 315MV/m of non-coated ones. Hence, its ultimate areal strain of 228% is larger than 189% of latter. This enhanced dielectric strength and actuation is attributed to the delayed electrothermal breakdown of VHB with silicone gel encapsulant that bars oxygen supply in air.

  14. Inhibiting electro-thermal breakdown of acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators by dielectric gel coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2016-01-01

    Electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) is very localized; a spark and a pinhole (puncture) in dielectric ends up with short-circuit. This letter shows that prevention of electrothermal breakdown helps defer failure of DEAs even with conductive-grease electrodes. Dielectric gel encapsulation or coating (Dow Corning 3-4170) helps protect acrylic elastomer (VHB 4905), making it thermally more stable and delaying its thermal oxidation (burn) from 218 °C to 300 °C. Dielectric-gel-coated acrylic DEAs can withstand higher local leak-induced heating and thus achieve higher dielectric strengths than non-coated DEAs do.

  15. Augmentation of acrylic bone cement with multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Brock; Andrews, Rodney; Rantell, Terry; Pienkowski, David

    2006-05-01

    Acrylic bone cement, based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), is a proven polymer having important applications in medicine and dentistry, but this polymer continues to have less than ideal resistance to mechanical fatigue and impact. A variety of materials have been added to bone cement to augment its mechanical strength, but none of these augmentative materials has proven successful. Carbon nanotubes, a new hollow multiwalled tubular material 10-40 nm in diameter, 10-100 microm long, and 50-100 times the strength of steel at 1/6 the weight, have emerged as a viable augmentation candidate because of their large surface area to volume ratio. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes to bone cement can alter its static or dynamic mechanical properties. Bar-shaped specimens made from six different (0-10% by weight) concentrations of multiwall carbon nanotubes were tested to failure in quasi-static 3-point bending and in 4-point bending fatigue (5 Hz). Analyses of variance and the 3-Parameter Weibull model were used to analyze the material performance data. The 2 wt % MWNT concentration enhanced flexural strength by 12.8% (p=0.003) and produced a 13.1% enhancement in yield stress (p=0.002). Bending modulus increased slightly with the smaller (<5 wt % MWNT) concentrations, but increased 24.1% (p<0.001) in response to the 10 wt % loading. While the 2 wt % loading produced slightly improved quasi-static test results, it was associated with clearly superior fatigue performance (3.3x increase in the Weibull mean fatigue life). Weibull minimum fatigue life (No), Weibull modulus (alpha), and characteristic fatigue life (beta) for bone cement augmented with carbon nanotubes were enhanced versus that observed in the control group. These data unambiguously showed that the bone cement-MWNT polymer system has an enhanced fatigue life compared to "control" bone cement (no added nanotubes). It is concluded that specific multiwall

  16. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  17. Crystal structures of (E)-3-(furan-2-yl)-2-phenyl-N-tosyl-acryl-amide and (E)-3-phenyl-2-(m-tol-yl)-N-tosyl-acryl-amide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong; Meng, Xiangzhen; Sheng, Zeyuan; Wang, Shuangming; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Ziqian

    2016-06-01

    In the title N-tosyl-acryl-amide compounds, C20H17NO4S, (I), and C23H21NO3S, (II), the conformation about the C=C bond is E. The acryl-amide groups, [-NH-C(=O)-C=C-], are almost planar, with the N-C-C=C torsion angle being -170.18 (14)° in (I) and -168.01 (17)° in (II). In (I), the furan, phenyl and 4-methyl-benzene rings are inclined to the acryl-amide mean plane by 26.47 (11), 69.01 (8) and 82.49 (9)°, respectively. In (II), the phenyl, 3-methyl-benzene and 4-methyl-benzene rings are inclined to the acryl-amide mean plane by 11.61 (10), 78.44 (10) and 78.24 (10)°, respectively. There is an intra-molecular C-H⋯π inter-action present in compound (II). In the crystals of both compounds, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. In (I), the dimers are reinforced by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming chains along [011]. In the crystal of (II), the dimers are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [100]. The chains are further linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to (010).

  18. Evidence for the existence of an effective interfacial tension between miscible fluids. 2. Dodecyl acrylate-poly(dodecyl acrylate) in a spinning drop tensiometer.

    PubMed

    Zoltowski, Brian; Chekanov, Yuri; Masere, Jonathan; Pojman, John A; Volpert, Vitaly

    2007-05-01

    We studied drops of dodecyl acrylate in poly(dodecyl acrylate) (molecular weight of 25,000) in a spinning drop tensiometer to determine whether an effective interfacial tension (EIT) existed between these two miscible fluids. We found convincing evidence. We estimated the mechanical relaxation time from an immiscible analogue (1-propanol and poly(dodecyl acrylate)) and showed that the dodecyl acrylate drops maintained quasi-steady diameters long after this relaxation period. Drops continuously grew in length and became more diffuse, but the width of the transition zone did not grow with t(1/2) as expected from Fick's law although this system had been shown to follow Fick's law in a static configuration (Antrim, D.; Bunton, P.; Lewis, L. L.; Zoltowski, B. D.; Pojman, J. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 11842-11849). The EIT was determined from Vonnegut's equation, EIT = (Deltarho)omega(2)r(3)/4; both the inner and outer diameters were measured, yielding values of 0.002 and 0.02 mN m(-1), respectively. The EIT was found to be independent of the rotation rate above 6000 rpm and independent of the initial drop volume. The EIT was found to decrease with temperature and increase with the difference in concentration between the monomer drop and polymer-monomer fluid. The square gradient parameter, k, was determined from EIT = k(Deltac(2)/delta), where Deltac is the difference in mole fraction and delta is the width of the transition zone. The square gradient parameter was on the order of 10(-9) N. The square gradient parameter was found to decrease with temperature, to be independent of concentration, and to increase with the molecular weight of the polymer.

