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Sample records for acrylic fiber production

  1. Chemical Stress Cracking of Acrylic Fibers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    nitrile groups (similar to the "prefatory reaction" in pyrolysis of acrylic fibers), followed immediately by N- chlorination and7 chain scission...cyclization of nitrile groups (similar to the "prefatory reaction" in pyrolysis of acrylic fibers), followed immediately by N- chlorination and chain scission...present experiments were conducted at the boil, slightly greater than 100 C. The decomposition products-- chlorine , chlorate, plus oxygen originating

  2. Production and characterization of cut resistant acrylic/copolyaramid fibers via bicomponent wet spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipp, Stephen James

    A composite fiber system consisting of a sheath core bicomponent polymer fiber loaded with hard ceramic particles was developed and characterized for use in cut protective clothing. The core component was comprised of a copolyaramid in order to provide high base cut resistance. An acrylic-copolyaramid polymer blend was used for the sheath component to improve processability and provide potential benefits such as dyeability. Lastly, aluminum oxide particles were incorporated into the fiber core to deflect and deform the cutting edge, further improving cut resistance. A series of designed experiments was used to explore the effects of the wet spinning and heat treatment processes on the structure and properties of the bicomponent fiber. Cut strength of the as-spun fibers was highest when the coagulation rate was slow, promoting the formation of a dense, macrovoid free fiber structure. Upon drawing, fibrillar domains developed within the fiber, further improving cut performance. Cut strength was greatly improved by the heat treatment process despite the fibers becoming highly anisotropic. Addition of the hard particle fillers to the bicomponent fibers showed a decrease in cut strength at the fiber level but nearly doubled the cut strength of resulting fabrics. Finally, the processability of the particle loaded bicomponent fibers was evaluated.

  3. Research of morphology structure and properties of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjiu; Feng, Aifen

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber, the tensile properties, friction properties and hygroscopicity of it, the bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber and the ordinary acrylic fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The burning behaviors of the two kinds of fibers were observed by burning test, and their cross-sectional and longitudinal morphology was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM pictures showed that there are the uneven sizes of microspores on the surface of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber and in it. It was found that the friction coefficients of the bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber are smaller and its tensile and moisture absorption are better than those of the ordinary acrylic fiber. However, there are no obvious differences of the burning behaviors between the two fibers.

  4. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto polyamide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Chahira; Marais, Stéphane; Roudesli, Sadok

    2007-04-01

    The grafting of acrylic acid (AA) monomer (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd COOH) on polyamide 6.6 monofilaments (PA 6.6) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator was carried out in order to enhance the hydrophilic nature of fibers. The grafting rate depends on the AA concentration, the BPO concentration, the time and the temperature of reaction. The best conditions for optimum rate of grafting were obtained with a AA concentration of 0.5 M, a BPO concentration of 0.03 M, a reaction temperature of T = 85 °C and a reaction time of 120 mn. The fiber surface has been investigated by many experimental techniques of characterization such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), calorimetric analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. The effect of grafting of acrylic acid onto PA 6.6 fibers on their moisture and mechanical resistances was analyzed from water sorption and elongation at break measurements. The analysis of the experimental data shows clearly the efficiency of the grafting reaction used, leading to a significant increase of the hydrophilic character of the PA 6.6 surface.

  5. Kinetics and products of gas-phase reactions of ozone with methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, and ethyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Eyglunent, G; Daële, V; Mellouki, A

    2010-08-19

    The kinetics and products of the gas-phase reactions of ozone with methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, and ethyl acrylate have been investigated at 760 Torr total pressure of air and 294 +/- 2 K. The rate coefficients obtained (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) units) were as follows: k(methyl methacrylate) = (6.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18), k(methyl acrylate) = (0.95 +/- 0.07) x 10(-18), and k(ethyl acrylate) = (1.3 +/- 0.1) x 10(-18). In addition to formaldehyde being observed as a product of the three reactions, the other major reaction products were methyl pyruvate from reaction of ozone with methyl methacrylate, methyl glyoxylate from reaction of ozone with methyl acrylate, and ethyl glyoxylate from reaction of ozone with ethyl acrylate. Possible reaction mechanisms leading to the observed products are presented and discussed.

  6. Nitrile Hydratase and Amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous Hydrolyze Acrylic Fibers and Granular Polyacrylonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, M. M.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Robra, K.-H.; Gübitz, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 11216 produced nitrile hydratase (320 nkat mg of protein−1) and amidase activity (38.4 nkat mg of protein−1) when grown on a medium containing propionitrile. These enzymes were able to hydrolyze nitrile groups of both granular polyacrylonitriles (PAN) and acrylic fibers. Nitrile groups of PAN40 (molecular mass, 40 kDa) and PAN190 (molecular mass, 190 kDa) were converted into the corresponding carbonic acids to 1.8 and 1.0%, respectively. In contrast, surfacial nitrile groups of acrylic fibers were only converted to the corresponding amides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 16% of the surfacial nitrile groups were hydrolyzed by the R. rhodochrous enzymes. Due to the enzymatic modification, the acrylic fibers became more hydrophilic and thus, adsorption of dyes was enhanced. This was indicated by a 15% increase in the staining level (K/S value) for C.I. Basic Blue 9. PMID:10742253

  7. The antimicrobial effect of benzalkonium chloride on some pathogenic microbes observed on fibers of acrylic carpet.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Ramin; Sattari, Morteza; Ashjaran, Ali

    2007-02-15

    In the presented research, the main aim is to investigate the antibacterial effectiveness of BAC solutions on acrylic fibers used in machinery carpet. An acrylic pile carpet laid in a public place for 30 days and the existence of some microbes were investigated on it. The antimicrobial effect of different BAC solutions for identified microbes was studied in vitro. The acrylic fibers were treated with the same different solutions of BAC as before and the antibacterial effectiveness was assessed by the zone of inhibition method in different times. Two pieces of carpet untreated and treated with BAC solution sewed together and laid for one week in the public place and the amounts of bacterial growth determined by colony count method and the results compared. Finally some mechanical properties of treated acrylic fibers measured after 30 days and compared with untreated one. The results showed the presence of some pathogenic microbes on the laid carpet such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhalation time for treated acrylic fibers improved. The amount of colony growth on treated carpet reduced considerably and besides the mechanical tests results showed no significant deterioration effect of studied properties in comparing with untreated yarn.

  8. Thermoresponsive fibers containing n-stearyl acrylate groups for shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Yu, X.; Feng, X.; Han, Y. L.; Liu, M.; Lin, T. X.

    2007-07-01

    A novel kind of thermoresponsive shape memory fiber was prepared by mixing the P(SA-co-AA) copolymers of stearyl acrylate (SA), and acrylic acid (AA), with PVA polyvinyl alcohol through chemically crosslinking after spinning. The molecular structure, thermomechanical properties and shape memory behaviors were investigated. It was found that the mixed P(SA-co-AA)/PVA fibers had crystalline structures and showed a dramatic change in Young's modulus at melting temperature (Tm) due to the reversible order-disorder transition. The mixed P(SA-co-AA)/PVA fibers also showed a good shape memory effect, through which the deformed fibers could recover to their original shapes and sizes within 40 seconds after they were heated above their Tm again.

  9. Transverse strength and fatigue of denture acrylic-glass fiber composite.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K; Lassila, V P; Lappalainen, R

    1994-03-01

    The aims of this experiment were: 1) to test the effect of a high concentration of continuous glass fibers on the transverse strength of test specimens made of heat-cured acrylic resin; and 2) to determine the fatigue weakening of both unreinforced and continuous glass fiber-reinforced specimens of heat-cured acrylic resin shaped into upper complete dentures. A three-point loading test was used to determine the transverse strength of test specimens (n = 30 per group). The fatigue test was the constant deflection test (n = 10 per group). The results revealed that, compared to unreinforced specimens, continuous glass fibers at a concentration of 58 wt% enhanced the transverse strength of the test specimens up to 146% (p < 0.001) and increased the fatigue resistance (p < 0.001) during 5 x 10(5) loading cycles. This study suggests that by incorporating glass fibers into PMMA denture bases, the strength of the denture can be increased.

  10. Clinical survey of acrylic resin removable denture repairs with glass-fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Narva, K K; Vallittu, P K; Helenius, H; Yli-Urpo, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical usefulness and durability of continuous glass-fiber reinforcement in repair of acrylic resin removable dentures. Fractured removable dentures without reinforcement, with conventional metal-wire reinforcement, or with mesh reinforcement were collected from two dental schools in Finland. The total number of dentures was 51 and the number of patients was 48. During the repair, the dentures were reinforced with a polymer-preimpregnated E-glass fiber at the region of the fracture. The fibers were used as partial fiber reinforcement, i.e., only the weakest part of the denture was reinforced. Follow-up time varied from 4 months to 4.1 years. After the follow-up period, possible fractures and discoloring were visually inspected. Possible irritation of oral mucosa by glass fibers and the general shape of the denture were also evaluated. In 88% of the cases, there was no need for adjustment at the region of partial fiber reinforcement, and the clinical condition of the dentures was good. Glass fibers did not irritate the oral mucosa. In the case of refracture or hairline fracture, positioning of the partial fiber reinforcement was incorrect or the reinforcement had been used incorrectly (the wetting of the reinforcement with denture base resin was inadequate). Polymer-preimpregnated partial fiber reinforcement seems to be useful in eliminating fractures of acrylic resin removable dentures. However, this study emphasizes the importance of correct positioning and accurate laboratory technique when partial fiber reinforcement is used.

  11. Glass fiber reinforcement in repaired acrylic resin removable dentures: preliminary results of a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    1997-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of continuous E-glass partial fiber reinforcement of acrylic resin removable dentures was evaluated an average 13 months after the insertion of the fibers. Twelve removable complete dentures and ten removable partial dentures with a history of recurrent fracture were selected for this study. The partial fiber reinforcement was incorporated into the denture at the time of repair. One complete denture and one removable partial denture fractured in the region of reinforcement during the examination period. These fractures were most likely caused by faulty placement of the fiber reinforcement in the denture in the dental laboratory. In six dentures, new fractures occurred in regions without partial fiber reinforcement. The results revealed the importance of both the correct positioning of the partial fiber reinforcement in the denture and the use of accurate laboratory techniques.

  12. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  13. Oxidative Stabilization of Acrylic Fibers. V. The Decoloration Reaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Nitrile polymerization Carbon fibers Stereoregularity Stabilization Interpenetrating networks Decoloration 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reveree aide if...plotted against I/T in Fig. 3. From the slope of the line, an activation energy of about 6 kcal mol- is obtained. The temperature of the decoloration ... carbonization . Fibers that have undergone extensive carbonization and high-temperature heat-treatment are not decolorized by the hypochlorite solution

  14. Flexural properties of acrylic resin polymers reinforced with unidirectional and woven glass fibers.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    1999-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced plastics for dental applications have been under development for some time. A major difficulty in using reinforcing fibers with multiphase acrylic resins, such as powderliquid resins, has been improper impregnation of fibers with the resin. The aim of this study was to describe and test a novel system to use polymer-preimpregnated reinforcing fibers with commonly used multiphase acrylic resins. Continuous unidirectional and woven preimpregnated glass fiber reinforcements (Stick and Stick Net) were used to reinforce heat-curing denture base and autopolymerizing denture base polymers. A temporary fixed partial denture polymer was also reinforced with Stick reinforcement material. Five test specimens were fabricated for unreinforced control groups and for Stick- and Stick Net-reinforced groups. A 3-point loading test was used to measure transverse strength and flexural modulus of the materials and ultimate strain at fracture was calculated. Cross-sections of test specimens were examined with a SEM to evaluate degree of impregnation of fibers with polymer matrix. Quantity of fibers in test specimens was determined by combustion analysis. Transverse strength of heat-curing denture base polymer was 76 MPa, Stick reinforcement increased it to 341 MPa, and flexural modulus increased from 2550 to 19086 MPa. Stick Net reinforcement increased transverse strength of heat-curing denture base polymer to 99 MPa and flexural modulus to 3530 MPa. Transverse strength of autopolymerizing denture base polymer was 71 MPa; Stick increased it to 466 MPa; and flexural modulus increased from 2418 to 16749 MPa. Stick Net increased the transverse strength of autopolymerizing denture base polymer to 96 MPa and flexural modulus to 3573 MPa. Transverse strength of temporary fixed partial denture polymer increased from 58 to 241 MPa and flexural modulus from 1711 to 7227 MPa. ANOVA showed that reinforcement type and polymer brand affected transverse strength and modulus (P <.001

  15. Advanced treatment of wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Shi, Zhining; Fang, Yue; Shi, Shanshan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanfu

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional electrochemical oxidation (3D-EC) reactor with introduction of activated carbon (AC) as particle micro-electrodes was applied for the advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under the optimized conditions (current density of 500A/m(2), circulation rate of 5mL/min, AC dosage of 50g, and chloride concentration of 1.0g/L), the average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr), NH3-N, total organic carbon (TOC), and ultraviolet absorption at 254nm (UV254) of the 3D-EC reactor were 64.5%, 60.8%, 46.4%, and 64.8%, respectively; while the corresponding effluent concentrations of CODcr, NH3-N, TOC, and UV254 were 76.6, 20.1, and 42.5mg/L, and 0.08Abs/cm, respectively. The effluent concentration of CODcr was less than 100mg/L, which showed that the treated wastewater satisfied the demand of the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB 8978-1996). The 3D-EC process remarkably improved the treatment efficiencies with synergistic effects for CODcr, NH3-N, TOC, and UV254 during the stable stage of 44.5%, 38.8%, 27.2%, and 10.9%, respectively, as compared with the sum of the efficiencies of a two-dimensional electrochemical oxidation (2D-EC) reactor and an AC adsorption process, which was ascribed to the numerous micro-electrodes of AC in the 3D-EC reactor. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that electrochemical treatment did not generate more toxic organics, and it was proved that the increase in acute biotoxicity was caused primarily by the production of free chlorine.

  16. Electrocoagulation pretreatment of wet-spun acrylic fibers manufacturing wastewater to improve its biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chenhao; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Haitao; Li, Duo; Wu, Baichun; Sun, Yuwei; Cheng, Yanjun

    2014-06-15

    The electrocoagulation (EC) process was used to pretreat wastewater from the manufacture of wet-spun acrylic fibers, and the effects of varying the operating parameters, including the electrode area/wastewater volume (A/V) ratio, current density, interelectrode distance and pH, on the EC treatment process were investigated. About 44% of the total organic carbon was removed using the optimal conditions in a 100 min procedure. The optimal conditions were a current density of 35.7 mA cm(-2), an A/V ratio of 0.28 cm(-1), a pH of 5, and an interelectrode distance of 0.8 cm. The biodegradability of the contaminants in the treated water was improved by the EC treatment (using the optimal conditions), increasing the five-day biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio to 0.35, which could improve the effectiveness of subsequent biological treatments. The improvement in the biodegradability of the contaminants in the wastewater was attributed to the removal and degradation of aromatic organic compounds, straight-chain paraffins, and other organic compounds, which we identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The EC process was proven to be an effective alternative pretreatment for wastewater from the manufacture of wet-spun acrylic fibers, prior to biological treatments.

  17. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Tao; Shi, Zhining; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Shanshan; Smale, Nicholas; Wang, Juan

    2015-04-28

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×10(5) counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  18. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  19. A Machine Vision Quality Control System for Industrial Acrylic Fibre Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, Paulo; Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. Brázio; Dinis, João

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the implementation of INFIBRA, a machine vision system used in the quality control of acrylic fibre production. The system was developed by INETI under a contract with a leading industrial manufacturer of acrylic fibres. It monitors several parameters of the acrylic production process. This paper presents, after a brief overview of the system, a detailed description of the machine vision algorithms developed to perform the inspection tasks unique to this system. Some of the results of online operation are also presented.

  20. Enhancing oil-sorption performance of polypropylene fiber by surface modification via UV-induced graft polymerization of butyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoning; Wei, Junfu; Wang, Ao; Nie, Yuexia; Yang, Hang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Bin

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve oil sorption performances, polypropylene (PP) fiber was modified through graft polymerization with butyl acrylate (BA) initiated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in isopropanol/water mixture solution. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area were used to characterize the chemical and morphological changes of the PP fiber surface. Static contact angle (CA) measurements showed that the hydrophilicity of original PP fiber was enhanced after graft polymerization. The grafted fiber exhibited an excellent oil-sorption, oil-retention performance, fast saturation-sorption rate and superior reusability of oil. When the grafting degree was 15.55%, the maximum oil-sorption capacity reached 18.35 g/g, while the oil-sorption capacity of original PP fiber was only 11.54 g/g. After the tenth cycle of reuse, the grafted fiber sorbent assembly only lost 30% of its virgin sorption capacity.

  1. The effect of E-glass fibers and acrylic resin thickness on fracture load in a simulated implant-supported overdenture prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Renato S; Pruitt, Lisa A; Finzen, Frederick C; Marshall, Grayson W; Singh, Sukhmani; Singh, Sukhmony; Curtis, Donald A

    2011-12-01

    Implant overdenture prostheses are prone to acrylic resin fracture because of space limitations around the implant overdenture components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of E-glass fibers and acrylic resin thickness in resisting acrylic resin fracture around a simulated overdenture abutment. A model was developed to simulate the clinical situation of an implant overdenture abutment with varying acrylic resin thickness (1.5 or 3.0 mm) with or without E-glass fiber reinforcement. Forty-eight specimens with an underlying simulated abutment were divided into 4 groups (n=12): 1.5 mm acrylic resin without E-glass fibers identified as thin with no E-glass fiber mesh (TN-N); 1.5 mm acrylic resin with E-glass fibers identified as thin with E-glass fiber mesh (TN-F); 3.0 mm acrylic resin without E-glass fibers identified as thick without E-glass fiber mesh (TK-N); and 3.0 mm acrylic resin with E-glass fibers identified as thick with E-glass fiber mesh (TK-F). All specimens were submitted to a 3-point bending test and fracture loads (N) were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=.05). The results revealed significant differences in fracture load among the 4 groups, with significant effects from both thickness (P<.001) and inclusion of the mesh (P<.001). Results demonstrated no interaction between mesh and thickness (P=.690). The TN-N: 39 ±5 N; TN-F: 50 ±6.9 N; TK-N: 162 ±13 N; and TK-F: 193 ±21 N groups were all statistically different (P<.001). The fracture load of a processed, acrylic resin implant-supported overdenture can be significantly increased by the addition of E-glass fibers even when using thin acrylic resin sections. On a relative basis, the increase in fracture load was similar when adding E-glass fibers or increasing acrylic resin thickness. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of mullite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor); Sparks, J. Scott (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed here is a process for making mullite fibers wherein a hydrolizable silicon compound and an aluminum compound in the form of a difunctional aluminum chelate are hydrolized to form sols using water and an alcohol with a catalytic amount of hydrochloric acid. The sols are mixed in a molar ratio of aluminum to silicon of 3 to 1 and, under polycondensation conditions, a fibrous gel is formed. From this gel the mullite fibers can be produced.

