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Sample records for acrylic fiber manufacturing

  1. Electrocoagulation pretreatment of wet-spun acrylic fibers manufacturing wastewater to improve its biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chenhao; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Haitao; Li, Duo; Wu, Baichun; Sun, Yuwei; Cheng, Yanjun

    2014-06-15

    The electrocoagulation (EC) process was used to pretreat wastewater from the manufacture of wet-spun acrylic fibers, and the effects of varying the operating parameters, including the electrode area/wastewater volume (A/V) ratio, current density, interelectrode distance and pH, on the EC treatment process were investigated. About 44% of the total organic carbon was removed using the optimal conditions in a 100 min procedure. The optimal conditions were a current density of 35.7 mA cm(-2), an A/V ratio of 0.28 cm(-1), a pH of 5, and an interelectrode distance of 0.8 cm. The biodegradability of the contaminants in the treated water was improved by the EC treatment (using the optimal conditions), increasing the five-day biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio to 0.35, which could improve the effectiveness of subsequent biological treatments. The improvement in the biodegradability of the contaminants in the wastewater was attributed to the removal and degradation of aromatic organic compounds, straight-chain paraffins, and other organic compounds, which we identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The EC process was proven to be an effective alternative pretreatment for wastewater from the manufacture of wet-spun acrylic fibers, prior to biological treatments.

  2. Advanced treatment of wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Shi, Zhining; Fang, Yue; Shi, Shanshan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanfu

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation (3D-EC) reactor with introduction of activated carbon (AC) as particle micro-electrodes was applied for the advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under the optimized conditions (current density of 500A/m(2), circulation rate of 5mL/min, AC dosage of 50g, and chloride concentration of 1.0g/L), the average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr), NH3-N, total organic carbon (TOC), and ultraviolet absorption at 254nm (UV254) of the 3D-EC reactor were 64.5%, 60.8%, 46.4%, and 64.8%, respectively; while the corresponding effluent concentrations of CODcr, NH3-N, TOC, and UV254 were 76.6, 20.1, and 42.5mg/L, and 0.08Abs/cm, respectively. The effluent concentration of CODcr was less than 100mg/L, which showed that the treated wastewater satisfied the demand of the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB 8978-1996). The 3D-EC process remarkably improved the treatment efficiencies with synergistic effects for CODcr, NH3-N, TOC, and UV254 during the stable stage of 44.5%, 38.8%, 27.2%, and 10.9%, respectively, as compared with the sum of the efficiencies of a two-dimensional electrochemical oxidation (2D-EC) reactor and an AC adsorption process, which was ascribed to the numerous micro-electrodes of AC in the 3D-EC reactor. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that electrochemical treatment did not generate more toxic organics, and it was proved that the increase in acute biotoxicity was caused primarily by the production of free chlorine.

  3. Antimicrobial Acrylic Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    hydantoin). The fibers were extruded from a single solvent, dimenthyl acetamide. The fibers could be chlorinated to produce halamines and thus... chlorine adsorption was shown to be proportional to the specific surface area of the fibers, as might be expected for hydrophobic materials which can react...hydantoin). The fibers were extruded from a single solvent, dimethyl acetamide. The fibers could be chlorinated to produce halamines and thus rendered

  4. Organics, sulfates and ammonia removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a combined Fenton-UASB (2 phase)-SBR system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Luan, Zhaokun; Yu, Lian; Ji, Zhongguang

    2011-11-01

    A combined Fenton-UASB (2 phase)-SBR system was employed to treat acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) to COD were 65.5% and 0.529%, respectively, with the optimal Fenton conditions: ferrous was 300 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide was 500 mg/L; pH was 3.0; reaction time was 2.0 h. In two-phase UASB reactor, mesophilic operation (35±0.5 °C) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 h. The results showed that with the HRT not less than 38 h, COD and sulfate removal were 65% and 75%, respectively. The greatest sizes of granule formed in the sulfate-reducing and methane-producing phases were 5 and 2 mm, respectively. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for 35% in the sulfate-reducing phase while methane-producing archaea (MPA) accounted for 72% in the methane-producing phase. During the SBR process, shortcut nitrification was achieved by temperature control of 30 °C.

  5. Chemical Stress Cracking of Acrylic Fibers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    nitrile groups (similar to the "prefatory reaction" in pyrolysis of acrylic fibers), followed immediately by N- chlorination and7 chain scission...cyclization of nitrile groups (similar to the "prefatory reaction" in pyrolysis of acrylic fibers), followed immediately by N- chlorination and chain scission...present experiments were conducted at the boil, slightly greater than 100 C. The decomposition products-- chlorine , chlorate, plus oxygen originating

  6. Research of morphology structure and properties of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjiu; Feng, Aifen

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber, the tensile properties, friction properties and hygroscopicity of it, the bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber and the ordinary acrylic fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The burning behaviors of the two kinds of fibers were observed by burning test, and their cross-sectional and longitudinal morphology was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM pictures showed that there are the uneven sizes of microspores on the surface of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber and in it. It was found that the friction coefficients of the bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber are smaller and its tensile and moisture absorption are better than those of the ordinary acrylic fiber. However, there are no obvious differences of the burning behaviors between the two fibers.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  9. Fibrillation of Commercial Acrylic Fiber for Use in Combustible Cartridge Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    flow chart 3 2 Fiber identification magnified 4 3 80X view acrylic fibers 5 4 320X view acrylic fibers 5 5 80X view kraft 6 6 320X view kraft 6 7 80X...view acrylic, kraft , and nitrocellulose 7 8 80X view after addition of Lufax 295 7 9 80X view 5 minutes after addition of resin 8 10 80X view 10...ACRYLIC KRAFT NITROCELLULOSE (FibrilHated) (Natural) (Natural) Figure 2. Fiber identification magnified Additional views of the fibers in slurry

  10. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto polyamide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Chahira; Marais, Stéphane; Roudesli, Sadok

    2007-04-01

    The grafting of acrylic acid (AA) monomer (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd COOH) on polyamide 6.6 monofilaments (PA 6.6) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator was carried out in order to enhance the hydrophilic nature of fibers. The grafting rate depends on the AA concentration, the BPO concentration, the time and the temperature of reaction. The best conditions for optimum rate of grafting were obtained with a AA concentration of 0.5 M, a BPO concentration of 0.03 M, a reaction temperature of T = 85 °C and a reaction time of 120 mn. The fiber surface has been investigated by many experimental techniques of characterization such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), calorimetric analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. The effect of grafting of acrylic acid onto PA 6.6 fibers on their moisture and mechanical resistances was analyzed from water sorption and elongation at break measurements. The analysis of the experimental data shows clearly the efficiency of the grafting reaction used, leading to a significant increase of the hydrophilic character of the PA 6.6 surface.

  11. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  12. Glass fiber manufacturing and fiber safety: the producer's perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, J R; Hadley, J G

    1994-01-01

    Historically, the potential health effects of airborne fibers have been associated with the dose, dimension, and durability. Increasing focus is being placed on the latter category. Concern about airborne fiber safety could be reduced by manufacturing fibers that are not respirable; however, due to performance and manufacturing constraints on glasswool insulations, this is not possible today. These products are an important part of today's economy and as a major manufacturer, Owens-Corning is committed to producing and marketing materials that are both safe and effective in their intended use. To this end, manufacturing technology seeks to produce materials that generate low concentrations of airborne fibers, thus minimizing exposure and irritation. The range of fiber diameters is controlled to assure effective product performance and, as far as possible, to minimize respirability. Glass compositions are designed to allow effective fiber forming and ultimate product function. Fiber dissolution is primarily a function of composition; this too, can be controlled within certain constraints. Coupled with these broad parameters is an extensive product stewardship program to assure the safety of these materials. This article will discuss the factors that influence glasswool insulation production, use, and safety. PMID:7882953

  13. Nitrile Hydratase and Amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous Hydrolyze Acrylic Fibers and Granular Polyacrylonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, M. M.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Robra, K.-H.; Gübitz, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 11216 produced nitrile hydratase (320 nkat mg of protein−1) and amidase activity (38.4 nkat mg of protein−1) when grown on a medium containing propionitrile. These enzymes were able to hydrolyze nitrile groups of both granular polyacrylonitriles (PAN) and acrylic fibers. Nitrile groups of PAN40 (molecular mass, 40 kDa) and PAN190 (molecular mass, 190 kDa) were converted into the corresponding carbonic acids to 1.8 and 1.0%, respectively. In contrast, surfacial nitrile groups of acrylic fibers were only converted to the corresponding amides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 16% of the surfacial nitrile groups were hydrolyzed by the R. rhodochrous enzymes. Due to the enzymatic modification, the acrylic fibers became more hydrophilic and thus, adsorption of dyes was enhanced. This was indicated by a 15% increase in the staining level (K/S value) for C.I. Basic Blue 9. PMID:10742253

  14. The antimicrobial effect of benzalkonium chloride on some pathogenic microbes observed on fibers of acrylic carpet.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Ramin; Sattari, Morteza; Ashjaran, Ali

    2007-02-15

    In the presented research, the main aim is to investigate the antibacterial effectiveness of BAC solutions on acrylic fibers used in machinery carpet. An acrylic pile carpet laid in a public place for 30 days and the existence of some microbes were investigated on it. The antimicrobial effect of different BAC solutions for identified microbes was studied in vitro. The acrylic fibers were treated with the same different solutions of BAC as before and the antibacterial effectiveness was assessed by the zone of inhibition method in different times. Two pieces of carpet untreated and treated with BAC solution sewed together and laid for one week in the public place and the amounts of bacterial growth determined by colony count method and the results compared. Finally some mechanical properties of treated acrylic fibers measured after 30 days and compared with untreated one. The results showed the presence of some pathogenic microbes on the laid carpet such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhalation time for treated acrylic fibers improved. The amount of colony growth on treated carpet reduced considerably and besides the mechanical tests results showed no significant deterioration effect of studied properties in comparing with untreated yarn.

  15. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Yarborough, Kenneth D.; Meek, Thomas T.

    2002-01-01

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  16. Is the bond between acrylic resin denture teeth and denture base resin stronger if they are both made by the same manufacturer?

    PubMed

    Patil, Reshma; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R; Clark, Robert K F

    2010-03-01

    A previous study suggested that a stronger bond may be achieved between acrylic resin denture base material and acrylic denture teeth when both are made by the same manufacturer. Three denture base acrylic resins from three different manufacturers were bonded to three different acrylic resin denture teeth, one of which was manufactured by each of the manufacturers of the base material. In each group there was a trend that the bond strength achieved between the teeth and base material from the same manufacturer was higher than the unmatched pairs but statistical significance was not achieved.

  17. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  18. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  19. Oxidative Stabilization of Acrylic Fibers. V. The Decoloration Reaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Nitrile polymerization Carbon fibers Stereoregularity Stabilization Interpenetrating networks Decoloration 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reveree aide if...plotted against I/T in Fig. 3. From the slope of the line, an activation energy of about 6 kcal mol- is obtained. The temperature of the decoloration ... carbonization . Fibers that have undergone extensive carbonization and high-temperature heat-treatment are not decolorized by the hypochlorite solution

  20. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  1. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  2. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas

    2008-09-01

    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  3. Transformation characteristics of organic pollutants in Fered-Fenton process for dry-spun acrylic fiber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Song, Yonghui; Meng, Xiaoguang; Tu, Xiang; Pic, Jean-Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Fered-Fenton process using Ti sheet as cathode and RuO2/Ti as anode was employed for the pretreatment of dry-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. The effects of feeding mode and concentration of H2O2 on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as well as the biodegradability variation during the Fered-Fenton process were investigated. The feeding mode of H2O2 had significant influence on COD removal efficiency: the removal efficiency was 44.8% if all the 60.0 mM H2O2 was fed at once, while it could reach 54.1% if the total H2O2 was divided into six portions and fed six times. The biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio increased from 0.29 to above 0.68 after 180 min treatment. The transformation characteristics of organic pollutants during the Fered-Fenton process were evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Most of the refractory organic pollutants with aromatic structure or large molecular weight were decomposed during the Fered-Fenton process.

  4. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  5. BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1981-08-18

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  6. Process for the manufacture of carbon or graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overhoff, D.; Winkler, E.; Mueller, D.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon or graphite fibers are manufactured by heating polyacrylonitrile fiber materials in various solutions and gases. They are characterized in that the materials are heated to temperatures from 150 to 300 C in a solution containing one or more acids from the group of carbonic acids, sulfonic acids, and/or phenols. The original molecular orientation of the fibers is preserved by the cyclization that occurs before interlacing, which gives very strong and stiff carbon or graphite fibers without additional high temperature stretching treatments.

  7. Containerless Manufacture of Glass Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Ethridge, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination and crystallization reduced in proposed process. Solid optical fiber drawn from an acoustically levitated lump of molten glass. New material added in solid form, melted and then moved into main body of molten glass. Single axis acoustic levitation furnances levitate glass melts at temperature up to about 700 degrees C. Processing in unit limited to low-melting temperature glasses.

  8. New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-11-22

    The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed “Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material” and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12” pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

  9. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  10. 16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92 percent of... manufactured fibers. 303.7 Section 303.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT §...

  11. 16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92 percent of... manufactured fibers. 303.7 Section 303.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT §...

  12. 16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92 percent of... manufactured fibers. 303.7 Section 303.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT §...

  13. 16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92 percent of... manufactured fibers. 303.7 Section 303.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT §...

  14. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  15. Arsenic(V) removal using an amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber: Kinetic, equilibrium, and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Nam, Aram; Park, Seong-Jik; Do, Taegu; Choi, Ung-Su; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2017-03-05

    This study investigates As(V) removal from aqueous solutions using a novel amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber. The amine doping reaction was confirmed using FT-IR, and the surface of the fiber was characterized using FEG-SEM. The synthesis process was completed within 60min using an AlCl3·6H2O catalyst at 100°C, and the resulting in a fiber with an ion exchange capacity of 7.5meq/g. The removal efficiency of the A-60 fiber was affected by the solution pH, and the efficiency was optimum at pH 3.04. As(V) adsorption on the fiber was rapid in the first 20min and reached equilibrium in 60min. As(V) removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data. The fiber has an As(V) adsorption capacity (qe) of 205.32±3.57mg/g, which is considerably higher than literature values and commercial adsorbents. The removal efficiency of the fiber was above 83% of the initial value after nine regeneration cycles.

  16. An additive manufacturing acrylic for use in the 32 Tesla all superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Zachary

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is building a world record all superconducting magnet known as the "32T". It requires many thousands of parts, but in particular one kind is unusually expensive to manufacture, called "heater lead covers". These parts are traditionally made out of a glass filled epoxy known as G-10, and conventionally machined. The machining is the expensive portion, as there are many tight tolerance details. The proposal in this paper is to change the material and manufacturing method to additive manufacturing with the material called "RGD 430". The cost per part with traditional machining is approximately 1,500 each. The cost per part with additive manufacturing of RGD 430 is approximately 32.5 each. There will be at least 14 of this style of part on the completed 32T project. Thus the total cost for the project will be reduced from 21,000 to 455, a 98% cost savings. The additive manufacturing also allows the machine designers to expand the dimensions of the part to any shape possible. Through testing of the material it was found to follow the common polymer characteristics. Its linear elastic modulus at cryogenic temperatures approached 10 GPa. The yield strength was always over 100 MPa, when not damaged. The fracture mechanism was repeatable, and brittle in cryogenic environments. The geometric tolerancing of the additive manufacturing process are, as expected extremely precise. The final tolerances for dimensions in the profile of the printer are more precise than +/- 0.10mm. The final tolerances for dimensions in the thickness of the printer are more precise than +/-0.25mm. Before utilizing the material, there should be a few additional tests run on it to ensure it will work in-situ. Those tests are outside the scope of this thesis.

  17. Short fiber-reinforced cementitious composites manufactured by extrusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Bin

    The use of short fibers in the cement-based composites is more preferable due to the simplicity and economic nature in fabrication. The short fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) manufactured by the extrusion method show a great improvement in both strength and toughness as compared to the fiber-reinforced composites made by traditional casting methods. This improvement can be attributed to the achievement of low porosity and good interfacial bond in SFRCC under high shear and compressive stress during the extrusion process. In the present study, products of cylinders, sheets, pipes and honeycomb panels incorporating various mineral admixtures such as slag, silica fume, and metakaolin have been manufactured by the extrusion technology. Two kinds of short fibers, ductile polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and stronger but less ductile glass fibers, were used as the reinforcement in the products. After the specimens were extruded, tension, bending and impact tests were performed to study the mechanical properties of these products. The rheology test was performed for each mix to determine its viscoelastic properties. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) technology were employed to get an insight view of the mechanism. A freezing and thawing experiment (ASTM C666) was also carried to investigate the durability of the specimens. Based on these experimental results, the reinforcing behaviors of these two short fibers were investigated. The enhancing effects of silica fume and metakaolin on the extrudates were compared and discussed. Finally, the optimum amount of silica fume and slag was proposed. Since the key point for a successful extrusion is the properly designed rheology which controls both internal and external flow properties of extrudate, a nonlinear viscoelastic model was applied to investigate the rheological behavior of a movable fresh cementitious composite in an extruder channel. The velocity profile of the

  18. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  19. 16 CFR 303.8 - Procedure for establishing generic names for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manufactured fibers. 303.8 Section 303.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.8 Procedure for establishing generic names for manufactured fibers. (a) Prior to the marketing or handling...

  20. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    PubMed

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life.

  1. Removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) using cellulose extracted from sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer.

    PubMed

    Hajeeth, T; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T; Sudha, P N

    2013-11-01

    The extraction of cellulose from sisal fiber was done initially using the steam explosion method. The batch adsorption studies were conducted using the cellulose extracted from the sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions from aqueous solution. The effect of sorbent amount, agitation period and pH of solution that influence sorption capacity were investigated. From the observed results, it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of copper(II) and nickel(II) for both the extracted cellulose and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer. The adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental results of the Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms revealed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and nickel(II) ion onto cellulose extracted from the sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm. The kinetics studies show that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent.

  2. Process for the manufacture of carbon fibers and feedstock therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Sawran, W.R.; Turrill, F.H.; Newman, J.W.; Hall, N.W.; Ward, C.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a petroleum pitch derived from residuum from the catalytic cracking of petroleum, especially adapted for use in the manufacture of carbon fibers, with reduced stabilization time, the pitch comprising an aromatic enriched petroleum pitch containing about 20 to about 40 mole percent alpha hydrogens, based on the moles of hydrogen present in the pitch, having a softening point of at least about 250/sup 0/C, a xylene insolubles content of about 15% to about 40% by weight, a quinoline insolubles content of about 0% to about 5.0% by weight, a sulfur content of about 0.1 to about 4% by weight, a coking value of 65 to 90 weight % and a mesophase content of 0 to about 5% by weight.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Johnson, Joseph E.; Lindahl, John M.

    2016-06-06

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  4. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured. (a) In addition...

  5. 78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign... manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U.S. market within Subzone 148C at the TTA facility in... authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market under zone procedures within Subzone 148C at...

  6. Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

  7. Temperature and moisture effects on selected properties of wood fiber-cement composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenhorn, P.R.; Silsbee, M.R.; Blankenhorn, B.D.; DiCola, M.; Kessler, K.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of moisture cycling on the dimensional stability and temperature cycling on the compressive strength of treated wood fiber-cement composites were investigated. The Kraft softwood fibers and the hardwood fibers were treated with an aqueous acrylic emulsion or alkylalkoxysilane prior to manufacturing into wood fiber-cement composites. Moisture cycling results indicated that the treated fiber-cement composites were more resistant to deterioration than the neat cement specimens. The alkylalkoxysilane-treated fiber-cement composites resisted deterioration more than the acrylic emulsion-treated fiber-cement composites. Treated hardwood fiber-cement composites were more resistant than the treated Kraft fiber-cement composites. The effects of temperature cycling on the compressive strength values produced similar results. The treated fibers were more resistant to deterioration than the neat element. The alkylalkoxysilane-treated Kraft and hardwood fiber-cement composites had higher average compressive strength values than the acrylic emulsion-treated wood fiber-cement composites.

  8. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    SciTech Connect

    Doelle, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  9. 16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of... any long chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 85 percent but at least 35 percent by weight of.... A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic...

  10. Cryogenic fiber optic assemblies for spaceflight environments: design, manufacturing, testing, and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat- 2); and others will be included.

  11. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  12. 77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber...), located in Rockwood, Tennessee, with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized... manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market; the request for such authority will continue to be reviewed...

  13. Study on parameters affecting the mechanical properties of dry fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, A.; Schledjewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    For continuous manufacturing processes mechanical preloading of the fibers occurs during the delivery of the fibers from the spool creel to the actual manufacturing process step. Moreover preloading of the dry roving bundles might be mandatory, e.g. during winding, to be able to produce high quality components. On the one hand too high tensile loads within dry roving bundles might result in a catastrophic failure and on the other hand the part produced under too low pre-tension might have low quality and mechanical properties. In this work, load conditions influencing mechanical properties of dry glass fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes were analyzed. Load conditions, i.e. fiber delivery speed, necessary pre-tension and other effects of the delivery system during continuous fiber winding, were chosen in process typical ranges. First, the strain rate dependency under static tensile load conditions was investigated. Furthermore different free gauge lengths up to 1.2 m, interactions between fiber points of contact regarding influence of sizing as well as impregnation were tested and the effect of twisting on the mechanical behavior of dry glass fiber bundles during the fiber delivery was studied.