  19. Crystal structures of (E)-3-(furan-2-yl)-2-phenyl-N-tosyl-acryl-amide and (E)-3-phenyl-2-(m-tol-yl)-N-tosyl-acryl-amide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong; Meng, Xiangzhen; Sheng, Zeyuan; Wang, Shuangming; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Ziqian

    2016-06-01

    In the title N-tosyl-acryl-amide compounds, C20H17NO4S, (I), and C23H21NO3S, (II), the conformation about the C=C bond is E. The acryl-amide groups, [-NH-C(=O)-C=C-], are almost planar, with the N-C-C=C torsion angle being -170.18 (14)° in (I) and -168.01 (17)° in (II). In (I), the furan, phenyl and 4-methyl-benzene rings are inclined to the acryl-amide mean plane by 26.47 (11), 69.01 (8) and 82.49 (9)°, respectively. In (II), the phenyl, 3-methyl-benzene and 4-methyl-benzene rings are inclined to the acryl-amide mean plane by 11.61 (10), 78.44 (10) and 78.24 (10)°, respectively. There is an intra-molecular C-H⋯π inter-action present in compound (II). In the crystals of both compounds, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. In (I), the dimers are reinforced by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming chains along [011]. In the crystal of (II), the dimers are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [100]. The chains are further linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:27308045

  20. Data of continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Chen; Muduli, Saradaprasan; Peng, I-Chia; Lu, Yi-Tung; Ling, Qing-Dong; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, S Suresh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Chen, Da-Chung; Lee, Hsin-Chung; Chang, Yung; Higuchi, Akon

    2016-03-01

    This data article contains two figures and one table supporting the research article entitled: "Continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surface" [1]. The table shows coating conditions of three copolymers, poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin, poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(styrene-co-polyethylene glycol methacrylate) to prepare thermoresponsive surface. XPS spectra show the nitrogen peak of the polystyrene surface coated with poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin. The surface coating density analyzed from sorption of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin by UV-vis spectroscopy is also presented. PMID:26909373

  1. Copper-acrylic enamel serves as lubricant for cold drawing of refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, C.; Karasek, F.

    1966-01-01

    Acrylic enamel spray containing metallic copper pigment lubricates refractory metal tubing during cold drawing operations so that the tubing surface remains free from scratches and nicks and does not seize in the die. Zirconium alloys, zirconium, tantalum alloys, niobium alloys, vanandium alloys and titanium alloys have been drawn using this lubricant.

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on Corrosion Protection of Acrylate Nanocomposite on Mild Steel Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Akhir, M. M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Harun, M. K.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Acrylate:carbon nanotubes (A:CNTs) nanocomposite thin film was prepared by sol- gel technique. The corrosion coating protection of acrylate:carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite thin film has been coated on mild steel characterised by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) measurement and equivalent circuit model are employed to analyse coating impedance for corrosion protection. In this study, 3.5 w/v % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was immersed the acrylate:carbon nanotubes nanocomposite thin film. As the results, the surface morphology were found that there formation of carbon nanotubes with good distribution on acrylate-based coating. From EIS measurement, A:CNTs nanocomposite thin film with 0.4 w/v % contain of CNTs was exhibited the highest coating impedance from Nyquist graph after immersed in sodium chloride solution and may provide the excellent corrosion protection. The Bode plots have shown the impedance is high at the beginning from the time at high frequency and slightly decreases with value of frequency become smaller.

  3. New hybrid latexes from a soybean oil-based waterborne polyurethane and acrylics via emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2007-10-01

    A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes have been successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion has been synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of 125 +/- 20 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications. PMID:17877401

  4. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic.../methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers...

  7. Effect of Nanoclay on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Polymethyl Methacrylate Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Barzegar, Ali; Hamedi Rad, Fahimeh; Moslehifard, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin should be improved to counterweigh its structural deficiencies. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of conventional acrylic resin and acrylic resin loaded with nanoclay. Materials and Method The methacrylate monomer containing the 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of nanoclay was placed in an ultrasonic probe and mixed with the PMMA powder. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. Twenty-four 20×20×200-mm cubic samples were prepared for flexural strength test; 18 samples containing nanoclay and 6 samples for the control group. Another 24 cylindrical samples of 38×25 mm were prepared for thermal conductivity test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple-comparison test (Scheffé’s test). Statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results Increasing the concentration of nanoclay incorporated into the acrylic resin samples increased thermal conductivity but decreased flexural strength (p< 0.05). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, adding nanoclay particles to PMMA improved its thermal conductivity, while it had a negative effect on the flexural strength. PMID:27284557

  8. Possible utilization of acrylic paint and copper phthalocyanine pigment sludge for vermiculture.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Buch, Vaidehi; Macwan, Praisy; Patel, Jignesh