  3. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  4. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  5. Arsenic(V) removal using an amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber: Kinetic, equilibrium, and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Nam, Aram; Park, Seong-Jik; Do, Taegu; Choi, Ung-Su; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2017-03-05

    This study investigates As(V) removal from aqueous solutions using a novel amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber. The amine doping reaction was confirmed using FT-IR, and the surface of the fiber was characterized using FEG-SEM. The synthesis process was completed within 60min using an AlCl3·6H2O catalyst at 100°C, and the resulting in a fiber with an ion exchange capacity of 7.5meq/g. The removal efficiency of the A-60 fiber was affected by the solution pH, and the efficiency was optimum at pH 3.04. As(V) adsorption on the fiber was rapid in the first 20min and reached equilibrium in 60min. As(V) removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data. The fiber has an As(V) adsorption capacity (qe) of 205.32±3.57mg/g, which is considerably higher than literature values and commercial adsorbents. The removal efficiency of the fiber was above 83% of the initial value after nine regeneration cycles.

  6. Preparation of anion exchanger by amination of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene nonwoven fiber and its ion-exchange property.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Ju; Na, Choon-Ki

    2006-09-01

    To develop the polymeric adsorbent that possess anionic exchangeable function, PP-g-AA-Am fibers were prepared by photoinduced grafting of acrylic acid (AA) onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fibers and subsequent conversion of carboxyl group in grafted AA to an amine (Am) group by reaction with diethylene triamine (DETA). The amination of grafted AA increased with increase in the degree of grafting, the reaction time and temperature of the chemical modification process. Catalytic effect of metal chlorides such as AlCl(3) and FeCl(3) on the amination of grafted AA was significant but not essential to lead the amination. FT-IR and solid (13)C NMR data indicate that amine group was introduced into PP-g-AA fiber through amide linkage between grafted AA and DETA. The anion exchange capacity of PP-g-AA-Am fiber increased with increase in the degree of amination, but reached maximum value at about 60% amination of 150% grafted AA. PP-g-AA-Am fiber showed much higher maximum capacity for PO(4)-P and a similar capacity for NO(3)-N compared to commercial anion resins. Furthermore, the PP-g-AA-Am fiber also has adsorption ability for cations because of unaminated residual carboxyl group.

  7. Supercritical water oxidation of acrylic acid production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y M; Wang, S Z; Tang, X Y; Xu, D H; Ma, H H

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of wastewater from an acrylic acid manufacturing plant has been studied on a continuous flow experimental system, whose reactor was made of Hastelloy C-276. Experimental conditions included a reaction temperature (T) ranging from 673 to 773K, a residence time (t) ranging from 72.7 to 339s, a constant pressure (P) of 25 MPa and a fixed oxidation coefficient (alpha) of 2.0. Experimental results indicated that reaction temperature and residence time had significant influences on the oxidation reaction, and increasing the two operation parameters could improve both degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). The COD removal efficiency could reach up to 98.73% at 25 MPa, 773 K and 180.1 s, whereas the destruction efficiency of NH3-N was only 43.71%. We further carried out a kinetic analysis considering the induction period through free radical chain mechanism. It confirms that the power-law rate equation for COD removal was 345 exp(-52200/RT)[COD]1.98[O2]0.17 and for NH3-N removal was 500 exp(-64492.19/RT)[NH3-N]1.87 [O2]0.03. Moreover, the induction time formulations for COD and NH3-N were suspected to be exp(38250/RT)/173 and exp(55690/RT)/15231, respectively. Correspondingly, induction time changed from 2.22 to 5.38 s for COD and 0.38 to 1.38 s for NH3-N. Owing to the catalysis of reactor inner wall surface, more than 97% COD removal was achieved in all samples.

  8. Breakthrough: Better Fiber for Better Products

    ScienceCinema

    Griffith, George; Garnier, John

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have developed a cost-effective method for the continuous production of alpha silicon carbide fiber. The exceptionally strong, lightweight fiber could enable significant performance improvements in many everyday products.

  9. Breakthrough: Better Fiber for Better Products

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George; Garnier, John

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have developed a cost-effective method for the continuous production of alpha silicon carbide fiber. The exceptionally strong, lightweight fiber could enable significant performance improvements in many everyday products.

  10. RP-HPLC detection and dosage method for acrylic monomers and degradation products released from implanted medical devices.

    PubMed

    Tortolano, Lionel; Hammami, Senda; Manerlax, Katia; Do, Bernard; Yagoubi, Najet

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic copolymers are useful in medical therapeutics. As in dental implants or intraocular lenses, acrylics are present in many medical devices or drug adjuvants. Industrial using of acrylics is still important in painting or textile manufacturing. Scientific research background has proved that acrylic suffer for depolymerized and cross-linking mechanisms under heating and photo-oxidative conditions. Those aging processes could lead to release of unreacted monomers and degradation products. We developed a new RP-HPLC method with good resolution, recovery, linearity, detection and quantification limits that is efficient for acrylic monomers quantification in in vitro and in vivo saline solution matrices. This method allows the detection of copolymer and medical devices degradation products too. Both the limit of quantification and the limit of detection for monomers and degradation products are above cytotoxic concentrations for human epithelial cells. Those biological results confirm the interest of the method for dosage of unreacted acrylics after polymerization and for the research of degradation products in body fluids as aqueous humor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) using cellulose extracted from sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer.

    PubMed

    Hajeeth, T; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T; Sudha, P N

    2013-11-01

    The extraction of cellulose from sisal fiber was done initially using the steam explosion method. The batch adsorption studies were conducted using the cellulose extracted from the sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions from aqueous solution. The effect of sorbent amount, agitation period and pH of solution that influence sorption capacity were investigated. From the observed results, it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of copper(II) and nickel(II) for both the extracted cellulose and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer. The adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental results of the Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms revealed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and nickel(II) ion onto cellulose extracted from the sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm. The kinetics studies show that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for acrylic and polyester forensic fiber dye analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Lauren M; Wilson, Trevor A; Ronald Fawcett, W

    2006-07-01

    A critical point of comparison between a fiber collected from a crime scene and a fiber from a known source is the color. Fiber dye analysis using thin-layer chromatography or ultraviolet (UV)-visible (Vis) microspectrophotometry provides useful, although limited, data for comparison. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/MS) overcomes these limitations by integrating chromatography, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry into a single instrument. In order to evaluate the applicability of the LC/MS to forensic fiber dye analysis, a multi-stage chromatographic method using acidified water and acidified acetonitrile was developed that separated and identified a mixture of 15 basic and 13 disperse dye standards. The LC/MS also detected and analyzed dyes extracted from individual 0.5 cm acrylic and polyester fibers, demonstrating its applicability to this type of analysis. With regard to the analysis of disperse dyes in polyester fibers, the replacement of pyridine with acetonitrile in the extraction system allowed direct injection of the extracts into the LC/MS. The advantage of the LC/MS over other instrumental methods of textile dye analysis is demonstrated by the analysis and differentiation of three black acrylic fibers: two fibers had similar UV-Vis spectra but were differentiated with chromatography and two had similar UV-Vis spectra and chromatograms but were differentiated using the mass spectrometer.

  13. Production of superconductor/carbon bicomponent fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, S. A.; Fain, C. C.; Leigh, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Certain materials are unable to be drawn or spun into fiber form due to their improper melting characteristics or brittleness. However, fibrous samples of such materials are often necessary for the fabrication of intricate shapes and composites. In response to this problem, a unique process, referred to as the piggyback process, was developed to prepare fibrous samples of a variety of nonspinnable ceramics. In this technique, specially produced C shaped carbon fibers serve as micromolds to hold the desired materials prior to sintering. Depending on the sintering atmosphere used, bicomponent or single component fibers result. While much has been shown worldwide concerning the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor, fabrication into unique forms has proven quite difficult. However, a variety of intricate shapes are necessary for rapid commercialization of the superconducting materials. The potential for producing fibrous samples of the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compound by the piggyback process is being studied. Various organic and acrylic materials were studied to determine suspending ability, reactivity with the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compound during long term storage, and burn out characteristics. While many questions were answered with respect to the interfacial reactions between YBa2Cu3O(7-x) and carbon, much work is still necessary to improve the quality of the sintered material if the fibers produced are to be incorporated into useful composite or cables.

  14. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  15. Transformation characteristics of organic pollutants in Fered-Fenton process for dry-spun acrylic fiber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Song, Yonghui; Meng, Xiaoguang; Tu, Xiang; Pic, Jean-Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Fered-Fenton process using Ti sheet as cathode and RuO2/Ti as anode was employed for the pretreatment of dry-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. The effects of feeding mode and concentration of H2O2 on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as well as the biodegradability variation during the Fered-Fenton process were investigated. The feeding mode of H2O2 had significant influence on COD removal efficiency: the removal efficiency was 44.8% if all the 60.0 mM H2O2 was fed at once, while it could reach 54.1% if the total H2O2 was divided into six portions and fed six times. The biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio increased from 0.29 to above 0.68 after 180 min treatment. The transformation characteristics of organic pollutants during the Fered-Fenton process were evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Most of the refractory organic pollutants with aromatic structure or large molecular weight were decomposed during the Fered-Fenton process.

  16. Production Of Far Infrared Glass Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, A. Ray; Hilton, A. Ray; McCord, James

    1989-06-01

    Direct application of the experience gained in preparing optical fibers for visual or very near infrared use has not produced good results in the far IR, 8-llμm. Joint efforts between suppliers of infrared transmitting (chalcogenide) glasses and those versed in the production of silicate glass fibers have met with only modest success. Perhaps oxide glass fiber methods are not compatible with the production of chalcogenide glasses. Separation of the glass production from the fiber production across organizational lines is another handicap preventing free flow of information. After participating in two such programs, Amorphous Materials concluded that a successful program would require that both activities be carried out together. This paper reports the results of efforts at Amorphous Materials to produce fibers in a manner compatible with chalcogenide glass production. Areas emphasized and discussed are: (1) Selection of glass composition from the standpoint of glass quality and fiber properties, (2) Fiber production designed to preserve bulk glass quality, (3) Fiber evaluation results, (4) Low level absorption glass production.

  17. Comparison of the in vitro fatigue resistance of an acrylic resin removable partial denture reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wires.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    1996-06-01

    The fatigue resistance of heat-polymerized acrylic resin test specimens reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wire was investigated. Test specimens in the shape of maxillary removable partial dentures were reinforced with one of the following: (1) circular steel wire (cross-sectional diameter, 1.0 mm); (2) semicircular steel wire (cross-sectional diameter, 1.0 x 2.0 mm); or (3) continuous unidirectional E-glass fibers. Ten specimens were fabricated for each test group. The specimens were tested by a constant force flexural fatigue test at a force of 180 N while immersed in 37 degrees C water. The number of loading cycles required to generate a fatigue fracture and the position of the fracture were measured. Results showed that the test specimens, which were either unreinforced or reinforced with metal wires, fractured after 13,197 to 39,237 loading cycles. For the glass fiber-reinforced test specimens, the fracture did not coincide with the region of the strengthener but with the opposite side of the test specimen after 1,239,298 loading cycles. The position of the fracture showed a statistically significant variation between the test groups (P < .001). This study suggests that the fatigue resistance of acrylic resin removable partial dentures reinforced with glass fibers are superior to those removable partial dentures reinforced with conventional metal wire.

  18. Production of flax fibers for biocomposites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural fibers for many and varied industrial uses are a current area of intense interest. Production of these fibers, furthermore, can add to farmer incomes and promote agricultural sustainability. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), which has been used for thousands of years, is unparalleled in supplyi...

  19. Nozzle for superconducting fiber production

    DOEpatents

    Righi, Jamal

    1992-11-17

    A nozzle apparatus for producing flexible fibers of superconducting material receives melted material from a crucible for containing a charge of the superconducting material. The material is melted in the crucible and falls in a stream through a bottom hole in the crucible. The stream falls through a protecting collar which maintains the stream at high temperatures. The stream is then supplied through the downwardly directed nozzle where it is subjected to a high velocity air flow which breaks the melted superconducting material into ligaments which solidify into the flexible fibers. The fibers are collected by blowing them against a porous cloth.

  20. Production of superconductor/carbon bicomponent fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, S. A.; Fain, C. C.; Leigh, H. D.; Sherrill, M.

    1990-01-01

    Certain materials are unable to be drawn or spun into fiber form due to their improper melting characteristics or brittleness. However, fibrous samples of such materials are often necessary for the fabrication of intricate shapes and composites. In response to this problem, a unique process, referred to as the piggyback process, was developed to prepare fibrous samples of a variety of nonspinnable ceramics. In this technique, specially produced C-shaped carbon fibers serve as micromolds to hold the desired materials prior to sintering. Depending on the sintering atmosphere used, bicomponent or single component fibers result. While much has been demonstrated worldwide concerning the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor, fabrication into unique forms has proven quite difficult. However, a variety of intricate shapes are necessary for rapid commercialization of the superconducting materials. The potential for producing fibrous samples of the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compound by the piggyback process is being investigated. Various organic and acrylic materials were investigated to determine suspending ability, reactivity with the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compound during long term storage, and burn out characteristics. While many questions were answered with respect to the interfacial reactions between YBa2Cu3O(7-x) and carbon, much work is still necessary to improve the quality of the sintered material if the fibers produced are to be incorporated into useful composites or cables. Additional research is necessary to evaluate quality of the barrier layer during long soakings at the peak temperature; adjust the firing schedule to avoid microcracking and improve densification; and increase the solids loading in the superconductive suspension to decrease porosity.

  1. Improvement of transmission properties of visible pilot beam for polymer-coated silver hollow fibers with acrylic silicone resin as buffer layer for sturdy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-02-01

    Flexible hollow fibers with 530-μm-bore size were developed for infrared laser delivery. Sturdy hollow fibers were fabricated by liquid-phase coating techniques. A silica glass capillary is used as the substrate. Acrylic silicone resin is used as a buffer layer and the buffer layer is firstly coated on the inner surface of the capillary to protect the glass tube from chemical damages due to the following silver plating process. A silver layer was inner-plated by using the conventional silver mirror-plating technique. To improve adhesion of catalyst to the buffer layer, a surface conditioner has been introduced in the method of silver mirror-plating technique. We discuss improvement of transmission properties of sturdy polymer-coated silver hollow fibers for the Er:YAG laser and red pilot beam delivery.

  2. Fiber optic gyros from research to production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlath, George A.

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic gyros are a great success story for a new inertial measurement technology that successfully transitioned from the laboratory in 1975 to production in 1992. This paper will review their research, advanced development, product development, and production transfer. The focus of the paper will be this cycle from Stanford University to Northrop Grumman.

  3. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd...

  4. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd...

  5. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd lots...

  6. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd lots...

  7. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd lots...

  8. Effects of carbon fibers on consumer products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, R. A.; Lovett, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of carbon fibers on consumer products such as dishwashers, microwave ovens, and smoke detectors were investigated. The investigation was divided into two categories to determine the potential faults and hazards that could occur if fibers should enter the electrical circuits of the selected appliances. The categories were a fault analysis and a hazard analysis. Hazards considered were fire, flood, physical harm, explosion, and electrical shock. Electrical shock was found to be a possible occurrence related to carbon fibers. Faults were considered to be any effect on the performance of an appliance which would result in complaint or require service action.

  9. Antimicrobial Acrylic Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated or supplied the drawings...rendered antimicrobial. The ability to regenerate the halamines (and the antimicrobial functionality) lasted through 50 home laundry washings. The...antimicrobial. The ability to regenerate the halamines (and the antimicrobial functionality) lasted through 50 home laundry washings. The chlorine

  10. FTIR product distribution study of the Cl and OH initiated degradation of methyl acrylate at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Blanco, María B; Bejan, Iustinian; Barnes, Ian; Wiesen, Peter; Teruel, Mariano A

    2010-09-15

    A product study is reported on the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with methyl acrylate. The experiments were performed in a 1080-L quartz-glass chamber in synthetic air at 298 ± 2 K and 760 ± 10 Torr using long-path in situ FTIR spectroscopy for the analysis of the reactants and products. In the absence of NO(x) the major product observed in the OH reaction is methyl glyoxylate, with formaldehyde as a coproduct. For the reaction with Cl only formyl chloride (HC(O)Cl), CO, and HCl could be positively identified as products, however, the concentration-time behavior of these products show that they are secondary products and originate from the further oxidation of a major primary product. From this behavior and a comparison with simulated spectra unidentified bands in the residual product spectra are tentatively attributed to a compound of structure CH(2)ClC(O)C(O)OCH(3), i.e., formation of methyl 3-chloro-2-oxopropanoate from the reaction of Cl with methyl acrylate. The present results are compared with previous results where available and simple atmospheric degradation mechanisms are postulated to explain the formation of the observed products.

  11. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  12. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in ecological textiles by solid-phase microextraction with a siloxane-modified polyurethane acrylic resin fiber.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianlei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Ruan, Wenhong; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2012-07-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared with siloxane-modified polyurethane acrylic resin by photo-cured technology. The ratio of two monomers was investigated to obtain good microphase separation structure and better extraction performance. The self-made fiber was then applied to organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) analysis and several factors, such as extraction/desorption time, extraction temperature, salinity, and pH, were studied. The optimized conditions were: 15 min extraction at 25 °C, 5% Na(2)SO(4) content, pH 7.0 and 4 min desorption in GC inlet. The self-made fiber coating exhibited better extraction efficiency for OPPs, compared with three commercial fiber coatings. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of 11 OPPs were from 0.03 μg L(-1) to 0.5 μg L(-1). Good recoveries and repeatabilities were obtained when the method was used to determine OPPs in ecological textile.

  13. Influence of thermal history on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-acrylate composites cured by electron beam and thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vautard, Frederic; Ozcan, Soydan; Poland, Laura E; Meyer III, Harry M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of an acrylate resin and its carbon fiber composite, as well as the adhesion strength between them, were characterized in the case of thermal and electron beam curing. The thermal history during the cure was also recorded. It was shown that the properties of the matrix were similar but that the thermal history during the curing had a direct influence on the type of interactions that were generated at the interface, leading to different level of adhesion strength and level of performance for the associated composites. In the case of a thermal cure, the thermal profile allowed the generation of covalent bonding at the interface, leading to a high level of adhesion strength, which was not the case for electron beam curing. The thermal history during the cure appeared to be a determining parameter for the level of performance of composites cured by electron beam.

  14. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... superimposed or added fibers. 303.23 Section 303.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... ACT § 303.23 Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a textile fiber... minor proportion superimposed or added in certain separate and distinct areas or sections...

  15. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... superimposed or added fibers. 303.23 Section 303.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... ACT § 303.23 Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a textile fiber... minor proportion superimposed or added in certain separate and distinct areas or sections...

  16. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... superimposed or added fibers. 303.23 Section 303.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... ACT § 303.23 Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a textile fiber... minor proportion superimposed or added in certain separate and distinct areas or sections...