  14. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum Manufactured by High-Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachold, Franziska; Singer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced aluminum was produced by a specially adapted high-pressure die casting process. The MMC has a fiber volume fraction of 27%. Complete infiltration was achieved by preheating the bidirectional, PAN-based carbon fiber body with IR-emitters to temperatures of around 750 °C. The degradation of the fibers, due to attack of atmospheric oxygen at temperatures above 600 °C, was limited by heating them in argon-rich atmosphere. Additionally, the optimization of heating time and temperature prevented fiber degradation. Only the strength of the outer fibers is reduced by 40% at the most. The fibers in core of fiber body are nearly undamaged. In spite of successful manufacturing, the tensile strength of the MMC is below strength of the matrix material. Also unidirectional MMCs with a fiber volume fraction of 8% produced under the same conditions, lack of the reinforcing effect. Two main reasons for the unsatisfactory mechanical properties were identified: First, the fiber-free matrix, which covers the reinforced core, prevents effective load transfer from the matrix to the fibers. And second, the residual stresses in the fiber-free zones are as high as 100 MPa. This causes premature failure in the matrix. From this, it follows that the local reinforcement of an actual part is limited. The stress distribution caused by residual stresses and by loading needs to be known. In this way, the reinforcing phase can be placed and aligned accordingly. Otherwise delamination and premature failure might occur.

  16. Method of Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for forming a carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines is discussed. The process includes the steps of braiding carbon fiber into a rope thereby forming a cylindrically shaped valve stem portion and continuing to braid said fiber while introducing into the braiding carbon fiber rope a carbon matrix plug having an outer surface in a net shape of a valve head thereby forming a valve head portion. The said carbon matrix plug acting as a mandrel over which said carbon fiber rope is braided, said carbon fiber rope and carbon matrix plug forming a valve head portion suitable for mating with a valve seat; cutting said braided carbon valve stem portion at one end to form a valve tip and cutting said braided carbon fiber after said valve head portion to form a valve face and thus provide a composite valve preform; and densifying said preform by embedding the braided carbon in a matrix of carbon to convert said valve stem portion to a valve stem and said valve head portion to a valve head thereby providing said composite valve.

  17. Fiber Volume Fraction Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Liquid resin is injected into the tapered injection chamber through the injection slots to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements in a resin injection pultrusion process. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the centerline causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to effectively penetrate through the fibers and achieve complete wetout. Fiber volume fraction in the final pultruded composite is a key to decide the mechanical and/or chemical properties of the composite. If the fiber volume fraction is too high, more fibers are squeezed together creating a fiber lean region near the wall and fiber rich region away from the wall. Also, the design of the injection chamber significantly affects the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. A tapered injection chamber is considered such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures due to the taper angle of the injection chamber. In this study, the effect of fiber volume fraction on the fiber reinforcement compaction and complete fiber wetout for a tapered injection chamber is investigated.

  18. Application of ceramic fibers to the manufacture of reinforced metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wielage, B.; Rahm, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.

    1995-12-31

    The application of the thermal spraying process is a new way to produce carbon fiber or Tyranno fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites. Spreaded fiber rovings are enveloped in the matrix material with wire flame spraying. The advantage of the thermal spraying process is based in the low times for contacting between the fibers and the liquid matrix material. Chemical reactions on the interface fiber/matrix, which are caused by the decreasing of the fiber tensile strength, can be excluded. The thermal sprayed prepregs can be compressed to MMC by hot pressing process. This longfiber reinforced composites are used to increase f.e. casted components of motors. The aim of this research is the estimation of possibilities to applicate the wire flame spray process for prepreg manufacturing.

  19. Manufacture of fiber-epoxy test specimens: Including associated jigs and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S. B.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental work on the manufacture and strength of graphite-epoxy composites is considered. The correct data and thus a true assessment of the strength properties based on a proper and scientifically modeled test specimen with engineered design, construction, and manufacture has led to claims of a very broad spread in optimized values. Such behavior is in the main due to inadequate control during manufacture of test specimen, improper curing, and uneven scatter in the fiber orientation. The graphite fibers are strong but brittle. Even with various epoxy matrices and volume fraction, the fracture toughness is still relatively low. Graphite-epoxy prepreg tape was investigated as a sandwich construction with intermittent interlaminar bonding between the laminates in order to produce high strength, high fracture toughness composites. The quality and control of manufacture of the multilaminate test specimen blanks was emphasized. The dimensions, orientation and cure must be meticulous in order to produce the desired mix.

  20. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from monofilament fiber manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers of monofilament fibers may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist monofilament fiber manufacturers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  1. Mechanical strength of additive manufactured carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumaevskii, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical properties of both pure and chopped carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone samples have been carried out. It was shown that the reinforcement resulted in increasing the elasticity modulus, compression and tensile ultimate strength by a factor of 3.5, 2.9 and 2.8, respectively. The fracture surfaces have been examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  3. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  4. Manufacturing Energy Intensity and Opportunity Analysis for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites and Other Lightweight Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liddell, Heather; Brueske, Sabine; Carpenter, Alberta; Cresko, Joseph

    2016-09-22

    With their high strength-to-weight ratios, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are important materials for lightweighting in structural applications; however, manufacturing challenges such as low process throughput and poor quality control can lead to high costs and variable performance, limiting their use in commercial applications. One of the most significant challenges for advanced composite materials is their high manufacturing energy intensity. This study explored the energy intensities of two lightweight FRP composite materials (glass- and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers), with three lightweight metals (aluminum, magnesium, and titanium) and structural steel (as a reference material) included for comparison. Energy consumption for current typical and state-of-the-art manufacturing processes were estimated for each material, deconstructing manufacturing process energy use by sub-process and manufacturing pathway in order to better understand the most energy intensive steps. Energy saving opportunities were identified and quantified for each production step based on a review of applied R&D technologies currently under development in order to estimate the practical minimum energy intensity. Results demonstrate that while carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have the highest current manufacturing energy intensity of all materials considered, the large differences between current typical and state-of-the-art energy intensity levels (the 'current opportunity') and between state-of-the-art and practical minimum energy intensity levels (the 'R&D opportunity') suggest that large-scale energy savings are within reach.

  5. Multiscale Design and Manufacturing of Hybrid DWCNT-Polymer Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-09

    materials with covalently linked organic nanostructures as load-bearing units. We have studied graphene oxide films and polymer composite films as a well...remarkable mechanical performance. The Nguyen group has worked on functionalization of CNTs and the development and application of polymer binders to...nanotubes have tremendous applications in the fabrication of polymeric carbon fibers. However, approaches to design carbon nanotube (CNT) structures by

  6. Design, manufacturing, and verification of piezoceramics embedded in fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elspass, Wilfried J.; Kunzmann, J.; Flemming, M.; Baumann, D.

    1995-05-01

    Fiber reinforced thermoplastics offer substantial advantages over fiber reinforced thermosets. Besides high specific stiffness and strength and excellent resistance to impact damage, especially with respect to the manufacturing process considerable cost reductions are possible. The reason is the reduction of the processing times from hours to minutes. However the higher process temperatures close to the Curie temperature in the range from 250 degree(s) C to 400 degree(s) C are expected to have a significant impact on the polarization of embedded piezoceramic patches. Active structures require by definition embedded actuators and sensors as part of the load bearing structure. The success of the design philosophy of active structures is highly dependent on the manufacturing costs. For that reason fiber reinforced thermoplastics are supposed to be the ideal material for the host structure. Different manufacturing processes were applied to manufacture active test structures which are specifically designed with respect to the manufacturing process used. The embedding process of the active elements include the electrical insulation and wiring. Moreover the coefficient of thermal expansion of a typical PZT type ceramic was measured over a wide temperature range to understand the thermomechanical loading of the piezoceramic due to the manufacturing process. Moreover the electromechanical parameters of the active elements before and after the manufacturing process were measured. For this purpose a special test equipment has been developed. Furthermore the problem of thermal depolarization is touched. Basically it turns out that in spite of high processing temperatures the embedding of piezoceramics in fiber reinforced thermoplastics is feasible. The repolarization process of embedded piezoceramics is optimized for a given type of piezoceramics.

  7. Presence of Tungsten-Containing Fibers in Tungsten Refining and Manufacturing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Mckernan, John L.; Toraason, Mark A.; Fernback, Joseph E.; Petersen, Martin R.

    2009-01-01

    In tungsten refining and manufacturing processes, a series of tungsten oxides are typically formed as intermediates in the production of tungsten powder. The present study was conducted to characterize airborne tungsten-containing fiber dimensions, elemental composition and concentrations in the US tungsten refining and manufacturing industry. During the course of normal employee work activities, seven personal breathing zone and 62 area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) fiber sampling and counting methods to determine dimensions, composition and airborne concentrations of fibers. Mixed models were used to identify relationships between potential determinants and airborne fiber concentrations. Results from transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated that airborne fibers with length >0.5 μm, diameter >0.01 μm and aspect ratios ≥3:1 were present on 35 of the 69 air samples collected. Overall, the airborne fibers detected had a geometric mean length ≈3 μm and diameter ≈0.3 μm. Ninety-seven percent of the airborne fibers identified were in the thoracic fraction (i.e. aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm). Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry results indicated that airborne fibers prior to the carburization process consisted primarily of tungsten and oxygen, with other elements being detected in trace quantities. Based on NIOSH fiber counting ‘B’ rules (length > 5 μm, diameter < 3 μm and aspect ratio ≥ 5:1), airborne fiber concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 0.085 fibers cm−3, with calcining being associated with the highest airborne concentrations. The mixed model procedure indicated that process temperature had a marginally significant relationship to airborne fiber concentration. This finding was expected since heated processes such as calcining created the highest airborne fiber concentrations. The finding of airborne tungsten-containing fibers in

  8. 16 CFR 303.8 - Procedure for establishing generic names for manufactured fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the applicant to be pertinent to the application, including technical data in the form of test methods..., within sixty (60) days, either deny the application or assign to the fiber a numerical or alphabetical... Commission, the manufacturer or producer thereof shall file a written application with the...

  9. Airborne-Fiber Optics Manufacturing Technology, Aircraft Installation Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-19

    the test specified in 5.6.1. 5.4 CABLE MARKING 5.4.1 Selection of Cable Marking 5.4.1.1 Jacketed Cables Cables snail be marked using the applicable...table (mixing, etc.) 2 4,000 R R c. Vacuum impregnator 2 40,000 R R d. Electronic balance (scales) 2 R R e. Mechanical balance (scales) 2 R R f. Marble ...protruding from the contact. The fibers should be cut at the end of the epoxy cone extending from the contact bushing. See Figure 9. (CAUTION: Do not cut

  10. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in ecological textiles by solid-phase microextraction with a siloxane-modified polyurethane acrylic resin fiber.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianlei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Ruan, Wenhong; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2012-07-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared with siloxane-modified polyurethane acrylic resin by photo-cured technology. The ratio of two monomers was investigated to obtain good microphase separation structure and better extraction performance. The self-made fiber was then applied to organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) analysis and several factors, such as extraction/desorption time, extraction temperature, salinity, and pH, were studied. The optimized conditions were: 15 min extraction at 25 °C, 5% Na(2)SO(4) content, pH 7.0 and 4 min desorption in GC inlet. The self-made fiber coating exhibited better extraction efficiency for OPPs, compared with three commercial fiber coatings. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of 11 OPPs were from 0.03 μg L(-1) to 0.5 μg L(-1). Good recoveries and repeatabilities were obtained when the method was used to determine OPPs in ecological textile.

  11. Design and Manufacturing of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Tatting, Brian F.; Smith, Brett H.; Stevens, Randy S.; Occhipiniti, Gina P.; Swift, Jonathan B.; Achary, David C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced composite shells that may offer the potential to improve the structural performance of future aircraft fuselage structures were developed under this joint NASA-industry collaborative effort. Two cylindrical shells with tailored, tow-steered layups and continuously varying fiber angle orientations were designed and built at the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing - Louisiana Partnership. The shells were fabricated from unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite-epoxy pre-preg slit tape material fiber-placed on a constant-diameter mandrel. Each shell had the same nominal 8-ply [plus or minus 45/plus or minus Theta]s layup, where the nominal fiber angle in the tow-steered plies varied continuously from 10 degrees along the crown to 45 degrees on each side, then back to 10 degrees on the keel. One shell was fabricated with all 24 tows placed during each pass of the fiber placement machine, resulting in many tow overlaps on the shell surface. The fiber placement machine's individual tow cut/restart capability was also used to manufacture a second shell with tow drops and a more uniform laminate thickness. This paper presents an overview of the detailed design and manufacturing processes for these shells, and discusses issues encountered during their fabrication and post-cure evaluation. Future plans for structural testing and analyses of the shells are also discussed.

  12. Effect of different palatal vault shapes on the dimensional stability of glass fiber-reinforced heat-polymerized acrylic resin denture base material

    PubMed Central

    Dalkiz, Mehmet; Arslan, Demet; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza; Bilgin, M.Selim; Aykul, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different palatal vault shapes on the dimensional stability of a glass fiber reinforced heat polymerized acrylic resin denture base material. Methods: Three edentulous maxilla with shallow, deep and medium shaped palatal vaults were selected and elastomeric impressions were obtained. A maxillary cast with four reference points (A, B, C, and D) was prepared to serve as control. Point (A) was marked in the anterior midline of the edentulous ridge in the incisive papillary region, points (B) and (C) were marked in the right and left posterior midlines of the edentulous ridge in the second molar regions, and point (D) was marked in the posterior palatal midline near the fovea palatina media (Figure 2). To determine linear dimensional changes, distances between four reference points (A–B, A–C, A–D and B–C) were initially measured with a metal gauge accurate within 0.1 mm under a binocular stereo light microscope and data (mm) were recorded. Results: No significant difference of interfacial distance was found in sagittal and frontal sections measured 24 h after polymerization and after 30 days of water storage in any of experimental groups (P>.05). Significant difference of linear dimension were found in all experimental groups (P<.01) between measurements made 24 h after polymerization of specimens and 30 days after water storage. Conclusion: Palatal vault shape and fiber impregnation into the acrylic resin bases did not affect the magnitude of interfacial gaps between the bases and the stone cast surfaces. PMID:22229010

  13. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anasane, Nayana; Ahirrao, Yogesh; Chitnis, Deepa; Meshram, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each), depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round), with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05). Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < 0.001) (88.77 MPa), with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa) which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours (P < 0.001). Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins. PMID:23946739

  14. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Process Control and Development for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing with Embedded Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Adam J.

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent additive manufacturing technology which combines ultrasonic metal welding, CNC machining, and mechanized foil layering to create large gapless near net-shape metallic parts. The process has been attracting much attention lately due to its low formation temperature, the capability to join dissimilar metals, and the ability to create complex design features not possible with traditional subtractive processes alone. These process attributes enable light-weighting of structures and components in an unprecedented way. However, UAM is currently limited to niche areas due to the lack of quality tracking and inadequate scientific understanding of the process. As a result, this thesis work is focused on improving both component quality tracking and process understanding through the use of average electrical power input to the welder. Additionally, the understanding and application space of embedding fibers into metals using UAM is investigated, with particular focus on NiTi shape memory alloy fibers.

  16. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing and welding for 3D manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Nie, Bai; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Due to the unique ultra-short pulse duration and high peak power, femtosecond (fs) laser has emerged as a powerful tool for many applications but has rarely been studied for 3D printing. In this paper, welding of both bulk and powder materials is demonstrated for the first time by using high energy and high repetition rate fs fiber lasers. It opens up new scenarios and opportunities for 3D printing with the following advantages - greater range of materials especially with high melting temperature, greater-than-ever level of precision (sub-micron) and less heat-affected-zone (HAZ). Mechanical properties (strength and hardness) and micro-structures (grain size) of the fabricated parts are investigated. For dissimilar materials bulk welding, good welding quality with over 210 MPa tensile strength is obtained. Also full melting of the micron-sized refractory powders with high melting temperature (above 3000 degree C) is achieved for the first time. 3D parts with shapes like ring and cube are fabricated. Not only does this study explore the feasibility of melting dissimilar and high melting temperature materials using fs lasers, but it also lays out a solid foundation for 3D printing of complex structure with designed compositions, microstructures and properties. This can greatly benefit the applications in automobile, aerospace and biomedical industries, by producing parts like nozzles, engines and miniaturized biomedical devices.

  17. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  18. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Interconnected, microporous hollow fibers for tissue engineering: commercially relevant, industry standard scale-up manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tuin, Stephen A; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-09-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the field of tissue engineering to create functional tissue using biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds that support cell growth, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. However, many of these constructs are severely limited by poor nutrient diffusion throughout the tissue-engineered construct, resulting in cell death and tissue necrosis at the core. Nutrient transport can be improved by creation and use of scaffolds with hollow and microporous fibers, significantly improving permeability and nutrient diffusion. The purpose of this review is to highlight current technological advances in the fabrication of hollow fibers with interconnected pores throughout the fiber walls, with specific emphasis on developing hollow porous nonwoven fabrics for use as tissue engineering constructs via industry standard processing technologies: Spunbond processing and polymer melt extrusion. We outline current methodologies to create hollow and microporous scaffolds with the aim of translating that knowledge to the production of such fibers into nonwoven tissue engineering scaffolds via spunbond technology, a commercially relevant and viable melt extrusion manufacturing approach that allows for facile scale-up.

  20. Develop Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing Process of ZrO2 Nanocrystals/Acrylic Nanocomposites for High Refractive Index Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Compton, Brett G.; Li, Jianlin; Jellison, Jr, Gerald Earle; Duty, Chad E; Chen, Zhiyun

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop and evaluate ZrO2/acrylic nanocomposite coatings for integrated optoelectronic applications. The formulations engineered to be compatible with roll-to-roll process were evaluated in terms of optical and dielectric properties. The uniform distribution of the ZrO2 nanocrystals in the polymer matrix resulted in highly tunable refractive index and dielectric response suitable for advanced photonic and electronic device applications.

  1. Fiber-optic based in situ atomic spectroscopy for manufacturing of x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasoff, George; Metting, Christopher J.; von Bredow, Hasso

    2016-09-01

    The manufacturing of multilayer Laue (MLL) components for X-ray optics by physical vapor deposition (PVD) requires high precision and accuracy that presents a significant process control challenge. Currently, no process control system provides the accuracy, long-term stability and broad capability for adoption in the manufacturing of X-ray optics. In situ atomic absorption spectroscopy is a promising process control solution, capable of monitoring the deposition rate and chemical composition of extremely thin metal silicide films during deposition and overcoming many limitations of the traditional methods. A novel in situ PVD process control system for the manufacturing of high-precision thin films, based on combined atomic absorption/emission spectrometry in the vicinity of the deposited substrate, is described. By monitoring the atomic concentration in the plasma region independently from the film growth on the deposited substrate, the method allows deposition control of extremely thin films, compound thin films and complex multilayer structures. It provides deposition rate and film composition measurements that can be further utilized for dynamic feedback process control. The system comprises a reconfigurable hardware module located outside the deposition chamber with hollow cathode light sources and a fiber-optic-based frame installed inside the deposition chamber. Recent experimental results from in situ monitoring of Al and Si thin films deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at a variety of plasma conditions and monitoring configurations are presented. The results validate the operation of the system in the deposition of compound thin films and provide a path forward for use in manufacturing of X-Ray optics.

  2. Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors measure deviation in a reflected wavelength of light to detect in-situ strain. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, and the inclusion of multiple FBGs on the same fiber allows for a seamlessly integrated sensing network. FBGs are attractive for embedded sensing in aerospace applications due to their small noninvasive size and prospect of constant, real-time nondestructive evaluation. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded in aluminum 6061 via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a rapid prototyping process that uses high power ultrasonic vibrations to weld similar and dissimilar metal foils together. UAM was chosen due to the desire to embed FBG sensors at low temperatures, a requirement that excludes other additive processes such as selective laser sintering or fusion deposition modeling. In this paper, the embedded FBGs are characterized in terms of birefringence losses, post embedding strain shifts, consolidation quality, and strain sensing performance. Sensors embedded into an ASTM test piece are compared against an exterior surface mounted foil strain gage at both room and elevated temperatures using cyclic tensile tests.

  3. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K.; Gensse, Chantal

    1993-01-01

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  4. Three-phase Coupling of Air, Droplets and Fibers for the Spray Molding Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffo, P.; Wulf, P.; Breuer, M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present paper the authors present a multiphase flow simulation model of the interaction of a droplet-laden air flow with flexible fibers. This highly complex flow is occurring during a manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polyurethane based composites, where the liquid plastic polyurethane (PUR) is sprayed with air assistance in a tool form or on a substrate. Simultaneously chopped fibers are laterally inserted in the polyurethane-air spray cone for wetting before the entire mixture deposits on the substrate, where it starts curing. This investigation aims to compute the statistical fiber orientation and density distribution in the final composite, which will help modeling its anisotropic material properties. It is presumed that the final position and orientation of a fiber on a substrate results from its dynamics and coupled interactions with air, PUR-droplets and other fibers within the spray cone. Therefore, we present a new approach simplifying the multiply coupled interaction of the three phases. In this paper a model of the process is built, that computes the transient, 4-way-coupled behavior of the air-liquid droplets mixture with the CFD code ANSYS Fluent and the 1-way-air- and 1-way-droplet-coupled dynamics of the fibers with an extra code called FIDYST. Two approaches for the coupling of fibers with the air-droplets-mixture are presented: One considers the mixture as a pseudo-fluid ("homogenization"), the other computes a force for each of the phases separately, wherein the average momentum transfer for the fiber-droplet collision is estimated based on the probability of local collision events.