    2010-05-01

    Sludge generated from water treatment plants in two different paint and pigment manufacturing industries, one manufacturing CPC Green (copper phthalocyanine green) and the other acrylic (pure and styrene) washable distempers, synthetic enamels, fillers and putties, were used for culturing earthworms (Eisenia foetida Savigny). The possibility of getting a quality vermicompost was also explored. The sludges were used pure and mixed with month-old cow dung at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 ratios (sludge:cow dung). In pure sludges and in the 3:1 ratio, earthworms did not survive. Earthworms had very low survival in CPC Green sludge and its mixtures while acrylic paint sludge was very efficient in supporting worm growth and worm castings were generated quickly. Both sludges were alkaline, non-saline, but had appreciable Ca, Al, Pb, Zn, and Mn. CPC Green had high Cu (12,900 mg kg(-1)) and acrylic paint sludge had high total Cr (155 mg kg(-1)). High Ca and Al in both came from water treatment chemicals (lime and alum), while CPC Green itself is a copper-based pigment. The sludges were suitable for land application with regard to their metal contents, except for Cu in CPC Green. CPC Green did not support proper growth of plants (green gram, Vigna radiata (L). R. Wilcz.), while acrylic paint sludge supported growth in pure form and mixtures with soil.

  9. Computational Study of the Self-Initiation Mechanism in Thermal Polymerization of Methyl Acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sriraj; Lee, Myung Won; Grady, Michael C.; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2009-09-01

    This computational study deals with the mechanism of spontaneous initiation in thermal polymerization of alkyl acrylates (e.g., methyl, ethyl, and n-butyl acrylate). The mechanism is presently still unknown. Density-functional theory (DFT) and Møller-Plesset (MP2) calculations are used to explore the Flory and Mayo mechanisms of self-initiation in methyl acrylate. On the singlet surface, a low-barrier, concerted [4 + 2] Diels-Alder mechanism for the formation of a dihydropyran adduct (DA) and a high-barrier nonconcerted [2 + 2] diradical (•M2s•) mechanism for the formation of dimethyl cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DCD) were found using B3LYP/6-31G*. Several levels of theory were used to validate the transition states, and the pathways for the DA and DCD formations on the singlet surface were determined using intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations. On the triplet surface, a triplet diradical intermediate (•M2t•) was identified that is structurally similar to •M2s• but lower in energy. The spin-orbit coupling constant for crossover of the diradical from singlet to triplet surface was calculated. Monoradical generation from the two intermediates, DA and •M2t• via hydrogen transfer to or from a third methyl acrylate was studied. It was found that generation of two monoradical species was possible from •M2t• and is proposed as a likely explanation for experimentally observed spontaneous-initiation.

  10. Swelling, diffusion, network parameters and adsorption properties of IPN hydrogel of chitosan and acrylic copolymer.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Interpenetrating network (IPN) type hydrogels of a biopolymer and a synthetic polymer were prepared from chitosan and crosslink copolymer of acrylic acid, sodium acrylate and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Acrylic acid, sodium acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate and N'N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) monomers were free radically copolymerized and crosslinked in aqueous solution of chitosan. Several IPN hydrogels were prepared by varying concentrations of initiator, crosslinker (MBA) and weight% of chitosan . These hydrogels were characterized by free acid content, pH at point of zero charge (PZC), FTIR, DTA-TGA, SEM and XRD. The swelling and diffusion characteristics, network parameters and adsorption of cationic methyl violet (MV) and anionic congo red (CR) dyes by these hydrogels were studied. The hydrogels showed high adsorption (9.5-119 mg/g for CR and 9.2-98 mg/g for MV) and removal% (98-73% for CR and 94-66% for MV) over the feed concentration of 10-140 mg/l dye in water. The isotherms and kinetics of dye adsorption by the hydrogels were also studied.

  11. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance.

  12. Morphological alteration of microwave disinfected acrylic resins used for dental prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M. C.; Bita, B. I.; Avram, A. M.; Tucureanu, V.; Schiopu, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we aim to perform a cross section morphological characterization of an acrylic polymer used for dental prostheses subjected to microwave disinfection. The method was largely investigated and the microbiological effectiveness is well established, but there are some issues regarding the in-depth alteration of the material. In our research, the surface roughness is insignificant and the samples were not polished or refined by any means. Two groups of 7 acrylic discs (20 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared from a heat-cured powder. Half of the samples embedded a stainless steel reinforcement, in order to observe the changes at the interfaces between the polymer and metallic wire. After the gradual wet microwave treatment, the specimens - including the controls - were frozen in liquid nitrogen and broken into pieces. Fragments were selected for gold metallization to ensure a good contrast for SEM imaging. We examined the samples in cross section employing a high resolution SEM. We have observed the alterations occurred at the surface of the acrylic sample and at the interface with the metallic wire along with the increase of the power and exposure time. The bond configuration of acrylate samples was analysed by FTIR spectrometry.

  13. Stable plasma-deposited acrylic acid surfaces for cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Detomaso, Loredana; Gristina, Roberto; Senesi, Giorgio S; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro

    2005-06-01

    Continuous and modulated glow discharges were used to deposit thin films from acrylic acid vapors. Different deposition regimes were investigated, and their effect on chemical composition, morphology and homogeneity of the coatings, as well as on their stability in water and resistance to sterilization. Stable films were utilized in cell adhesion experiments with human fibroblasts. PMID:15626431

  14. Internal characterization of denture base by using acrylic stains and tissue paper.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Seema; Pattanaik, Bikash

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of an artificial denture is required to give the denture a more natural appearance. This article describes the laboratory procedures for internal characterization of denture base in a removable prosthesis using acrylic stains and absorbent tissue paper incorporated in the heat cure polymerizing denture base resin at the stage of packing.