  17. Effect of different palatal vault shapes on the dimensional stability of glass fiber-reinforced heat-polymerized acrylic resin denture base material

    PubMed Central

    Dalkiz, Mehmet; Arslan, Demet; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza; Bilgin, M.Selim; Aykul, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different palatal vault shapes on the dimensional stability of a glass fiber reinforced heat polymerized acrylic resin denture base material. Methods: Three edentulous maxilla with shallow, deep and medium shaped palatal vaults were selected and elastomeric impressions were obtained. A maxillary cast with four reference points (A, B, C, and D) was prepared to serve as control. Point (A) was marked in the anterior midline of the edentulous ridge in the incisive papillary region, points (B) and (C) were marked in the right and left posterior midlines of the edentulous ridge in the second molar regions, and point (D) was marked in the posterior palatal midline near the fovea palatina media (Figure 2). To determine linear dimensional changes, distances between four reference points (A–B, A–C, A–D and B–C) were initially measured with a metal gauge accurate within 0.1 mm under a binocular stereo light microscope and data (mm) were recorded. Results: No significant difference of interfacial distance was found in sagittal and frontal sections measured 24 h after polymerization and after 30 days of water storage in any of experimental groups (P>.05). Significant difference of linear dimension were found in all experimental groups (P<.01) between measurements made 24 h after polymerization of specimens and 30 days after water storage. Conclusion: Palatal vault shape and fiber impregnation into the acrylic resin bases did not affect the magnitude of interfacial gaps between the bases and the stone cast surfaces. PMID:22229010

  18. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  19. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  20. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11.12b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the...

  1. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anasane, Nayana; Ahirrao, Yogesh; Chitnis, Deepa; Meshram, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each), depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round), with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05). Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < 0.001) (88.77 MPa), with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa) which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours (P < 0.001). Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins. PMID:23946739

  2. Location of the allergenic monomer in warm-polymerized acrylic dentures. Part II: Experiments aimed at establishing guidelines for production of acrylic dentures suited for patients allergic to acrylic monomer and complementary investigations.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A I; Oquist, G

    1980-01-01

    An account has been given of a patient with denture sore mouth caused by allergy to the denture material (Part I). In the continued investigation the residual monomer or part thereof was found to be the allergen. Patch testing of the skin with drillings from the upper and lower dentures made of a "warm-polymerized" methyl methacrylate resin was carried out with special reference to the topography of the distribution of the allergenic factor within the dentures. Only that surface of the upper denture that is in contact with the hard palate and the maxillary crista were allergenic. All other surfaces of the upper denture as well as the complete lower denture were non-allergenic. The resin was, in other words, inhomogeneous as regards the allergenic factor. An analysis of the test castings showed that the allergenic properties in the resin are located in the surface and that the resin was free from allergens below the "allergenic film" (Parts I and II). A non-allergenic, extraordinarily well-fitting denture was produced from the same make of acrylic as that used for the non-tolerated denture. It was made by a new technique, "directed polymerization," comprising initial application of heat centrally in the cuvette (a metal cup surrounding the gypsum), including tin-foiling of the palatal half of the mould. The production of the denture was based on experience from tests with test castings. A check-up 18 months later showed no stomatitis and the retention and stability of the denture were very satisfactory, and tests with the original model of the upper gum showed that it had an excellent fit.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates in nail cosmetic products in users and nail technicians - a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Inês; Lobo, Inês; Amaro, Cristina; Lobo, Maria de Lurdes; Melo, Helena; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Teresa; Rocha, Joana; Cunha, Ana P; Baptista, Armando; Serrano, Pedro; Correia, Teresa; Travassos, Ana R; Dias, Margarida; Pereira, Fátima; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2017-05-15

    The increasing use of long-lasting nail aesthetic products has led to a growing number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by (meth)acrylates in recent years. To provide information on ACD caused by (meth)acrylates related to nail cosmetic products. We retrospectively reviewed files of patients with ACD caused by (meth)acrylates related to nail cosmetic products, who were patch tested between January 2011 and December 2015 in 13 departments of dermatology in Portugal. Two-hundred and thirty cases of ACD caused by (meth)acrylates (55 technicians, 56 consumers, and 119 with mixed exposure) had been documented, mostly as chronic hand eczema (93%). The most common sensitizers were: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), which was positive in 90% of the tested patients, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), which was positive in 64.1%, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, which was positive in 54.5%. HEMA and HPMA were the most frequent positive allergens. HEMA, which identified 90% of cases, can be considered to be a good screening allergen. The high number of cases of ACD caused by (meth)acrylates in nail cosmetic products certainly warrants better preventive measures at the occupational level, and specific regulation in the field of consumer safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of water storage on the flexural properties of E-glass and silica fiber acrylic resin composite.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K; Ruyter, I E; Ekstrand, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced denture base polymers. Continuous woven silanized electrical glass, or E-glass, fibers and woven silica fibers were used to reinforce heat-cured and autopolymerized denture base polymers. Fibers were oriented at a 45-degree angle to the long axis of the test specimens. Control specimens were unreinforced. Dry test specimens and those stored in water for up to 48 weeks were tested with a three-point loading apparatus. The surfaces of the fibers of the test specimens stored dry or 48 weeks in water were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate the degree of adhesion between fibers and polymer matrix. The ultimate transverse strength of unreinforced and reinforced denture base polymers decreased during 48 weeks' storage in water (P < 0.05, one-way analysis of variance, n = 5), and most of this reduction occurred during the first 4 weeks of storage in water. The flexural modulus of the unreinforced test specimens decreased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas there was less, if any, change in the flexural modulus of the fiber-reinforced test specimens. Scanning electron microscopic examination revealed no differences in adhesion of E-glass fibers to the polymer matrix when the specimens stored in water were compared with those stored by. Reduced adhesion between the silica fibers and matrix was observed after 48 weeks' storage in water. The results of this study suggest that the ultimate transverse strength of the E-glass fiber-reinforced test specimens decreased 14% and that of the silica fiber-reinforced test specimens decreased 36% after 48 weeks of storage in water.

  5. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. 303.23 Section 303.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS...

  6. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. 303.23 Section 303.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS...

  7. Effect of 180-week water storage on the flexural properties of E-glass and silica fiber acrylic resin composite.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term water immersion on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composite. Continuous, woven, silanized E-glass fibers and woven silica fibers were used to reinforce heat-cured and autopolymerized denture base polymers. Fibers were oriented at a 45-degree angle to the long axis of the test specimens. Control specimens were unreinforced. Dry test specimens and those stored in water for up to 180 weeks were tested with a 3-point loading apparatus. Ultimate transverse strength and flexural modulus of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced composite test specimens decreased during water storage (P < 0.001, analysis of variance). Post hoc analysis revealed that after the storage of 4 weeks no statistically significant reduction occurred. The results of this study suggest that the ultimate transverse strength of the fiber-reinforced composite made from E-glass fibers is reduced by approximately 27% compared to the dry fiber-reinforced composite. The majority of the reduction occurred during 4 weeks of storage in water and remained approximately at that level for 180 weeks.

  8. Determinants of airborne fiber size in the glass fiber production industry.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Margaret M; Smith, Thomas J; Schneider, Thomas; Eisen, Ellen A; Wegman, David H

    2005-01-01

    Size distributions of airborne fiber exposures should be characterized for studies of respiratory disease because size determines the region of the lung where a fiber will deposit and its ability to produce toxic effects in cells. Yet fiber size is not measured precisely with standard air sampling methods. Specific fiber dimensions hypothesized to have biologic activity have been proposed, but these have not been evaluated in epidemiologic studies because there has not been a way to account for fiber size in historical air monitoring data. In this study, methods were developed to predict fibrous aerosol size fractions generated during glass wool fiber production using regression models and factors related to bulk fiber products and processing. A set of air samples representing a range of products and process applications was collected in eight fiber glass production facilities. The samples were analyzed more intensively than standard methods require. For each air sample, total fiber size distributions were measured using electron microscopy and two proportions were then calculated: (1) fibers meeting the size criteria of the standard NIOSH Method 7400 B rules method (pB), and (2) fibers meeting the size criteria for a biologically based exposure index, the hypothetically active fiber (HAF1) index (pH1). The fiber size proportions were used as dependent variables in regression models with production process factors. It was found that two factors, the nominal diameter of the bulk fiber product and whether oil was applied to it, determine more than 80% of the variability in the proportions (for the pB model, R2 = 0.86; for the pH1 model, R2 = 0.82). Using these two predicted proportions, it is possible to estimate the concentration of fibers in the biologically based HAF1 size fraction from a standard fiber concentration measurement. The models developed here can be used to size-adjust historical fiber concentration measurements for use in epidemiologic studies of

  9. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Optimization of Fracture Resistance and Stiffness of Heat-Polymerized High Impact Acrylic Resin with Localized E-Glass FiBER FORCE® Reinforcement at Different Stress Points.

    PubMed

    Agha, Haitham; Flinton, Robert; Vaidyanathan, Tritala

    2016-12-01

    Dentures are subject to fracture through flexural stresses during masticatory function. Distribution of stresses under flexural loading varies from compressive to tensile stress along the thickness of the denture cross section. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of reinforcing compressive, tensile, and no stress regions of flexurally loaded rectangular bars of heat-cured denture base acrylic resin reinforced with tough E-Glass FiBER FORCE (GFF) on their fracture resistance under flexural loading. Forty rectangular specimens (65 mm long × 10 mm wide × 2.5 mm thick) were prepared and divided into four groups (n = 10). Group FN had no fiber reinforcement, group FM had fiber in the middle at the no-stress neutral axis, group FC had fiber close to the surface on the compressive stress side, and group FT had the fiber close to the surface on the tensile stress side. The effect of GFF reinforcement on flexural strength (FS), flexural toughness (TG), and flexural modulus of elasticity (MOE) was evaluated. The mean and (SD) of the FS, TG, and MOE varied as follows. FS (MPa): group FN: 91.49 (7.88); group FM: 102.83 (13.5); group FC: 107.68 (11.21); group FT: 141.46 (14.77). TG (mJ/mm(3) ): group FN: 0.171 (0.026); group FM: 0.236 (0.033); group FC: 0.156 (0.032); group FT: 0.347 (0.010). MOE (MPa): group FN: 2682 (761); group FM: 2601 (417); group FC: 4188 (1012); group FT: 4215 (674). Statistical analysis showed that reinforcement on the tensile side of the neutral axis yielded improvement in all properties evaluated. Placement of the GFF close to the tensile stress side surface of the bar increased the resistance to elastic deformation (i.e., higher MOE or stiffness) and the stress level needed for flexural fracture (i.e., higher FS). In addition, more energy was absorbed by reinforced specimens before fracture occurred (i.e., higher toughness). Localized reinforcement targeting tensile stress centers is thus a practical way to improve clinical

  12. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  13. Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Darren A; Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Frederick S

    2008-01-01

    Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

  14. Production of fibers by a floating zone fiber drawing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A CO2 laser heated, floating zone fiber growth process was developed. The resulting Al2O3 fibers exhibited the high room temperature strengths for large diameter fibers as well as high specific creep rupture strengths observed at 1093 C and 1316 C (2000 F and 2400 F). Single crystal fibers of TiC and Y2O3 were also grown. An optical system was developed to focus four CO2 laser beams onto the surface of a feed rod permitting the formation of highly controllable molten zones. The optical system permitted energy densities and angle of incidence of the beams to be adjusted over wide ranges. This optical system was incorporated into a controlled atmosphere, fiber growth furnace. The two principal advantages of a CO2 laser heat source are that ambient atmospheres may be freely selected to optimize fiber properties and the laser has no inherent temperature limit, so extremely high melting point materials can be melted. Both advantages were demonstrated.

  15. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    PubMed

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life.

  16. Organics, sulfates and ammonia removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a combined Fenton-UASB (2 phase)-SBR system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Luan, Zhaokun; Yu, Lian; Ji, Zhongguang

    2011-11-01

    A combined Fenton-UASB (2 phase)-SBR system was employed to treat acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) to COD were 65.5% and 0.529%, respectively, with the optimal Fenton conditions: ferrous was 300 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide was 500 mg/L; pH was 3.0; reaction time was 2.0 h. In two-phase UASB reactor, mesophilic operation (35±0.5 °C) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 h. The results showed that with the HRT not less than 38 h, COD and sulfate removal were 65% and 75%, respectively. The greatest sizes of granule formed in the sulfate-reducing and methane-producing phases were 5 and 2 mm, respectively. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for 35% in the sulfate-reducing phase while methane-producing archaea (MPA) accounted for 72% in the methane-producing phase. During the SBR process, shortcut nitrification was achieved by temperature control of 30 °C.

  17. Oral Health of Patients Treated with Acrylic Partial Dentures Using a Toothpaste Containing Bee Product.

    PubMed

    Wiatrak, Karolina; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Rój, Rafał; Mertas, Anna; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Kownacki, Patryk; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Baron, Stefan; Piekarz, Tomasz; Wrzoł, Maciej; Bogacz, Mateusz; Kasperski, Jacek; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis and tee tree oil-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Thirty-seven patients who underwent oral rehabilitation with a removable acrylic denture were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: study group (A) which received a newly formulated propolis and tee tree oil-containing toothpaste or a control group (C) without an active ingredient. API, S-OHI, and mSBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation: in the study group after 4 weeks use of the active toothpaste showed a decrease in the number of isolated microorganisms. In the control group, after 4 weeks use of the toothpaste without active ingredients resulted in increase in the number of the isolated microorganisms. Improvements in hygiene and the condition of periodontium were observed in patients using active toothpastes. In the study group the oral flora diversity was reduced by the decrease in the number of cultured microorganism species, while in the control group an increase in the number of cultured microorganisms and their species was observed.

  18. Oral Health of Patients Treated with Acrylic Partial Dentures Using a Toothpaste Containing Bee Product

    PubMed Central

    Kownacki, Patryk; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Piekarz, Tomasz; Bogacz, Mateusz; Kasperski, Jacek; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis and tee tree oil-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Thirty-seven patients who underwent oral rehabilitation with a removable acrylic denture were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: study group (A) which received a newly formulated propolis and tee tree oil-containing toothpaste or a control group (C) without an active ingredient. API, S-OHI, and mSBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation: in the study group after 4 weeks use of the active toothpaste showed a decrease in the number of isolated microorganisms. In the control group, after 4 weeks use of the toothpaste without active ingredients resulted in increase in the number of the isolated microorganisms. Improvements in hygiene and the condition of periodontium were observed in patients using active toothpastes. In the study group the oral flora diversity was reduced by the decrease in the number of cultured microorganism species, while in the control group an increase in the number of cultured microorganisms and their species was observed. PMID:28265291

  19. LOW COST PRODUCTION OF CARBON FIBERS FROM LIGNIN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Darren A; Baker, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Vehicle Technologies-funded work at ORNL is directed to the development of processes for the low cost production of carbon fibers. The objective of the project is to develop more energy-efficient, cost-effective processes for production of carbon fibers for use in composite materials for vehicles, which would substantially reduce vehicle weight, increase vehicle fuel economy, and result in lower CO2 emissions. Carbon fibers have the potential for substantial weight saving in vehicles because of their remarkable high strength, high modulus, and low density. However, carbon fibers are currently too expensive for large scale automotive use, which necessitates a large reduction in the cost of commercial grade fiber from about $20/lb to $5-7/lb. Lignin, a renewable resource material, has significant potential as a precursor material for low cost carbon fiber production. In this paper we report on progress to demonstrate the melt-spinning of precursor fibers from various lignin sources, the subsequent processing of the lignin precursor fibers into carbon fibers, and carbon fiber properties.

  20. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  1. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  7. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Zaida; Morón, Moisés; Monzón, Mario D.; Badalló, Pere; Paz, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight) at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production. PMID:28773490

  8. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Zaida; Morón, Moisés; Monzón, Mario D; Badalló, Pere; Paz, Rubén

    2016-05-13

    Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight) at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  9. Co-production of schizophyllan and arabinoxylan from corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P

    2006-05-01

    Schizophyllum commune strain ATCC 38548 grew well on a medium containing alkaline H2O2 -pretreated corn fiber as a sole carbon source, and clarified the culture medium within 7 days. The strain preferentially utilized the starch component of corn fiber for growth and production of schizophyllan. Culture supernatants contained approx. 50 mg schizophyllan and 200 mg arabinoxylan per g corn fiber. These polysaccharides were recovered separately by differential precipitation with ethanol.

  10. Sustainable production of acrylic acid: alkali-ion exchanged beta zeolite for gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Tao, Li-Zhi; Liang, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid (LA) to acrylic acid (AA) was investigated over alkali-exchanged β zeolite (M(x)Na(1-x)β, M=Li(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)) of different exchange degrees (x). The reaction was conducted under varying conditions to understand the catalyst selectivity for AA production and trends of byproduct formation. The nature and exchange degree of M(+) were found to be critical for the acid-base properties and catalytic performance of the exchanged zeolite. K(x)Na(1-x)β of x=0.94 appeared to be the best performing catalyst whereas Li(x)Na(1-x)β and Naβ were the poorest in terms of AA selectivity and yield. The AA yield as high as 61 mol % (selectivity: 64 mol %) could be obtained under optimized reaction conditions for up to 8 h over the best performing K0.94Na0.06β. The acid and base properties of the catalysts were probed, respectively by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of adsorbed NH3 and CO2, and were related to the electrostatic potentials of the alkali ions in the zeolite, which provided a basis for the discussion of the acid-base catalysis for sustainable AA formation from LA.

  11. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... the United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products...

  12. Ultrafine particle and fiber production in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, George W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In a system and method for producing ultrafine particles and ultrafine fibers of a given source material by evaporating and condensing the material in a gas atmosphere that includes inert gas. A smaller, more narrow size distribution is accomplished by producing the particles and fibers in a microgravity environment in order to reduce particle coalescence caused by convection currents. Particle coalescence also is reduced in an Earth gravity environment by controlling the convection currents. Condensed particles are collected either by providing an electrostatic field or a spatially varying magnetic field or by causing the gas to move through a filter which collects the particles. Nonferromagnetic material fibers are produced and collected by electrodes which produce an electro- static field. Ferromagnetic particles are collected by spatially varying magnetic fields.

  13. Anti-heartburn effects of a fenugreek fiber product.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, Robert A; Verbruggen, Marian A; Offutt, E Jann

    2011-01-01

    Frequent heartburn occurs in many people, some of whom prefer alternative treatments over conventional drugs. In a pilot study of subjects with frequent heartburn, 2 week intake of a fenugreek fiber product, taken 30 min before two meals/day, diminished heartburn severity. This conclusion was based on symptom diary results and reduced the use of a mild antacid as a rescue medicine. Improvement for each of the 2 weeks was judged by comparison with results from a baseline week. Placebo also produced some statistically significant effects, but the fiber product's effects differed significantly from the placebo. Moreover, the fenugreek fiber effects were generally similar to the results produced by an OTC antacid medication (ranitidine at 75 mg, twice a day). This study suggests that people with certain degrees of heartburn can benefit from a fenugreek fiber product. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Enhancing forest value productivity through fiber quality

    Treesearch

    D. Briggs

    2010-01-01

    Developing markets for carbon storage and bioenergy, shifting of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries, and the potential of new technologies present the forest sector with exciting transformative opportunities and challenges. One of these challenges will be to understand the implications for fiber (wood) quality. This article provides a definitional context for...