  5. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  6. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  7. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    SciTech Connect

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  8. Product stewardship and science: safe manufacture and use of fiber glass.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Anderson, Robert; Bernstein, David M; Bunn, William B; Chase, Gerald A; Jankousky, Angela Libby; Marsh, Gary M; McClellan, Roger O

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a proactive product stewardship program for glass fibers. That effort included epidemiological studies of workers, establishment of stringent workplace exposure limits, liaison with customers on safe use of products and, most importantly, a research program to evaluate the safety of existing glass fiber products and guide development of new even safer products. Chronic inhalation exposure bioassays were conducted with rodents and hamsters. Amosite and crocidolite asbestos produced respiratory tract cancers as did exposure to "biopersistent" synthetic vitreous fibers. "less biopersistent" glass fibers did not cause respiratory tract cancers. Corollary studies demonstrated the role of slow fiber dissolution rates and biopersistence in cancer induction. These results guided development of safer glass fiber products and have been used in Europe to regulate fibers and by IARC and NTP in classifying fibers. IARC concluded special purpose fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are "possibly carcinogenic to humans" and insulation glass wool, continuous glass filament, rock wool and slag wool are "not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to human." The NTP's 12th report on carcinogens lists "Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)" as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." "Certain" in the descriptor refers to "biopersistent" glass fibers and excludes "less biopersistent" glass fibers.

  9. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  10. Natural Fiber Composite Retting, Preform Manufacture and Molding (Project 18988/Agreement 16313)

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Howe, Daniel T.; Laddha, Sachin; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2009-12-31

    Plant-based natural fibers can be used in place of glass in fiber reinforced automotive composites to reduce weight, cost and provide environmental benefits. Current automotive applications use natural fibers in injection molded thermoplastics for interior, non-structural applications. Compression molded natural fiber reinforced thermosets have the opportunity to extend natural fiber composite applications to structural and semi-structural parts and exterior parts realizing further vehicle weight savings. The development of low cost molding and fiber processing techniques for large volumes of natural fibers has helped in understanding the barriers of non-aqueous retting. The retting process has a significant effect on the fiber quality and its processing ability that is related to the natural fiber composite mechanical properties. PNNL has developed a compression molded fiber reinforced composite system of which is the basis for future preforming activities and fiber treatment. We are using this process to develop preforming techniques and to validate fiber treatment methods relative to OEM provided application specifications. It is anticipated for next fiscal year that demonstration of larger quantities of SMC materials and molding of larger, more complex components with a more complete testing regimen in coordination with Tier suppliers under OEM guidance.

  11. Heat-resistant fiber and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurada, I.; Kaji, K.; Okada, T.

    1984-08-21

    A heat resistant and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber is obtained by a process comprising immersing a polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating a polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid and irradiating the polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid, or a process comprising irradiating a polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation and then immersing the polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating the polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid.

  12. Low-coherence interferometric measurements of optical losses in autoclave cured composite samples with embedded optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Raffaella; Bastianini, Filippo; Donati, Lorenzo

    2013-05-01

    In this work a high-performance optical low-coherence reflectometer (OLCR) has been used to estimate the optical losses in optical fibers and fiber Bragg grating sensors embedded into CFRP material samples. An ASE tunable narrowband light source coupled to a Michelson interferometer allowed the high spatial resolution localization of both the concentrated and the distributed loss for different fiber coatings and type. In particular, acrylate- and polyimidecoated fibers and bend-insensitive fibers were tested. By using the OLCR it was possible to locate and identify the sources of optical loss introduced by the CFRP manufacturing process, therefore obtaining useful information on the efficiency of the embedding process.

  13. Manufacturing and Mechanical Testing of a New Functionally Graded Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bin; Hubler, Mija; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Struble, Leslie J.

    2008-02-01

    A functionally graded (FG) material system is employed to make fiber use more efficient in a fiber reinforced cement composite (FRCC). This preliminary study demonstrates beam elements that were functionally graded fiber reinforced cement composite (FGFRCC) with four layers, each with a different fiber volume ratio. Fiber volume ratio was graded in accordance with its potential contribution to the mechanical load-bearing capacity so as to reduce the overall fiber volume ratio while preserving the flexural strength and ductility of the beam. Extrusion was used to produce single homogeneous layers of constant fiber volume ratio. The FRCC layers with different fiber volume ratios were stacked according to a desired configuration and then pressed to make an integrated FGFRCC. Flexural tests were carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior, and the results were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the designed fiber distribution. Compared with homogeneous FRCC with the same overall fiber volume fraction, the FGFRCC exhibited about 50% higher strength and comparable ductility.

  14. Manufacturing and Mechanical Testing of a New Functionally Graded Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Bin; Hubler, Mija; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Struble, Leslie J.

    2008-02-15

    A functionally graded (FG) material system is employed to make fiber use more efficient in a fiber reinforced cement composite (FRCC). This preliminary study demonstrates beam elements that were functionally graded fiber reinforced cement composite (FGFRCC) with four layers, each with a different fiber volume ratio. Fiber volume ratio was graded in accordance with its potential contribution to the mechanical load-bearing capacity so as to reduce the overall fiber volume ratio while preserving the flexural strength and ductility of the beam. Extrusion was used to produce single homogeneous layers of constant fiber volume ratio. The FRCC layers with different fiber volume ratios were stacked according to a desired configuration and then pressed to make an integrated FGFRCC. Flexural tests were carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior, and the results were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the designed fiber distribution. Compared with homogeneous FRCC with the same overall fiber volume fraction, the FGFRCC exhibited about 50% higher strength and comparable ductility.

  15. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  16. CNT reinforced epoxy foamed and electrospun nano-fiber interlayer systems for manufacturing lighter and stronger featherweight(TM) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakonakis, Vasileios M.

    Multiple works have been performed in improving carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites especially in terms of strength so delamination, which is the major defect in laminated composites, is prevented. Nevertheless, there is not much focus on improving conventional CFRP systems in terms of weight especially when these are used in primary structures. This work questions whether lighter and at the same time stronger CFRP composites can be manufactured in order to replace conventional CFRP systems in major applications. Under this perspective, this study demonstrates that inducing controlled porosity may offer a systemic approach for manufacturing light weight carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Additionally, towards this scope, this work has focused on analyzing and describing the related matrix systems utilizing mostly classic viscoelastic theory. An in-depth characterization of the thermosetting matrix systems viscoelasticity kinetics as well as of the impregnation process towards its improvement in terms of lower cost is explored. Overall, this work makes an effort to establish the fundamentals for creating the next generation of light weight structural composites, the featherweight composites, by introducing porosity through several controlled reinforcements in a systemic and reproducible manner at the macro- micro- and nano- scales in the interlayer. By extensively describing the matrix system and the manufacturing processes and focusing on analytically testing the interlayer reinforcement systems, it is expected that featherweight CFRP will achieve lighter weight and at the same time higher mechanical properties.

  17. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  18. The addition of oat fiber and natural alternative sweeteners in the manufacture of plain yogurt.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, E; McGregor, J U; Traylor, S

    1998-03-01

    Calorie-reduced yogurts that were fortified with 1.32% oat fiber were prepared from lactose-hydrolyzed milk, alone and supplemented with 2 and 4% sucrose or with 1.6, 3.6, and 5.5% fructose. Treated samples were compared with unsweetened yogurt and with yogurts sweetened with 2, 4, and 6% sucrose. Addition of 5.5% fructose increased fermentation time by 60%, slowing down the production of lactic, pyruvic, acetic, and propionic acids and the consumption of hippuric and orotic acids. Lactose hydrolysis had an inhibitory effect on starter activity at the beginning of fermentation and a stimulatory effect at the end of fermentation. Fiber addition led to increases in concentrations of acetic and propionic acid. Lactobacilli counts were lower in samples treated with fructose. The use of hydrolyzed milk had a stimulatory effect on total bacteria and lactobacilli counts throughout the cold storage period. After 28 d of storage, lactobacilli counts were consistently higher in fiber-fortified yogurts, but total bacteria counts were lower. Apparent viscosity increased with the addition of sweetener and fiber. Lactose-hydrolyzed and fructose yogurts had the highest viscosity values. Samples sweetened with sucrose received the highest scores for flavor. Fiber addition decreased overall flavor quality. The lactose-hydrolyzed yogurts received the highest flavor scores, independent of fiber fortification. Fiber addition improved the body and texture of unsweetened yogurts but lowered overall scores for body and texture in yogurts sweetened with sucrose.

  19. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  20. Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability.

    PubMed

    Nakada, A; Shigeno, K; Sato, T; Kobayashi, T; Wakatsuki, M; Uji, M; Nakamura, T

    2013-08-01

    Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10(-1) Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at -10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site.

  1. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    PubMed

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP.

  2. pH-sensing properties of cascaded long- and short-period fiber grating with poly acrylic acid/poly allylamine hydrochloride thin-film overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the mode coupling mechanism and the reflection spectral properties of coated cascaded long- and short-period gratings (CLBG) are discussed. The effects of the thin-film parameters (film refractive index and film thickness) on the reflection spectra of the coated CLBG are simulated. By using electrostatic self-assembly method, poly acrylic acid (PAA) and poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayer molecular pH-sensitive thin-films are assembled on the surface of the partial corroded CLBG. When the CLBG coated with PAA/PAH films are used to sense pH values, the resonant wavelengths of the CLBG have almost no shift, whereas the resonance peak reflectivities change with pH values. In addition, the sensitivities of the resonance peak reflectivities responding to pH values are improved by an order of magnitude.

  3. Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2006-06-28

    The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2% of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise from p-coumaric acid by pyrolysis of abaca fibers in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which released high amounts of p-coumaric acid (as the methyl derivative). Products from p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) propanoid units, with a predominance of the latter (H:G:S molar ratio of 1.5:1:4.9), were also released after Py-GC/MS of abaca fibers. Sinapyl and coniferyl acetates, which are thought to be lignin monomer precursors, were also found in abaca. The extractives content of the abaca fiber (0.4%) was low, and the most predominant compounds were free sterols (24% of total extract) and fatty acids (24% of total extract). Additionally, significant amounts of steroid ketones (10%), triglycerides (6%), omega-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), monoglycerides (4%), fatty alcohols (4%), and a series of p-hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) esterified with long chain alcohols and omega-hydroxyfatty acids were also found, together with minor amounts of steroid hydrocarbons, diglycerides, alpha-hydroxyfatty acids, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides.

  4. [Analysis of associations of polymorphic loci of a tumor suppressor gene TP53 with malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers].

    PubMed

    Mukhammadiyeva, G F; Bakirov, A B; Karimova, L K; Valeyeva, E T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the role of TP53 tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms in the occurrence of skin malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers. We carried out a comparative study of polymorphous loci Arg72Pro and dup16bp in TP53 gene in workers with skin cancer and hyperkeratosis (n = 68), occupied in continuous glass fiber manufacture, and in healthy workers (n = 52). The associations of both Pro and dup16 minor alleles of TP53 gene, and Arg/Pro-W/dup16 genotype combination with higher risks for skin oncologic diseases of occupational genesis have been revealed.

  5. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program for Ruggedized Tactical Fiber Optic Cable. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    samples. The Optic Fiber samples were returned to ITT, Electro-Optical Products Division for a complete inspection and test evaluation. B-2 Aerosoace ...complete inspection and test evaluation. 4 D-13 Aerosoace 4ese3rch .) roa𔃽tiin, 4oanoke. Ia. CERTIFICATION We certify that this test data is a true

  6. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  7. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is sometimes used ... fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  8. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program for Ruggedized Tactical Fiber Optic Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-26

    OPTIMI:ATION RESULTS Al-I B PHASE III OPTIMIATION RESULTS BI-1 C PROGRESS AGAINST ORIGINAL PROGRAM\\IMING Cl-i Roanoke, Virginia vii J - - ŕ!l...all respooling speeds by regulating the payoff spool and braking functions. .__Roanoke, Viginia 1-11 ITT Elctro-Optical Products Division 2.0 FIBER...lu -2- ITT- Electro-Optcal Products Division__ dual caliper graduated to .001". Tests were conducted to determine the reproducibility of the station

  9. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program for Ruggedized Tactical Fiber Optic Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-26

    THRU SEPTEMBER 30, 1979 MAY 7 1980 A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED I ORADCOM SARMY COMMUNICATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT COMMAND...and optical testing of the first engineering sample. (2) Facilitization: a . High speed strander setup and operation, Extruder setup, -J Fiber optic...R. McDevitt, Director, Program Manager Piber Optics R&D a -nd Systems Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Roanoke, Virginia . .c 2 ;i

  10. A Comparative in Vitro Study of Power Output Deterioration over Time Between Ho:YAG Laser Fibers from Different Manufacturers as a Function of Deflection and Power Input

    PubMed Central

    Bourdoumis, Andreas; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Raj, Nirmal; Fedder, Artemis; Buchholz, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the performance of laser fibers from 6 major manufacturers in vitro and to identify the effect of time and angulations (180° and 0°) on fiber power output. Materials and Methods Overall, 36 single-use fibers were used. Each was tested with an energy input of 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 Joules. A power detector measured power output after 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes for three 15-minute cycles of continuous use. For the first 2 cycles, the fiber was bent to 180° with the use of a pre fabricated mould. Analysis of the data was performed by ANOVA and Tukey's test when the results were significant amongst groups. Statistical significance was deemed p < 0.05. Results No fiber fracture occurred. There was no significant difference in output at 15 minutes of continuous use at 0° and 180°. The reduction in energy output at the 15th minute of continuous use at 180° was not significant for any fiber type or initial input. Only output differences between the fibers proved to be significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion Fiber fracture and decline in performance is not due to deflection and continuous use. Frictional forces that occur between the fiber tip and the stone fragments may be responsible. PMID:26989365

  11. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program for Ruggedized Tactical Fiber Optic Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    SIMA 2 -w A.-L 4 . .’*. . 4 4. . . . .e am CHOPUUW VARIALE -I A LS- H 𔃺- - L TOW PMM POMUR OO 1.3S 16133 4.3.1 Fungus Test Fungus testing was conducted...optical fibers contra- helically laid around a polyurethane coated Kevlare central mem- ber. A jacket of polyurethane is extruded over the optical core... helically around the polyurethane Kevlar* jacketed central stength member. A high speed single twist closing unit equipped with a 13-bay neutralizing

  12. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  13. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  14. Embedding of MEMS pressure and temperature sensors in carbon fiber composites: a manufacturing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidinejad, Amir; Joshi, Shiv P.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper embedding of surface mount pressure and temperature sensors in the Carbon fiber composites are described. A commercially available surface mount pressure and temperature sensor are used for embedding in a composite lay- up of IM6/HST-7, IM6/3501 and AS4/E7T1-2 prepregs. The fabrication techniques developed here are the focus of this paper and provide for a successful embedding procedure of pressure sensors in fibrous composites. The techniques for positioning and insulating, the sensor and the lead wires, from the conductive carbon prepregs are described and illustrated. Procedural techniques are developed and discussed for isolating the sensor's flow-opening, from the exposure to the prepreg epoxy flow and exposure to the fibrous particles, during the autoclave curing of the composite laminate. The effects of the autoclave cycle (if any) on the operation of the embedded pressure sensor are discussed.

  15. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-04-30

    In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

  16. SYNTHETIC FIBERS, 1965,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The following groups of fibers are each briefly discussed: Glass and other inorganic fibers, viscose rayon, cuprammonium rayon, saponified acetate rayon, alginate rayon, regenerated protein fibers, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate rayon, cellulose triacetate, polyamides, acrylics, modacrylics, polyvinyls, polyvinylidenes, polyesters, polyolefins, polyurethanes, fluorocarbons.

  17. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  18. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  19. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dul-Sun; Woo, Jang Chang; Youk, Ji Ho; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  20. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  1. On the characterization and spinning of solvent extracted lignin towards the manufacture of low-cost carbon fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Darren A; Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Frederick S

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A Kraft hardwood lignin (HWL) and an organic-purified hardwood lignin (HWL-OP) were evaluated as potential precursors for the production of lowcost carbon fibers. It was found that the unpurified HWL exhibited poor spinnability while the HWL-OP exhibited excellent spinnability characteristics. Fibers of various diameters were obtained from the HWL-OP. Thermostabilization studies showed that oxidative stabilization can only be used to convert HWL-OP-based fibers into carbon fibers if extremely low heating rates are applied. Carbonized lignin-based fibers had tensile strength of 0.51 GPa and tensile modulus of 28.6 GPa. VC

  2. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1010 Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1010 - Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid... Acrylic and modified acrylic plastics, semirigid and rigid. Semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics may be safely used as articles intended for use in contact with food, in accordance...

  7. Novel localized surface plasmon resonance based optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muri, Harald Ian D. I.; Hjelme, Dag R.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade various optical fiber sensing schemes have been proposed based on local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). LSPR are interacting with the evanescent field from light propagating in the fiber core or by interacting with the light at the fiber end face. Sensor designs utilizing the fiber end face is strongly preferred from a manufacturing point of view. However, the different techniques available to immobilize metallic nanostructures on the fiber end face for LSPR sensing is limited to essentially a monolayer, either by photolithographic structuring of metal film, thermal nucleation of metal film, or by random immobilization of nanoparticles (NP). In this paper, we report on a novel LSPR based optical fiber sensor architecture. The sensor is prepared by immobilizing gold NP's in a hydrogel droplet polymerized on the fiber end face. This design has several advantages over earlier designs. It dramatically increase the number of NP's available for sensing, it offers precise control over the NP density, and the NPs are position in a true 3D aqueous environment. The sensor design is also compatible with low cost manufacturing. The sensor design can measure volumetric changes in a stimuli-responsive hydrogel or measure binding to receptors on the NP surface. It can also be used as a two-parameter sensor by utilizing both effects. We present results from proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating a pH sensor based on LSPR sensing in a poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel embedding gold nanoparticles.

  8. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup −46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10{sup −20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  9. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization from Chlorinated Polypropylene and Polyethylene Trunk Fibers

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Suree; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Li, Meijun; ...

    2015-12-10

    Seawater contains a large amount of uranium (~4.5 billion tons) which can serve as a limitless supply of an energy source. However, in order to make the recovery of uranium from seawater economically feasible, lower manufacturing and deployment costs are required, and thus, solid adsorbents must have high uranium uptake, reusability, and high selectivity toward uranium. In this study, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), without the radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP), was used for grafting acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from a new class of trunk fibers, forming adsorbents in a readily deployable form. The new class of trunk fibers wasmore » prepared by the chlorination of PP round fiber, hollow-gear-shaped PP fiber, and hollow-gear-shaped PE fiber. During ATRP, degrees of grafting (d.g.) varied according to the structure of active chlorine sites on trunk fibers and ATRP conditions, and the d.g. as high as 2570% was obtained. Resulting adsorbent fibers were evaluated in U-spiked simulated seawater and the maximum adsorption capacity of 146.6 g U/kg, much higher than that of a standard adsorbent JAEA fiber (75.1 g/kg), was obtained. This new type of trunk fibers can be used for grafting a variety of uranium-interacting ligands, including designed ligands that are highly selective toward uranium.« less

  10. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization from Chlorinated Polypropylene and Polyethylene Trunk Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Suree; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Li, Meijun; Yue, Yanfeng; Tsouris, Costas; Janke, Christopher J.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-10

    Seawater contains a large amount of uranium (~4.5 billion tons) which can serve as a limitless supply of an energy source. However, in order to make the recovery of uranium from seawater economically feasible, lower manufacturing and deployment costs are required, and thus, solid adsorbents must have high uranium uptake, reusability, and high selectivity toward uranium. In this study, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), without the radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP), was used for grafting acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from a new class of trunk fibers, forming adsorbents in a readily deployable form. The new class of trunk fibers was prepared by the chlorination of PP round fiber, hollow-gear-shaped PP fiber, and hollow-gear-shaped PE fiber. During ATRP, degrees of grafting (d.g.) varied according to the structure of active chlorine sites on trunk fibers and ATRP conditions, and the d.g. as high as 2570% was obtained. Resulting adsorbent fibers were evaluated in U-spiked simulated seawater and the maximum adsorption capacity of 146.6 g U/kg, much higher than that of a standard adsorbent JAEA fiber (75.1 g/kg), was obtained. This new type of trunk fibers can be used for grafting a variety of uranium-interacting ligands, including designed ligands that are highly selective toward uranium.

  11. Development of manufacturing process for large-diameter composite monofilaments by pyrolysis of resin-impregnated carbon-fiber bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, W. G.; Pinoli, P. C.; Vidoz, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Large diameter, carbon-carbon composite, monofilaments were produced from the pyrolysis of organic precursor resins reinforced with high-strenght carbon fibers. The mechanical properties were measured before and after pyrolysis and the results were correlated with the properties of the constituents. The composite resulting from the combination of Thornel 75 and GW-173 resin precursor produced the highest tensile strength. The importance of matching strain-to-failure of fibers and matrix to obtain all the potential reinforcement of fibers is discussed. Methods are described to reduce, within the carbonaceous matrix, pyrolysis flaws which tend to reduce the composite strength. Preliminary studies are described which demonstrated the feasibility of fiber-matrix copyrolysis to alleviate matrix cracking and provide an improved matrix-fiber interfacial bonding.

  12. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in kenaf bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality papers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; Del Río, José C

    2004-07-28

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a high syringyl/guaiacyl ratio (5.4) and minor amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units. Simultaneously, sinapyl and coniferyl acetates were also identified, indicating that this lignin is partially acetylated. p-Hydroxycinnamic acids were found in only trace amounts. The main lipids identified by GC/MS of extracts from kenaf fibers were series of long-chain n-fatty acids, waxes, n-alkanes, and n-fatty alcohols. Free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones, as well as steryl glycosides, were also found. Finally, the fate of the main constituents of kenaf fibers in alkaline pulping was also investigated.

  13. Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, R.; Levy, N.; Pruitt, P.M.

    1987-07-01

    The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of those glove materials tested.