  15. Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material

    PubMed Central

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 specimens (60 × 10 × 2 mm) of heat cured acrylic resin were constructed and divided into four groups (five for each), according to the concentration of AgNPs (1%, 2%, and 5% vol.) which incorporated into the liquid of acrylic resin material and one group without additives (control group). The dynamic viscoelastic test for the test specimens was performed using the computerized material testing system. The resulting deflection curves were analyzed by material testing software NEXYGEN MT. Results: The 5% nanoparticles of silver (NAg) had significantly highest mean storage modulus E’ and loss tangent Tan δ values followed by 2% NAg (P < 0.05). For 1% nanosilver incorporation (group B), there were no statistically significant differences in storage modulus E’, lost modulus E” or loss tangent Tan δ with other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The AgNPs incorporation within the acrylic denture base material can improve its viscoelastic properties. PMID:26038651

  16. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Portugal, Aline; Veloso, Letícia Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GI) and microwave-cured (GII); colorless acrylic resin for prosthetic eyes (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GIII) and microwave-cured (GIV). Mechanical tests using three point loads were performed in a test machine (EMIC, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.01). Groups GII and GIV presented, respectively, the highest (98.70 +/- 11.90 MPa) and lowest means (71.07 +/- 8.93 MPa), with a statistically significant difference. The cure method used for the prosthetic eye resins did not interfere in their flexural strength. It was concluded that all the resins assessed presented sufficient flexural strength values to be recommended for the manufacture of prosthetic eyes.

  17. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. Results: The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P < 0.05). In both types of mandibular dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges in the construction of mandibular complete dentures improved denture retention. PMID:26539387

  18. Structure-function properties of starch graft poly(methyl acrylate)copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  19. Structure-function properties of starch spherulites grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  20. Scleral Suture-Fixation Technique for One-Piece Acrylic Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ella H.; Mohsenin, Amir; Smiddy, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe a previously published scleral-fixation technique to secure one-piece acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) to the sclera. Methods Retrospective, consecutive, non-comparative case series. Patients 16 eyes of 15 patients Results All patients who underwent scleral-fixation of one-piece acrylic IOLs using the loop method from 2014 to 2016 were included. The mean follow-up was 8.1 months. The dislocated one-piece acrylic IOL was repositioned in 8 eyes, a primary implantation was performed in 5 eyes, and the IOL was exchanged in 3 eyes. All IOLs remained well-centered postoperatively. The vision improved from an initial best corrected visual acuity of 0.97 ± 0.74 logMAR (Snellen equivalent ≈20/190) to 0.47 ± 0.49 logMAR (≈20/60, P=0.031) at the last follow-up. The post-operative complications were self-limited. Conclusions The previously reported scleral suture-fixation technique can be readily applied to one-piece acrylic IOLs. PMID:17278543

  1. The bond between acrylic resin denture teeth and the denture base: recommendations for best practice.

    PubMed

    Radford, D R; Juszczyk, A S; Clark, R K F

    2014-02-01

    Failure of the bond between denture teeth and base acrylic resin has been shown to be a cause of denture failure leading to inconvenience and costly repair. The optimal combination of acrylic resin denture tooth, denture base material, laboratory protocol and processing method has not yet been established. Extensive research enables the following recommendations for best practice to be made. Adopt practices that maximise the strength of the bond: select appropriate denture teeth; select base acrylic resin from the same manufacturer as the denture teeth; remove the glaze from ridgelaps of the denture teeth; apply monomer to the ridgelaps of the denture teeth before packing the base acrylic resin dough; use the manufacturers' recommended liquid/powder ratio; follow the manufacturers' recommended curing cycle; allow the flask to cool slowly and rest before deflasking. Adopt practices that avoid factors detrimental to bond strength: remove all traces of wax from the ridge laps of the denture teeth; remove all traces of mould seal from the ridgelaps of the denture teeth. It is evident that a number of factors are involved which may assist or prevent formation of an adequate bond, suggesting that attention to detail by the dental technician may be the most critical factor.

  2. Effects of an acrylic resin tray on relative surface doses for 10 MV x ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.

    1980-09-01

    Relative surface doses (RSD) for 10 MV x rays were measured and analyzed with an acrylic resin block tray present in the beam. It was found that the secondary electron contamination becomes significant for large fields in isocentric set-ups. Medium and high Z filters are investigated and suggested to be used to reduce RSD.

  3. Shear bond strength between autopolymerizing acrylic resin and Co-Cr alloy using different primers.

    PubMed

    Sanohkan, Sasiwimol; Urapepon, Somchai; Harnirattisai, Choltacha; Sirisinha, Chakrit; Sunintaboon, Panya

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the shear bond strength between cobalt chromium alloy and autopolymerizing acrylic resin using experimental primers containing 5, 10, and 15 wt% of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride or 1, 2, and 3 wt% of 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane comparison to 5 commercial primers (ML primers, Alloy primer, Metal/Zirconia primer, Monobond S, and Monobond plus). Sixty alloy specimens were sandblasted and treated with each primer before bonded with an acrylic resin. The control group was not primed. The shear bond strengths were tested and statistically compared. Specimens treated with commercial primers significantly increased the shear bond strength of acrylic resin to cobalt chromium alloy (p<0.05). The highest shear bond strength was found in the Alloy primer group. Among experimental group, using 10 wt% of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride -or 2 wt% of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane enhanced highest shear bond strength. The experimental and commercial primers in this study all improved bonding of acrylic resin to cobalt chromium alloy.