  15. Active PZT fibers: a commercial production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strock, Harold B.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Parish, Mark V.; Bent, Aaron A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1999-07-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) active fibers, from 80 to 250 micrometers in diameter, are produced for the AFOSR/DARPA funded Active Fiber Composites Consortium (AFCC) Program and commercial customers. CeraNova has developed a proprietary ceramics-based technology to produce PZT mono-filaments of the required purity, composition, straightness, and piezoelectric properties for use in active fiber composite structures. CeraNova's process begins with the extrusion of continuous lengths of mono-filament precursor fiber from a plasticized mix of PZT-5A powder. The care that must be taken to avoid mix contamination is described using illustrations form problems experiences with extruder wear and metallic contamination. Corrective actions are described and example microstructures are shown. The consequences of inadequate lead control are also shown. Sintered mono- filament mechanical strength and piezoelectric properties data approach bulk values but the validity of such a benchmark is questioned based on variable correlation with composite performance measures. Comb-like ceramic preform structures are shown that are being developed to minimize process and handling costs while maintaining the required mono-filament straightness necessary for composite fabrication. Lastly, actuation performance data are presented for composite structures fabricated and tested by Continuum Control Corporation. Free strain actuation in excess of 2000 microstrain are observed.

  16. Corn fiber utilization for production of Schizophyllan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber is an abundant coproduct of the corn wet milling process, primarily composed of the seed pericarp and adherent starch. Schizophyllan is a biopolymer composed entirely of glucose, with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and single ß-1,6-linked glucose side chains at every third residue, produced by t...

  17. Bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate for electrospun fiber production.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Villegas, Pamela; Urtuvia, Viviana; Hermosilla, Jeyson; Navia, Rodrigo; Seeger, Michael

    2017-08-16

    Nano- and microfibers obtained by electrospinning have attracted great attention due to its versatility and potential for applications in diverse technological fields. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers synthesized by microorganisms such as the bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In particular, LB400 cells are capable to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from glucose. The aim of this study was to produce and characterize electrospun fibers obtained from bacterial PHBs. Bacterial strain LB400 was grown in M9 minimal medium using xylose and mannitol (10gL(-1)) as the sole carbon sources and NH4Cl (1gL(-1)) as the sole nitrogen source. Biopolymer-based films obtained were used to produce fibers by electrospinning. Diameter and morphology of the microfibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their thermogravimetric properties were investigated. Bead-free fibers using both PHBs were obtained with diameters of less than 3μm. The surface morphology of the microfibers based on PHBs obtained from both carbon sources was different, even though their thermogravimetric properties are similar. The results indicate that the carbon source may determine the fiber structure and properties. Further studies should be performed to analyze the physicochemical and mechanical properties of these PHB-based microfibers, which may open up novel applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER....27 Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a wool product is made wholly of one fiber or a blend of fibers with the exception of an additional fiber in minor proportion superimposed...

  19. Atmospheric aqueous phase radical chemistry of the isoprene oxidation products methacrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid--kinetics and product studies.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Luisa; Schindelka, Janine; Szeremeta, Edyta; Schaefer, Thomas; Hoffmann, Dirk; Rudzinski, Krzysztof J; Szmigielski, Rafal; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-04-07

    Kinetic and mechanistic studies were conducted on the isoprene oxidation products methacrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrylic and acrylic acid reacting with hydroxyl and nitrate radicals and sulfate radical anions in aqueous solution by use of the laser flash photolysis technique and a reversed-rate method for kinetics. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was applied for product analysis. The kinetic investigations show the highest reactivity of the hydroxyl radical followed by sulfate and nitrate radicals. For methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone the following rate constants have been determined at 298 K: k(OH+methacrolein) = (9.4 ± 0.7) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k(OH+methyl vinyl ketone) = (7.3 ± 0.5) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k(NO3+methacrolein) = (4.0 ± 1.0) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), k(NO3+methyl vinyl ketone) = (9.7 ± 3.4) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), k(SO4(-)+methacrolein) = (9.9 ± 4.9) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) and k(SO4(-)+methyl vinyl ketone) = (1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). Temperature and pH dependencies of the reactions of OH, NO3 and SO4(-) with methacrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrylic and acrylic acid as well as Arrhenius parameters have been obtained and discussed. Product studies were performed on the OH radical induced oxidation of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. In the reaction of methacrolein + OH methylglyoxal and hydroxyacetone were identified as first oxidation products with yields of 0.099 and 0.162. Methylglyoxal was primarily produced in the oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone with a yield of 0.052. For both precursor compounds the formation of glycolaldehyde was observed for the first time with yields of 0.051 and 0.111 in the oxidation of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone, respectively. Furthermore, highly functionalised C4 compounds were determined from the oxidation of both precursor compounds, but for the first time for methyl vinyl ketone. Reaction schemes were developed based on known peroxyl radical

  20. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  1. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  2. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended for...

  3. UV curable lens production using molecular weight controlled PEEK based acrylic oligomer (Ac-PEEK).

    PubMed

    İnan, Tulay Y; Yıldız, Emel; Karaca, Birsen; Dogan, Hacer; Vatansever, Alican; Nalbant, Muhammed; Eken, Koray

    2014-08-01

    We produced UV curable lenses with properties blocking short wave UV light. In the UV-curable formulations, we used an oligomer (Ac-PEEK) with another urethan oligomer (Mw = 2000). Radically active, molecular weight controlled Ac-PEEK was obtained by reacting 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate with molecular- weight- controlled and isocyanate terminated PEEK (Mn = 4500). We characterized all synthesized monomer, oligomer and optical materials with UV/Vis spectrophotometer with interferogram, elemental analyser, mass spectrophotometer, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography. Results suggested that newly synthesized oligomer with the structure of PEEK absorbs short wave UV-light. Ageing tests [ISO 11979-5, Ophthalmic implants-intraocular lenses (IOL)-Part 5: Biocompatibility] performed on the IOL materials were successful. High contact angle of the obtained lenses suggests that all lenses were hydrophobic and SEM results revealed that lenses are morphologically homogeneous. Based on all positive properties just mentioned, we safely conclude that the lenses produced in this study are very promising for IOL production.

  4. Production of continuous mullite fiber via sol-gel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Sparks, J. Scott; Esker, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous ceramic fiber which could be used in rocket engine and rocket boosters applications was investigated at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Methods of ceramic fiber production such as melt spinning, chemical vapor deposition, and precursor polymeric fiber decomposition are discussed and compared with sol-gel processing. The production of ceramics via the sol-gel method consists of two steps, hydrolysis and polycondensation, to form the preceramic, followed by consolidation into the glass or ceramic structure. The advantages of the sol-gel method include better homogeneity and purity, lower preparation temperature, and the ability to form unique compositions. The disadvantages are the high cost of raw materials, large shrinkage during drying and firing which can lead to cracks, and long processing times. Preparation procedures for aluminosilicate sol-gel and for continuous mullite fibers are described.

  5. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573...

  6. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  7. Natural fiber production, harvesting, and preliminary processing: options and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of natural fibers and plant oils in bio-products introduces numerous logistical challenges not typically encountered with non-agricultural resources. Once it has been determined that a plant material is suitable for commercial development, the production, harvesting, and processing s...

  8. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  9. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  10. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act shall...

  11. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act shall...

  12. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act shall...

  13. Scintillating glass fiber neutron sensors: 1, Production and optical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, K.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Bliss, M.

    1993-10-01

    The production and optical characterization of cerium-doped lithium silicate scintillating fibers used as thermal neutron detectors are discussed. The bulk glass continuing enriched {sup 6}Li is produced starting from high-purity commercial materials which are further purified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The fibers are drawn at PNL in a hot down-draw process. The fibers are coated with a silicone polymer that serves as both an optical cladding and a physical buffer coat. Optical characterization has included measurements of light output as a function of glass composition, optical attenuation lengths, and fluorescence lifetimes. Fibers have been prepared in our laboratory with as-drawn attenuation lengths (l/e distance) in excess of 2 meters over sub-meter distances.

  14. Dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Several nutraceutical products have been developed from Fucus vesiculosus, a brown edible seaweed, rich in dietary fiber and polyphenolic antioxidants (phlorotannins). The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant capacity and polysaccharide composition of raw Fucus with those of some common commercial nutraceuticals. All tested products contained a high percentage of dietary fiber (45-59%), raw Fucus powder being the sample with the highest content. Also, raw Fucus powder exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity (determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays) than the commercial fucoidans and commercial antioxidant extracts. Polyphenols (phlorotannins) seem to be the main contributors to Fucus' antioxidant capacity in both raw powder and commercial fucoidans.

  15. Heat-resistant fiber and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurada, I.; Kaji, K.; Okada, T.

    1984-08-21

    A heat resistant and/or fire retardant synthetic fiber is obtained by a process comprising immersing a polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating a polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid and irradiating the polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid, or a process comprising irradiating a polyethylene fiber with an ionizing radiation and then immersing the polyethylene fiber into a solution of acrylic acid or impregnating the polyethylene fiber with a solution of acrylic acid to graft polymerize the polyethylene fiber with at least 15%, based on the weight of the polyethylene fiber, of acrylic acid.

  16. Process, product, and waste-stream monitoring with fiber optics

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.

    1983-10-10

    Fiber optic technology, motivated by communications and defense applications, has advanced significantly the past ten years. In particular, advances have been made in visible radiation transmission efficiency with concurrent reductions in fiber size, weight, and cost. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) coupled these advances in fiber optic technology with analytical fluorescence analysis to establish a new technology - remote fiber fluorimetry (RFF). Laser-based RFF offers the potential to measure and monitor from one central and remote laboratory, on-line, and in near real time, trace (ppM) to substantial (g/L) concentrations of selected chemical species in typical process, product, and waste streams. The fluorimeter consists of a fluorescence or Raman spectrometer; unique coupling optics that separates input excitation (laser) radiation from return (fluorescence) radiation; a fiber optic cable; and an optrode - a terminal that interfaces the fiber to the measurement point, which is designed to respond quantitatively to a particular chemical species. At LLNL, research is underway into optrodes that measure pressure, temperature, and pH and those that detect and quantify various actinides, sulfates, inorganic chloride, hydrogen sulfide, aldehydes, and alcohols.

  17. Production of bacterial cellulose and enzyme from waste fiber sludge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline and mechanically stable nanopolymer, which has excellent potential as a material in many novel applications, especially if it can be produced in large amounts from an inexpensive feedstock. Waste fiber sludge, a residue with little or no value, originates from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries. A high cellulose and low lignin content contributes to making the fiber sludge suitable for bioconversion, even without a thermochemical pretreatment step. In this study, the possibility to combine production of BC and hydrolytic enzymes from fiber sludge was investigated. The BC was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, and its mechanical properties were investigated. Results Bacterial cellulose and enzymes were produced through sequential fermentations with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus and the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Fiber sludges from sulfate (SAFS) and sulfite (SIFS) processes were hydrolyzed enzymatically without prior thermochemical pretreatment and the resulting hydrolysates were used for BC production. The highest volumetric yields of BC from SAFS and SIFS were 11 and 10 g/L (DW), respectively. The BC yield on initial sugar in hydrolysate-based medium reached 0.3 g/g after seven days of cultivation. The tensile strength of wet BC from hydrolysate medium was about 0.04 MPa compared to about 0.03 MPa for BC from a glucose-based reference medium, while the crystallinity was slightly lower for BC from hydrolysate cultures. The spent hydrolysates were used for production of cellulase with T. reesei. The cellulase activity (CMCase activity) in spent SAFS and SIFS hydrolysates reached 5.2 U/mL (87 nkat/mL), which was similar to the activity level obtained in a reference medium containing equal amounts of reducing sugar. Conclusions It was shown that waste fiber sludge is a suitable raw material for production of

  18. Acrylic microspheres-based optosensor for visual detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nur Syarmim Mohamed; Tan, Ling Ling; Heng, Lee Yook; Chong, Kwok Feng; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam

    2016-09-15

    A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6 μm up to 1.8 μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100 ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples.

  19. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Bijan; Firouz, Farnaz; Izadi, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Shahbaz; Radan, Pegah

    2015-05-01

    Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a common clinical occurrence, which often develops in the midline of the denture base. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold-cure and heat-cure acrylic resins, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair. Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were considered as controls, and 80 were divided into 8 experimental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated. The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement. Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fibers increases the flexural strength of denture base.

  20. Production of Bulk and Fiber Glass in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The production of bulk glass and fiber glass in space and on the moon and Mars should lead to superior products. Specifically glass plates for windows and optical elements could be produced with theoretical strengths by production in vacuum. Water vapor is known to decrease glass strength by up to two orders of magnitude from theoretical. A low gravity glass plate apparatus prototype has been designed and built which uses centrifugal force to shape the glass and solar energy to melt the glass. Glass fiber could be produced on the moon or Mars from in-situ materials using standard technologies. This material could then be used as reinforcement in composite materials in construction of bases. Also, it has been shown that processing in reduced gravity suppresses crystallization in certain heavy metal fluoride glasses. It is proposed to reprocess optical fiber preforms on the space station and then pull these into optical fiber. It is estimated that the attenuation coefficient should be reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Biodiesel production from rubber seed oil using poly (sodium acrylate) supporting NaOH as a water-resistant catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ru; Su, Mengxing; Zhang, Jianchun; Jin, Fuqiang; Zha, Chunhong; Li, Min; Hao, Xinmin

    2011-02-01

    Poly (sodium acrylate) supporting NaOH (NaOH/NaPAA) was prepared by in situ polymerization of aqueous solution of acrylic acid with an over-neutralization by adding excess of NaOH. NaOH/NaPAA presented a promising selectivity for water absorbency and good water retention with negligible swelling capacity in the organic solvents of methanol, glycerol, rubber seed oil methyl esters, and rubber seed oil. NaOH/NaPAA catalysts showed a basic strength of 15.0

  2. [Dietary fibers and new food products].

    PubMed

    Dudkin, M S; Shchelkunov, L F

    1998-01-01

    On purpose to preventive measures, and in some cases treatment of every possible diseases, plenty of the food additives and biologically active substance is used. A problem of a filling a deficient of rough vegetable food in the human ration has got rapid development lately. In this connection, in many countries are led studies of structure, composition, properties food fibres, technologies of their extraction from source vegetable raw material, use them as one of the components when making products of therapeutic and preventive nutrition. Nowadays importance of ensuring a sufficient contents food fibres in the human ration without doubts. To reach this possible two ways: either by inclusion to the diet of vegetables, fruits, berries, special sorts of bread, or manufacturing of concentrates of homogeneous and heterogeneous food fibres and addition them in formulae of various products.

  3. Quantitative risk assessment for a glass fiber insulation product.

    PubMed

    Fayerweather, W E; Bender, J R; Hadley, J G; Eastes, W

    1997-04-01

    California Proposition 65 (Prop65) provides a mechanism by which the manufacturer may perform a quantitative risk assessment to be used in determining the need for cancer warning labels. This paper presents a risk assessment under this regulation for professional and do-it-yourself insulation installers. It determines the level of insulation glass fiber exposure (specifically Owens Corning's R-25 PinkPlus with Miraflex) that, assuming a working lifetime exposure, poses no significant cancer risk under Prop65's regulations. "No significant risk" is defined under Prop65 as a lifetime risk of no more than one additional cancer case per 100,000 exposed persons, and nonsignificant exposure is defined as a working lifetime exposure associated with "no significant risk." This determination can be carried out despite the fact that the relevant underlying studies (i.e., chronic inhalation bioassays) of comparable glass wool fibers do not show tumorigenic activity. Nonsignificant exposures are estimated from (1) the most recent RCC chronic inhalation bioassay of nondurable fiberglass in rats; (2) intraperitoneal fiberglass injection studies in rats; (3) a distributional, decision analysis approach applied to four chronic inhalation rat bioassays of conventional fiberglass; (4) an extrapolation from the RCC chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable refractory ceramic fibers; and (5) an extrapolation from the IOM chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable E glass microfibers. When the EPA linear nonthreshold model is used, central estimates of nonsignificant exposure range from 0.36 fibers/cc (for the RCC chronic inhalation bioassay of fiberglass) through 21 fibers/cc (for the i.p. fiberglass injection studies). Lower 95% confidence bounds on these estimates vary from 0.17 fibers/cc through 13 fibers/cc. Estimates derived from the distributional approach or from applying the EPA linear nonthreshold model to chronic bioassays of durable fibers such as refractory ceramic fiber

  4. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... country the place where such textile fiber product was processed or manufactured. (e) The English name of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION...

  5. 77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products... Rules and Regulations under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Rules'').\\1\\ The... the Textile Rules to implement the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 15 U.S.C. 70-70k....

  6. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  7. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  8. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured. (a) In addition...

  9. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  10. Advanced glycation end-products diminish tendon collagen fiber sliding.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufei; Fessel, Gion; Georgiadis, Marios; Snedeker, Jess G

    2013-04-24

    Connective tissue aging and diabetes related comorbidity are associated with compromised tissue function, increased susceptibility to injury, and reduced healing capacity. This has been partly attributed to collagen cross-linking by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that accumulate with both age and disease. While such cross-links are believed to alter the physical properties of collagen structures and tissue behavior, existing data relating AGEs to tendon mechanics is contradictory. In this study, we utilized a rat tail tendon model to quantify the micro-mechanical repercussion of AGEs at the collagen fiber-level. Individual tendon fascicles were incubated with methylglyoxal (MGO), a naturally occurring metabolite known to form AGEs. After incubation in MGO solution or buffer only, tendons were stretched on the stage of a multiphoton confocal microscope and individual collagen fiber stretch and relative fiber sliding were quantified. Treatment by MGO yielded increased fluorescence and elevated denaturation temperatures as found in normally aged tissue, confirming formation of AGEs and related cross-links. No apparent ultrastructural changes were noted in transmission electron micrographs of cross-linked fibrils. MGO treatment strongly reduced tissue stress relaxation (p<0.01), with concomitantly increased tissue yield stress (p<0.01) and ultimate failure stress (p=0.036). MGO did not affect tangential modulus in the linear part of the stress-strain curve (p=0.46). Microscopic analysis of collagen fiber kinematics yielded striking results, with MGO treatment drastically reducing fiber-sliding (p<0.01) with a compensatory increase in fiber-stretch (p<0.01). We thus conclude that the main mechanical effect of AGEs is a loss of tissue viscoelasticity driven by matrix-level loss of fiber-fiber sliding. This has potentially important implications to tissue damage accumulation, mechanically regulated cell signaling, and matrix remodeling. It further highlights the

  11. Environmental surveys in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry.

    PubMed

    Cherrie, J; Dodgson, J; Groat, S; Maclaren, W

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of airborne fiber concentrations and fiber size for European man-made mineral fiber (MMMF) factories on the basis of measurements made in 1977-1980. The airborne fiber concentrations previously reported at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 have been revised to harmonize the results with the WHO-European MMMF reference counting level. The result was an approximate doubling of the reported airborne fiber levels. After the revisions the average combined occupational group concentrations in the rock- and glass-wool plants were still generally low (less than 0.01 fibers/ml). In the glass continuous-filament factories the airborne fiber concentrations were very low (less than 0.01 fibers/ml). The average plant median for fiber length ranged from 10 to 20 microns, and the corresponding median diameters ranged from 0.7 to 2 microns. In general the glass-wool fibers were thinner than the rock-wool fibers. The fiber concentrations measured in other studies in the MMMF production and user industries are reviewed. Higher levels (between 0.1 and 1.0 fibers/ml) have been measured in some insulation wool production, secondary production, and user industries. The highest levels (greater than 1.0 fibers/ml) occurred in very fine glass-fiber production and in other specialist insulation wool usage.