  14. Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric; Cibula, Edvard; Đonlagić, Denis

    2007-09-01

    The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 μm are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembled at the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavity whose length depends on applied pressure. Controlled polishing steps including on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the manufacturing process achieve good repeatability and high sensitivity of the pressure sensor. The prototypes obtained with the described manufacturing method could easily have a sensitivity of ~2 nm/kPa (~0.3 nm/mmHg) with a record, so far, of ~5 nm/kPa (~0.7 nm/mmHg). The relatively simple fabrication technique using common and inexpensive equipments and materials combined with the fact that such sensitive sensors with multimode fiber could be interrogated with low-cost commercial interrogators (such as those using white-light interferometry) make this option very attractive for many applications involving pressure measurement. The sensor significant size reduction is valuable especially for the medical field, for applications such as minimally invasive patient health monitoring and diagnostics or small animals testing. Disposable sensors with ultra-miniature size will certainly open the way for new medical diagnostics and therapies.

  15. A Machine Vision Quality Control System for Industrial Acrylic Fibre Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, Paulo; Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. Brázio; Dinis, João

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the implementation of INFIBRA, a machine vision system used in the quality control of acrylic fibre production. The system was developed by INETI under a contract with a leading industrial manufacturer of acrylic fibres. It monitors several parameters of the acrylic production process. This paper presents, after a brief overview of the system, a detailed description of the machine vision algorithms developed to perform the inspection tasks unique to this system. Some of the results of online operation are also presented.

  16. A plasma spray process for the manufacture of long-fiber reinforced Ti-6Al-4V composite monotapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, T.; Bartuli, C.

    1994-03-01

    A fabrication method for titanium matrix composite monotapes reinforced by long SiC fibers is described. The plasma spray technique, carried out in an inert atmosphere, was used to deposit the metal matrix onto previously arranged continuous fibers. Major benefits are due to a controlled operating environment (the entire process is performed in a neutral gas atmosphere) and to the high solidification rate of the melted material. The formation of deleterious brittle reaction products between the fiber and matrix is therefore limited. Plasma spraying, normally used as a coating technique, was modified to produce a long composite monotape. This required a suitable arrangement of the fiber, placed onto a cylindrical substrate, and the identification of suitable operating conditions, as described in the present work. The results of characterization tests performed on the tape, with special reference to the quality of the fiber/matrix interface, are summarized. Results of preliminary diffusion bonding experiments carried out by means of a hot pressing system are also reported.

  17. Effects of manufactured soluble dietary fiber from Quercus mongolica on hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase activities in epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Chai, Young-Mi; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Kim, Mu-Nam; Park, Mo-Ra; Rhee, Soon-Jae

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a manufactured soluble dietary fiber on lipid metabolism in rats fed high cholesterol diets. Soluble dietary fiber was prepared from wood chips of oak (Quercus mongolica). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to either a normal diet or five high cholesterol diets containing 1% cholesterol and different fiber supplements. The high cholesterol groups were subdivided into fiber-free diet (FF), 5% pectin (5P), 10% pectin (10P), 5% manufactured soluble dietary fiber (5QM), and 10% manufactured soluble dietary fiber (10QM) groups. Total serum cholesterol concentrations in all soluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups were lower than in the FF group. The high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in the FF group was significantly lower, compared with the normal group, but was increased in groups supplemented with soluble dietary fiber. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and the atherogenic index had the same tendency as total cholesterol concentration. Compared with the FF group, in the 5P, 5QM, 10P, and 10QM groups hepatic triglyceride concentrations were 12%, 16%, 20%, and 24% lower, respectively, and hepatic cholesterol concentrations were 48%, 52%, 52%, and 58% lower, respectively. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity in the soluble fiber groups was significantly higher than in the FF groups, but lower than the normal group. When hepatic tissue was observed under a light microscope, the FF group had completely formed lipomas in the hepatic tissue, which led to fat deposits and then a fatty liver. The size and number of lipomas were lower in the soluble dietary fiber-fed groups, as compared with the group not fed dietary fiber. In conclusion, improvements in lipid metabolism were observed as a result of the manufactured soluble dietary fiber from the oak chips, and were similar to that seen for pectin. The preparation method for the soluble dietary fiber from oak

  18. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; del Río, José C

    2006-03-22

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by GC/MS of the hemp fibers extracts were series of n-alkanes, free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, waxes, and long-chain n-fatty acids. Other compounds such as n-aldehydes, n-fatty alcohols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones as well as steryl glycosides were also found.

  19. Chemical characterization of pitch deposits produced in the manufacturing of high-quality paper pulps from hemp fibers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C

    2005-09-01

    The composition of pitch deposits occurring in pulp sheets and mill circuits during soda/anthraquinone pulping and elemental chlorine-free pulp bleaching of bast fibers of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) was studied. Pitch deposits were extracted with acetone, and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acetone extracts (15-25% of pitch deposits) were constituted by the defoamers used at the mill and by lipophilic extractives from hemp fibers. Acetone-insoluble residues (75-85% of pitch deposits) were analyzed by pyrolysis-GC/MS in the presence and absence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. These residues were constituted by salts of fatty acids (arising from hemp fibers) with calcium, magnesium, aluminum and other cations that were identified in the deposits. It was concluded that inappropriate use of defoamer together with the presence of multivalent ions seemed to be among the causes of hemp extractives deposition in the pitch problems reported here.

  20. 75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... made from DuPont Kevlar. DuPont supplies its Kevlar staple fiber to four major and six minor yarn... para-aramid yarns: DuPont TM which makes Kevlar , and the Teijin Group which makes Twaron. DuPont TM...

  1. Low attenuation optical fiber of deuterated polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, J.K.; Beckerbauer, R.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Wilson, F.C.

    1985-04-16

    Light-transmitting optical fiber having a core of a (deuterated acrylate) polymer selected from the group consisting of a deuterated methacrylate homopolymer, a deuterated methacrylate copolymer and a deuterated methacrylate/acrylate copolymer which exhibits remarkably high transmission of light in the visible and at certain wavelengths in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

  2. Research Summary of an Additive Manufacturing Technology for the Fabrication of 3D Composites with Tailored Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Larry R.; Riddick, Jaret C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel additive manufacturing technology is used to create micro-composites, which can be tailored for specific end-use applications. The Field-Aided Laminar Composite (FALCom) process uses specifically focused electric fields to align nano- to micro-sized particles into chain-like structures, which are referred to as pseudo-fibers. These pseudo-fibers are then immediately frozen into place by incident ultraviolet radiation on the photopolymer matrix. The pseudo-fibers are arranged by design, and they are used to create three-dimensional composite structures. Multiple filler materials have been evaluated for use in the FALCom system; however, this report describes aluminum micro-particles that are aligned and oriented in an acrylic photopolymer matrix. A description of the technology and a review of experimental processing are shown, and conclusions, as well as, future work are discussed.

  3. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  4. Three-dimensional architecture of lithium-anodes made from graphite fibers coated with thin-films of silicon oxycarbide: Design, performance and manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ibrahim; Raj, Rishi

    2016-04-01

    Silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) is an amorphous molecular network of Sisbnd Csbnd O tetrahedra anchored to graphene-like carbon. The graphene forms a three dimensional cellular network with a domain size of ∼5 nm. Therefore nanometer thick films of SiCO grown on graphite may be expected to have unusual behavior. We grow these films on a bed of commercially available graphite fibers that serve the dual function of a current collector. The electrochemical behavior of the composite is measured as a function of the thickness of the SiCO films. Thick films approach the typical behavior of bulk SiCO (which has three times the capacity of graphite, but suffers from poor first cycle efficiency). However, films, approximately 100 nm thick, show high first cycle efficiency as well as high capacity. The composite performs better than the prediction from the rule-of-mixtures, which further substantiates the unusual behavior of the thin-film architecture. The Raman spectra of these thin films also differ from bulk SiCO. The development of thin graphite fibers, with a high surface to volume ratio that have the same capacity as the current graphite-powder technology, coupled with manufacturing of these thin-films by a liquid-polymer precursor based process, can propel these results toward commercialization.

  5. Radiation-assisted PET recycling using glass fiber reinforcement and reactive additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, K.; Czvikovszky, T.; Abd-Elhamid, M.

    2004-02-01

    Post-consumer poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) material has been recycled in an upgrading procedure. Radiation treatment of modest dose (10 kGy) has been applied to activate a reactive additive (epoxy-acrylate, 2% to the PET) to bond together the matrix (recycled PET) and the reinforcement (chopped glass fiber, 10-20% to the PET). Tensile-, bending- and impact-resistance of the treated, recycled PET has been improved significantly. A new composite engineering material has been manufactured this way of reactive reinforcing recycling, surpassing the original, virgin PET especially in impact properties. The new thermoplastic is well suitable for injection molding of technical parts.

  6. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 63 FR 41279 - Acrylic Sheet From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Acrylic Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on acrylic sheet from Japan. SUMMARY: The... order on acrylic sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. 78 FR 55644 - Styrene, Copolymers with Acrylic Acid and/or Methacrylic Acid; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium... methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate, and its...

  12. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  13. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  14. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantais, Corina Michelle

    2014-05-01

    The liquid argon target of the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector is contained by an extremely radiopure acrylic vessel. Alpha decays from the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are a source of background. If a fraction of the alpha energy is observed, or if the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay is observed, the event will not be separated from a dark matter candidate event. In addition to the low level of inherent contamination from uranium and thorium, the Pb-210 from Rn-222 diffusion during manufacturing must be measured. The limit for the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel is 1.1 x 10-20 g/g Pb-210. By vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with an ultralow background HPGe well detector and a low background alpha spectrometer, the bulk acrylic was found to have an upper limit of 10 -19 g/g Pb-210. The design, installation, commissioning, operation, and analysis for various aspects of the acrylic assay are described.

  15. Acrylic microspheres-based optosensor for visual detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nur Syarmim Mohamed; Tan, Ling Ling; Heng, Lee Yook; Chong, Kwok Feng; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam

    2016-09-15

    A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6 μm up to 1.8 μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100 ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples.

  16. Carbon-fiber technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.; Parker, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of PAN based carbon fiber manufacture and the science of fiber behavior is surveyed. A review is given of the stabilization by oxidation and the subsequent carbonization of fibers, of the apparent structure of fibers deduced from scanning electron microscopy, from X-ray scattering, and from similarities with soft carbons, and of the known relations between fiber properties and heat treatment temperature. A simplified model is invoked to explain the electrical properties of fibers and recent quantum chemical calculations on atomic clusters are used to elucidate some aspects of fiber conductivity. Some effects of intercalation and oxidative modification of finished fibers are summarized.

  17. Fireblocking Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PBI was originally developed for space suits. In 1980, the need for an alternative to asbestos and stricter government anti-pollution standards led to commercialization of the fire blocking fiber. PBI is used for auto racing driver suits and aircraft seat covers. The fiber does not burn in air, is durable and easily maintained. It has been specified by a number of airliners and is manufactured by Hoechst-Celanese Corporation.

  18. Surface modification of cellulosic substrates via atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acrylic acid: Structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Sylla, Dioulde; Molina, Laura; Crespo, Eulalia; Mota, Jordi; Bautista, Llorenç

    2014-06-01

    Surface chemical modification of cellulose-based substrates has been carried out by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) of acrylic acid. The structure/properties relationship of the samples was studied as a function of the plasma experimental conditions. Acrylic acid monomer/helium ratio and treatment speed clearly influences the wettability properties of the paper substrate: advancing contact angle values were reduced to the half if compare to non-treated paper. Surface morphology of the films did not greatly vary at short polymerization times but fibers were covered by a poly(acrylic acid) film at longer times. FTIR and XPS techniques allowed detecting the retention of carboxylic acid groups/moieties. The possibility to quickly design architectures with tunable carboxylic functions by modifying the plasma processing parameters is shown.

  19. Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing (NAICS 326)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for plastics and rubber products manufacturing (which includes the manufacture of cellulose and other fibers) including information about NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for wastewater discharges

  20. Reliability and accuracy of embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors for strain monitoring in advanced composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Raffaella; Donati, Lorenzo; Troiani, Enrico; Proli, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated issues for an efficient and reliable embedding and use of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for strain monitoring of composite structures with particular regard to the manufacturing process of components in the nautical field by means of the vacuum bag technique in autoclave. CFRP material laminates with embedded FBGs were produced and the effect of the curing process parameters on the light transmission characteristics of the optical fibers was initially investigated. Two different types of coating, namely polyimide and acrylate, were tested by measuring the light attenuation by an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer. Tensile specimens were subsequently extracted from the laminas and instrumented also with a surface-mounted conventional electrical strain gage (SG). Comparison between the FBG and SG measurements during static tensile tests allowed the evaluation of the strain monitoring capability of the FBGs, in particular of their sensitivity (i.e., gage factor) when embedded.

  1. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  2. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent.

  3. Characterization of Glass Fiber Separator Material for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    Characterization studies were carried out on a glass fiber paper that is currently employed as a separator material for some LiSOCl2 primary cells. The material is of the non-woven type made from microfilaments of E-type glass and contains an ethyl acrylate binder. Results from extraction studies and tensile testing revealed that the binder content and tensile strength of the paper were significantly less than values specified by the manufacturer. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of clusters of impurities many of which were high in iron content. Results of emission spectroscopy revealed high overall levels of iron and leaching, followed by atomic absorption measurements, revealed that essentially all of this iron is soluble in SOCl2.

  4. Fiber Optic Sensors for Cure/Health Monitoring of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, K. H.; Brown, T. L.; Wu, M. C.; Gause, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current program is to develop techniques for using optical fibers to monitor the cure of composite materials in real time during manufacture and to monitor the in-service structural health of composite structures. Single and multimode optical fibers containing Bragg gratings have been used to perform Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy on high refractive index resins and show promise as embedded sensors. In order for chemical spectroscopy to be possible, intimate contact must be achieved between the fiber core and the composite resin. This contact is often achieved by stripping the cladding off of a portion of the fiber, thus making it brittle and easily broken in the composite processing environment. To avoid weakening the fiber to this extent, high refractive index fibers have been fabricated that use a low refractive index acrylate coating which serves as the cladding. This is ideal, as the coating is easily solvent stripped and intimate contact with the glass core can be achieved. Real time resin and composite chemical spectra have been obtained, with possible multifunctional capability using Bragg gratings to assess physical properties such as strain, modulus and other parameters of interest.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic...) Identity. For the purpose of this section, n-alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers are copolymers obtained...

  6. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as... prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) The acrylate ester copolymer is a...

  7. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  8. Monolithic F-16 Uniform Thickness Stretched Acrylic Canopy Transparency Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Thermoforming Finite Strain Analysis Finite Element Modeling Mooney Formulation Tensile Testing Acrylic Material Properties F-16 Transparency Thinning Uniform...OF ACRYLIC TENSILE SPECIMEN ...... 8 MARC ANALYSIS OF ACRYLIC HEMISPHERE ............ 12 IV ACRYLIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES AT THERMOFORMING TEMPERATURES...properties (necessary for finite element stress analysis work) were generated at temperatures in the range of thermoforming . A finite element code

  9. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  11. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  12. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  13. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  15. Possible utilization of acrylic paint and copper phthalocyanine pigment sludge for vermiculture.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Buch, Vaidehi; Macwan, Praisy; Patel, Jignesh

    2010-05-01

    Sludge generated from water treatment plants in two different paint and pigment manufacturing industries, one manufacturing CPC Green (copper phthalocyanine green) and the other acrylic (pure and styrene) washable distempers, synthetic enamels, fillers and putties, were used for culturing earthworms (Eisenia foetida Savigny). The possibility of getting a quality vermicompost was also explored. The sludges were used pure and mixed with month-old cow dung at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 ratios (sludge:cow dung). In pure sludges and in the 3:1 ratio, earthworms did not survive. Earthworms had very low survival in CPC Green sludge and its mixtures while acrylic paint sludge was very efficient in supporting worm growth and worm castings were generated quickly. Both sludges were alkaline, non-saline, but had appreciable Ca, Al, Pb, Zn, and Mn. CPC Green had high Cu (12,900 mg kg(-1)) and acrylic paint sludge had high total Cr (155 mg kg(-1)). High Ca and Al in both came from water treatment chemicals (lime and alum), while CPC Green itself is a copper-based pigment. The sludges were suitable for land application with regard to their metal contents, except for Cu in CPC Green. CPC Green did not support proper growth of plants (green gram, Vigna radiata (L). R. Wilcz.), while acrylic paint sludge supported growth in pure form and mixtures with soil.

  16. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Portugal, Aline; Veloso, Letícia Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GI) and microwave-cured (GII); colorless acrylic resin for prosthetic eyes (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GIII) and microwave-cured (GIV). Mechanical tests using three point loads were performed in a test machine (EMIC, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.01). Groups GII and GIV presented, respectively, the highest (98.70 +/- 11.90 MPa) and lowest means (71.07 +/- 8.93 MPa), with a statistically significant difference. The cure method used for the prosthetic eye resins did not interfere in their flexural strength. It was concluded that all the resins assessed presented sufficient flexural strength values to be recommended for the manufacture of prosthetic eyes.

  17. Poly(meth)acrylate-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica

    2013-12-05

    Poly(meth)acrylate coatings for pharmaceutical applications were introduced in 1955 with the launch of EUDRAGIT(®) L and EUDRAGIT(®) S, two types of anionic polymers. Since then, by introducing various monomers into their polymer chains and thus altering their properties, diverse forms with specific characteristics have become available. Today, poly(meth)acrylates function in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and/or release the drug in a time-controlled manner. This article reviews the properties of various poly(meth)acrylates and discusses formulation issues as well as application possibilities.

  18. New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with bromine-containing monomer.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M

    2008-07-01

    Bromine-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the bromine-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of bromine-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque.

  19. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles , unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes... Recycling .............................. B1-FB7-1 Warehouse Layout Design at Shady Peeps...Analysis and Recommendations .......................................... B1-FB11-1 NextStep Recycling Supply Chain and Ops Analysis and

  20. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  1. Reactivity of Monovinyl (Meth)Acrylates Containing Cyclic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, Kathryn A; Nie, Jun; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2008-12-09

    The tremendous diversity of materials properties available with polymers is due in large part to the ability to design structures from the monomeric state. The ease of use of comonomer mixtures only expands this versatility. While final polymer properties are obviously important in the selection or development of a material for a given purpose, for a number of applications, such as optical fiber coatings, photolithography and microelectronics, the additional requirement of a very rapid polymerization process may be equally critical. A class of unusually reactive mono-(meth)acrylate monomers bearing secondary functionality that includes carbonates, carbamates and oxazolidones, has been demonstrated but not fully explained. Here, the influence of an integral cyclic carbonate functional group on (meth)acrylate photopolymerization kinetics is examined in detail with respect to monomers with a wide variety of alternative secondary functionality structure as well as in comparison to conventional mono- and di-(meth)acrylates. The kinetic results from full cure studies of several cyclic carbonate-containing monomers clearly highlight specific structural variations that effectively promote monomer reactivity. Copolymerizations with tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate reflect similar dramatic kinetic effects associated with the novel monomers while partial cure homopolymerization studies reveal exceptional dark cure behavior linked to observations of uncommonly low ratios of termination to propagation rates throughout the conversion profile. Temperature effects on reaction kinetics, including both reaction rate and the individual kinetic parameters, as well as the temperature dependence of hydrogen bonding interactions specifically involving the secondary functional groups are probed as a means to understand better the fundamentally interesting and practically important behavior of these monomers.

  2. EVALUATION OF AN ACRYLATE TERPOLYMER, POLYURETHANE COMPOSITE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Composite films consisting of a flexible acrylate terpolymer substrate and an outer layer of poly (ester-urethane) elastomer were prepared and evaluated for use in cosmetic glove applications. (Author)

  3. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (p<0.05). However, the amount of residual monomer in group F3 was significantly higher than that of the F1, F4, and PC groups (p<0.05). In contrast, ultrasonic treatment did not reduce the amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin (p>0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time.

  4. Low-Bending-Loss Single-Mode Fibers for Fiber-to-the-Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himeno, Kuniharu; Matsuo, Shoichiro; Guan, Ning; Wada, Akira

    2005-11-01

    Recent progress on low-bending-loss single-mode optical fibers for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) is reviewed. Designing and manufacturing for three types of fibers-a step-index-profile fiber, a trench-index-profile fiber, and a holey fiber-are discussed. The trench-index-profile fibers and the holey fibers are confirmed to be candidates for indoor wiring because of their low bending losses, as well as splice losses.

  5. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  6. Miniature Spinning Enzyme-Retted Flax Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

  7. Miniature spinning enzyme-retted flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

  8. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  9. The measurement of sucrose concentration by two-tapered all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing different coupling structures and manufacture processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Hsin-Wen; Hsu, Yi-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The sucrose concentration measurement and characteristics of light coupling taper structure on sensitivity with various fabrication processes of taper structure for all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (AFMZI) are presented. Using fusion splicer with electrical discharge, the standard single-mode fiber is employed to be fabricated as conical coupling/decoupling taper structure. The basic two fabrication processes are designed as single fusion-stretching (SFS), multiple fusions without stretching (MF). The third advanced process is composed of SFS and multiple fusions without stretching processes, and called multiple fusions with single stretching (MFSS). Various types of coupling/decoupling taper structures were fabricated based on the three kinds of fabrication processes. The effects of geometry shape including taper waist, taper angle, and sensing length on sensing sensitivity of AFMZIs are estimated. The modifications of fiber core and cladding induced by thermal effect affect the refractive index distributions and shapes of taper structure. The effects of refractive index changes of fiber core and cladding on sensing sensitivity are also discussed. The AFMZI was tested by measuring aqueous sucrose solution of refractive index unit (RIU) from 1.333 to 1.420 RIU. The optical spectrums are measured by a spectrometer. The spectrum dip shifts and sensing sensitivity was measured and calculated, respectively. As shown in results, sensing sensitivities of AFMZIs of taper structure fabricated by MFSS and multiple fusions without stretching processing are generally higher than SFS. The reasons could be aimed on materials modification through thermal effect on blurring fiber core-cladding interface and proper taper angle of taper structure. The more homogeneous refractive index distribution on fiber core-cladding interface, the more detecting light power decoupled through core-cladding interface to interact with exterior environment and enhance the sensing sensitivity

  10. Electrohydrodynamic Printing and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor); Poon, Hak Fei (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An stable electrohydrodynamic filament is obtained by causing a straight electrohydrodynamic filament formed from a liquid to emerge from a Taylor cone, the filament having a diameter of from 10 nm to 100.mu.m. Such filaments are useful in electrohydrodynamic printing and manufacturing techniques and their application in liquid drop/particle and fiber production, colloidal deployment and assembly, and composite materials processing.