  4. Epoxy and acrylate stereolithography resins: In-situ measurements of cure shrinkage and stress relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Chambers, R.S.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; McCarty, G.D.; Shagam, R.N.

    1995-03-01

    Cross-sections of resin strands. Techniques were developed to make in situ measurements of gelled resin to determine linear shrinkage, stress-strain response and stress relaxation of single strands of SL 5170 epoxy and SL 5149 photocurable resins. Epoxy strands shrank approximately 1.4% and the acrylate strands about 1.0% after a single exposure. No forces were measured during cure shrinkage of strands following the first laser exposure. In multiple laser exposures, the acrylate continues to shrink; whereas (University of Dayton data) no additional shrinkage is observed in epoxy strands on a second hit. In force relaxation tests, a strand is drawn and then a 0.5% step strain is applied after different elapsed times. The epoxy initial modulus evolves (increases) with elapsed time following draw of the strand, and this evolution in modulus occurs after linear shrinkage has stopped. On the other hand, acrylates show no evolution of modulus with elapsed time following a single laser draw; i.e., once shrinkage stops after one laser hit, the initial modulus remains stable with elapsed time. Finally, relaxation response times of epoxy strands get larger with increasing elapsed time after laser draw. In acrylate strands there was no evolution in initial modulus with elapsed time after a single draw so relaxation times are not a function of elapsed time after a single hit with the laser.

  5. Possible utilization of acrylic paint and copper phthalocyanine pigment sludge for vermiculture.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Buch, Vaidehi; Macwan, Praisy; Patel, Jignesh

    2010-05-01

    Sludge generated from water treatment plants in two different paint and pigment manufacturing industries, one manufacturing CPC Green (copper phthalocyanine green) and the other acrylic (pure and styrene) washable distempers, synthetic enamels, fillers and putties, were used for culturing earthworms (Eisenia foetida Savigny). The possibility of getting a quality vermicompost was also explored. The sludges were used pure and mixed with month-old cow dung at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 ratios (sludge:cow dung). In pure sludges and in the 3:1 ratio, earthworms did not survive. Earthworms had very low survival in CPC Green sludge and its mixtures while acrylic paint sludge was very efficient in supporting worm growth and worm castings were generated quickly. Both sludges were alkaline, non-saline, but had appreciable Ca, Al, Pb, Zn, and Mn. CPC Green had high Cu (12,900 mg kg(-1)) and acrylic paint sludge had high total Cr (155 mg kg(-1)). High Ca and Al in both came from water treatment chemicals (lime and alum), while CPC Green itself is a copper-based pigment. The sludges were suitable for land application with regard to their metal contents, except for Cu in CPC Green. CPC Green did not support proper growth of plants (green gram, Vigna radiata (L). R. Wilcz.), while acrylic paint sludge supported growth in pure form and mixtures with soil. PMID:20124313

  6. Optical properties and indentation hardness of thin-film acrylated epoxidized oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab.; Shaktur, Khaled Mohamed; Mohammad, Rahmah; Zalikha, Wan Aimi; Nawi, Norwimie; Mohd, Ahmad Faiza

    2012-02-01

    Epoxy acrylate has been widely used as optical resin for applications such as cladding, the core of a waveguide, and other photonic devices. In this study, sustainable resin from edible oil was used as an alternative to epoxy acrylate. Structural features and the transmission of planar thin-film resin from an ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) spectrometer were investigated upon UV exposure. It was found that high transmission still persists for all samples with and without an UV absorber for exposed and unexposed samples. The film was found to absorb strongly below 400 nm. A change in the cut-off wavelength was observed upon exposure. Thin-film hardness and its dynamic indentation in the load-unload mode with different test forces were evaluated. Vickers hardness and the elastic modulus were determined for unacrylated epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). It was found that the AESO has a higher Vickers hardness and elastic modulus than those of unacrylated thin film. The Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were found to increase as the applied test force increased. The refractive index, thickness, and modes present were characterized from a spin-coated planar thin film. The refractive index in the transverse electric mode (TE) and transverse magnetic mode (TM) were determined and compared for unacrylated and acrylated epoxidized oil.

  7. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Choi, Bok Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  8. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  9. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  10. Transcatheter Embolization of a Large Symptomatic Pelvic Arteriovenous Malformation with Glubran 2 Acrylic Glue

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, R.; Angelopoulos, G. Konda, D.; Messina, M.; Chiocchi, M.; Perretta, T.; Simonetti, G.

    2008-09-15

    A young patient affected by a pelvic arteriovenous malformation (pAVM) with recurrent episodes of hematuria following exercise, underwent transcatheter embolization using Glubran 2 acrylic glue (GEM, Viareggio, Italy). All branches of the pAVM were successfully occluded. The patient showed prompt resolution of symptoms and persistent occlusion of the pAVM at the 6 month follow-up.