  12. pH-sensing properties of cascaded long- and short-period fiber grating with poly acrylic acid/poly allylamine hydrochloride thin-film overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the mode coupling mechanism and the reflection spectral properties of coated cascaded long- and short-period gratings (CLBG) are discussed. The effects of the thin-film parameters (film refractive index and film thickness) on the reflection spectra of the coated CLBG are simulated. By using electrostatic self-assembly method, poly acrylic acid (PAA) and poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayer molecular pH-sensitive thin-films are assembled on the surface of the partial corroded CLBG. When the CLBG coated with PAA/PAH films are used to sense pH values, the resonant wavelengths of the CLBG have almost no shift, whereas the resonance peak reflectivities change with pH values. In addition, the sensitivities of the resonance peak reflectivities responding to pH values are improved by an order of magnitude.

  13. Product stewardship and science: safe manufacture and use of fiber glass.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Anderson, Robert; Bernstein, David M; Bunn, William B; Chase, Gerald A; Jankousky, Angela Libby; Marsh, Gary M; McClellan, Roger O

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a proactive product stewardship program for glass fibers. That effort included epidemiological studies of workers, establishment of stringent workplace exposure limits, liaison with customers on safe use of products and, most importantly, a research program to evaluate the safety of existing glass fiber products and guide development of new even safer products. Chronic inhalation exposure bioassays were conducted with rodents and hamsters. Amosite and crocidolite asbestos produced respiratory tract cancers as did exposure to "biopersistent" synthetic vitreous fibers. "less biopersistent" glass fibers did not cause respiratory tract cancers. Corollary studies demonstrated the role of slow fiber dissolution rates and biopersistence in cancer induction. These results guided development of safer glass fiber products and have been used in Europe to regulate fibers and by IARC and NTP in classifying fibers. IARC concluded special purpose fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are "possibly carcinogenic to humans" and insulation glass wool, continuous glass filament, rock wool and slag wool are "not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to human." The NTP's 12th report on carcinogens lists "Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)" as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." "Certain" in the descriptor refers to "biopersistent" glass fibers and excludes "less biopersistent" glass fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanistic insights on acrylate insertion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Guironnet, Damien; Caporaso, Lucia; Neuwald, Boris; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Cavallo, Luigi; Mecking, Stefan

    2010-03-31

    Complexes [{(PwedgeO)PdMe}(n)] (1(n); PwedgeO = kappa(2)-P,O-Ar(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(2)O with Ar = 2-MeOC(6)H(4)) are a single-component precursor of the (PwedgeO)PdMe fragment devoid of additional coordinating ligands, which also promotes the catalytic oligomerization of acrylates. Exposure of 1(n) to methyl acrylate afforded the two diastereomeric chelate complexes [(PwedgeO)Pd{kappa(2)-C,O-CH(C(O)OMe)CH(2)CH(C(O)OMe)CH(2)CH(3)}] (3-meso and 3-rac) resulting from two consecutive 2,1-insertions of methyl acrylate into the Pd-Me bond with the same or opposite stereochemistry, respectively, in a 3:2 ratio as demonstrated by comprehensive NMR spectroscopic studies and single crystal X-ray diffraction. These six-membered chelate complexes are direct key models for intermediates of acrylate insertion polymerization, and also ethylene-acrylate copolymerization to high acrylate content copolymers. Studies of the binding of various substrates (pyridine, dmso, ethylene and methyl acrylate) to 3-meso and 3-rac show that hindered displacement of the chelating carbonyl moiety by pi-coordination of incoming monomer significantly retards, but does not prohibit, polymerization. For 3-meso,3-rac + C(2)H(4) right arrow over left arrow 3-meso-C(2)H(4,) 3-rac-C(2)H(4) an equilibrium constant K(353 K) approximately 2 x 10(-3) L mol(-1) was estimated. Reaction of 3-meso, 3-rac with methyl acrylate afforded higher insertion products [(PwedgeO)Pd(C(4)H(6)O(2))(n)Me] (n = 3, 4) as observed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Theoretical studies by DFT methods of consecutive acrylate insertion provide relative energies of intermediates and transition states, which are consistent with the aforementioned experimental observations, and give detailed insights to the pathways of multiple consecutive acrylate insertions. Acrylate insertion into 3-meso,3-rac is associated with an overall energy barrier of ca. 100 kJ mol(-1).

  15. [Resistance and deformation of acrylic resin reinforced with cut and ground fiberglass. 1. Rupture tension].

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, L A; Campos, G M; Panzeri, H

    1990-01-01

    Traction trials were carried out on acrylic resin test bodies for denture frames reinforced with cut and ground fiberglass, to determine rupture tension. The results demonstrated that: 1--Cut fibers tend to increase the resistance of acrylic to traction forces, and the increase in load percentage of these fibers also increase resistance. 2--This increase was more marked when treatment with SILANE A 174 was combined with the use of cut fibers, at all concentrations tested.

  16. Commercial production of heavy metal fluoride glass fiber in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  17. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  18. Carbon fiber production at low temperatures from polyacrylonitrile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Recent safety considerations have sought to lower the electrical conductivity of carbon fibers. Carbon fibers produced from polyacrylonitrile at low carbonization temperatures (600-900 C) possess low electrical conductivity but do not possess adequate strength. Low-temperature processes are described which improve fiber strength but do not increase electrical conductivity substantially. The processes result in a carbon fiber with nearly twice the tensile strength compared to the old process. Process development and its effect on fiber properties are reported.

  19. 76 FR 32843 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Regulation Supplement; Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of Military Uniforms (DFARS Case 2011-D021) AGENCY... fiber in solicitations issued before January 1, 2015. DATES: Effective date: June 6, 2011. Comment date... 2011 (Pub. L. 111-383). Section 821 prohibits specification of the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber...

  20. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended for sale or delivery to, or for use by, the ultimate consumer when the manufacturing or processing of the...

  1. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content. 11.12 Section 11.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... products to indicate fiber content. (a) Wool products imported into the United States, except those...

  2. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content. 11.12 Section 11.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... products to indicate fiber content. (a) Wool products imported into the United States, except those...

  3. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended for sale or delivery to, or for use by, the ultimate consumer when the manufacturing or processing of the...

  4. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content. 11.12 Section 11.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... products to indicate fiber content. (a) Wool products imported into the United States, except those made...

  5. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content. 11.12 Section 11.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... products to indicate fiber content. (a) Wool products imported into the United States, except those made...

  6. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content. 11.12 Section 11.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... products to indicate fiber content. (a) Wool products imported into the United States, except those made...

  7. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  8. Hydrophobic surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles for production of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate terpolymer/TiO2 composited cool materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yanli; Xiang, Bo; Tan, Wubin; Zhang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Hydrophobic surface modification of TiO2 was conducted for production of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) terpolymer/titanium dioxide (TiO2) composited cool materials. Different amount of 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS) was employed to change hydrophilic surface of TiO2 into hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic organosilane chains were successfully grafted onto TiO2 through Sisbnd Osbnd Ti bonds, which were verified by Fourier transformed infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The water contact angle of the sample added with TiO2 modified by 5 wt% MPS increased from 86° to 113°. Besides, all the ASA/TiO2 composites showed significant improvement in both solar reflectance and cooling property. The reflectance of the composites throughout the near infrared (NIR) region and the whole solar wavelength is increased by 113.92% and 43.35% compared with pristine ASA resin. Simultaneously, significant drop in temperature demonstrates excellent cooling property. A maximum decrease approach to 27 °C was observed in indoor temperature test, while a decrease around 9 °C tested outdoors is achieved.

  9. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  10. SYNTHETIC FIBERS, 1965,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The following groups of fibers are each briefly discussed: Glass and other inorganic fibers, viscose rayon, cuprammonium rayon, saponified acetate rayon, alginate rayon, regenerated protein fibers, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate rayon, cellulose triacetate, polyamides, acrylics, modacrylics, polyvinyls, polyvinylidenes, polyesters, polyolefins, polyurethanes, fluorocarbons.

  11. Sol-gel-based doped granulated silica for the rapid production of optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Valerio; Pilz, Soenke; Etissa, Dereje

    2014-03-01

    In the recent past we have studied the granulated silica method as a versatile and cost effective way of fiber preform production. We have used the sol-gel technology combined with a laser-assisted remelting step to produce high homogeneity rare earth or transition metal-activated microsized particles for the fiber core. For the fiber cladding pure or index-raised granulated silica has been employed. Silica glass tubes, appropriately filled with these granular materials, are then drawn to fibers, eventually after an optional quality enhancing vitrification step. The process offers a high degree of compositional flexibility with respect to dopants; it further facilitates to achieve high concentrations even in cases when several dopants are used and allows for the implementation of fiber microstructures. By this "rapid preform production" technique, that is also ideally suited for the preparation of microstructured optical fibers, several fibers have been produced and three of them will be presented here.

  12. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  13. In Situ Production of Graphene-Fiber Hybrid Structures.

    PubMed

    Akia, Mandana; Cremar, Lee; Chipara, Mircea; Munoz, Edgar; Cortez, Hilario; de Santiago, Hector; Rodriguez-Macias, Fernando J; Vega-Cantú, Yadira I; Arandiyan, Hamidreza; Sun, Hongyu; Lodge, Timothy P; Mao, Yuanbing; Lozano, Karen

    2017-08-02

    We report a scalable method to obtain a new material where large graphene sheets form webs linking carbon fibers. Film-fiber hybrid nonwoven mats are formed during fiber processing and converted to carbon structures after a simple thermal treatment. This contrasts with multistep methods that attempt to mix previously prepared graphene and fibers, or require complicated and costly processes for deposition of graphene over carbon fibers. The developed graphene-fiber hybrid structures have seamless connections between graphene and fibers, and in fact the graphene "veils" extend directly from one fiber into another forming a continuous surface. The graphene-fiber hybrid structures are produced in situ from aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions. The solutions were subjected to centrifugal spinning to produce fine nanofiber mats. The addition of salt to the polymer solution stimulated a capillarity effect that promoted the formation of thin veils, which become graphene sheets upon dehydration by sulfuric acid vapor followed by carbonization (at relatively low temperatures, below 800 °C). These veils extend over several micrometers within the pores of the fiber network, and consist of crystalline graphene layers that cross-link the fibers to form a highly interconnected hybrid network. The surface area and pore diameter of the hybrid structures were measured to be 521 m(2)g(-1) and 10 nm, respectively. The resulting structure shows high electrical conductivity, 550 S/m, and promising shielding of electromagnetic interference, making it an attractive system for a broad range of electronic applications.

  14. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fiber product in another country must effect a basic change in form in order to render such other...; (2) Each textile fiber product completely made in the United States of materials that were made in the United States shall be labeled using the term Made in U.S.A. or some other clear and equivalent...

  15. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fiber product in another country must effect a basic change in form in order to render such other...; (2) Each textile fiber product completely made in the United States of materials that were made in the United States shall be labeled using the term Made in U.S.A. or some other clear and equivalent...

  16. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER....27 Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a wool product is made wholly of one... added in certain separate and distinct areas or sections for reinforcing or other useful purposes,...

  17. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER....27 Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a wool product is made wholly of one... added in certain separate and distinct areas or sections for reinforcing or other useful purposes,...

  18. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER....27 Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a wool product is made wholly of one... added in certain separate and distinct areas or sections for reinforcing or other useful purposes,...

  19. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information...

  20. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information...

  1. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information...

  2. Rapid Prototyping of Slot Die Devices for Roll to Roll Production of EL Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, Alyssa; Bromhead, Nicholas; Fontecchio, Adam

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in fibers supporting optoelectrical properties for textile and wearable display applications. Solution-processed electroluminescent (EL) material systems can be continuously deposited onto fiber or yarn substrates in a roll-to-roll process, making it easy to scale manufacturing. It is important to have precise control over layer deposition to achieve uniform and reliable light emission from these EL fibers. Slot-die coating offers this control and increases the rate of EL fiber production. Here, we report a highly adaptable, cost-effective 3D printing model for developing slot dies used in automatic coating systems. The resulting slot-die coating system enables rapid, reliable production of alternating current powder-based EL (ACPEL) fibers and can be adapted for many material systems. The benefits of this system over dip-coating for roll-to-roll production of EL fibers are demonstrated in this work. PMID:28772954

  3. Rapid Prototyping of Slot Die Devices for Roll to Roll Production of EL Fibers.

    PubMed

    Bellingham, Alyssa; Bromhead, Nicholas; Fontecchio, Adam

    2017-05-29

    There is a growing interest in fibers supporting optoelectrical properties for textile and wearable display applications. Solution-processed electroluminescent (EL) material systems can be continuously deposited onto fiber or yarn substrates in a roll-to-roll process, making it easy to scale manufacturing. It is important to have precise control over layer deposition to achieve uniform and reliable light emission from these EL fibers. Slot-die coating offers this control and increases the rate of EL fiber production. Here, we report a highly adaptable, cost-effective 3D printing model for developing slot dies used in automatic coating systems. The resulting slot-die coating system enables rapid, reliable production of alternating current powder-based EL (ACPEL) fibers and can be adapted for many material systems. The benefits of this system over dip-coating for roll-to-roll production of EL fibers are demonstrated in this work.

  4. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dul-Sun; Woo, Jang Chang; Youk, Ji Ho; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  5. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber Products...

  6. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber Products...

  7. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber Products...

  8. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason of infringement of...

  9. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  10. Deuterium fiber extrusion and handling system for neutron production experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruden, Edward L.; Gale, Donald G.; Rahman, Hafiz U.

    2001-10-01

    A frozen D2 fiber fragment extrusion and handling system has been developed at AFRL to provide a central target for a wire array implosion on SNL's Z machine. The system, though, can be modified for use in Magnetized Target Fusion research. As presently configured, it extrudes a 0.5 mm diameter fiber, cuts the fiber to a length of 7 cm, and drops the fiber fragment into an LN2 refrigerated support structure where the fiber remains intact for about 7 minutes. A heavy hydraulically actuated blast shutter protects the extrusion system after the fragment is dropped. Design and performance information, including detailed images of the fiber during the various phases of operation, will be provided.

  11. Continuous Catalytic Production of Methyl Acrylates from Unsaturated Alcohols by Gold: The Strong Effect of C=C Unsaturation on Reaction Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zugic, Branko; Karakalos, Stavros; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Madix, Robert J.; Friend, Cynthia M.

    2016-03-04

    Here we demonstrate the gas-phase catalytic production of methyl acrylates by oxygen-assisted coupling of methanol with the unsaturated alcohols allyl alcohol and methylallyl alcohol over nanoporous gold (npAu) at atmospheric pressure. Analogous investigations on O-activated Au(110) exhibit the same pattern of reactivity and are used to establish that the competition between methoxy and allyloxy (or methallyloxy) reaction intermediates for adsorption sites, mediated by the reactants themselves, determines the selectivity of reaction. Our results clearly show that the C=C bond substantially increases the binding efficacy of the allyloxy (or methallyloxy), thus requiring extremely high methanol mole fractions (>0.99) in order to achieve comparable surface concentrations of methoxy and produce optimum yields of either methacrylate or methyl methacrylate. Allyloxy and methallyloxy were favored by factors of ~100 and ~450, respectively, vs methoxy. These values are more than 1 order of magnitude greater than those measured for competitive binding of ethoxy and 1-butoxy vs methoxy, demonstrating the strong effect of the carbon–carbon bond unsaturation. The 4.5-fold increase due to the addition of the methyl group in methylallyl alcohol vs allyl alcohol indicates the significant effect of the additional van der Waals interactions between the methyl group and the surface. Gas-phase acidity is also shown to be a good qualitative indicator for the relative binding strength of the alkoxides. This work provides insight into the control of reaction selectivity for coupling reactions and demonstrates the value of fundamental studies on single crystals for establishing key principles governing reaction selectivity. Notably, these oxygen-assisted coupling reactions occur without oxidation of the C=C bond.

  12. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Thomas; Erpelding, Michael; Schmid, Josef; Chin, Andrew; Sammons, Rhea; Rockafellow, Erin

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cancer mortality among man-made vitreous fiber production workers.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Saracci, R; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Chang-Claude, J; Cherrie, J; Ferro, G; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Hansen, J; Olsen, J; Plato, N; Teppo, L; Westerholm, P; Winter, P D; Zocchetti, C

    1997-05-01

    We have updated the follow-up of cancer mortality for a cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber production workers from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy, from 1982 to 1990. In the mortality analysis, 22,002 production workers contributed 489,551 person-years, during which there were 4,521 deaths. Workers with less than 1 year of employment had an increased mortality [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.53]. Workers with 1 year or more of employment, contributing 65% of person-years, had an SMR of 1.05 (95% CI = 1.02-1.09). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.08-1.63, 97 deaths) among rock/slag wool workers and 1.27 (95% CI = 1.07-1.50, 140 deaths) among glass wool workers. In the latter group, no increase was present when local mortality rates were used. Among rock/slag wool workers, the risk of lung cancer increased with time-since-first-employment and duration of employment. The trend in lung cancer mortality according to technologic phase at first employment was less marked than in the previous follow-up. We obtained similar results from a Poisson regression analysis limited to rock/slag wool workers. Five deaths from pleural mesothelioma were reported, which may not represent an excess. There was no apparent excess for other categories of neoplasm. Tobacco smoking and other factors linked to social class, as well as exposures in other industries, appear unlikely to explain the whole increase in lung cancer mortality among rock/slag wool workers. Limited data on other agents do not indicate an important role of asbestos, slag, or bitumen. These results are not sufficient to conclude that the increased lung cancer risk is the result of exposure to rock/slag wool; however, insofar as respirable fibers were an important component of the ambient pollution of the working environment, they may have contributed to the increased risk.