  11. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  18. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  19. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  19. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  20. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  1. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  2. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  11. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  15. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  16. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  17. Influence of Layup and Curing on the Surface Accuracy in the Manufacturing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composite Space Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jianbao; Xie, Yongjie; Zhang, Boming; Sun, Baogang; Guo, Hongjun

    2017-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, CFRP, composite materials have been used to fabricate space mirror. Usually the composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of replicated space mirror is always reduced, still needed further study. We emphatically studied the error caused by layup and curing on the surface accuracy of space mirror through comparative experiments and analyses, the layup and curing influence factors include curing temperature, cooling rate of curing, method of prepreg lay-up, and area weight of fiber. Focusing on the four factors, we analyzed the error influence rule and put forward corresponding control measures to improve the surface figure of space mirror. For comparative analysis, six CFRP composite mirrors were fabricated and surface profile of mirrors were measured. Four guiding control measures were described here. Curing process of composite space mirror is our next focus.

  18. The Influence of Polymerization Type and Reinforcement Method on Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N = 10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25 × 2 × 2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a = 5%) showing significant interaction (P = 0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71 ± 67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05 ± 71.97)a, Ind (215.21 ± 46.59)ab, SW (190.51 ± 31.49)abc, Short (156.31 ± 28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51 ± 20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47 ± 19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93 ± 105.65)a, Uni (215.14 ± 67.60)ab, Short (198.44 ± 95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56 ± 92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32 ± 62.51)cd, SW (106.69 ± 28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39 ± 39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics. PMID:25879079

  19. The influence of polymerization type and reinforcement method on flexural strength of acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N=10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25×2×2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a=5%) showing significant interaction (P=0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71±67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05±71.97)a, Ind (215.21±46.59)ab, SW (190.51±31.49)abc, Short (156.31±28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51±20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47±19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93±105.65)a, Uni (215.14±67.60)ab, Short (198.44±95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56±92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32±62.51)cd, SW (106.69±28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39±39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics.

  20. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  1. Stainless steel mesh-acrylic cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Tysvaer, A T; Hovind, K H

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-four steel mesh-acrylic plates have been used for repair of skull defects in 1970-73. Three plates had to be removed due to complications, two due to infection and one due to an allergic reaction. The plate is easy to mould, strong, and light. The cosmetic results are excellent.

  2. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2805 Acrylate ester. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an...

  3. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Influence of Surface Properties on the Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Acrylic and Silicone

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Cláudia; Teixeira, Pilar; Oliveira, Rosário

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of eight Staphylococcus epidermidis strains to adhere to acrylic and silicone, two polymers normally used in medical devices manufacture. Furthermore, it was tried to correlate that with the surface properties of substrata and cells. Therefore, hydrophobicity and surface tension components were calculated through contact angle measurements. Surface roughness of substrata was also assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No relationship was found between microbial surface hydrophobicity and adhesion capability. Nevertheless, Staphylococcus epidermidis IE214 showed very unique adhesion behaviour, with cells highly aggregated between them, which is a consequence of their specific surface features. All strains, determined as being hydrophilic, adhered at a higher extent to silicone than to acrylic, most likely due to its more hydrophobic character and higher roughness. This demonstrates the importance of biomaterial surface characteristics for bacterial adhesion. PMID:20126579

  5. Efficient enzymatic acrylation through transesterification at controlled water activity.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mathias; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2008-04-15

    Enzymatic acrylation is a process of potentially strong interest to the chemical industry. Direct esterification involving acrylic acid is unfortunately rather slow, with inhibition phenomena appearing at high acid concentrations. In the present study the acrylation of 1-octanol catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was shown to be as much as an order of magnitude faster when ethyl acrylate served as the donor of the acrylic group. Water activity is a key parameter for optimizing the rate of ester synthesis. The optimum water activity for the esterification of octanol by acrylic acid was found to be 0.75, that for its esterification by propionic acid to be 0.45 and the transesterification involving ethyl acrylate to be fastest at a water activity of 0.3. The reasons for these differences in optimum water activity are discussed in terms of enzyme specificity, substrate solvation, and mass transfer effects.

  6. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  7. Acrylate in Phaeocystis colonies does not affect the surrounding bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordkamp, D. J. B.; Gieskes, W. W. C.; Gottschal, J. C.; Forney, L. J.; van Rijssel, M.

    2000-08-01

    Acrylate accumulates to concentrations of 1.3-6.5 mM in the mucus of Phaeocystis colonies and may have an effect on the surrounding bacterial community, either as an inhibitor or as a carbon source. Both in the field and in the laboratory, effects of acrylate on bacterial growth and on its consumption were investigated. During a Phaeocystis bloom, acrylate-consuming bacteria were found to be present (1% of total number counted by microscopy) and a 5-fold increase of the number of these bacteria was observed after the Phaeocystis bloom (4.9% of the total number counted by microscopy). Acrylate consumption rates were higher in filtered (≤20 μm) seawater samples than in unfiltered samples, indicating that particles larger than 20 μm, mostly Phaeocystis colonies, caused a reduction in the rate of acrylate consumption. This was not found when axenic Phaeocystis was added to an acrylate-consuming bacterium (strain AC-2) that had been isolated from the highest MPN dilution from field samples. Furthermore, we could not find a decrease in growth rates of the total bacterial community or of isolated strains in the presence of high acrylate concentrations (≤10 mM). In co-cultures of Phaeocystis and strain AC-2 we observed that the production of acrylate was not affected by the bacterium and that the consumption of acrylate by strain AC-2 was not affected by the presence of Phaeocystis. Acrylate concentrations in the mucous layer of the Phaeocystis colonies in those co-cultures were high (6.7-7.7 mM) and comparable with acrylate concentrations in the mucous layer of axenic Phaeocystis colonies. Acrylate seems to be sorbed to the mucus matrix of the colony and diffusion of acrylate out of this mucus matrix appears to be slow. Upon disruption of the colony skin acrylate was immediately solubilised from the mucus matrix.

  8. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  9. Cycloolefin effect in cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soon; Seo, Dong Chul; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Sang Wok; Kim, Sang Jin; Shin, Dae Hyeon; Shin, Jin Bong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2008-11-01

    One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low transmittance in COMA type copolymer most researchers were interested in developing of (meth)acryl type copolymer again for ArF photoresist. On the other hand, we have studied various polymer platforms suitable ArF photoresist except for meth(acryl) type copolymer. As a result of this study we had developed ROMA type polymers and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymers. Among the polymers cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer has many attractions such as etch roughness, resist reflow which needs low glass transition temperature and solvent solubility. In this study, we intend to find out cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer characteristics compared with (meth)acryl copolymer. And, we have tried to find out any differences between acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate type copolymer with various evaluation results. As a result of this study we are going to talk about the reason that the resist using acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer show good pattern profile while acrylate type copolymer show poor pattern profile. We also intend to explain the role of cycloolefin as a function of molecular weight variation and substitution ratio variation of cycloolefin in cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate resin.One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low

  10. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting.

  12. Microstructured polarizing fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergo, Pawel; Wójcik, Jan; Czyzewska, Lidia; Walewski, Aleksander

    2005-09-01

    Introduction of metal elements into the optical fiber's structure creates new possibilities of waveguides' parameters' modification especially permit to obtain polarizing fibers. A known solution is introducing of molten metal into a hole situated along a single-mode fibre's core. The alternative manner is deposition of metal layers on the internal surface of those holes. In our laboratory we manufactured new kind of optical fibers named side metal pipe (SMP) optical fiber. Its structure is similar to that of the side-hole optical fiber but the internal surface of the two open holes placed on the both sides of the core is covered with silver. The silver layers were deposited with elaborated in our laboratory static method deposition from liquid phase. The measured polarizing efficiency of this fiber of 1 m length was equal to 25% for 633nm wavelength. In the last time we manufactured the high birefringent single mode SMP fiber with elliptical core (SMK HB). Paper presents the basis of technology of SMK HB optical fiber, description of the static method of preparation of silver layers by liquid phase deposition and geometrical and optical parameters of the SMK HB optical fiber.

  13. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  14. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  15. Multiple Internal Reflections in Acrylic Triangle Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Setiawan, D.; Purwanto, H.; Yunianto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental study of light propagation in acrylic triangle waveguides has been studied theoretically and experimentally aimed to obtain a light cone which can tunnel and bring the light to a certain place. Numerical aperture of light cones which have a length of 7 cm but different cross-section area have been measured using he-Ne laser (λ=632 nm) and the results were compared to those obtained theoretically and no significant different was observed.

  16. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  17. Modeling the free radical polymerization of acrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Hakan; Salman, Seyhan; Tüzün, Nurcan Şenyurt; Avci, Duygu; Aviyente, Viktorya

    Acrylates have gained importance because of their ease of conversion to high-molecular-weight polymers and their broad industrial use. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a well-known monomer for free radical polymerization, but its α-methyl substituent restricts the chemical modification of the monomer and therefore the properties of the resulting polymer. The presence of a heteroatom in the methyl group is known to increase the polymerizability of MMA. Methyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (MHMA), methyl α-methoxymethylacrylate (MC1MA), methyl α-acetoxymethylacrylate (MAcMA) show even better conversions to high-molecular-weight polymers than MMA. In contrast, the polymerization rate is known to decrease as the methyl group is replaced by ethyl in ethyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (EHMA) and t-butyl in t-butyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (TBHMA). In this study, quantum mechanical tools (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in order to understand the mechanistic behavior of the free radical polymerization reactions of acrylates. The polymerization rates of MMA, MHMA, MC1MA, MAcMA, EHMA, TBHMA, MC1AN (α-methoxymethyl acrylonitrile), and MC1AA (α-methoxymethyl acrylic acid) have been evaluated and rationalized. Simple monomers such as allyl alcohol (AA) and allyl chloride (AC) have also been modeled for comparative purposes.

  18. UV-curable polyurethane acrylate coatings with different acrylate monomers as reactive diluents

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeth, B.; Gerard, J.F.; Pascault, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two series of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) based on polycaprolactone (PCL), tetraxylylene diisocyanate (TMXDI), and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) or hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were studied. These ones were considered with different acrylates as reactive diluents. The effect of the chemical nature and functionality of the reactive diluents on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties (DMS) was investigated. From a thermodynamic point of view, the PUA seem to display a one phase structure by DMS. Nevertheless, the statistic heterogeneities due to the use of three monomers or more can explain the Tg values and the mechanical relaxations of the PUA. The Tg-onset of the PUA is slightly influenced by the nature of the reactive diluents but is dependent on the Tg of the oligomer confirming the description of the structure using a clusters model. The same conclusions could be done from the dynamic mechanical spectra of the PUA sandwiched and UV-cured between two glass plates.

  19. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  20. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  1. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  2. Application of high-performance OEM fibre lasers in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, S.; Appleyard, A.; Harrison, P.; Hassey, A.

    2012-02-01

    Medium and high-power fiber lasers operating in the 1um region have proven their capabilities for cutting and welding in industrial manufacturing applications. This paper reviews the process performance capabilities of medium power (up to 500W) fiber lasers in a range of precision cutting, fusion-welding and additive manufacturing applications.

  3. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  4. BN Bonded BN fiber article from boric oxide fiber

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1978-12-19

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising boron oxide fibers and boric acid, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the boric acid and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  5. Improved Acrylic Systems for Rapid Runway Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Concrete * Fast-Setting Concrete N Acrylic Polymer Research * 1 k UST mACV lC@ea. ON -- -0 - OW. 00....Y d*Ip OF 40 domb) The objectives of this...available to the general public, including foreign nationals. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. DANIEL J. PIERRE, Capt...resins. The aggregate and resin might be premixed for placement or (as in the research reported herein) the cap might be formed by percolation of liquid

  6. Ocean Engineering Studies. Volume 1. Acrylic Submersibles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    the tie rods is larger than the forces applied to the hatch system P ..eYe during lifting, the joints in the acrylic plastic hull will never be...and MI L- P -21 I 05C materials. 22 elastomeric spacers to _______ allow free contraction . of the hull under pressure topper cape ring u~.Chairs...to tie rods Clearance between fi..forrgdyatce and hull to allow free con. to support frame traction of bull under p ensur *oft support frame rigidly

  7. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  8. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ 203... within FTZ 203-Site 3, on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, as described in the...

  9. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  10. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  12. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins... and acrylic acid, with the greater part of the polymer being composed of acrylamide units. (2) Sodium... sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, with the greater part of the polymer being composed...

  13. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10500 - Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10500 Acrylated mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... mixed metal oxides (PMN P-06-341) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Mark S.

    2013-04-19

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  17. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J.; Larsen, L. Scott

    2013-04-01

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  18. The Use of Micro and Nano Particulate Fillers to Modify the Mechanical and Material Properties of Acrylic Bone Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Joshua A.

    Acrylic bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate) is widely used in total joint replacements to provide long-term fixation of implants. In essence, bone cement acts as a grout by filling in the voids left between the implant and the patient's bone, forming a mechanical interlock. While bone cement is considered the `gold standard' for implant fixation, issues such as mechanical failure of the cement mantle (aseptic loosening) and the development of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) still plague joint replacement procedures and often necessitate revision arthroplasty. In an effort to address these failures, various modifications are commonly made to bone cement such as mechanical reinforcement with particles/fibers and the addition of antibiotics to mitigate PJI. Despite these attempts, issues such as poor particle interfacial adhesion, inadequate drug release, and the development of multidrug resistant bacteria limit the effectiveness of bone cement modifications. Therefore, the overall goal of this work was to use micro and nanoparticles to enhance the properties of acrylic bone cement, with particular emphasis placed on improving the mechanical properties, cumulative antibiotic release, and antimicrobial properties. An acrylic bone cement (Palacos R) was modified with three types of particles in various loading ratios: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (for mechanical reinforcement), xylitol microparticles (for increased antibiotic release), and silver nanoparticles (as an antimicrobial agent). These particles were used as sole modifications, not in tandem with one another. The resulting cement composites were characterized using a variety of mechanical (macro to nano, fatigue, fracture, and dynamic), imaging, chemical, thermal, biological, and antimicrobial testing techniques. The primary outcomes of this dissertation demonstrate that: (1) mesoporous silica, as used in this work, is a poor reinforcement phase for acrylic bone cement, (2) xylitol can significantly

  19. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  20. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  1. Quantum dots microstructured optical fiber for x-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Williams, P. A.; Burke, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    A novel concept for the detection of x-rays with microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide is presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dots application technique are discussed.

  2. The effect of different fiber reinforcements on flexural strength of provisional restorative resins: an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Parkhedkar, Rambhau D.; Mowade, Tushar Krishnarao

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and bis-acryl composite resin reinforced with polyethylene and glass fibers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three groups of rectangular test specimens (n = 15) of each of the two resin/fiber reinforcement were prepared for flexural strength test and unreinforced group served as the control. Specimens were loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture. The mean flexural strengths (MPa) was compared by one way ANOVA test, followed by Scheffe analysis, using a significance level of 0.05. Flexural strength between fiber-reinforced resin groups were compared by independent samples t-test. RESULTS For control groups, the flexural strength for PMMA (215.53 MPa) was significantly lower than for bis-acryl composite resin (240.09 MPa). Glass fiber reinforcement produced significantly higher flexural strength for both PMMA (267.01 MPa) and bis-acryl composite resin (305.65 MPa), but the polyethylene fibers showed no significant difference (PMMA resin-218.55 MPa and bis-acryl composite resin-241.66 MPa). Among the reinforced groups, silane impregnated glass fibers showed highest flexural strength for bis-acryl composite resin (305.65 MPa). CONCLUSION Of two fiber reinforcement methods evaluated, glass fiber reinforcement for the PMMA resin and bis-acryl composite resin materials produced highest flexural strength. Clinical implications On the basis of this in-vitro study, the use of glass and polyethylene fibers may be an effective way to reinforce provisional restorative resins. When esthetics and space are of concern, glass fiber seems to be the most appropriate method for reinforcing provisional restorative resins. PMID:22439093

  3. Ab initio study of acrylate polymerization reactions: methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate propagation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinrui; Pfaendtner, Jim; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2008-07-24

    The kinetic parameters of the free radical propagation of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate have been calculated using quantum chemistry and transition state theory. Multiple density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to calculate the activation energy, and it was found that MPWB1K/6-31G(d,p) yields results that are in very good agreement with experimental data. To obtain values of the kinetic parameters that were in the best agreement with experimental data, low frequencies were treated using a one-dimensional internal rotor model. Chain length effects were also explored by examining addition reactions of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric radicals to monomer for both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate. The results show that the values for the addition of the trimeric radical to monomer are closest to experimental data. The kinetic parameters that were calculated using a continuum description of the monomer as a solvent were not significantly different from the vacuum results.

  4. Stability of carbon fiber surface chemistry under temperature and its influence on interfacial adhesion with polymer matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Vautard, Frederic; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Ozcan, Soydan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stability of the surface chemistry of a surface treated carbon fiber was investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Within a range of temperatures from room temperature to 400 C, the only surface functionalities that decomposed were carboxylic acids and dangling nitrogen containing functionalities like amines, amides or nitriles. Significant amounts of water were desorbed as well. This study enabled the testing of the coherence our the fitting of the C(1s), O(1s) and N(1s) peaks. Particularly, when considering the fitting of in the O(1s) peak, carboxylic acids were shown to be included in a single component peak centered at a binding energy of 532.1 eV. The reaction of the carbon fiber surface and an acrylate resin at high temperature, because of the decomposition of carboxylic acids, was highlighted by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The thermal history of the composite material during its manufacture appeared to be a major influence on the nature of the interactions generated at the fiber-matrix interface and the resulting mechanical properties.

  5. Synthesis and Characteristics of Radiation Curable Polyurethanes Containing Pendant Acrylate Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-09

    the mechanical properties of electron beam . cured acrylated polyester urethanes based on toluene diisocyanate(TDI) and hydroxyethyl - methacrylate ( HEMA ...acrylate or methacrylate pendant groups are can- didates for radiation sensitive solid polymers since the acrylate groups may undergo crosslinking...acrylate com- 4ponents. Toluene diisocyanate - hydroxyethylmethacrylate (TDI- HEMA ) or isophorone diisocyanate - hydroxylethylmethacrylate (IPDI-HEHA

  6. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  7. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  8. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  9. Flexible, stretchable electroadhesives based on acrylic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duduta, Mihai; Wood, Robert J.; Clarke, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Controllable adhesion is a requirement for a wide variety of applications including robotic manipulation, as well as locomotion including walking, crawling and perching. Electroadhesives have several advantages such as reversibility, low power consumption and controllability based on applied voltage. Most demonstrations of electroadhesive devices rely on fairly rigid materials, which cannot be stretched reversibly, as needed in some applications. We have developed a fast and reliable method for building soft, stretchable electroadhesive pads based on acrylic elastomers and electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The devices produced were tested pre-deformation and in a stretched configuration. The adhesive force was determined to be in the 0.1 - 3.0 N/cm2 range, depending on the adhering surface. The electroadhesive devices were integrated with pre-stretched dielectric elastomer actuators to create a device in which the adhesion force could be tuned by changes in either the applied voltage or total area.

  10. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Thomas; Erpelding, Michael; Schmid, Josef; Chin, Andrew; Sammons, Rhea; Rockafellow, Erin

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  12. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated acrylate salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2014-09-09

    A method for synthesizing a deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1), the method comprising: (i) deuterating a propiolate compound of Formula (2) to a methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in the presence of a base and D.sub.2O: and (ii) reductively deuterating the methyne-deuterated propiolate compound of Formula (3) in a reaction solvent in the presence of deuterium gas and a palladium-containing catalyst to afford the deuterated acrylate of the Formula (1). The resulting deuterated acrylate compounds, derivatives thereof, and polymers derived therefrom are also described.

  13. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  14. Refractive Index Measurement of Fibers Through Fizeau Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    3 Table 2. Lasers used in interferometer for fiber refractive index measurement. Manufacturer Model Wavelength Laserglow Technologies , Inc...1.4605, well within the acceptable range of error. A similarly precise listed value for S-2 glass was not found, but the manufacturer lists the...internally manufactured fibers. The interferometer is shown to produce accurate, repeatable results for fibers with a cross-sectional area of over

  15. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  16. Supercritical water oxidation of acrylic acid production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y M; Wang, S Z; Tang, X Y; Xu, D H; Ma, H H

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of wastewater from an acrylic acid manufacturing plant has been studied on a continuous flow experimental system, whose reactor was made of Hastelloy C-276. Experimental conditions included a reaction temperature (T) ranging from 673 to 773K, a residence time (t) ranging from 72.7 to 339s, a constant pressure (P) of 25 MPa and a fixed oxidation coefficient (alpha) of 2.0. Experimental results indicated that reaction temperature and residence time had significant influences on the oxidation reaction, and increasing the two operation parameters could improve both degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). The COD removal efficiency could reach up to 98.73% at 25 MPa, 773 K and 180.1 s, whereas the destruction efficiency of NH3-N was only 43.71%. We further carried out a kinetic analysis considering the induction period through free radical chain mechanism. It confirms that the power-law rate equation for COD removal was 345 exp(-52200/RT)[COD]1.98[O2]0.17 and for NH3-N removal was 500 exp(-64492.19/RT)[NH3-N]1.87 [O2]0.03. Moreover, the induction time formulations for COD and NH3-N were suspected to be exp(38250/RT)/173 and exp(55690/RT)/15231, respectively. Correspondingly, induction time changed from 2.22 to 5.38 s for COD and 0.38 to 1.38 s for NH3-N. Owing to the catalysis of reactor inner wall surface, more than 97% COD removal was achieved in all samples.