  11. The bond between acrylic resin denture teeth and the denture base: recommendations for best practice.

    PubMed

    Radford, D R; Juszczyk, A S; Clark, R K F

    2014-02-01

    Failure of the bond between denture teeth and base acrylic resin has been shown to be a cause of denture failure leading to inconvenience and costly repair. The optimal combination of acrylic resin denture tooth, denture base material, laboratory protocol and processing method has not yet been established. Extensive research enables the following recommendations for best practice to be made. Adopt practices that maximise the strength of the bond: select appropriate denture teeth; select base acrylic resin from the same manufacturer as the denture teeth; remove the glaze from ridgelaps of the denture teeth; apply monomer to the ridgelaps of the denture teeth before packing the base acrylic resin dough; use the manufacturers' recommended liquid/powder ratio; follow the manufacturers' recommended curing cycle; allow the flask to cool slowly and rest before deflasking. Adopt practices that avoid factors detrimental to bond strength: remove all traces of wax from the ridge laps of the denture teeth; remove all traces of mould seal from the ridgelaps of the denture teeth. It is evident that a number of factors are involved which may assist or prevent formation of an adequate bond, suggesting that attention to detail by the dental technician may be the most critical factor. PMID:24557385

  12. 40 CFR 721.465 - Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.465 Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...

  13. 40 CFR 721.465 - Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.465 Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...

  14. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P.; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-07-01

    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (~5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications.Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation

  15. The effect of monomer/polymer mixing ratio, time between mixing and packing of heat cured acrylic resin denture base material and bond assisting agents on the bond strength to acrylic resin denture teeth.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, A M; Spithourakis, S A; Juszczyk, A S; Radford, D R; Clark, R K F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of varying the monomer/polymer mixing ratio, the time from mixing to packing heat cured acrylic resin and the effect of two bond assisting agents on the strength of the bond between denture base acrylic resin and acrylic resin denture teeth. Statistical differences were found in bond strength with monomer/polymer ratio and time between mixing and packing with one of the heat cured resins investigated. The benefit of using the bonding agents was not demonstrated.

  16. The effect of flexible acrylic resin on masticatory muscle activity in implant-supported mandibular overdentures: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Background It is not yet clear from the current literature to what extent masticatory muscle activity is affected by the use of flexible acrylic resin in the construction of implant-supported mandibular overdentures. Objective To compare masticatory muscle activity between patients who were provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from flexible acrylic resin and those who were provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from heat-cured conventional acrylic resin. Methods In this clinical trial, 12 completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly allocated into two equal treatment groups. Each patient in Group 1 received two implants to support a mandibular overdenture made of conventional acrylic resin. In Group 2, the patients received two implants to support mandibular overdentures constructed from “Versacryl” flexible acrylic resin. The maxillary edentulous arch for patients in both groups was restored by conventional complete dentures. For all patients, masseter and temporalis muscle activity was evaluated using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results The results showed a significant decrease in masticatory muscle activity among patients with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from flexible acrylic resin. Conclusion The use of “Versacryl” flexible acrylic resin in the construction of implant-supported mandibular overdentures resulted in decreased masticatory muscle activity. PMID:26955445

  17. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of adhered cells to the acrylic surface for single and mixed cultures of both species, with reductions ranging from 1.74 to 3.64-log10. In conclusion, tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections. PMID:26162470

  18. Hydrophilic Acrylic versus PMMA Intraocular Lens Implantation in Pediatric Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoud-Reza; Zamani, Mitra; Abazar, Bijan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare primary implantation of foldable hydrophilic acrylic with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in pediatric cataract surgery in terms of short-term complications and visual outcomes. Methods This randomized clinical trial included 40 eyes of 31 consecutive pediatric patients aged 1 to 6 years with unilateral or bilateral congenital cataracts undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation. Two types of IOLs including foldable hydrophilic acrylic and rigid PMMA were randomly implanted in the capsular bag during surgery. Primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy were performed in all eyes. Patients were followed for at least 1 year. Intra- and postoperative complications, visual outcomes and refractive errors were compared between the study groups. Results Mean age was 3.2±1.8 years in the hydrophilic acrylic group and 3.7±1.3 years in the PMMA group. Mean follow-up period was 19.6±5 (12–29) months. No intraoperative complication occurred in any group. Postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (10%) eyes in the acrylic group versus 5 (25%) eyes in the PMMA group (P=0.40). Other postoperative complications including pigment deposition (30%), iridocorneal adhesions (10%) and posterior synechiae formation (10%), were seen only in the PMMA group. The visual axis remained completely clear and visual outcomes were generally favorable and comparable in the study groups. Conclusion In pediatric eyes undergoing lensectomy with primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy, hydrophilic acrylic IOLs are comparable to PMMA IOLs in terms of biocompatibility and visual axis clarity, and seem to entail less frequent postoperative complications. PMID:23198075

  19. Influence of ozone and paracetic acid disinfection on adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paracetic acid (PAA) and ozone disinfection on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of silicone-based resilient liners to acrylic resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty dumbbell shaped heat-polymerized acrylic resins were prepared. From the mid segment of the specimens, 3 mm of acrylic were grinded off and separated parts were reattached by resilient liners. The specimens were divided into 2 control (control1, control7) and 4 test groups of PAA and ozone disinfection (PAA1, PAA7, ozone1 and ozone7; n=10). While control groups were immersed in distilled water for 10 min (control1) and 7 days (control7), test groups were subjected to PAA (16 g/L) or ozone rich water (4 mg/L) for 1 cycle (10 min for PAA and 60 min for ozone) per day for 7 days prior to tensile tests. Measurements of the TBS were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS Adhesive strength of Mollosil decreased significantly by application of ozone disinfection. PAA disinfection had no negative effect on the TBS values of Mollosil and Molloplast B to acrylic resin. Single application of ozone disinfection did not have any negative effect on TBS values of Molloplast B, but prolonged exposure to ozone decreased its adhesive strength. CONCLUSION The adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic was not adversely affected by PAA disinfection. Immersion in ozonated water significantly decreased TBS of Mollosil. Prolonged exposure to ozone negatively affects adhesion of Molloplast B to denture base materials. PMID:27555898

  20. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of adhered cells to the acrylic surface for single and mixed cultures of both species, with reductions ranging from 1.74 to 3.64-log10. In conclusion, tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  1. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  2. Selective crystallization of calcium salts by poly(acrylate)-grafted chitosan.