  15. Magneto-carbonization method for production of carbon fiber, and high performance carbon fibers made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit K.; Ozcan, Soydan; Eberle, Claude C.; Abdallah, Mohamed Gabr; Mackiewicz, Ludtka Gail; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Rivard, John Daniel Kennedy

    2017-08-08

    Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from fiber precursor, wherein the fiber precursor is subjected to a magnetic field of at least 3 Tesla during a carbonization process. The carbonization process is generally conducted at a temperature of at least 400.degree. C. and less than 2200.degree. C., wherein, in particular embodiments, the carbonization process includes a low temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 400.degree. C. or 500.degree. C. and less than or up to 1000.degree. C., 1100.degree. C., or 1200.degree. C., followed by a high temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 1200.degree. C. In particular embodiments, particularly in the case of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber precursor, the resulting carbon fiber may possess a minimum tensile strength of at least 600 ksi, a tensile modulus of at least 30 Msi, and an ultimate elongation of at least 1.5%.

  16. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Treesearch

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  17. The effect of glass fiber distribution on the transverse strength and surface smoothness of two denture resins.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ali Kemal; Polat, Nilüfer Tülin

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glass fiber distribution on the transverse strength and surface smoothness of conventional heat cured acrylic and autopolymerizing acrylic of an injection-molding system. Forty rectangular (65x10x2.5 mm) acrylic test specimens were prepared from both acrylic types: 10 with 5% (w/w) 6 mm length fiber and 10 without fiber for both groups. Transverse strength test was applied to these specimens. Surface samples were taken from the broken and polished surfaces of these specimens and evaluated using SEM. The addition of fiber was found to cause a statistically significant increase in the transverse strength of the injection system's acrylic. In SEM observation it was revealed that there was good adhesion between glass fiber and both acrylic resins. The glass fibers distribution was more even in the injection system's acrylic. It is suggested that injection system's acrylic be fiber-reinforced to reduce denture fractures.

  18. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 213. National Research Council. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). The National Academies Press. ...

  19. Direct VCSEL launch into large-core multimode fiber: enhancement of the bandwidth x distance product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBaun, Barbara A.; Pepeljugoski, Petar K.; Trewhella, Jeannine M.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, large core (greater than 100 micron) step index multimode optical fiber has occupied a reactively small niche of applications in data communications. While the large diameter of this type of fiber makes it easy to align to optoelectronic devices, its bandwidth*distance (BW*D) product is low due to modal dispersion between the large number of modes supported by a fully filled fiber. Recently, interest has been renewed in using an underfilled launch to excite 62.5 micron core graded index multimode fiber as a way to improve its bandwidth performance. With the proper launch conditions, this same effect has been measured in large core fiber. A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is used to provide a low numerical aperture launch into a large core fiber, which has a relatively large numerical aperture. The laser thus underfills the modes of the fiber, and a bandwidth enhancement for the fiber is obtained. Results of experiments performed on step and graded index large core multimode fibers using a direct VCSEL launch are presented. In addition, these relaxed alignment tolerance fibers allow the utilization of very low cost cabling and connectorization procedures for parallel optical fiber cables. Data, including skew, bandwidth, and insertion loss, are presented on these cables.

  20. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  1. Microwave-vacuum drying of flax fiber for biocomposite production.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Satyanarayan; Rana, Anup; Meda, Venkatesh; Chang, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Flax fiber is one of the important bast fiber available in North America which has low density and good mechanical properties for reinforcing various polymers to develop industrial biocomposite. But the hydrophilic nature of the fiber leads to poor adhesion between the fiber and the polymer matrices which, in turn, leads to poor dimensional stability. To enhance the adhesion between polymer matrix and fiber, chemical treatments of the fiber are necessary. After these treatments, the fiber needs to be uniformly dried to minimum moisture content for better compounding of flax in polymer matrices. Drying by conventional dryers at higher temperature usually results in overall quality loss due to surface drying, and it is also time consuming and energy intensive. In recent years, the microwave has been effectively used for enhancing bulk drying of biomaterials especially when coupled with vacuum. Such a volumetric heat transfer mechanism coupled with drying in vacuum provides an ideal low-temperature drying technique resulting in better organoleptic quality. In this study, the drying characteristics of flax fiber were studied under microwave-vacuum condition. The drying experiments were conducted in Enwave Microwave-vacuum dryer using three different process variables viz., microwave power (750 W and 375 W), vacuum level (25, 10, and 0 in Hg) and time of drying (0 to 14 mins). In order to select the appropriate drying curve equation, the drying data was fitted in three different models viz., Page model, single exponential model and approximation of diffusion model.

  2. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  3. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  4. Fiber webs

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  5. Enhanced Sulfur Removal of Coal Via Carbon Fiber Production

    SciTech Connect

    Alesha Patterson; David Grffith; Delbert Buffinger; Edward Asikele; Herbert Smitherman; Osagie Evbuoma

    1997-05-30

    The characterization of highly graphitic vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) produced by the floating catalyst method was determined to evaluate the effect of processing changes on the VGCF properties. Properties examined were bulk density, bulk resistivity of compressed fiber bundles, UV absorption of acetone extractables, graphitic index, pH value, and ASTM dibutyl phthalate absorption number. The data show the properties do not vary significantly from three different reactor tubes used to produce the fibers. Of the properties examined, only graphitic index, density and UV absorption of acetone extractables appear to be independent of sampling handling. Resistivity is directly correlated to the pressure exerted to from the fiber pellet due to the layering of the fiber bundles. The pH of fiber samples suspended in water does not vary significantly. The dibutyl phthalate absorption number is strongly affected by the compression of the material. Thus, only the graphitic index, the UV absorption of acetone extractables, and the apparent density will be used to aid in process quality control and to determine the process conditions required to produce carbon fiber with properties optimized for specific conditions using high sulfur coal dust.

  6. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.

  7. The production of fibers and films from solubilized hagfish slime thread proteins.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Atsuko; Armstrong, Clare L; Kreplak, Laurent; Rheinstadter, Maikel C; Lim, Loong-Tak; Gillis, Todd E; Fudge, Douglas S

    2012-11-12

    Hagfish slime threads, which make up the fibrous component of the defensive slime of hagfishes, consist primarily of proteins from the intermediate filament family of proteins and possess impressive mechanical properties that make them attractive biomimetic models. To investigate whether solubilized intermediate filament proteins can be used to make high-performance, environmentally sustainable materials, we cast thin films on the surface of electrolyte buffers using solubilized hagfish slime thread proteins. The films were drawn into fibers, and the tensile properties were measured. Fiber mechanics depended on casting conditions and postspinning processing. Postsecondary drawing resulted in fibers with improved material properties similar to those of regenerated silk fibers. Structural analyses of the fibers revealed increased molecular alignment resulting from the second draw, but no increase in crystallinity. Our findings show promise for intermediate filament proteins as an alternative source for the design and production of high performance protein-based fibers.

  8. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalized using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new phase at ∼0.8 GPa and remains molecular to 7.2 GPa before polymerizing on decompression to ambient pressure. The resulting product is analyzed via Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and found to possess a different molecular structure compared with polymers produced via traditional routes. PMID:24650085

  9. Structure-toxicity relationships of acrylic monomers.

    PubMed Central

    Autian, J

    1975-01-01

    Esters of acrylic acid, in particular methyl methacrylate, have wide applications in a number of industrial and consumer products, forming very desirable nonbreakable glass-like materials. In dentistry, the monomers are used to prepare dentures and a variety of filling and coating materials for the teeth. Surgeons utilize the monomers to prepare a cement which helps anchor prosthetic devices to bone. Special types of acrylic monomers such as the cyano derivatives have found a useful application as adhesive materials. Most of the acrylic acid esters are volatile substances and can produce various levels of toxicity if inhaled. A large number of workers thus exposed to the vapors of these esters can develop clinical symptoms and signs of toxicity. This paper will discuss the toxicity of a large number of acrylic esters, and will attempt to show structure-activity relationships where such data are available. General comments will also be made as to the potential health hazards this variety of esters may present to selected segments of the population. PMID:1175551

  10. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Shrestha, P; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-05-01

    Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars through a purely biological process is a key to sustainable biofuel production. Hydrolysis of the corn wet-milling co-product-corn fiber-to simple sugars by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was studied in suspended-culture and solid-state fermentations. Suspended-culture experiments were not effective in producing harvestable sugars from the corn fiber. The fungus consumed sugars released by fungal extracellular enzymes. Solid-state fermentation demonstrated up to 40% fiber degradation within 9days. Enzyme activity assays on solid-state fermentation filtrates confirmed the involvement of starch- and cellulose-degrading enzymes. To reduce fungal consumption of sugars and to accelerate enzyme activity, 2- and 3-d solid-state fermentation biomasses (fiber and fungus) were submerged in buffer and incubated at 37 degrees C without shaking. This anaerobic incubation converted up to almost 11% of the corn fiber into harvestable reducing sugars. Sugars released by G. trabeum were fermented to a maximum yield of 3.3g ethanol/100g fiber. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of G. trabeum fermenting sugar to ethanol. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a co-culture led to more rapid fermentation to a maximum yield of 4.0g ethanol/100g fiber. The findings demonstrate the potential for this simple fungal process, requiring no pretreatment of the corn fiber, to produce more ethanol by hydrolyzing and fermenting carbohydrates in this lignocellulosic co-product.

  11. SO2-catalyzed steam explosion of corn fiber for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Bura, Renata; Mansfield, Shawn D; Saddler, John N; Bothast, Rodney J

    2002-01-01

    Corn fiber, a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry, represents a renewable resource that is readily available in significant quantities and could potentially serve as a low-cost feedstock for the production of fuel-grade alcohol. In this study, we used a batch reactor to steam explode corn fiber at various degrees of severity to evaluate the potential of using this feedstock in the bioconversion process. The results indicated that maximum sugar yields (soluble and following enzymatic hydrolysis) were recovered from corn fiber that was pretreated at 190 degrees C for 5 min with 6% SO2. Sequential SO2-catalyzed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in very high conversion (81%) of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars. Subsequently, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to convert the resultant corn fiber hydrolysates to ethanol very efficiently, yielding 90-96% of theoretical conversion during the fermentation process.

  12. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  13. Changes in hemp secondary fiber production related to technical fiber variability revealed by light microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Tendero, Eva; Day, Arnaud; Legros, Sandrine; Habrant, Anouck; Hawkins, Simon; Chabbert, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of manually-isolated native primary fibers and secondary fibers but did not reveal any clustering according to growing conditions and variety. Infrared data were confirmed by wet chemistry analyses that revealed slight but significant differences between primary and secondary fiber cell wall composition. Infrared spectroscopy of technical fibers obtained after mechanical defibering revealed differences with native primary, but not secondary fibers and also discriminated samples obtained from plants grown under different conditions. Altogether the results suggested that the observed variability of hemp technical fibers could be partially explained by i) differences in secondary fiber production and ii) differential behavior during mechanical defibering resulting in unequal separation of primary and secondary fibers.

  14. Changes in hemp secondary fiber production related to technical fiber variability revealed by light microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Tendero, Eva; Day, Arnaud; Legros, Sandrine; Habrant, Anouck; Hawkins, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of manually-isolated native primary fibers and secondary fibers but did not reveal any clustering according to growing conditions and variety. Infrared data were confirmed by wet chemistry analyses that revealed slight but significant differences between primary and secondary fiber cell wall composition. Infrared spectroscopy of technical fibers obtained after mechanical defibering revealed differences with native primary, but not secondary fibers and also discriminated samples obtained from plants grown under different conditions. Altogether the results suggested that the observed variability of hemp technical fibers could be partially explained by i) differences in secondary fiber production and ii) differential behavior during mechanical defibering resulting in unequal separation of primary and secondary fibers. PMID:28640922

  15. Nde of Lumber and Natural Fiber Based Products with Air Coupled Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Utrata, David; Kuo, Monlin

    2010-02-01

    Due to the porous nature of wood and natural fiber based products, conventional fluid or gel coupled ultrasonic inspection is unsuitable. Air-coupled ultrasonic transmission scanning, being non-contact, is ideally suited for inspecting lumber, wood and natural fiber based products. We report here several successful applications of air-coupled ultrasound for the inspection of wood. Air-coupled ultrasonic scan at 120 kHz can easily detect "sinker-stock" lumber in which bacterial damage of ray tissue cells had occurred during anaerobic pond storage. Channels in ash lumber board caused by insect bore were imaged in transmission scan. Delamination and material inhomogeneities were mapped out in manufactured wood and natural fiber products including medium density fiberboards, compression molded shredded waste wood with formaldehyde resin, and acoustic panels molded with kenaf fibers. The study has demonstrated some of the capabilities of air-coupled ultrasound in the NDE of forest products.

  16. Some parameters involved in production of Zousoon-A semi-dry, long fibered pork product.

    PubMed

    Chang, S F; Huang, T C; Pearson, A M

    1991-01-01

    The production of Zousoon, which is a semi-dry, long-fibered (5-8 cm) pork product, is described as traditionally produced in Taiwan. The production process is an empirical one and is more of an art than a science. The present paper describes a modified clothes dryer developed to tumble and dry the product, which was shown to result in improved heat transfer and greater shear forces that gave better control of evaporation of water while causing the muscle bundles to disintegrate into smaller subunits. Color development and finishing to a final a(w) of 0·60 to 0·65 for the predried product was found to be best achieved by heating with steam at 150°C for 7 min. The predried product was finished in a steam-heated dryer-finisher while adding fat. The final product had a yellowish-brown color and a fibrous appearance, being more uniform in color and texture than that produced in the traditional gas-fired, scraping-frypan.

  17. Method and apparatus for scrubbing effluent gases from mineral fiber production

    SciTech Connect

    Baduel, G. M.

    1985-04-02

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for scrubbing effluent gases arising during the production of mineral fibers and particularly during the production of glass fiber insulation blankets or mats. The scrubbing is effected by the use of opposed jets of water, the interaction of which produces a planar dispersion of water droplets across the path of the effluent gases. The jets are preferably located within the gas collecting ducts closely adjacent the region of gas emergence to prevent buildup of glass fibers and binder on the duct walls. The water is separated from the gas, following which the water and gas are both subjected to further treatment before being recycled or released.

  18. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  19. Occurrence of airborne silicon carbide fibers during industrial production of silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Bye, E; Eduard, W; Gjønnes, J; Sørbrøden, E

    1985-04-01

    Airborne dust from the production of silicon carbide has been analyzed for particle morphology and composition. Fibers of alpha silicon carbide were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction techniques (SAED). Micrographs taken at high magnification revealed several stacking periods along the fiber axis, and one or more of the polytypes 2H, 4H, or 6H could be distinguished. Preliminary investigations applying SEM showed that 80% of the fibers had diameters of less than 0.5 micron and a length greater than 5 micron. Fiber concentrations were examined by the counting of stationary and personal samples in an optical phase contrast microscope. The fiber levels in the three plants investigated were low and less than 1 fiber/cc of air (10(6) fibers/m3). Dust samples from the handling of raw material, including recycled material, contained up to 5 fibers/cc (5 X 10(6) fibers/m3).

  20. Standardization in the production and testing procedures for polyethersulfone hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, K.; Sourirajan, S.; Zhang, H.

    1995-09-01

    Several hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes have been produced from polyethersulfone-polyvinyl pyrrolidone-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solutions and tested. The effects of feed flow velocity through the fiber bore on pressure drop in the test fiber bundle, membrane separations for PEG solutes, and the obtainable mass transfer coefficients under the test conditions have been experimentally determined and discussed. Further, the effects of storage time and prefiltration of the fiber casting polymer solution on the performance characteristics of the resulting membranes have been studied. The viscosity of the fiber casting solution increased upon storage for a few weeks, and it decreased after the solution was filtered prior to use in fiber production. Storage time and filtration treatment of the fiber casting solution had significant effects on the morphology of the resulting membranes. Casting solution of longer storage time and without filtration pretreatment produced smaller size pores on the membrane bore-side skin layer, and a larger number of such pores and/or a thinner skin layer in the resulting membrane. On the basis of these results, the need for standardizing the fiber producing conditions and fiber testing procedure is pointed out, and a few suggestions are made for such standardization.

  1. Production and characterization of polyethylene/organoclay oriented fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, B.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of drawing process on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/clay fibers. To this extent, three different PE/clay blends (3, 5 and 10 wt.%) were prepared by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The investigated clay was a commercial organically modified montmorillonite (Dellite 67G). After compounding fibers were produced by a single-screw extruder and drawn at different draw ratios. At increasing draw ratio an increase of elastic modulus and tensile strength was attained. The presence of clay layers increases fibers ductility hindering fibrils formation during the drawing process. Moreover, at increasing clay contents a decrease of tensile strength for high draw ratios was observed. These results demonstrated that the dispersed clay layers can be re-aggregated by the uniaxial flow induced by the drawing process resulting in a decay of mechanical properties at high draw ratios.

  2. Reduced muscle fiber force production and disrupted myofibril architecture in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Mendias, Christopher L; Roche, Stuart M; Harning, Julie A; Davis, Max E; Lynch, Evan B; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Jacobson, Jon A; Claflin, Dennis R; Calve, Sarah; Bedi, Asheesh

    2015-01-01

    A persistent atrophy of muscle fibers and an accumulation of fat, collectively referred to as fatty degeneration, commonly occur in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears. The etiology of fatty degeneration and function of the residual rotator cuff musculature have not been well characterized in humans. We hypothesized that muscles from patients with chronic rotator cuff tears have reduced muscle fiber force production, disordered myofibrils, and an accumulation of fat vacuoles. The contractility of muscle fibers from biopsy specimens of supraspinatus muscles of 13 patients with chronic full-thickness posterosuperior rotator cuff tears was measured and compared with data from healthy vastus lateralis muscle fibers. Correlations between muscle fiber contractility, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and tear size were analyzed. Histology and electron microscopy were also performed. Torn supraspinatus muscles had a 30% reduction in maximum isometric force production and a 29% reduction in normalized force compared with controls. Normalized supraspinatus fiber force positively correlated with ASES score and negatively correlated with tear size. Disordered sarcomeres were noted, along with an accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the extracellular matrix surrounding supraspinatus muscle fibers. Patients with chronic supraspinatus tears have significant reductions in muscle fiber force production. Force production also correlates with ASES scores and tear size. The structural and functional muscle dysfunction of the residual muscle fibers is independent of the additional area taken up by fibrotic tissue. This work may help establish future therapies to restore muscle function after the repair of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  4. Microbial lipid production from pretreated and hydrolyzed corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanna; Perez, Ivan; Goetzelmann, Kyle; Trupia, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    With its high content of carbohydrates and low percentage of lignin, corn fiber represents a renewable feedstock that can be processed to produce biofuels. Through a combination of pretreatment by lime and enzymatic hydrolysis, total reducing sugars of 700 mg/g corn fiber were released. This amount is equivalent to 92.7% of theoretically available sugars in corn fiber. The resulting hydrolysate itself did not support any growth of Cryptococcus curvatus. But with addition of minerals, C. curvatus grew to a cell density of 6.6 g/L in 6 days. Using the adapted cells, rapid sugar consumption and cell growth were observed. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to produce microbial lipids from corn fiber through pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. In addition, C. curvatus is an excellent candidate for this application since it can utilize all major sugars, glucose, xylose, and arabinose with yield of cells and lipids as 0.55 and 0.27 g/g sugars, respectively. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Immobilized in Hollow-Fiber Membrane Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Inloes, D S; Taylor, D P; Cohen, S N; Michaels, A S; Robertson, C R

    1983-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4126 was grown within the macroporous matrix of asymmetric-walled polysulfone hollow-fiber membranes and on the exterior surfaces of isotropic-walled polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes. Nutrients were supplied and products were removed by single-pass perfusion of the fiber lumens. Growth of yeast cells within the macrovoids of the asymmetric-walled membranes attained densities of greater than 10 cells per ml and in some regions accounted for nearly 100% of the available macrovoid volume, forming a tissue-like mass. A radial distribution of cell packing existed across the fiber wall, indicating an inadequate glucose supply to cells located beyond 100 mum from the lumen surface. By comparison, yeast cell growth on the exterior surfaces of the isotropic-walled membranes resulted in an average density of 3.5 x 10 viable cells per ml. Ethanol production by reactors containing isotropic polypropylene fibers reached a maximum value of 26 g/liter-h based on the total reactor volume. Reactor performance depended on the fiber packing density and on the glucose medium flow rate and was limited by low nutrient and product transport rates. The inhibition of ethanol production and the reduction in fermentation efficiency arose primarily from the accumulation of CO(2) gas within the sealed reactor shell space.