  17. Thermal stability of grafted fibers. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah; Marlianti, I.

    1983-10-01

    Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  18. 77 FR 69435 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status and Partial Approval of Manufacturing Authority; Toho Tenax...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Authority; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Oxidized Polyacrylonitrile Fiber and Carbon Fiber), Rockwood, TN... polyacrylonitrile fiber (OPF) and carbon fiber manufacturing and distribution facilities of Toho Tenax America, Inc... carbon fiber for export; and Whereas, at this time, the Board is unable to approve authority...

  19. Study of fiber optics standardization, reliability, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The use of fiber optics in space applications is investigated. Manufacturers and users detailed the problems they were having with the use or manufacture of fiber optic components. The general consensus of all the companies/agencies interviewed is that fiber optics is a maturing technology and will definitely have a place in future NASA system designs. The use of fiber optics was found to have two main advantages - weight savings and increased bandwidth.

  20. 77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... 148C (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority); Extension of Comment Period on New Evidence The comment... preliminary recommendation not to authorize TTA to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market at this...

  1. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  2. Fabric Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

  3. Manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

  4. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics.

  5. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  6. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  7. Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers for cement fluid loss control

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, L.F.; McElfresh, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers are considered as effective fluid loss control additives in a wide range of oil well cements. Unlike HEC based fluid loss aditives, these copolymers can be used with calcium chloride accelerator without significantly influencing fluid loss control. Another advantage of the copolymers is that the amount of fluid loss for a given concentration of polymer remains relatively constant over a wide range of temperatures. The use of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers has generally been restricted to wells below 60 degree C BHCT. Above that temperature chemical changes in the copolymer often lead to retardation of the cement. This paper presents data related to the use of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers as fluid loss control agents in oil well cementing. A comparison of these polymers with HEC based fluid loss control additives is made. In addition, data related to the cause of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymer retarding effects is presented. 4 refs.

  8. Thermophysical properties of fluorinated acrylate homopolymers: Mixing and phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, F.; Saidi, S.; Guittard, F.; Geribaldi, S.

    2002-06-01

    The thermophysical properties of fluorinated acrylate homopolymers are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical microscopy and discussed in terms of relative lengths of the fluorinated chain and the hydrocarbon spacer between the acrylate moiety and the fluorinated chain. These compounds exhibit an intrinsic microphase-separation (Isotropic+Isotropic morphology) occurring between the fluorinated chains and the acrylate polymer backbone. It is shown that the enthalpy of mixing is a function of the length of the lateral fluorocarbon chains. The thermophysical behaviour of these materials may be regarded as demixed systems exhibiting an Upper Critical Solution Temperature. The photopolymerization process of one of the monomer is studied by isothermal photocalorimetry. High acrylate double-bond conversion and fast curing rates were obtained thus demonstrating the promising use of these materials for coating and film processing applications using UV-curing techniques.

  9. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

  10. 76 FR 1599 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, WA An application... Carbon Fibers, LLC (SGL Automotive), located in Moses Lake, Washington. The application was submitted... of carbon fiber, all of which will be exported for the exclusive use of BMW Group in its new...

  11. Fabrication of interim acrylic resin removable partial dentures with clasps.

    PubMed

    Reitz, P V; Weiner, M G

    1978-12-01

    An orderly sequence of steps for construction of an interim acrylic resin partial denture has been presented. The technique allows the dentist to fabricate an effective restoration that has a definite path of insertion and removal that can be placed in the patient's mouth with little time spent on adjustment and correction. This technique may be used with heat- or cold-curing acrylic resin.

  12. Protein absorption and fouling on poly(acrylic acid)-graft-polypropylene microfiltration membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Ma, Huiying; Lv, Chunying; Yang, Jia; Fu, Xueqi

    2009-07-01

    A series of pH-sensitive poly (acrylic acid)-graft-polypropylene hollow fiber microfiltration membranes were prepared by UV-photo-irradiation. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as the model protein to investigate its absorption and fouling behaviors on membranes. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of grafted membrane was improved by poly(acrylic acid) chains with parts of membrane pores blocked. The grafted membranes were markedly pH-dependent on the water permeability as pH was altered from 1 to 11. The zeta potential of grafted membranes calculated by streaming potential was negative in most pH range. Electrostatic interaction energy calculated by DLVO theory showed the electric interaction force between grafted membrane and BSA was attractive. With the rise of grafting degree, the electric attractive force between grafted membrane and BSA increased as pH=3 and decreased as pH=8, while it kept basically unchanged as pH=4.7. As a result, most serious fouling was observed as pH=4.7. Grafted membranes had a lower BSA absorption and better antifouling behavior as pH=8, while the opposite result was revealed as pH=3. In conclusion, the absorption and fouling behavior of BSA on membranes was pH-dependent due to the pH-dependence of membrane charge, and the conformation of BSA and grafting chains.

  13. Poly(meth)acrylates obtained by cascade reaction.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Dragos; Keul, Helmut; Moeller, Martin

    2011-04-04

    Preparation, purification, and stabilization of functional (meth)acrylates with a high dipole moment are complex, laborious, and expensive processes. In order to avoid purification and stabilization of the highly reactive functional monomers, a concept of cascade reactions was developed comprising enzymatic monomer synthesis and radical polymerization. Transacylation of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with different functional alcohols, diols, and triols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and glycerol) in the presence of Novozyme 435 led to functional (meth)acrylates. After the removal of the enzyme by means of filtration, removal of excess (meth)acrylate and/or addition of a new monomer, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate the (co)polymerization via free radical (FRP) or nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP) resulted in poly[(meth)acrylate]s with predefined functionalities. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as ionic repeating units were assembled within the copolymer. The transacylation of MA and MMA with diols and triols carried out under mild conditions is an easy and rapid process and is suitable for the preparation of sensitive monomers.

  14. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  15. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  16. Rapid stripping of thick negative-tone acrylic photoresists for semiconductor BEOL applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John C.; Fender, Bruce J.; Huenger, Eric C.

    2004-05-01

    Many BEOL semiconductor applications require vertical wall patterns to produce thick metallic structures. To achieve these plated or etched topographies, the resist must endure severe chemical and thermal exposures. Negative-tone resists of the acrylic and acrylic-styrene resin varieties are common choices. One spin-on applied product includes Shipley BPR 100 photoresist, manufactured by Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials, L.L.C. Successful integration requires an aggressive stripper to rapidly dissolve the resin, yet protect the metal. GenSolve 475, produced by General Chemical, achieves these goals, cycle after cycle, in a closed-loop spray system that filters and delivers the stripper back onto the wafer. The resist is dissolved in minutes, even at moderate temperatures, as demonstrated in Semitool"s spray solvent platform, Scepter. Using GenSolve 475, the Scepter dissolves away cured Shipley BPR 100 resist from >50um in-via or mushroom copper studs, water rinses, and spin-dries wafers in a nitrogen environment. The Semitool platform can process 300mm wafers with a total dry-to-dry process time of <30min, corresponding to >100wph throughput in single or >200wph with dual chambers. Metal safety is proven by SEM, profilometry, and ESCA, by observing Cu etch rates of <30 Å/min and conversion of surface Cu(II) to Cu(I).

  17. High Methane Storage Working Capacity in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Acrylate Links.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-17

    High methane storage capacity in porous materials is important for the design and manufacture of vehicles powered by natural gas. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structures and methane adsorption properties of five new zinc metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-905, MOF-905-Me2, MOF-905-Naph, MOF-905-NO2, and MOF-950. All these MOFs consist of the Zn4O(-CO2)6 secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tri-β-acrylate, BTAC. The permanent porosity of all five materials was confirmed, and their methane adsorption measured up to 80 bar to reveal that MOF-905 is among the best performing methane storage materials with a volumetric working capacity (desorption at 5 bar) of 203 cm(3) cm(-3) at 80 bar and 298 K, a value rivaling that of HKUST-1 (200 cm(3) cm(-3)), the benchmark compound for methane storage in MOFs. This study expands the scope of MOF materials with ultrahigh working capacity to include linkers having the common acrylate connectivity.

  18. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, B.S.; Doty, R.L.; Frye, R. ); Monroe, C.; Barker, S. )

    1989-05-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufactures acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-section analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores - semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible.

  19. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  20. The effects of strain rate and temperature on commercial acrylic artist paints aged one year to decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Eric W. S.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Young, Christina R. T.; Learner, Thomas J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Acrylic artist paints are viscoelastic composites containing a high molecular weight copolymer, pigment and a variety of additives. The glass transition temperature of the latex binder is typically slightly below ambient conditions, giving mechanical properties that are strongly dependent on strain rate and temperature. In previous work, the viscoelastic behaviour of custom-formulated latex artist paints was reported for films with known volume fractions of pigment using data from uniaxial tensile tests at different strain rates and temperatures. Secant Young's modulus and failure strain master curves were constructed for each film through time-temperature superposition, allowing predictions beyond the experimental timescale at a selected reference temperature. A similar analysis is now presented for a small set of commercial artist paints tested at ages of 1 and 27 years. Experimental shift factor values are reported with fits to the Arrhenius, WLF and Vogel Fulcher equations, along with a comparison with published data for acrylic polymers. The tensile results highlight a spectrum of properties that acrylic paints may exhibit—brittle glass to hyperelastic—depending on the conditions during deformation. Strong similarities are shown between products from different manufacturers, and the findings suggest a high degree of stability with age. A method for predicting failure as a function of strain rate and temperature is also presented, and the methodology gives a framework for investigating other artist materials and the factors influencing their mechanical properties.

  1. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (β-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  2. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  3. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  4. Measurement comparison of cotton fiber micronaire and its components by portable near infrared spectroscopy instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is a key cotton fiber classing and quality assessment property, and changes in fiber micronaire can impact downstream fiber processing and dye consistency in the textile manufacturing industry. Micronaire is a function of two fiber components—fiber maturity and fineness. Historically, m...

  5. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris; Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  6. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey

    2014-05-15

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biomedical properties of UV-cured polyurethane acrylates containing a phosphorylcholine structure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yihui; Dong, Anxin; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Zhengsheng; Wang, Shasha; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop a simple, economical and rapid approach to incorporate 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with other monomers without any solvent, we prepared a series of ultraviolet cured poly(urethane acrylate) (PUA) membranes containing different MPC content. Their chemical structure and surface properties were investigated by FT-IR, XPS, water swelling ratio and water contact angle measurement, while the biocompatibilities were evaluated through fibrinogen adsorptions, platelet adhesion and plasma recalcification time determination. The results demonstrate that the phosphorylcholine (PC) groups were successfully introduced into the PUA system by the UV-curing approach and the all PC-containing membranes showed better biocompatibility than those without PC moiety. The UV-curing method is potentially to be applied in the coating of medical devices which require biocompatibility and manufacturing efficiency.

  8. Lattice Dynamics of Colloidal Crystals During Photopolymerization of Acrylic Monomer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, H. B,; Penn, B. G.; Frazier, D. O.; Ramachandran, N.

    1998-01-01

    The photoinitiated bulk polymerization process, which has been used recently in the manufacture of solid optical diffraction filters, is examined to understand the dynamics of both the crystalline colloidal arrays (CCA) and the host monomer species. Our analysis indicates that volume shrinkage of the monomer, changes in the dielectric properties of the monomer, and inhomogeneities of polymerization reaction rate across the dispersion during the polymerization process, are the major contributors for observed lattice compression and lattice disorder of the CCA of silica spheres in polymerized acrylic/methacrylic ester films. The effect of orientation of photocell with respect to the radiation source on Bragg diffraction of CCA indicated the presence of convective stirring in the thin fluid system during the photopolymerization that deleteriously affects the periodic array structures. To devise reproducible and more efficient optical filters, experimental methods to minimize or eliminate convective instabilities in monomeric dispersions during polymerization are suggested.

  9. Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    2012-09-04

    A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

  10. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  11. Large deformation micromechanics of particle filled acrylics at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunel, Eray Mustafa

    The main aim of this study is to investigate stress whitening and associated micro-deformation mechanism in thermoformed particle filled acrylic sheets. For stress whitening quantification, a new index was developed based on image histograms in logarithmic scale of gray level. Stress whitening levels in thermoformed acrylic composites was observed to increase with increasing deformation limit, decreasing forming rate and increasing forming temperatures below glass transition. Decrease in stress whitening levels above glass transition with increasing forming temperature was attributed to change in micro-deformation behavior. Surface deformation feature investigated with scanning electron microscopy showed that source of stress whitening in thermoformed samples was a combination of particle failure and particle disintegration depending on forming rate and temperature. Stress whitening level was strongly correlated to intensity of micro-deformation features. On the other hand, thermoformed neat acrylics displayed no surface discoloration which was attributed to absence of micro-void formation on the surface of neat acrylics. Experimental damage measures (degradation in initial, secant, unloading modulus and strain energy density) have been inadequate in describing damage evolution in successive thermoforming applications on the same sample at different levels of deformation. An improved version of dual-mechanism viscoplastic material model was proposed to predict thermomechanical behavior of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions. Simulation results and experimental results were in good agreement and failure of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions ar low forming temperatures were succesfully predicted based on entropic damage model. Particle and interphase failure observed in acrylic composites was studied in a multi-particle unit cell model with different volume fractions. Damage evolution due to particle failure and interphase failure was simulated

  12. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian; Lloyd, Peter D; Lindahl, John; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  13. Emerging Materials Technologies That Matter to Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    A brief overview of emerging materials technologies. Exploring the weight reduction benefit of replacing Carbon Fiber with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Polymer Composites. Review of the benign purification method developed for CNT sheets. The future of manufacturing will include the integration of computational material design and big data analytics, along with Nanomaterials as building blocks.

  14. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  15. Fiber biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  16. Using a fiber loop and fiber bragg grating as a fiber optic sensor to simultaneously measure temperature and displacement.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Yen, Chih-Ta; Wu, Yue-Shiun; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2013-05-16

    This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

  17. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  19. Prepreg effects on honeycomb composite manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Cary Joseph

    Fiber reinforced composites offer many advantages over traditional materials and are widely utilized in aerospace applications. Advantages include a high stiffness to weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance. However, the pace of new implementation is slow. The manufacturing processes used to transform composite intermediates into final products are poorly understood and are a source of much variability. This limits new implementation and increases the manufacturing costs of existing designs. One such problem is honeycomb core crush, in which a core-stiffened structure collapses during autoclave manufacture, making the structure unusable and increasing the overall manufacturing cost through increased scrap rates. Consequently, the major goal of this research was to investigate the scaling of core crush from prepreg process-structure-property relations to commercial composite manufacture. The material dependent nature of this defect was of particular interest. A methodology and apparatus were developed to measure the frictional resistance of prepreg materials under typical processing conditions. Through a characterization of commercial and experimental prepregs, it was found that core crush behavior was the result of differences in prepreg frictional resistance. This frictional resistance was related to prepreg morphology and matrix rheology and elasticity. Resin composition and prepreg manufacturing conditions were also found to affect manufacturing behavior. Mechanical and dimensional models were developed and demonstrated utility for predicting this crushing behavior. Collectively, this work explored and identified the process-structure-property relations as they relate to the manufacture of composite materials and suggested several avenues by which manufacturing-robust materials may be developed.

  20. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1).

  1. Allergic contact stomatitis caused by acrylic monomer in a denture.

    PubMed

    Koutis, D; Freeman, S

    2001-08-01

    A 71-year-old edentulous man developed a severely painful red mouth at sites of contact with a new denture. Patch testing showed allergy to samples of the denture material and to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Patch testing to methyl methacrylate was negative. Prolonged boiling of the denture resulted in reversal of his symptoms and samples of this fully cured denture material produced negative patch tests. While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms. Material safety data sheets are unreliable in providing information regarding the type of acrylate present in the material. Hence, patch testing should be performed with a battery of acrylate allergens as well as with small samples of the denture material.

  2. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  3. Experimental Manufacture of Paper for War Maps

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Charles G.; Shaw, Merle B.

    2000-01-01

    Early in World War II, a new map paper was developed that greatly improved the quality and performance of war maps. The National Bureau of Standards cooperated in the development and, subsequently, determined by experimental manufacture how to make the paper from commercially available raw materials. The best results were obtained in experimental manufacture by using fiber furnishes of 100-percent strong bleached sulfate pulps with the addition of melamine-formaldehyde resin to increase the wet strength and titanium dioxide to produce the desired capacity. It was essential that the beating be very carefully controlled to preserve the maximum fiber strength. The most critical requirements from a manufacturing standpoint were very high resistance to tear, high wet tensile strength, high opacity, and good smoothness. A moderate degree of wildness was not objectionable. The data obtained by experiments were applied to initiate the commercial production of the new paper to meet unprecedented tonnage requirements. PMID:27551643

  4. Variations in Manufacturing Processes 155 mm Combustible Cartridge Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    number) Spiral wrap Talc Accretion Molded Combustibility Felting Tensile strength Nitrocellulose formulation Adhesive bonding Resin Wood cellulose ’M...preform and pressing techniques that were employed during the past century in the manufacture of three dimensional shapes from wood cellulose fibers... Kraft fibers is added to the water. 3. The mixture is beaten until the desired freeness is at- tained. 4. A measured amount of nitrocellulose fibers is

  5. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Acrylic Resin Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Seema S.; M.R., Dhakshaini; Gujjari, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discolouration of artificial teeth, which hampers aesthetics, is one of the negative effects of cigarette smoking. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the colour stability of commercially available acrylic resin teeth needs to be evaluated for clinical success and to ascertain as to which brand has superior properties. Material and Methods: Three commercially available acrylic teeth were evaluated, after division into Group A (Premadent), Group B (Astra), and Group C (Sanyo- Dent). Selected brands were subdivided as study group and control group. Each set of acrylic resin teeth were stored in artificial saliva at 37±1°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours of immersion, the colour measurement of each tooth (T0) was performed. Second colour measurements were done after 21 days (T21) of exposure to cigarette smoke for study group and after immersion in artificial saliva for control group. All data was statistically analyzed by using Repeated Measures ANOVA and Two-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: Group A showed least total colour change on exposure to cigarette smoke, followed by Group B and Group C had the highest total colour change. In control group, after immersion in artificial saliva, a slight increase in total colour change was observed for all groups, which was clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Group A (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was more colour stable and more resistant to the discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke, followed by Group B (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth). Group C (Non-crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was least colour stable and most susceptible to discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:24179942

  6. Colour Stability of Heat and Cold Cure Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Sivakumar, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Materials and Methods: Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. Results: The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. Conclusion: ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes. PMID:25738078

  7. Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

  8. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two

  9. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  10. Gel Spun PAN/CNT Based Carbon Fibers with Honey-Comb Cross-Section

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-13

    stabilization of precursor fibers. Methods used to manufacture hollow carbon fibers include co-axial electrospinning and post treatment [14], bi...GPa and 249 GPa, respectively. Lee et al. [21], reported manufacture of hollow carbon fibers from PAN based precursors using electrospinning . Styrene

  11. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  12. The creep behavior of acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Sadiku, E R; Biotidara, F O

    1996-01-01

    The creep behavior of acrylic dental base resins, at room temperature and at different loading conditions, has been examined. The behaviors of these resins are similar to that of "commercial perspex" at room temperature over a period of 1000 seconds. The pseudo-elastic moduli of the blends of PMMA VC show a significant increase compared with PMMA alone. The addition of the PVC powder to the heat-cured acrylic resin increased the time-dependent elastic modulus. This increase in elastic modulus is advantageous in the production of denture based resins of improv mechanical properties.

  13. Lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction on acrylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R

    2013-04-19

    A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.

  14. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  15. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.321 - Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamides and acrylic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.321 Substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer... identified generically as substituted acrylamides and acrylic acid copolymer (PMN P-00-0490) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.338 - Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic... Substances § 721.338 Salt of an acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as salt of an acrylate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6560 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6560 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene. (a) Chemical... as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted ethene (PMN P-91-521) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.463 - Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate of polymer based on... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.463 Acrylate of polymer based on isophorone... substance identified generically as acrylate of polymer based on isophorone diisocyanate (PMN P-00-0626)...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10032 - Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10032 Acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (generic). (a... generically as acrylic acid, polymer with substituted acrylamides (PMN P-02-269) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl... section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  6. Radiation Curing of Natural Fiber Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueyuan

    This research is a study of the process and feasibility of applying UV to cure natural and recycled fiber composites. The influence of HEMA on the water absorption and mechanical properties of the composites also investigated. Results show that UV curing is feasible in the manufacture of natural and recycle fiber composites. HEMA significantly improved the water resistance of the composite. HEMA-treated natural and recycled fiber composites have better bending strength after water impregnation, than non-treated composites.