    PubMed

    Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Yazdani-Pedram, Mehrdad; Retuert, Jaime; Diaz-Dosque, Mario; Gallois, Sebastien; Arias, José L

    2005-06-01

    The biopolymer chitosan was chemically modified by grafting polyacrylamide or polyacrylic acid in a homogeneous aqueous phase using potassium persulfate (KPS) as redox initiator system in the presence of N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as a crosslinking agent. The influence of the grafted chitosan on calcium salts crystallization in vitro was studied using the sitting-drop method. By using polyacrylamide grafted chitosan as substrate, rosette-like CaSO4 crystals were observed. This was originated by the presence of sulfate coming from the initiator KPS. By comparing crystallization on pure chitosan and on grafted chitosan, a dramatic influence of the grafted polymer on the crystalline habit of both salts was observed. Substrates prepared by combining sulfate with chitosan or sulfate with polyacrylamide did not produce similar CaSO4 morphologies. Moreover, small spheres or donut-shaped CaCO3 crystals on polyacrylic acid grafted chitosan were generated. The particular morphology of CaCO3 crystals depends also on other synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight of the chitosan sample and the KPS concentration. PMID:15848410

  3. Waveguide CP-FTMW and millimeter wave spectra of s-cis- and s-trans-acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Shipman, S. T.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    The millimeter wave spectrum of acrylic acid (CH2dbnd CHsbnd COOH), the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, was measured and analyzed from 130 to 360 GHz. Additional measurements from 18 to 26.5 GHz were also made using a waveguide CP-FTMW spectrometer. More than 4000 rotational lines were assigned to s-cis- and s-trans-acrylic acid in their ground vibrational states leading to precise determination of rotational, quartic and first complete set of sextic centrifugal distortion constants. New laboratory data of acrylic acid were then used to search for its spectral features in Orion KL, Sgr B2, and W51 molecular clouds. An upper limit to the column density of acrylic acid in Orion KL is provided.

  4. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    PubMed

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization. PMID:16333511

  5. Bond strength of acrylic teeth to denture base resin after various surface conditioning methods before and after thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Guilherme; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco A; Kimpara, Estevão T

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the durability of adhesion between acrylic teeth and denture base acrylic resin. The base surfaces of 24 acrylic teeth were flatted and submitted to 4 surface treatment methods: SM1 (control): No SM; SM2: application of a methyl methacrylate-based bonding agent (Vitacol); SM3: air abrasion with 30-microm silicone oxide plus silane; SM4: SM3 plus SM2. A heat-polymerized acrylic resin was applied to the teeth. Thereafter, bar specimens were produced for the microtensile test at dry and thermocyled conditions (60 days water storage followed by 12,000 cycles). The results showed that bond strength was significantly affected by the SM (P < .0001) (SM4 = SM2 > SM3 > SM1) and storage regimens (P < .0001) (dry > thermocycled). The methyl methacrylate-based adhesive showed the highest bond strength. PMID:17455445

  6. Effect of fabrication process on the bond strength between silicone elastomer and acrylic resin for maxillofacial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Muthiah, Lovely; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Aimaijiang, Yiliyaer; Yoshi, Shigen; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the fabrication process on tensile bond strength between maxillofacial silicone elastomer and acrylic resin. A common maxillofacial silicone elastomer (VST-50), two primers (Sofreliner primer and R-SI-LINE Plasticbond), and two acrylic resins (Unifast III and Palapress Vario) were selected. Silicone elastomer between primed acrylic resin plates were polymerized using a metal flask mold or a flaskless stone mold. Bond strength of the specimens was measured by a tensile test and analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's honest significant difference test. All fracture surfaces showed interfacial fracture. Both the fabrication process and the primer-acrylic resin combination affected bond strength, and two-way ANOVA indicated a significant interaction. Bond strength was generally greater when silicone elastomer was polymerized using a flaskless stone mold.

  7. Effect of tea, coffee and turmeric solutions on the colour of denture base acrylic resin: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Aggarwal, Priyanki

    2012-09-01

    Discoloration of acrylic resin denture base when it comes in contact with various food materials and beverages in the oral cavity may cause aesthetic concern to a denture wearer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tea, coffee and turmeric solutions on the colour of different brands of heat cure acrylic resin denture base materials commonly used in India. Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the colour change. A significant difference was found when change in colour was statistically analysed.

  8. Thermoresponsive fibers containing n-stearyl acrylate groups for shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Yu, X.; Feng, X.; Han, Y. L.; Liu, M.; Lin, T. X.

    2007-07-01

    A novel kind of thermoresponsive shape memory fiber was prepared by mixing the P(SA-co-AA) copolymers of stearyl acrylate (SA), and acrylic acid (AA), with PVA polyvinyl alcohol through chemically crosslinking after spinning. The molecular structure, thermomechanical properties and shape memory behaviors were investigated. It was found that the mixed P(SA-co-AA)/PVA fibers had crystalline structures and showed a dramatic change in Young's modulus at melting temperature (Tm) due to the reversible order-disorder transition. The mixed P(SA-co-AA)/PVA fibers also showed a good shape memory effect, through which the deformed fibers could recover to their original shapes and sizes within 40 seconds after they were heated above their Tm again.