  6. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Inloes, D.S.; Taylor, D.P.; Cohen, S.N.; Michaels, A.S.; Robertson, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4126 was grown within the macroporous matrix of asymmetric-walled polysulfone hollow-fiber membranes and on the exterior surfaces of isotropic-walled polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes. Nutrients were supplied and products were removed by single-pass perfusion of the fiber lumens. Growth of yeast cells within the macrovoids of the asymmetric-walled membranes attained densities of greater than 10 to the power of 10 cells per ml and in some regions accounted for nearly 100% of the available macrovoid volume, forming a tissue-like mass. A radial distribution of cell packing existed across the fiber wall, indicating an inadequate glucose supply to cells located beyond 100 mum from the lumen surface. By comparison, yeast cell growth on the exterior surfaces of the isotropic-walled membranes resulted in an average density of 3.5 x 10 to the power of 9 viable cells per ml. Ethanol production by reactors containing isotropic polypropylene fibers reached a maximum value of 26 g/liter-h based on the total reactor volume. Reactor performance depended on the fiber packing density and on the glucose medium flow rate and was limited by low nutrient and product transport rates. The inhibition of ethanol production and the reduction in fermentation efficiency arose primarily from the accumulation of CO/sub 2/ gas within the sealed reactor shell space. (Refs. 37).

  7. Invited review: strategies for promoting productivity and health of dairy cattle by feeding nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Bradford, B J; Mullins, C R

    2012-09-01

    High-fiber byproducts are generated by several industries, and the supplies of some of these nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) are increasing. Although NFFS generally have limited utility in nonruminant diets, dairy cattle nutritionists can use these products to partially replace both forages and concentrates in lactation diets. Research has shown that production responses vary, but under certain conditions, NFFS-based diets can maintain or improve performance of dairy cattle. Traditional dietary formulation strategies are not ideal when formulating diets to contain large concentrations of NFFS. When feeding high levels of NFFS (≥15% inclusion rates, dry matter basis), less physically effective fiber is required; however, determining if this requirement has been met can be challenging, mainly because of the lack of a broadly applicable method for quantifying effective fiber in the field. Nutritionists must also be conscious of the nutrient variation that exists among many NFFS. Strategies to reduce risks associated with this variability include purchasing feed from a sole supplier who demonstrates product consistency and combining multiple NFFS at lower inclusion rates. A targeted approach whereby nonforage fiber primarily replaces some forage fiber for higher-producing cows but partially replaces some starch for lower-producing cows can optimize nutrient utilization without sacrificing animal health. In summary, the judicious use of NFFS represents an opportunity to improve the productivity and health of cattle in all stages of lactation while potentially controlling feed costs.

  8. Impact Delamination and Fracture in Aluminum/Acrylic Sandwich Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Benjamin; Zeichner, Glenn; Liu, Yanxiong; Bowles, Kenneth J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Impact-induced delamination and fracture in 6061-T6 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy were generated in an instrumented drop-weight impact machine. Although only a small dent was produced on the aluminum side when a hemispherical penetrator tup was dropped onto it from a couple of inches, a large ring of delamination at the interface was observed. The delamination damage was often accompanied by severe shattering in the acrylic substratum. Damage patterns in the acrylic layer include radial and ring cracks and, together with delamination at the interface, may cause peeling-off of acrylic material from the sandwich plate. Theory of stress-wave propagation can be used to explain these damage patterns. The impact tests were conducted at various temperatures. The results also show clearly that temperature effect is very important in impact damage. For pure cast acrylic nil-ductile transition (NDT) occurs between 185-195 F. Excessive impact energy was dissipated into fracture energy when tested at temperature below this range or through plastic deformation when tested at temperature above the NDT temperature. Results from this study will be used as baseline data for studying fiber-metal laminates, such as GLARE and ARALL for advanced aeronautical and astronautical applications.

  9. Industrial production of enzyme-modified wool fibers for machine-washable bed coverings.

    PubMed

    Lenting, Herman B M; Broekman, Henk; Guebitz, Georg M; Kokol, Vanja; Shen, Jinsong

    2009-10-01

    Enzyme technology is explored on wool fibers to prevent shrinkage and consolidation behavior during washing of woolen bed coverings using normal household machine conditions. Enzyme modification of wool fibers after two different pretreatments has been realized on industrial scale. Enlarged proteolytic enzyme by chemical modification was applied successfully to prevent substantial fiber strength loss. Felt-ball analysis of the fibers as obtained from this industrial process showed substantial improvement in felting resistance. Further processing of these enzyme-modified fibers and finally integration in bed covering quilts have been executed successfully on industrial production lines. The observed fiber losses during processing were in the range of 4.5-6% which is comparable with that of nonmodified fibers. The machine-washability of these produced bed covering quilts was tested in a household washing machine using both wool and normal wash programs applied at different temperatures. It appeared that, contrary to the good washing results in terms of shrinkage and consolidation resistance using the wool program at moderate temperatures, this resistance is marginal when washed with the normal washing program with higher mechanical agitation level or with the wool program at elevated temperature. This result was different from that obtained with woolen fabrics and explained by the less-structured organisation of fibers within a fleece.

  10. Populus seed fibers as a natural source for production of oil super absorbents.

    PubMed

    Likon, Marko; Remškar, Maja; Ducman, Vilma; Švegl, Franc

    2013-01-15

    The genus Populus, which includes poplars, cottonwoods and aspen trees, represents a huge natural source of fibers with exceptional physical properties. In this study, the oil absorption properties of poplar seed hair fibers obtained from Populus nigra italica when tested with high-density motor oil and diesel fuel are reported. Poplar seed hair fibers are hollow hydrophobic microtubes with an external diameter between 3 and 12 μm, an average length of 4±1 mm and average tube wall thickness of 400±100 nm. The solid skeleton of the hollow fibers consists of lignocellulosic material coated by a hydrophobic waxy coating. The exceptional chemical, physical and microstructural properties of poplar seed hair fibers enable super-absorbent behavior with high absorption capacity for heavy motor oil and diesel fuel. The absorption values of 182-211 g heavy oil/g fiber and 55-60 g heavy oil/g fiber for packing densities of 0.005 g/cm(3) and 0.02 g/cm(3), respectively, surpass all known natural absorbents. Thus, poplar seed hair fibers obtained from Populus nigra italica and other trees of the genus Populus are an extremely promising natural source for the production of oil super absorbents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Canna edulis Ker by-product: chemical composition and characteristics of the dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Juan Zhang; Wang, Zheng-Wu; Shi, Xian-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Canna edulis Ker by-product was recycled and utilized after starch extraction. The chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activity of the by-product were investigated. The by-product was mainly composed of dietary fiber (54.84% measured by AOAC method), and the insoluble dietary fiber constituted the major fraction. Then, the chemical composition of dietary fiber was tested using modified AOAC and Englyst methods. The results showed that dietary fiber was comprised of cellulose, hemicelluloses (including xyloglucans, arabinoxylans and glucuronoxylans), pectin and lignin. Moreover, the by-product contained relatively high content of phenolic compounds and exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity. In addition, the by-product showed both high water-holding capacity (12.5 mL/g) and oil-holding capacity (14 mL/g), and its suspension exhibited controllable viscosity. Therefore, the by-product from C. edulis is not only a source of dietary fiber but also a functional ingredient for food industry.

  12. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon; Lee, Jihoon; Park, Sung Young; Min, Byunggak; Kim, Bongsoo; in, Insik

    2015-07-01

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA.

  13. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyeon; Lee, Jihoon; Park, Sung Young; Min, Byunggak; Kim, Bongsoo; In, Insik

    2015-07-09

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA.

  14. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Miyeon; Lee, Jihoon; Park, Sung Young; Min, Byunggak; Kim, Bongsoo; In, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA. PMID:26156067

  15. Fiber Optic Coupled Raman Based Detection of Hazardous Liquids Concealed in Commercial Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Detecting explosives by portable Raman ana- lyzers: a comparison of 785, 976, 1064 ,and 1550 nm (Retina- Safe) laser excitation,” Spectroscopy, pp...agent (CWA) simulant triethyl phosphate (TEP), hydrogen peroxide, and acetone as representative of toxic industrial compounds (TICs). Fiber optic...distribution is unlimited. Fiber Optic Coupled Raman Based Detection of Hazardous Liquids Concealed in Commercial Products The views, opinions and/or

  16. Lightweight Fiber Optic Gas Sensor for Monitoring Regenerative Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Edward; Goswami, Kisholoy

    1995-01-01

    In this final report, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) describes its development of sensors for oxygen, carbon dioxide, and relative humidity. POC has constructed a phase fluorometer that can detect oxygen over the full concentration range from 0 percent to 100 percent. Phase-based measurements offer distinct advantages, such as immunity to source fluctuation, photobleaching, and leaching. All optics, optoelectronics, power supply, and the printed circuit board are included in a single box; the only external connections to the fluorometer are the optical fiber sensor and a power cord. The indicator-based carbon dioxide sensor is also suitable for short-term and discrete measurements over the concentration range from 0 percent to 100 percent. The optical fiber-based humidity sensor contains a porous core for direct interaction of the light beam with water vapor within fiber pores; the detection range for the humidity sensor is 10 percent to 100 percent, and response time is under five minutes. POC is currently pursuing the commercialization of these oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors for environmental applications.

  17. Multiscale characterization of chemical–mechanical interactions between polymer fibers and cementitious matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Hargis, Craig W.; Bae, Sungchul; Itty, Pierre A.; Meral, Cagla; Dominowski, Jolee; Radler, Michael J.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Together with a series of mechanical tests, the interactions and potential bonding between polymeric fibers and cementitious materials were studied using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and microtomography (lCT). Experimental results showed that these techniques have great potential to characterize the polymer fiber-hydrated cement-paste matrix interface, as well as differentiating the chemistry of the two components of a bi-polymer (hybrid) fiber the polypropylene core and the ethylene acrylic acid copolymer sheath. Similarly, chemical interactions between the hybrid fiber and the cement hydration products were observed, indicating the chemical bonding between the sheath and the hardened cement paste matrix. Microtomography allowed visualization of the performance of the samples, and the distribution and orientation of the two types of fiber in mortar. Beam flexure tests confirmed improved tensile strength of mixes containing hybrid fibers, and expansion bar tests showed similar reductions in expansion for the polypropylene and hybrid fiber mortar bars.

  18. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Baker, Fred S.; Compere, Alicia L.; William L. Griffith; Boeman, Raymond G.; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  19. The potential in bioethanol production from waste fiber sludges in pulp mill-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2007-04-01

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  20. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  1. Impact of HIV/AIDS on labor productivity in Akaki fiber products factory, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Omer, Endashaw M; Mariam, Damen Haile

    2008-04-01

    HIV/AIDS has become a full-blown development crisis affecting all sectors of the economy in most developing countries. Its social and economic consequences are felt widely not only in health but in education, industry, agriculture as well as transport. The study attempted to estimate the changes in worker's output and attendance associated with advancing HIV infection, and direct costs incurred by a fiber products factory due to illness and death related to HIV/AIDS. The study is a retrospective cohort with accounting method of cost estimation. The study subjects were factory workers enrolled in a cohort study of HIV incidence and progression in Akaki, Ethiopia since February 1997. The mean incentive earnings were not significantly different between HIV positives and negatives at baseline (in 1997). However, in the following years (1998, 1999 and 2000) the incentive earnings of HIV positives were significantly lower than the incentive earnings of HIV negatives. Trend analysis showed that advancing HIV infection, as measured by drop in CD4 count and increasing viral load, is associated with reduction in productivity and increased sick leave days. The study has shown that there is a direct negative impact of HIV infection on the productivity of factory workers and recommends institution of ART centers and programs in work places to mitigate the socio economic impact of the pandemic.

  2. Biorefining of wood: combined production of ethanol and xylanase from waste fiber sludge.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Jönsson, Leif J

    2011-08-01

    The possibility to utilize fiber sludge, waste fibers from pulp mills and lignocellulose-based biorefineries, for combined production of liquid biofuel and biocatalysts was investigated. Without pretreatment, fiber sludge was hydrolyzed enzymatically to monosaccharides, mainly glucose and xylose. In the first of two sequential fermentation steps, the fiber sludge hydrolysate was fermented to cellulosic ethanol with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the final ethanol yields were similar, the ethanol productivity after 9.5 h was 3.3 g/l/h for the fiber sludge hydrolysate compared with only 2.2 g/l/h for a reference fermentation with similar sugar content. In the second fermentation step, the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (the stillage obtained after distillation) was used as growth medium for recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the xylanase-encoding Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) xyn2 gene. The xylanase activity obtained with the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (8,500 nkat/ml) was higher than that obtained in a standard medium with similar monosaccharide content (1,400 nkat/ml). Analyses based on deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F suggest that the main part of the recombinant xylanase was unglycosylated and had molecular mass of 20.7 kDa, while a minor part had N-linked glycosylation and molecular mass of 23.6 kDa. Chemical analyses of the growth medium showed that important carbon sources in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate included xylose, small aliphatic acids, and oligosaccharides. The results show the potential of converting waste fiber sludge to liquid biofuel and enzymes as coproducts in lignocellulose-based biorefineries.

  3. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  4. 2009 Wood and Fiber Product Seminar : VTT and USDA joint activity

    Treesearch

    Ali Harlin; Minna Vikman

    2010-01-01

    Foward -- The development of high-value wood and fiber products is one of the most important challenges currently facing the forest industry. Traditional pulp and paper products are on a critical path in developed countries with prices and markets decreasing. Finland and the USA have faced the same problem, which is a fundamental reason for Industrial Biomaterials...

  5. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling §...

  6. Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, R.; Levy, N.; Pruitt, P.M.

    1987-07-01

    The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of those glove materials tested.

  7. Recent developments in the production and applications of bacterial cellulose fibers and nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Reiniati, Isabela; Hrymak, Andrew N; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2017-06-01

    Cellulosic nanomaterials provide a novel and sustainable platform for the production of high performance materials enabled by nanotechnology. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline material and contains pure cellulose without lignin and hemicellulose. BC offers an opportunity to provide control of the products' properties in-situ, via specific BC production methods and culture conditions. The BC potential in advanced material applications are hindered by a limited knowledge of optimal BC production conditions, efficient process scale-up, separation methods, and purification methods. There is a growing body of work on the production of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNs) from BC fibers. However, there is limited information regarding the effect of BC fibers' characteristics on the production of nanocrystals. This review describes developments in BC and BCNs production methods and factors affecting their yield and physical characteristics.

  8. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  9. Effect of fiber material on ozone removal and carbonyl production from carpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbass, Omed A.; Sailor, David J.; Gall, Elliott T.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air quality is affected by indoor materials such as carpets that may act as sources and/or sinks of gas-phase air pollutants. Heterogeneous reactions of ozone with carpets may result in potentially harmful products. In this study, indoor residential carpets of varying fiber types were tested to evaluate their ability to remove ozone, and to assess their role in the production of carbonyls when exposed to elevated levels of ozone. Tests were conducted with six types of new unused carpets. Two sets of experiments were conducted, the first measured ozone removal and ozone deposition velocities, and the second measured primary carbonyl production and secondary production as a result of exposure to ozone. The tests were conducted using glass chambers with volume of 52 L each. Air exchange rates for all tests were 3 h-1. The ozone removal tests show that, for the conditions tested, the polyester carpet sample had the lowest ozone removal (40%), while wool carpet had the greatest ozone removal (65%). Most carpet samples showed higher secondary than primary carbonyl emissions, with carpets containing polypropylene fibers being a notable exception. Carpets with polyester fibers had both the highest primary and secondary emissions of formaldehyde among all samples tested. While it is difficult to make blanket conclusions about the relative air quality merits of various carpet fiber options, it is clear that ozone removal percentages and emissions of volatile organic compounds can vary drastically as a function of fiber type.

  10. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  11. Acrylic cranioplasty using miniplate struts.

    PubMed

    Replogle, R E; Lanzino, G; Francel, P; Henson, S; Lin, K; Jane, J A

    1996-10-01

    Cranioplasty using acrylic is a common procedure in patients with cranial defects secondary to trauma, infection, or tumor. The limitations of this technique include poor adherence of the acrylic to surrounding bone and difficulty in achieving a proper cosmetic contour in complicated cranial defects, especially those involving the orbital rim. The authors have been continually developing techniques of cranioplasty. Ten consecutive cranioplasties were performed over the past 5 years using this new technique. The authors describe a technique using miniplates as struts to which the acrylic is applied using a "reinforced concrete" principle. All patients achieved excellent cosmetic results with no complications. This technique allows contour of the repair site while the acrylic is curing and provides a more resilient resulting prosthesis.

  12. Comprehensive validation scheme for in situ fiber optics dissolution method for pharmaceutical drug product testing.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Tahseen; Liu, Qian Julie; Vivilecchia, Richard; Joshi, Yatindra

    2009-03-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past decade in the use of fiber optics dissolution testing. Use of this novel technology is mainly confined to research and development laboratories. It has not yet emerged as a tool for end product release testing despite its ability to generate in situ results and efficiency improvement. One potential reason may be the lack of clear validation guidelines that can be applied for the assessment of suitability of fiber optics. This article describes a comprehensive validation scheme and development of a reliable, robust, reproducible and cost-effective dissolution test using fiber optics technology. The test was successfully applied for characterizing the dissolution behavior of a 40-mg immediate-release tablet dosage form that is under development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, New Jersey. The method was validated for the following parameters: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness. In particular, robustness was evaluated in terms of probe sampling depth and probe orientation. The in situ fiber optic method was found to be comparable to the existing manual sampling dissolution method. Finally, the fiber optic dissolution test was successfully performed by different operators on different days, to further enhance the validity of the method. The results demonstrate that the fiber optics technology can be successfully validated for end product dissolution/release testing.