  7. Tensile bond strength between auto-polymerized acrylic resin and acrylic denture teeth treated with MF-MA solution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effect of chemical surface treatment using methyl formate-methyl acetate (MF-MA) solution on the tensile bond strength between acrylic denture teeth and auto-polymerized acrylic resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy maxillary central incisor acrylic denture teeth for each of three different brands (Yamahachi New Ace; Major Dent; Cosmo HXL) were embedded with incisal edge downwards in auto-polymerized resin in polyethylene pipes and ground with silicone carbide paper on their ridge lap surfaces. The teeth of each brand were divided into seven groups (n=10): no surface treatment (control group), MF-MA solution at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) for 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 120 seconds, 180 seconds, and MMA for 180 seconds. Auto-polymerized acrylic resin (Unifast Trad) was applied to the ground surface and polymerized in a pressure cooker. A tensile strength test was performed with a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Dunnett T3 test (α=.05). RESULTS The surface treatment groups had significantly higher mean tensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P<.05) when compared within the same brand. Among the surface treatment groups of each brand, there were no significantly different tensile bond strengths between the MF-MA groups and the MMA 180 second group (P>.05), except for the Yamahachi New Ace MF-MA 180-second group (P<.05). CONCLUSION 15-second MF-MA solution can be an alternative chemical surface treatment for repairing a denture base and rebonding acrylic denture teeth with auto-polymerized acrylic resin, for both conventional and cross-linked teeth. PMID:27555897

  8. Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Awang, Muhd. Khairudin; Sa'at, Mohd Hisham

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, increasing awareness of replacing synthetic fiber such as glass fiber has emerged due to environmental problems and pollutions. Automotive manufacturers also seek new material especially biodegradable material to be non-load bearing application parts. This present work discussed on the effect of silane treatment on coir fiber reinforced composites. From the results of tensile tests, fibers treated with silane have attained maximum material stiffness. However, to achieve maximum ultimate tensile strength and strain at failure performances, untreated fibers work very well through fiber bridging and internal friction between fiber and polymeric matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations have coincided with these results.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Heat-treated Carbon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Patel, Bhavesh; Koenig, John; Cuneo, Jaques; Neveux, Michael G.; Demos, Chrystoph G.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fibers are selected for ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are based on their as-fabricated properties or on "that is what we have always done" technical culture while citing cost and availability when there are others with similar cost and availability. However, the information is not available for proper selection of carbon fibers since heat-treated properties are not known for the fibers on the market currently. Heat-treating changes the fiber's properties. Therefore, an effort was undertaken to establish fiber properties on 19 different types of fibers from six different manufactures for both PAN and pitch fibers. Heat-treating has been done at three different temperatures.

  10. 76 FR 30908 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber); Notice of Temporary Approval On January 4...-Trade Zone (FTZ) 203, requesting authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC (SGL) to manufacture carbon fiber under FTZ procedures solely for export within Site 3 of FTZ 203 in Moses...

  11. Fiber Metal Laminates Made by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hales, Stephen J.; Alexa, Joel A.; Weiser, Erik S.; Loos, Alfred; Johnson, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiber metal laminates (FMLs) are multi-component materials utilizing metals, fibers and matrix resins. Tailoring their properties is readily achievable by varying one or more of these components. Established FMLs like GLARE utilize aluminum foils, glass fibers and epoxy matrices and are manufactured using an autoclave. Two new processes for manufacturing FMLs using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) have been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). A description of these processes and the resulting FMLs are presented.

  12. Fracture Mechanisms of Layer-By-Layer Polyurethane/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheng, Eugene R.

    A layer-by-layer(LBL) manufactured material is examined in detail in this thesis. Improvements are made to the method of its manufacture. Efforts are made to understand its fracture mechanisms and take advantage of these fracture mechanisms in the absorption of impact energy. A novel series of experiments has been performed on LBL manufactured thin films to demonstrate their unique fracture mechanisms. Polyurethane/Poly(Acrylic Acid) (PU/PAA) and PU/PAA/(PU/Clay)5 nanocomposite films readily undergo Interlaminar mode II fracture, because of the relatively weak elctrostatic bonds between monolayers. Tensile tests performed while under observation by a scanning electron microscope demonstrate the tendency of these nanocomposite films to undergo interlaminar mode II fracture even when loads are applied in the plane of nanocomposite film. It is concluded that these mechanisms of energy dissipation are responsible for the enhanced toughness of these films when used as layers between glass blocks in the prevention of impact damage to the glass. A novel automated manufacturing facility has been designed and built to deposit large sheets of Layer-by-Layer nanocomposite film. These large sheets are incorporated into a borosillicate glass composite in order to compare the ballistic characteristics of LBL PU based nanocomposite films to a single cast layer of polyurethane. It is demonstrated that shear fracture is the mode of failure in the blocks containing the nanocomposite film. The shear fracture surface in the nanocomposite after it has undergone a ballistic impact is characterized. Additional experiments are performed to characterize the interlaminar fracture stresses and toughnesses of the nanocomposite LBL layers, to assist in the implementation of a numerical crack band model that describes the nanocomposite film. The computational model predicts the failure of the ballistic nanocomposite samples, and the predicted V50 velocity is found to be in good agreement with

  13. Nanosecond laser damage of optical multimode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Guido; Krüger, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    For pulse laser materials processing often optical step index and gradient index multimode fibers with core diameters ranging from 100 to 600 μm are used. The design of a high power fiber transmission system must take into account limitations resulting from both surface and volume damage effects. Especially, breakdown at the fiber end faces and selffocusing in the fiber volume critically influence the fiber performance. At least operation charts are desirable to select the appropriate fiber type for given laser parameters. In industry-relevant studies the influence of fiber core diameter and end face preparation on laser-induced (surface) damage thresholds (LIDT) was investigated for frequently used all-silica fiber types (manufacturer LEONI). Experiments on preform material (initial fiber material) and compact specimens (models of the cladding and coating material) accompanied the tests performed in accordance with the relevant LIDT standards ISO 21254-1 and ISO 21254-2 for 1-on-1 and S-on-1 irradiation conditions, respectively. The relation beam diameter vs. LIDT was investigated for fused silica fibers. Additionally, laser-induced (bulk) damage thresholds of fused silica preform material F300 (manufacturer Heraeus) in dependence on external mechanical stress simulating fiber bending were measured. All experiments were performed with 10-ns laser pulses at 1064 and 532 nm wavelength with a Gaussian beam profile.

  14. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  15. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  16. Research on taper zone coupling from single-core fiber to annular-core hollow beam fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chengguo; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Pengfei; Kang, Chong; Yuan, Libo

    2017-02-01

    We designed and manufactured a novel annular-core hollow beam fiber which could directly yield ring light with a central dark spot inside the beam employing MCVD technique and a custom-made fiber drawing tower. The tapered fiber zone geometric shapes at varied stretching speed between the single-core fiber and the annular-core hollow beam fiber were studied theoretically. According to the beam propagation method, the bi-tapered coupling energy transmission between these two fibers was simulated and analyzed. Moreover, by adopting a fusion splicing and stretching technique at the fiber-linked point, an effective coupling approach had been fulfilled.

  17. Research on taper zone coupling from single-core fiber to annular-core hollow beam fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chengguo; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Pengfei; Kang, Chong; Yuan, Libo

    2016-11-01

    We designed and manufactured a novel annular-core hollow beam fiber which could directly yield ring light with a central dark spot inside the beam employing MCVD technique and a custom-made fiber drawing tower. The tapered fiber zone geometric shapes at varied stretching speed between the single-core fiber and the annular-core hollow beam fiber were studied theoretically. According to the beam propagation method, the bi-tapered coupling energy transmission between these two fibers was simulated and analyzed. Moreover, by adopting a fusion splicing and stretching technique at the fiber-linked point, an effective coupling approach had been fulfilled.

  18. Superconducting wire manufactured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuexian; Sun, Yue; Xu, Shiming; Peng, Ying

    1985-10-01

    The MF Nb/Cu Extrusion Tube Method was used to manufacture 3 kg of stable practical MF Nb2Sn composite superconducting wire containing pure Cu(RRR approx. 200)/Ta. The draw state composite wire diameter was 0.56 mm, it contained 11,448 x 2.6 micron Nb core, and the twist distance was 1.5 cm. The composite wire cross-section was pure Cu/Ta/11,448 Nb core/Cu/ 91Sn-Cu; containing 22.8 v. % pure Cu, 13.3 v. % Ta; within the Ta layer to prevent Sn diffusion. The wire was sheathed in nonalkaline glass fiber as an insulating layer. A section of wire weighing 160 g was cut off and coiled it into a small solenoid. After reaction diffusion processing at 675 C/30 and curing by vacuum dipping in paraffin, it was measured in a Nb-Ti backfield of 7.2 T intensity, a current of 129 A was passed through the Nb3Sn solenoid and produced a strength of 2.5 T, the overall magnetic field intensity of the composite magnet reached 9.7 T. At this time, the wire full current density J sub c.w. = 5.2 x 10 to the 4th power A/sq cm; the effective current density J sub c (Nb + Sn - Cu) = 8.2 x 10 to the 4th power A/sq cm.

  19. Application of manufactured products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  20. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens.

  1. Interactions of sodium montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen H; Dennis, Gary R; Milev, Adriyan S; Kannangara, G S Kamali; Wilson, Michael A; Lamb, Robert N

    2005-10-15

    The chemical-structural modifications of the natural clay sodium montmorillonite during interaction with poly(acrylic acid) were studied mainly by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Samples of modified montmorillonite were prepared from the reaction of sodium montmorillonite ( approximately 0.5 g) and an aqueous solution of poly(acrylic acid) (pH approximately 1.8, 50 g) at varying temperatures. X-ray diffraction indicated that the montmorillonite interlayer space ( approximately 13 A), formed by regular stacking of the silicate layers (dimension approximately 1x1000 nm), expanded to approximately 16 A as the reaction was carried out at room temperature and at 30 degrees C. At 60 degrees C, the interlayer space further expanded to approximately 20 A. The results of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicated that poly(acrylic acid) molecules exchange sodium ions on the surface of the silicate layers. These combined results allowed development of a reaction model that explains the dependency of the interlayer expansion with temperature. Information concerning the surface chemical reactions and systematic increases in the interlayer distances is particularly useful if montmorillonite and poly(acrylic acid) are to be used for formation of nanocomposite materials.

  2. Mid-infrared laser ablation of intraocular acrylic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Ablation rates measurements with free-running Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) were performed in hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses. We studied the role of water in the laser ablation mechanisms by using hydrophilic lenses with different concentrations of H II0 and D II0. A mathematical model simulated the experimental results.

  3. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a mixture of polyethylene and one or more olefin copolymers, in such proportions that the ethyl acrylate... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene...

  4. JKR studies of adhesion with model acrylic elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, K.R.; Ahn, D.

    1996-12-31

    Acrylic elastomers are widely used in coating applications because of their inherent thermal stability, oil resistance and adhesive properties. These same features make acrylic elastomers attractive for fundamental studies of polymer adhesion. This endeavor has been simplified recently by the development of techniques for producing monodisperse acrylic homopolymers and block copolymers from anionically synthesized parent polyacrylates, thus allowing precise microstructural control of adhering surfaces. In terms of the adhesion measurement itself, an adhesion test based upon the theory of Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR), henceforth referred to as the JKR technique, is well suited for probing the molecular origins of adhesion in elastomeric systems. This technique is quite practical, and minimizes the sample volume to reduce bulk viscoelastic losses. Further, the JKR technique permits testing at very low crack velocities, where interfacial effects are unobscured by bulk effects. In this paper, the authors report the results of JKR adhesion tests between poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PNBA) elastomers and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The latter is employed as a control substrate because its inertness and low surface energy (relative to metallic or silicon based surfaces) are conducive to the creation of reproducible solid surfaces.

  5. Humidity-responsive starch-poly (methyl acrylate) films.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blown films prepared from starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers plasticized with urea and water display shrinkage at relative humidities greater than 50%. Shrinkage at relative humidities below approximately 75% is strongly correlated with the urea/starch weight ratio, which controls the eq...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  7. Acrylic acid and electric power cogeneration in an SOFC reactor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baofeng; Wang, Jibo; Chu, Wenling; Yang, Weishen; Lin, Liwu

    2009-04-21

    A highly efficient catalyst, MoV(0.3)Te(0.17)Nb(0.12)O, used for acrylic acid (AA) production from propane, was used as an anodic catalyst in an SOFC reactor, from which AA and electric power were cogenerated at 400-450 degrees C.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure.

  9. Experimental characterization of PZT fibers using IDE electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, Nicholas; Ben Atitallah, Hassene; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers are mainly used in active fiber composites (AFC) where they are embedded in a polymer matrix. Interdigitated electrodes (IDE) along the direction of the fibers are used to achieve planar actuation, hereby exploiting the d33 coefficient of PZT. When embedded in the AFC, the PZT fibers are subjected to mechanical loading as well as non-uniform electric field as a result of the IDEs. Therefore, it is important to characterize the electrical and electromechanical behavior of these fibers ex-situ using the IDE electrodes to assess the impact of nonuniform electric field on the properties of the fibers. For that reason, this work aims at quantifying the impact of IDE electrodes on the electrical and electromechanical behavior of PZT fibers, which is necessary for their successful implementation in devices like AFC. The tested fibers were purchased from Advanced Cerametrics and they have an average diameter of 250 micrometers. The IDE electrodes were screen printed on an acrylic substrate. The PZT fibers were subjected to frequency sweeps at low voltages to determine permittivity for parallel and interdigitated electrodes. The piezoelectric e33 constant is determined from electromechanical testing of PZT fibers in parallel electrodes to compare the electromechanical behavior for PZT in bulk and fiber form. The dielectric constant and e33 were found to be lower for the IDE and parallel electrodes compared to bulk but comparable to results published in literature.

  10. Sensitization capacity of acrylated prepolymers in ultraviolet curing inks tested in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Björkner, B

    1981-01-01

    One commonly used prepolymer in ultraviolet (UV) curing inks is epoxy acrylate. Of 6 men with dermatitis contracted from UV-curing inks, 2 had positive patch test reaction to epoxy acrylate. None reacted to the chemically related bisphenol A dimethacrylate. The sensitization capacity of epoxy acrylate and bisphenol A dimethacrylate performed with the "Guinea pig maximization test" (GPM) shows epoxy acrylate to be an extreme sensitizer and bisphenol A dimethacrylate a moderate sensitizer. Cross-reaction between the two substances occurs. The epoxy resin oligomer MW 340 present in the epoxy acrylate also sensitized some animals.

  11. Fiber Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalle, Leona

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course in fiber techniques, which covers design methods involving fibers and fabric, that students in the Art Department at Sleeping Giant Junior High School had the opportunity to learn. (Author/RK)

  12. Effects of sterilization on optical and mechanical reliability of specialty optical fibers and terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolov, Andrei A.; Warych, Edward T.; Smith, William P.; Fournier, Paula L.; Hokansson, Adam S.; Li, Jie; Allen, R. Steve

    2014-02-01

    Optical fibers and terminations were subjected to different sterilization techniques, including multiple autoclaving and treatments with peracetic acid, E-beam and UV radiation. Effects of different sterilization techniques on key optical and mechanical properties of the fibers and the terminations were revealed. The primary attention was given to behavior of the coatings on the fibers and adhesives used in the terminations in harsh sterilization environments. The optical fibers with following four coating/buffer types were investigated: (i) dual acrylate, (ii) polyimide, (iii) silicone/PEEK and (iv) fluoroacrylate hard cladding/ETFE.

  13. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyurethane Acrylates for UV Curable Coating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi Na; Kang, Young Soo; Oh, Sun Wha; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Moon, Myung Jun

    The single hydroxyl-terminated urethane acrylate oligomers were synthesized from 2-mercaptoethanol (2-MEOH), alkyl (methyl, butyl, and 2-ethylhexyl) acrylate, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator), with dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. 2-MEOH was used as a functional chain transfer agent. Poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers were obtained by the reaction of single hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylates and 2-isocyanatoethyl acrylate. They were characterized by NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, rheometer, and DSC. Because poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers have lower Tg and viscosity than hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylate oligomers (HTPAO) non-containing urethane groups, they can be used for ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings, inks, and adhesives.

  15. Effect of Polymerization Cycles on Gloss, Roughness, Hardness and Impact Strength of Acrylic Resins.

    PubMed

    Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Folli, Bianca L; Nogueira, Moises C F; Correr, Americo Bortolazzo; Mesquita, Marcelo F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the conventional and boiled polymerization cycles on gloss, roughness, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins. Samples were made for each Classico and QC-20 materials (n=10) in dental stone molds obtained from rectangular metallic matrices embedded in metallic flasks. The powder-liquid ratio and manipulation of the acrylic resins' were accomplished according to manufacturers' instructions and the resins were conventionally packed in metallic flasks. After polymerization by (1) conventional: 74 °C for 9 h (Classico) and (2) boiled: 20 min (QC-20) cycles, the samples were deflasked after cooling at room temperature and conventionally finished and polished. The properties were evaluated after storage in water at 37 °C for 24 h. Gloss was verified with Multi Gloss 268 meter (Konica Minolta), surface roughness was measured with Surfcorder SE 1700 rugosimeter (Kosaka), Knoop hardness number was obtained with HMV-200 microdurometer, and impact strength was measured in an Otto Wolpert-Werke device by Charpy system (40 kpcm). Data were subjected to Student's t-test (at α=0.05). The results were: Gloss: 67.7 and 62.2 for Classico and QC-20 resins, respectively; Surface roughness: 0.874 and 1.469 Ra-µm for Classico and QC-20, respectively; Knoop hardness: 27.4 and 26.9 for Classico and QC-20, respectively; and Impact strength: 37.6 and 33.6 kgf/cm2 for Classico and QC-20, respectively. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05)were found between the resins for the evaluated properties. In conclusion, conventional and boiled polymerization cycles had similar effects on gloss, roughness, hardness and impact strength of both Classico and QC-20 resins.

  16. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  17. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, A. B.; Matthewson, M. J.; Castelino, K. T.; Wojcik, J.; Walewski, A.

    2006-04-01

    Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments are typically exposed to high temperatures and elevated humidity. This calls for better performing protective coatings. Recently developed sol-gel derived inorganicorganic hybrid materials called hybrid glass offered improved protective performance as compared to standard dual polymer coated fibers [1]. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of online UV curing for the protective ability of hybrid glass coatings. For this purpose two types of UV-curable hybrid glass candidates representing two different concentrations of acrylate groups were applied online to silica fibers as single and dual coats. Samples of fibers were collected and subjected to dynamic fatigue testing by two-point bending. The stress corrosion parameter, n, as well as the strength of the fibers were determined. Both the strength and n were higher for fibers with two layers of coating as compared to single coatings even when the thickness of both one and two layer coatings was the same. This may be caused by the greater degree of cross linking of the inorganic component when the coating is exposed twice to the heat generated in the UV chamber. Coating materials with reduced acrylate group content had higher values of the fatigue parameter n but at the same time reduced strength.

  18. Manufacture and analysis of multilayer woven preforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, M.K.; Herszberg, I.; Coman, F.; Raper, H.; Curiskis, J.

    1994-12-31

    Multilayer woven preforms were manufactured from high-tenacity, continuous multifilament polyester yarn and HTA carbon yarn. Orthogonal fiber architectures were constructed with a variety of binder thread configurations and yarn densities. The effect of the binder thread arrangement upon the as-woven preform architecture was examined. The preforms were then consolidated using liquid moulding techniques and the effect of the consolidation pressure upon the fiber architecture was investigated. Modeling of the preform architecture in its as-woven state is progressing and preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  19. Fluoride glass microstructured optical fiber with large mode area and mid-infrared transmission.

    PubMed

    Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Foo, Tze-Cheung; Moore, Roger C; Zhang, Wenqi; Li, Yahua; Monro, Tanya M; Hemming, Alexander; Lancaster, David G

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate the first fluorozirconate microstructured fiber for use in the mid-infrared. The fiber preform was manufactured via extrusion of a 200 g billet through a complex graphite die. The fiber exhibits large mode area of 6,600 microm(2), loss of 3 dB/m at 4 microm and only marginal excess loss relative to a corresponding unstructured fiber.

  20. An overview of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Bockstedt, R.J.; Skarlupka, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTP) are a class of injection molding materials that extend the physical property envelope of thermoplastics polymers. These materials are manufactured by pulling continuous fiber tows through a thermoplastic polymer melt in a specialized processing die. The strands are subsequently cooled and chopped into pellets of equal length. LFRTP materials are available in virtually every common thermoplastic resin with glass, aramid, stainless steel, or carbon fiber reinforcement at levels up to 60% by weight. Unlike short fiber reinforced thermoplastics manufactured by conventional screw compounding processes, LFRTP exhibit simultaneous improvements in both flexural modulus and impact resistance. Improvements in load transfer, creep resistance at elevated temperatures, and dimensional stability can also be attributed to the long fiber network formed in the molded part. This unique combination of properties makes LFRTP the material of choice for replacement of metal structural assemblies in many automotive, industrial, consumer and recreational applications.

  1. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.

    PubMed

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-06-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 μg mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 μg of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics.

  2. Wavelength Shifters and Interactions of EDTA with Acrylic & LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Yuvraj; SNO+ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA had negligible effects on the Young's Modulus of acrylic. EDTA is also slightly soluble in LAB, but can be completely removed by rinsing with water. Additionally, the study of the light yield and alpha/beta timing profiles of two wavelength shifters - bisMSB and perylene - is critical to determining which should be added to the 0 νββ isotope (tellurium) LAB cocktail. Small-scale results hint that perylene might be better, but this is being confirmed with larger-scale tests. The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA

  3. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  4. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration. PMID:26966555

  5. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Richard

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10(-8)) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10(-4)), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  6. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  7. Impression technique for a complete-arch prosthesis with multiple implants using additive manufacturing technologies.

    PubMed

    Revilla-León, Marta; Sánchez-Rubio, José Luis; Oteo-Calatayud, Jesús; Özcan, Mutlu

    2016-11-23

    This article describes an impression technique for a complete-arch prosthesis supported by multiple implants where additive manufacturing technologies were used to fabricate a splinting framework and a custom tray. The technique presented uses a shim method to control the homogenous splinting acrylic resin and impression material during the procedure, thereby reducing laboratory and chairside time and the number of impression copings and laboratory analogs needed.