  9. Phase Transition of Poly(acrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) Core-shell Nanogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-bing; Zhou, Jian-feng; Ye, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    A series of poly(acrylic acid) macromolecular chain transfer agents with different molecular weights were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography. Multiresponsive core-shell nanogels were prepared by dispersion polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water using these poly(potassium acrylate) macro-RAFT agents as the electrosteric stabilizer. The size of the nanogels decreases with the amount of the macro-RAFT agent, indicating that the surface area occupied by per polyelectrolyte group is a critical parameter for stabilizing the nanogels. The volume phase transition and the zeta potentials of the nanogels in aqueous solutions were studied by dynamic light scattering and zetasizer analyzer, respectively.

  10. Acrylate intercalation and in situ polymerization in iron-, cobalt-, or manganese-substituted nickel hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Vaysse, C; Guerlou-Demourgues, L; Duguet, E; Delmas, C

    2003-07-28

    A chimie douce route based on successive redox and exchange reactions has allowed us to prepare new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, composed of polyacrylate macromolecules intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), deriving from Ni(OH)(2). Monomer intercalation and in situ polymerization mechanisms have appeared to be strongly dependent upon the nature of the substituting cation in the slabs. In the case of iron-based LDHs, a phase containing acrylate monomeric intercalates has been isolated and identified by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Second, interslab free-radical polymerization of acrylate anions has been successfully initiated using potassium persulfate. In cobalt- or manganese-based LDHs, one-step polymerization has been observed, leading directly to a material containing polyacrylate intercalate. PMID:12870945

  11. Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin Denture Bases Processed by Two Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of the conventional method (P=0.006). This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the molding technique. PMID:25346833

  12. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-22

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers using horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Jiugang; Jin, Heling; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-01-20

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated graft polymerization in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and acetylacetone (Acac) has been successfully applied to the synthesis of starch-poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA). The graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR, elemental analysis and NMR confirmed that methyl acrylate (MA) was grafted onto starch successfully. DSC results showed the graft reaction had changed the crystalline regions of the gelatinized starch. The effects of pH, MA content, HRP dosage, incubation temperature and time on grafting percentage (GP) and grafting efficiency (GE) were also investigated. The GP and GE under optimal conditions reached 30.21% and 45.13%, respectively.

  14. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers' perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  15. Flexural strength of acrylic resin denture bases processed by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of the conventional method (P=0.006). This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the molding technique.

  16. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  17. Flexural strength of acrylic resin denture bases processed by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of the conventional method (P=0.006). This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the molding technique. PMID:25346833

  18. Time-related surface modification of denture base acrylic resin treated by atmospheric pressure cold plasma.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Pan, Hong; Li, Yinglong; Wang, Guomin; Zhang, Jue; Pan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The changes of denture base acrylic resin surface properties under cold plasma and the relationships with time were investigated. Cold plasma treated the specimens for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, and 120 s, respectively. Water contact angles were measured immediately after the treatment, 48 h, 15 days and 30 days later. Surface roughness was measured with 3-D laser scanning microscope. Candida albicans adherence was evaluated by CFU counting. Chemical composition was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Water contact angle reduced after treated for 30 s. No changes were observed with time prolonged, except the durability. There were no differences in roughness among all groups. However, treatment groups showed significantly lower C. albicans adherence. XPS demonstrated a decrease in C/O, and this reduction was affected by treatment time. Cold plasma was an effective means of increasing hydrophilicity of acrylic resin and reducing C. albicans adherence without affecting physical properties.

  19. Real-time monitoring of graphene oxide reduction in acrylic printable composite inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porro, S.; Giardi, R.; Chiolerio, A.

    2014-06-01

    This work reports the electrical characterization of a water-based graphene oxide/acrylic composite material, which was directly inkjet printed to fabricate dissipative patterns. The graphene oxide filler, which is strongly hydrophilic due to its heavily oxygenated surface and can be readily dispersed in water, was reduced by UV irradiation during photo-curing of the polymeric matrix. The concurrent polymerization of the acrylic matrix and reduction of graphene oxide filler was demonstrated by real-time resistance measurements during UV light irradiation. The presence of graphene filler allowed decreasing the resistance of the pure polymeric matrix by nearly five orders of magnitude. This was explained by the fact that clusters of reduced graphene oxide inside the polymer matrix act as preferential pathways for the mobility of charge carriers, thus leading to an overall decrease of the material's resistance.

  20. Neural tissue regeneration in experimental brain injury model with channeled scaffolds of acrylate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramos, Cristina; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Esparza, Maria Angeles Garcia; Soria, José Miguel; Barcia, Juan A; Monleón Pradas, Manuel

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and cell hosting ability of a copolymer scaffold based on ethyl acrylate (EA) and hydroxyl ethyl acrylate (HEA) in vivo after an experimental brain injury. Wistar rats were subjected to cryogenic traumatic brain injury. We evaluated the tissue response to the implanted materials after 8 weeks. The materials were implanted devoid of cells; they provoked a minimal scar response by the host tissue and permitted the invasion of neurons and glia inside them. We also found new blood vessels surrounding and inside the implant. Thus, the copolymer scaffold proves to offer a suitable environment producing a cellular network potentially useful in brain repair after brain injury.