  8. Multiscale characterization of chemical–mechanical interactions between polymer fibers and cementitious matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Hargis, Craig W.; Bae, Sungchul; Itty, Pierre A.; Meral, Cagla; Dominowski, Jolee; Radler, Michael J.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Together with a series of mechanical tests, the interactions and potential bonding between polymeric fibers and cementitious materials were studied using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and microtomography (lCT). Experimental results showed that these techniques have great potential to characterize the polymer fiber-hydrated cement-paste matrix interface, as well as differentiating the chemistry of the two components of a bi-polymer (hybrid) fiber the polypropylene core and the ethylene acrylic acid copolymer sheath. Similarly, chemical interactions between the hybrid fiber and the cement hydration products were observed, indicating the chemical bonding between the sheath and the hardened cement paste matrix. Microtomography allowed visualization of the performance of the samples, and the distribution and orientation of the two types of fiber in mortar. Beam flexure tests confirmed improved tensile strength of mixes containing hybrid fibers, and expansion bar tests showed similar reductions in expansion for the polypropylene and hybrid fiber mortar bars.

  9. Process modifications for improved carbon fiber composites: Alleviation of the electrical hazards problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1980-01-01

    Attempts to alleviate carbon-fiber-composite electrical hazards during airplane crash fires through fiber gasification are described. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric experiments found several catalysts that caused fibers to combust when composites were exposed to test fires. Composites were tested in the 'Burn-Bang' apparatus and in high voltage electrical detection grid apparatus. In a standard three minute burn test modified composites released no fibers, while state-of-the-art composites released several hundred fiber fragments. Expected service life with and without catalytic modification was studied and electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis furnished physical appearance and chemical composition data. An acrylic acid polymer fiber coating was developed that wet the carbon fiber surface uniformly with the catalyst, providing a marked contrast with the uneven coats obtained by solution-dipping.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  11. Polymerization of acrylic acid using atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, M.; Bashir, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper polymerization of acrylic acid was performed using non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology. The goal of this study is to deposit organic functional coatings for biomedical applications using a low cost and rapid growth rate plasma jet technique. The monomer solution of acrylic acid was vaporized and then fed into the argon plasma for coating. The discharge was powered using a laboratory made power supply operating with sinusoidal voltage signals at a frequency of 10 kHz. The optical emission spectra were collected in order to get insight into the plasma chemistry during deposition process. The coatings were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and growth rates analysis. A high retention of carboxylic functional groups of the monomer was observed at the surface deposited using this low power technique.

  12. Reversible opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with diabetic retinopathy and chronic myelogenous leukemia had phacoemulsification cataract removal and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (Akreos MI-60) implantation in both eyes. One month after surgery, significant IOL opacity and severe cystoid macular edema were observed in both eyes. After bilateral intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) to control macular edema, central clearing of the IOL opacity was observed in both eyes. Two months after the injection, the IOL opacity had almost disappeared from both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of early postoperative bilateral IOL opacity in a hydrophilic acrylic IOL cleared after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injection. The role of anti-VEGF therapy in clearing IOL opacification requires further investigation.

  13. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  14. Optical Fiber Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  15. Corrosion inhibition of reinforcing steel by using acrylic latex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.X.; Lin, W.W.; Ceng, S.A.; Zhang, J.Q.

    1998-05-01

    Acrylic latex was introduced into steel-reinforcing steel concrete as concrete admixtures or rebar coatings in order to prevent corrosion of steel reinforcements. The results showed that applying the latex by both methods took effect in different ways, while the latter was more noticeable. The corrosion prevention mechanism and the surface state of the steel rebar were also explored, based on which suggestions for enhancing the corrosion-resistant ability were made.

  16. Superselective Embolization in Posttraumatic Priapism with Glubran 2 Acrylic Glue

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Spinelli, Alessio; Konda, Daniel Reale, Carlo Andrea; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2004-09-15

    Two patients with posttraumatic priapism underwent transcatheter embolization using microcoils, resulting in temporary penile detumescence and an apparent resolution of the artero-venous fistula. In both cases, priapism recurred 24 hours after the procedure and was successfully treated through selective transcatheter embolization of the nidus using acrylic glue (Glubran 2). The patients showed complete recovery of sexual activity within 30 days from the procedure and persistent exclusion of the artero-venous fistula after a 12-month follow-up.

  17. Acrylic strengthened casts for removable partial denture for occlusion equilibration.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suk; Saglik, Berna

    2011-09-01

    A removable partial denture (RPD) remount cast must resist wear or breakage, present a rigid surface, and ensure a solid support for an accurate equilibration of the occlusion for a RPD. This article describes a procedure of processing a thin layer of tooth colored acrylic resin over the dental plaster to present wear- and fracture-resistant incisal/occlusal surfaces without involving a third material.

  18. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  19. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Ronald A.

    2007-08-09

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  20. Effect of conventional water-bath and experimental microwave polymerization cycles on the flexural properties of denture base acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Spartalis, Guilherme Kloster; Cappelletti, Lucas Kravchychyn; Schoeffel, Amanda Cristina; Michél, Milton Domingos; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Arrais, César Augusto Galvão; Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2015-01-01

    The effect of polymerization cycles on flexural properties of conventional (Vipi Cril(®)-VC) or microwave-processed (Vipi Wave(®)-VW) denture base acrylic resins was evaluated. Specimens (n=10) were submitted to the cycles: WB=65ºC for 1 h+1 h boiling water (VC cycle); M630/25=10 min at 270 W+5 min at 0 W+10 min at 360 W (VW cycle); M650/5=5 min at 650 W; M700/4=4 min at 700 W; and M550/3=3 min at 550 W. Specimens were submitted to a three-point bending test at 5 mm/min until fracture. Flexural strength (MPa) and elastic modulus (GPa) data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA/Tukey HSD (α=0.05). Overall, VC showed higher values than VW. The results obtained with microwave polymerization did not differ from those obtained with water-bath for both acrylic resins. The results observed when polymerization cycles using medium power and shorter time were used did not differ from those when manufacturer's recommended microwave cycle was applied. Conventional VC might be microwave-processed without compromising its flexural properties.

  1. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-0221 CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) Nainesh B. Rathod Imaginestics, LLC SEPTEMBER 2013...SUBTITLE CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-C-5515 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63680F 6...Connecting American Manufacturing (CAM) initiative sought to improve participation of small manufacturers in building components for the military by

  2. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  3. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  4. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions.

  5. Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Laurila, Marko; Weirich, Johannes; Johansen, Mette M.; Olausson, Christina B.; Lumholt, Ole; Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, ultrafast laser systems using large-mode-area fiber amplifiers delivering several hundreds of watts of average power has attracted significant academic and industrial interest. These amplifiers can generate hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts of peak power using direct amplification and multi-gigawatts of peak power using pulse stretching techniques. These amplifiers are enabled by advancements in Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) design and manufacturing technology. In this paper, we will give a short overview of state-of-the-art PCF amplifiers and describe the performance in ultrafast ps laser systems.

  6. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  7. Influence of Zwitterions on Thermomechanical Properties and Morphology of Acrylic Copolymers: Implications for Electroactive Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    properties of ethyl acrylate and n-butyl acrylate ( nBA )-based sulfobetaine-containing copolymers.10,11 They found that the incorporation of...ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (SBMA), a zwitterionic mono- mer. Copolymerization of both charge-containing monomers with nBA elucidates the influence of...3-[[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]- (dimethyl)ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (SBMA), was generously provided by Raschig GmbH. n-Butyl acrylate ( nBA , Alfa

  8. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  9. Phase 9 Fiber Optic Cable Microbending and Temperature Cycling Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abushagur, Mustafa A.G.; Huang, Po T.; Hand, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Optical fibers represent the back bone of the current communications networks. Their performance in the field lacks long term testing data because of the continuous evolution of the manufacturing of fibers and cables. An optical fiber cable that is installed in NASA's KSC has experienced a dramatic increase in attenuation after three years of use from 0.7 dB/km to 7 dB/km in some fibers. A thorough study is presented to assess the causes of such an attenuation increase. Material and chemical decomposition testing showed that there are no changes in the composition of the fiber which might have caused the increase in attenuation. Microbending and heat cycling tests were performed on the cable and individual fibers. It was found that the increase in attenuation is due to microbending caused by excessive stress exerted on the fibers. This was the result of manufacturing and installation irregularities.

  10. Comparison between an Acrylic Splint Herbst and an Acrylic Splint Miniscrew-Herbst for Mandibular Incisors Proclination Control

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Nuzzo, Claudio; Grassi, Felice Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to compare dental and skeletal effects produced by an acrylic splint Herbst with and without skeletal anchorage for correction of dental class II malocclusion. Methods. The test group was formed by 14 patients that were treated with an acrylic splint miniscrew-Herbst; miniscrews were placed between mandibular second premolars and first molars; controls also consisted of 14 subjects that were treated with an acrylic splint Herbst and no miniscrews. Cephalometric measurements before and after Herbst treatment were compared. The value of α for significance was set at 0.05. Results. All subjects from both groups were successfully treated to a bilateral Class I relationship; mean treatment time was 8,1 months in the test group and 7.8 in the controls. Several variables did not have a statistical significant difference between the two groups. Some of the variables, instead, presented a significant difference such as incisor flaring, mandibular bone base position, and skeletal discrepancy. Conclusions. This study showed that the Herbst appliance associated to miniscrews allowed a better control of the incisor flaring with a greater mandibular skeletal effect. PMID:24963293

  11. Properties of a double-core photonic crystal fiber with a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczynski, Ryszard R.; Szarniak, Przemyslaw; Pysz, Dariusz; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Stepien, Ryszard; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2004-09-01

    The freedom in choosing a crystal structure of the photonic fiber makes possible to manufacture fibers with more than one core. In this paper we present simulations of the characteristics of a double-core photonic crystal fiber with a square lattice. Such fiber can be used in telecomunication switches. The simulations of the modal structure were done using a vector method of biorthonormal bases. The results show that a double-core crystal, which exhibits mode coupling between cores fiber, can be designed. We present preliminary results of manufacturing of a double-core photonic fiber and measurements of its transmission characteristics.

  12. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  13. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  14. Fiber Optic Sensing: Prototype Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Martin, Jesus; Gonzalez Torres, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Airbus DS Crisa has been developing an interrogator of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors [1], aimed at measuring, mainly, temperature and strain by means of fiber optic links. This activity, funded by Airbus DS Crisa, ESA and HBM Fibersensing, finalizes with the manufacturing of a prototype. The present paper describes in detail the main outcomes of the testing activities of this prototype. At the moment of writing the paper all the functional tests have been concluded. The environmental tests, thermal and mechanical, will be conducted with the FOS interrogator forming part of the RTU2015, described in [2].

  15. Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Fiber Pulp Instead of Asbestos Fibers in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Mahmoudi, A.; Shadkam, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum content of a four-parameters cellulose fiber pulp, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, a silica fume, and bentonite for cement-based composite sheets. Then cement composite sheets from the hybrid of PVA and the cellulose fiber pulp were manufactured, and their moduli of rapture were determined experimentally. The result obtained showed that cement composites with a hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp had a higher flexural strength than cellulose-fiber- reinforced cement ones, but this strength was rather similar to that of asbestos-fiber-reinforced cement composites. Also, using the results of flexural tests and an analytical method, the tensile and compressive moduli of the hybrid of PVA and cement sheet were calculated. The hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp is proposed as an appropriate alternative for substituting asbestos in the Hatschek process.

  16. Novel poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) nanofibrous biomaterials for peptide synthesis and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bei; Sun, Gang; Lam, Kit S; Xiao, Kai

    2010-10-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PE-co-AA) fibers in sizes of 200-500 nm were prepared by using a novel melt-extrusion-extraction fabrication process. The thermoplastic nanofibers could be controllably dispersed and reassembled by a novel solvent exchange filtration method. The dispersed PE-co-AA nanofibers possess active surface areas and could directly conduct chemical reactions on surfaces. Surface modifications and organic synthesis on the nanofibers were proven effective and controllable after the dispersion. Multistep synthesis of biomolecules, such as peptide ligand HWRGWV against Fc portion of human IgG, was successful. The surface-anchored ligand has shown bioactivity through selective binding to and staining by human IgG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Another peptide, LXY3, a selective cyclic peptide ligand against alpha3beta1 integrin of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, was also prepared on the surfaces of the dispersed nanofibers. The results showed that MDA-MB-231 cells were able to specifically bind to and grow on surfaces of the nanofibers that were functionalized with LXY3.

  17. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach

  18. Continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture according to one embodiment includes a plurality of plies in a stacked configuration, where each ply includes a plurality of tape winds having edges. A distance between the edges of adjacent tape winds in the same ply is about constant along a length of the wind. Each tape wind comprises elongated fibers and a matrix, axes of the fibers being oriented about parallel to a longitudinal axis of the tape wind. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  19. Industrial applications of fiber optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desforges, Francois X.; Blocksidge, Robert

    1996-08-01

    Thanks to the growth of the fiber optics telecommunication industry, fiber optic components have become less expensive, more reliable and well known by potential fiber optic sensor users. LEDs, optical fibers, couplers and connectors are now widely distributed and are the building blocks for the fiber optic sensor manufacturer. Additionally, the huge demand in consumer electronics of the past 10 years has provided the manufacturer with cheap and powerful programmable logic components which reduce the development time as well as the cost of the associated instrumentation. This market trend has allowed Photonetics to develop, manufacture and sell fiber optic sensors for the last 10 years. The company contribution in the fields of fiber optic gyros (4 licenses sold world wide), white light interferometry and fiber optic sensor networks is widely recognized. Moreover, its 1992 acquisition of some of the assets of Metricor Inc., greatly reinforced its position and allowed it to pursue new markets. Over the past four years, Photonetics has done an important marketing effort to better understand the need of its customers. The result of this research has fed R&D efforts towards a new generation instrument, the Metricor 2000, better adapted to the expectations of fiber optic sensors users, thanks to its unique features: (1) universality -- the system can accept more than 20 different sensors (T, P, RI, . . .). (2) scalability -- depending on the customer needs, the system can be used with 1 to 64 sensors. (3) performance -- because of its improved design, overall accuracies of 0.01% FS can be reached. (4) versatility -- its modular design enables a fast and easy custom design for specific applications. This paper presents briefly the Metricor 2000 and its family of FO probes. Then, it describes two fiber optic sensing (FOS) applications/markets where FOS have proven to be very useful.

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  1. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  2. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  3. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  4. Prestressed Carbon Fiber Composite Overwrapped Gun Tube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-15

    DD-MM-YYYY) 15-10-2008 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PRESTRESSED CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE...mismatch between the steel substrate and the composite jacket causing a gap, and the lack of favorable prestress in the jacket. Dealing with these...eliminated, and a favorable prestress has been achieved. A 120mm barrel has been manufactured using this process with IM7 fibers in a PEEK matrix and

  5. Anomerization of Acrylated Glucose During Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chendo, Christophe; Moreira, Guillaume; Tintaru, Aura; Posocco, Paola; Laurini, Erik; Lefay, Catherine; Gigmes, Didier; Viel, Stéphane; Pricl, Sabrina; Charles, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Anomerization of simple sugars in the liquid phase is known as an acid- and base-catalyzed process, which highly depends on solvent polarity. This reaction is reported here to occur in the gas phase, during traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) experiments aimed at separating α- and β-anomers of penta-acrylated glucose generated as ammonium adducts in electrospray ionization. This compound was available in two samples prepared from glucose dissolved in solvents of different polarity, namely tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC), and analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as traveling wave ion mobility (ESI-TWIMS-MS). In MS/MS, an anchimerically-assisted process was found to be unique to the electrosprayed α-anomer, and was only observed for the THF sample. In ESI-TWIMS-MS, a signal was measured at the drift time expected for the α-anomer for both the THF and DMAC samples, in apparent contradiction to the MS/MS results, which indicated that the α-anomer was not present in the DMAC sample. However, MS/MS experiments performed after TWIMS separation revealed that ammonium adducts of the α-anomer produced from each sample, although exhibiting the same collision cross section, were clearly different. Indeed, while the α-anomer actually present in the THF sample was electrosprayed with the ammonium adducted at the C2 acrylate, its homologue only observed when the DMAC sample was subjected to TWIMS hold the adducted ammonium at the C1 acrylate. These findings were explained by a β/α inter-conversion upon injection in the TWIMS cell, as supported by theoretical calculation and dynamic molecular modeling.

  6. Carbon fibers from SRC pitch

    DOEpatents

    Greskovich, Eugene J.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

  7. Technology Validation of Optical Fiber Cables for Space Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Periodically, commercially available (COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated to bring out known failure mechanisms that are expected to occur during a typical mission. The tests used to characterize COTS cables include: (1) vacuum exposure, (2) thermal cycling, and (3) radiation exposure. Presented here are the results of the testing conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on COTS optical fiber cables over this past year. Several optical fiber cables were characterized for their thermal stability both during and after thermal cycling. The results show how much preconditioning is necessary for a variety of available cables to remain thermally stable in a space flight environment. Several optical fibers of dimensions 100/140/172 microns were characterized for their radiation effects at -125 C using the dose rate requirements of International Space Station. One optical fiber cable in particular was tested for outgassing to verify whether an acrylate coated fiber could be used in a space flight optical cable configuration.

  8. Manufacturing Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development...PAUL R. SMITH 175 South 600 East #1 Provo, Utah 84601 (801) 377-8068 CAREER OBJECTIVE: Manufacturing Engineer using skills in development and...university classroom to aid in the education and train- ing of new manufacturing engineers. , . o i . o ., . . . . . - ,’ o . -2- 1.2. NEED There is a current

  9. Depositing highly adhesive optical thin films on acrylic substrates.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomoaki; Harada, Toshinori; Murotani, Hiroshi; Matumoto, Shigeharu

    2014-02-01

    Optical thin films are used to control the reflectance and transmittance of optical components. However, conventional deposition technologies applicable to organic (plastic) substrates typically result in weak adhesion. We overcame this problem by using vacuum deposition in combination with sputtering to directly deposit a SiO2 optical thin film onto an acrylic resin substrate. We observed neither yellowing nor deformation. The hardness of the film is 2H as measured by the pencil hardness test, indicating successful modulation of optical properties without sacrificing substrate hardness.

  10. Dimensional accuracy and stability of acrylic resin denture bases.

    PubMed

    Huggett, R; Zissis, A; Harrison, A; Dennis, A

    1992-10-01

    Proponents of injection molding systems have claimed a number of benefits over conventional press-pack dough molding systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed injection (dry heat) procedure of processing compared with press-pack dough molding utilizing three curing cycles. The dimensional accuracy and stability of acrylic resin bases produced by the two molding procedures were compared. Dimensional changes were assessed over a period of 4 months using an optical comparator. The results demonstrate that baseplates produced by the injection molding procedure exhibit less shrinkage than those produced by the conventional press-pack procedures.

  11. Acrylic Plastic Spherical Pressure Hull for Continental Shelf Depths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    depth reached so far by acrylic plas - appears to meet the design depth requirement for tic submersibles is 3,300 feet (1,000 meters). Still, 8,000 feet...temperature, and time. than 0.05 tend to fail primarily by general, or local, elastic instability, and for ",$-is reason, the design 3. The rate of strain...loading to t/DO membrane compressive strain exceeds a cer- ratio at ambient room temperature. tain threshold value. Elastic , plastic, and creep

  12. Synthesis and characterization of acrylic-based superabsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, F.; Nafisi, S.; Omidian, H.; Hashemi, S.A. )

    1993-12-10

    This paper is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent polymers based on acrylic acid. These hydrogels were prepared by carrying the inverse suspension polymerization in an aromatic hydrocarbon. The dispersion is stabilized by the mixture of micromolecular and macromolecular emulsifiers. To obtain high swelling and appropriate absorption kinetics, parameters such as initial monomer and cross-linker concentration, range of neutralization, monomer addition rate, temperature, initiating system, stabilizing system and nature of the organic phase were studied but not reviewed here. Thus, based on these topics a basic formula is obtained to display the effect of some structural parameters on behavior of superabsorbents utilized.

  13. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ladan; Sikder, Shameema; Moshirfar, Majid

    2011-01-10

    Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD(™) lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.

  14. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Sikder, Shameema; Moshirfar, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed. PMID:21311658

  15. Development of Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatings for Acrylic Plastic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-12-01

    and methyl methacrylate monomer (I mole) in cyciohexanone (Z moles) vw’th benzoyl peroxide catalyst (0, Z% of total weight). The mix- ture was refluxed... methacrylic acid- methyl methaerylate copolymer re•I. The composite material, i. e., the acrylic and applied coating, retains essentially all the original...0.001" to 0.002" when rolled on and of less than 0.001" when sprayed on. The ability of the methacrylic acid- methyl methacrylate copolymer to cover the

  16. Biodegradable polymer optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenji; Kalaba, Surge; Shan, Dingying; Xu, Kaitian; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhiwen

    2016-10-01

    Biocompatible and even biodegradable polymers have unique advantages in various biomedical applications. Recent years, photonic devices fabricated using biocompatible polymers have been widely studied. In this work, we manufactured an optical fiber using biodegradable polymer POC and POMC. This step index optical fiber is flexible and easy to handle. Light was coupled into this polymer fiber by directly using objective. The fiber has a good light guiding property and an approximate loss of 2db/cm. Due to the two layer structure, our fiber is able to support applications inside biological tissue. Apart from remarkable optical performance, our fiber was also found capable of performing imaging. By measuring the impulse response of this multimode polymer fiber and using the linear inversion algorithm, concept proving experiments were completed. Images input into our fiber were able to be retrieved from the intensity distribution of the light at the output end. Experiment result proves the capability of our optical fiber to be used as a fiber endoscopy no needs to remove.

  17. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  18. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  19. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  20. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.