  13. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  14. Production of astaxanthin from corn fiber as a value-added co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five strains of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, NRRL Y-17268, NRRL Y-17270, ATCC 96594 (CBS 6938), ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210), and ATCC 74219 (UBV-AX2) were tested for astaxanthin production using the major sugars derived from corn fiber, a byproduct from the wet milling of corn kernels that contains prim...

  15. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ming J; Lau, Ming W; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-11-01

    Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a readily available cellulosic biomass from palm processing facilities, is investigated as a potential carbohydrate source for cellulosic ethanol production. This feedstock was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The best tested AFEX conditions were at 135 °C, 45 min retention time, water to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio), and ammonia to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio). The particle size of the pretreated biomass was reduced post-AFEX. The optimized enzyme formulation consists of Accellerase (84 μL/g biomass), Multifect Xylanase (31 μL/g biomass), and Multifect Pectinase (24 μL/g biomass). This mixture achieved close to 90% of the total maximum yield within 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation on the water extract of this biomass affirms that nutrients solely from the pretreated EPFBF can support yeast growth for complete glucose fermentation. These results suggest that AFEX-treated EPFBF can be used for cellulosic biofuels production because biomass recalcitrance has been overcome without reducing the fermentability of the pretreated materials.

  16. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  17. Production of continuous piezoelectric ceramic fibers for smart materials and active control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Jonathan D.; Weitz, Gregory E.; Luke, John E.; Cass, Richard B.; Jadidian, Bahram; Bhargava, Parag; Safari, Ahmad

    1997-05-01

    Advanced Cerametrics Inc. has conceived of and developed the Viscous-Suspension-Spinning Process (VSSP) to produce continuous fine filaments of nearly any powdered ceramic materials. VSSP lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber tows with 100 and 790 filaments have been spun in continuous lengths exceeding 1700 meters. Sintered PZT filaments typically are 10 - 25 microns in diameter and have moderate flexibility. Prior to carrier burnout and sintering, VSSP PZT fibers can be formed into 2D and 3D shapes using conventional textile and composite forming processes. While the extension of PZT is on the order of 20 microns per linear inch, a woven, wound or braided structure can contain very long lengths of PZT fiber and generate comparatively large output strokes from relatively small volumes. These structures are intended for applications such as bipolar actuators for fiber optic assembly and repair, vibration and noise damping for aircraft, rotorcraft, automobiles and home applications, vibration generators and ultrasonic transducers for medical and industrial imaging. Fiber and component cost savings over current technologies, such as the `dice-and-fill' method for transducer production, and the range of unique structures possible with continuous VSSP PZT fiber are discussed. Recent results have yielded 1-3 type composites (25 vol% PZT) with d33 equals 340 pC/N, K equals 470, and g33 equals 80 mV/N, kt equals 0.54, kp equals 0.19, dh equals 50.1pC/N and gh equals 13 mV/N.

  18. Rotator cuff tear reduces muscle fiber specific force production and induces macrophage accumulation and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Summary Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as “fatty degeneration.” To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. PMID:22696414

  19. Rotator cuff tear reduces muscle fiber specific force production and induces macrophage accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2012-12-01

    Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as "fatty degeneration." To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic, and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Arabinoxylan fiber from a by-product of wheat flour processing behaves physiologically like a soluble, fermentable fiber in the large bowel of rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z X; Gibson, P R; Muir, J G; Fielding, M; O'Dea, K

    2000-08-01

    Arabinoxylan is a major dietary fiber component of many cereals. Its physiological effects in the colon are largely unknown. This study examined the effects of an arabinoxylan-rich fiber (AX) extracted from a by-product of wheat flour processing in the rat colon compared with well-characterized soluble/rapidly fermentable and insoluble/slowly fermentable fibers. Rats were fed diets containing no fiber (NF) or 100 g/kg of total dietary fiber from AX, guar gum (GG) or wheat bran (WB) for 4 wk. Cecal mass and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) pool were significantly higher while pH was significantly lower in the fiber-supplemented groups, particularly in the AX and GG groups. The pattern of SCFA production in the cecum was altered; AX fiber was a good source for acetate while GG and WB favored propionate and butyrate production, respectively. Fecal output was 7-, 6- and 5-fold higher, respectively, in the AX, GG and WB than in the NF groups (P < 0.01). All epithelial proliferation indices (crypt column height, number of mitotic cells/crypt column and mitotic index) differed significantly across the groups in a descending order of AX > GG > WB > NF. Distal mucosal dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities, which indicate cell differentiation status, were significantly lower in fiber-supplemented groups than in the NF groups. Distal mucosal alkaline phosphatase activities, induced as a response to injury or stress, were significantly higher for the AX and GG groups than for the NF or WB groups (P < 0.001). These results indicate that AX fiber behaves like a rapidly fermentable, soluble fiber in the rat colon.

  1. Low attenuation optical fiber of deuterated polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, J.K.; Beckerbauer, R.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Wilson, F.C.

    1985-04-16

    Light-transmitting optical fiber having a core of a (deuterated acrylate) polymer selected from the group consisting of a deuterated methacrylate homopolymer, a deuterated methacrylate copolymer and a deuterated methacrylate/acrylate copolymer which exhibits remarkably high transmission of light in the visible and at certain wavelengths in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

  2. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    EPA Science Inventory

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  3. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    EPA Science Inventory

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  4. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Lopez, Maria R.; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Bello-Perez, Luis A.; Tovar, Juscelino; Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea

    2011-01-01

    Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response. PMID:21731434

  5. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization

    Treesearch

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  6. The future of fiber production in the north-central States

    Treesearch

    W.S. Bromley

    1973-01-01

    It is an honor and a pleasure to make the initial presentation at this Tree Improvement Conference. I plan to cover the "future of fiber production in the north-central States" by confining my remarks to three major issues: (1) the potentials for expansion, (2) factors that may inhibit growth, and (3) changes in policies and procedures required.

  7. MALDI-imaging enables direct observation of kinetic and thermodynamic products of mixed peptide fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Medini, Karima; West, Brandi; Williams, David E; Brimble, Margaret A; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2017-02-04

    Controlling the self-assembly of multicomponent systems provides a key to designing new materials and understanding the molecular complexity of biology. Here, we demonstrate the first use of MALDI-imaging to characterize a multicomponent self-assembling peptide fiber. Observations of mixed peptide systems over time demonstrate how simple sequence variation can change the balance between kinetic and thermodynamic products.

  8. The sfe corn mutant: a new approach to improve fiber digestibility and milk production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cross linking of lignin to hemicellulose by ferulates limits in vitro rumen fiber digestibility of grasses. Impact of ferulate cross linking on feed intake, milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in a dairy cow feeding study using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of fiv...

  9. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  10. Fiber concentrate from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) bagase: characterization and application as bakery product ingredient.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lopez, Maria R; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Tovar, Juscelino; Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea

    2011-01-01

    Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response.

  11. (Meth)Acrylate Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Nail Salon Workers: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Samuel; DeKoven, Joel; Holness, D Linn

    Recently, many cases of acrylate-associated allergic contact dermatitis have appeared among nail salon workers. Common acrylate-containing products in nail salons include traditional nail polish, ultraviolet-cured shellac nail polish, ultraviolet-cured gel nails, and press-on acrylic nails. Nail salon technicians seen in the occupational medicine clinic in 2015 and 2016 were identified, and their patch test results and clinical features were summarized. Patch testing was done with the Chemotechnique (Meth)Acrylate nail series, and either the North American Standard series or the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening series. Six patients were identified, all women, ages 38 to 58. Common presentations included erythematous dermatitis of the dorsa of the hands, palms, and forearms and fissures on the fingertips. Less common sites of eruptions included the periorbital region, cheeks, posterior ears, neck, sacral area, lateral thighs, and dorsa of the feet. All patients reacted to hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 5 patients reacted to ethyl acrylate. Each patient also reacted to (meth)acrylates that are not found on either standard series, including ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The authors report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in nail technicians seen over the past year, representing a new trend in their clinic. These cases are reflective of a growing trend of nail technicians with allergic contact dermatitis associated with occupational (meth)acrylate exposure. Efforts to improve prevention are needed.

  12. Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Farr, Craig; McLaughlin, James; Berdasco, Nancy; Wiench, Karin; Kimber, Ian

    2007-10-01

    There are currently available no systematic experimental data on the skin sensitizing properties of acrylates that are of relevance in occupational settings. Limited information from previous guinea-pig tests or from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is available; however, these data are incomplete and somewhat contradictory. For those reasons, we have examined in the LLNA 4 acrylates: butyl acrylate (BA), ethyl acrylate (EA), methyl acrylate (MA), and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The LLNA data indicated that all 4 compounds have some potential to cause skin sensitization. In addition, the relative potencies of these acrylates were measured by derivation from LLNA dose-response analyses of EC3 values (the effective concentration of chemical required to induce a threefold increase in proliferation of draining lymph node cells compared with control values). On the basis of 1 scheme for the categorization of skin sensitization potency, BA, EA, and MA were each classified as weak sensitizers. Using the same scheme, EHA was considered a moderate sensitizer. However, it must be emphasized that the EC3 value for this chemical of 9.7% is on the borderline between moderate (<10%) and weak (>10%) categories. Thus, the judicious view is that all 4 chemicals possess relatively weak skin sensitizing potential.

  13. Optimization of a fermented soy product formulation with a kefir culture and fiber using a simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Baú, Tahis Regina; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a fermented soy product formulation with kefir and soy, oat and wheat fibers and to evaluate the fiber and product characteristics. A simplex-centroid mixture design was used for the optimization. Soymilk, soy, oat and wheat fiber mixtures, sucrose and anti-foaming agent were used for the formulation, followed by thermal treatment, cooling and the addition of flavoring. Fermentation was performed at 25 °C with a kefir culture until a pH of 4.5 was obtained. The products were cooled, homogenized and stored for analysis. From the mathematical models and variables response surface and desirability an optimal fermented product was formulated containing 3% (w/w) soy fiber. Compared with the other formulations, soy fermented product with 3% soy fiber had the best acidity, viscosity, syneresis, firmness and Lactococcus lactis count.

  14. Increased wood-fiber production: technology, economics, and ecology

    Treesearch

    William R. Bentley

    1973-01-01

    Forest tree improvement is a form of technological change, and it should be viewed as such. The economic objective of technological change is to increase productivity per dollar invested. This is accomplished through selection and breeding for increased growth rates or reduced losses to insects and disease. Programs which yield improved planting stock make forest...

  15. A novel process for ethanol or biogas production from cellulose in blended-fibers waste textiles.

    PubMed

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Karimi, Keikhosro; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-12-01

    A novel process has been developed for separation of the cellulose, i.e. cotton and viscose, from blended-fibers waste textiles. An environmentally friendly cellulose solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used in this process for separation and pretreatment of the cellulose. This solvent was mixed with blended-fibers textiles at 120 °C and atmospheric pressure to dissolve the cellulose and separate it from the undissolved non-cellulosic fibers. Water was then added to the solution in order to precipitate the cellulose, while both water and NMMO were reused after separation by evaporation. The cellulose was then either hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes followed by fermentation to ethanol, or digested directly to produce biogas. The process was verified by testing 50/50 polyester/cotton and 40/60 polyester/viscose-blended textiles. The polyesters were purified as fibers after the NMMO treatments, and up to 95% of the cellulose fibers were regenerated and collected on a filter. A 2-day enzymatic hydrolysis and 1-day fermentation of the regenerated cotton and viscose resulted in 48 and 50 g ethanol/g regenerated cellulose, which were 85% and 89% of the theoretical yields, respectively. This process also resulted in a significant increase of the biogas production rate. While untreated cotton and viscose fibers were converted to methane by respectively, 0.02% and 1.91% of their theoretical yields in 3 days of digestion, the identical NMMO-treated fibers resulted into about 30% of yield at the same period of time.

  16. Changes in muscle fiber contractility and extracellular matrix production during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mendias, Christopher L; Schwartz, Andrew J; Grekin, Jeremy A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not been previously studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue to mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model, we sought to measure changes in muscle fiber contractility, collagen content, and cross-linking, and in the expression of several genes and activation of signaling proteins that regulate critical components of myogenesis and ECM synthesis and remodeling during muscle hypertrophy. Tissues were harvested 3, 7, and 28 days after induction of hypertrophy, and nonoverloaded rats served as controls. Muscle fiber specific force (sFo), which is the maximum isometric force normalized to cross-sectional area, was reduced 3 and 7 days after the onset of mechanical overload, but returned to control levels by 28 days. Collagen abundance displayed a similar pattern of change. Nearly a quarter of the transcriptome changed over the course of overload, as well as the activation of signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and atrophy. Overall, this study provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of muscle and ECM growth, and indicates that although muscle fibers appear to have completed remodeling and regeneration 1 mo after synergist ablation, the ECM continues to be actively remodeling at this time point.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study utilized a rat synergist ablation model to integrate changes in single muscle fiber contractility, extracellular matrix composition, activation of important signaling pathways in muscle adaption, and corresponding changes in the muscle transcriptome to provide novel insight into the basic

  17. Large Scale Production of Continuous Hydrogel Fibers with Anisotropic Swelling Behavior by Dynamic-Crosslinking-Spinning.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kai; Wang, Huiyi; Lin, Yunyin; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Shengyuan; Cheng, Yanhua; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhu, Meifang

    2016-10-14

    Hydrogel microfibers have been considered as a potential biomaterial to spatiotemporally biomimic 1D native tissues such as nerves and muscles which are always assembled hierarchically and have anisotropic response to external stimuli. To produce facile hydrogel microfibers in a mathematical manner, a novel dynamic-crosslinking-spinning (DCS) method is demonstrated for direct fabrication of size-controllable fibers from poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) oligomer in large scale, without microfluidic template and in a biofriendly environment. The diameter of fibers can be precisely controlled by adjusting the spinning parameters. Anisotropic swelling property is also dependent on inhomogeneous structure generated in spinning process. Comparing with bulk hydrogels, the resulting fibers exhibit superior rapid water adsorption property, which can be attributed to the large surface area/volume ratio of fiber. This novel DCS method is one-step technology suitable for large-scale production of anisotropic hydrogel fibers which has a promising application in the area such as biomaterials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 63 FR 41279 - Acrylic Sheet From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Acrylic Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on acrylic sheet from Japan. SUMMARY: The... order on acrylic sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester. 721.2805 Section 721... Acrylate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an acrylate ester (PMN P-96-824) is subject to reporting under...

  3. Addition of soluble soybean polysaccharides to dairy products as a source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenpu; Duizer, Lisa; Corredig, Milena; Goff, H Douglas

    2010-08-01

    Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%kappa-carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%kappa-carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application: Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses.

  4. The calcium sensor GhCaM7 promotes cotton fiber elongation by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; Tu, Lili; Yang, Xiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Hao, Juan; Guo, Kai; Lindsey, Keith; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-04-01

    Fiber elongation is the key determinant of fiber quality and output in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Although expression profiling and functional genomics provide some data, the mechanism of fiber development is still not well understood. Here, a gene encoding a calcium sensor, GhCaM7, was isolated based on its high expression level relative to other GhCaMs in fiber cells at the fast elongation stage. The level of expression of GhCaM7 in the wild-type and the fuzzless/lintless mutant correspond to the presence and absence, respectively, of fiber initials. Overexpressing GhCaM7 promotes early fiber elongation, whereas GhCaM7 suppression by RNAi delays fiber initiation and inhibits fiber elongation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in early fiber development. ROS induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and Ca(2+) starvation promotes early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 overexpression fiber cells show increased ROS concentrations compared with the wild-type, while GhCaM7 RNAi fiber cells have reduced concentrations. Furthermore, we show that H2 O2 enhances Ca(2+) influx into the fiber and feedback-regulates the expression of GhCaM7. We conclude that GhCaM7, Ca(2+) and ROS are three important regulators involved in early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 might modulate ROS production and act as a molecular link between Ca(2+) and ROS signal pathways in early fiber development. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. The creep behavior of acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Sadiku, E R; Biotidara, F O

    1996-01-01

    The creep behavior of acrylic dental base resins, at room temperature and at different loading conditions, has been examined. The behaviors of these resins are similar to that of "commercial perspex" at room temperature over a period of 1000 seconds. The pseudo-elastic moduli of the blends of PMMA VC show a significant increase compared with PMMA alone. The addition of the PVC powder to the heat-cured acrylic resin increased the time-dependent elastic modulus. This increase in elastic modulus is advantageous in the production of denture based resins of improv mechanical properties.

  6. Volatile profile of cashew apple juice fibers from different production steps.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; de Almeida, Áfia Suely Santos da Silva; Lemos, Ana Paula Dajtenko; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues; Garruti, Deborah dos Santos

    2015-05-27

    This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E)-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  7. Enhancing plant growth and fiber production by silencing GA 2-oxidase.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Maayan; Avni, Adi; Aloni, Roni

    2010-05-01

    Enhancing plant height and growth rates is a principal objective of the fiber, pulp, wood and biomass product industries. Many biotechnological systems have been established to advance that task with emphasis on increasing the concentration of the plant hormone gibberellin, or on its signalling. In this respect, the most studied gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme is the GA 20-oxidase which catalyses the rate limiting step of the pathway. Overexpression of the gene resulted in an excessively high activity of the gibberellin deactivating enzyme, GA 2-oxidase. Consequently, this feedback regulation limits the intended outcome. We assume that silencing GA 2-oxidase transcription would abolish this antithetical effect, thereby allowing greater gibberellin accumulation. Here, we show that silencing the gibberellin deactivating enzyme in tobacco model plants results in a dramatic improvement of their growth characteristics, compared with the wild type and GA 20-oxidase over-expressing plants. Moreover, the number of xylem fiber cells in the silenced lines exceeded that of GA 20-oxidase over-expressing plants, potentially, making GA 2-oxidase silencing more profitable for the wood and fiber industries. Interestingly, crossing GA 20-oxidase over-expressing plants with GA 2-oxidase silenced plants did not yield consequential additive effects. Our findings unveil the benefits of silencing GA 2-oxidase to substantially increase tobacco growth and fiber production, which suggest using this approach in cultivated forest plantations and industrial herbaceous plants, worldwide.

  8. Acrylic acid and electric power cogeneration in an SOFC reactor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baofeng; Wang, Jibo; Chu, Wenling; Yang, Weishen; Lin, Liwu

    2009-04-21

    A highly efficient catalyst, MoV(0.3)Te(0.17)Nb(0.12)O, used for acrylic acid (AA) production from propane, was used as an anodic catalyst in an SOFC reactor, from which AA and electric power were cogenerated at 400-450 degrees C.

  9. Tensile strength and impact strength of color modified acrylic resin reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani, Loghman; Shirkavand, Saeed; Akbari, Faezeh; Sabzikari, Niloofar

    2017-05-01

    Poor mechanical properties are among the main limitations of acrylic resins. Addition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to acrylic resin has been shown to improve its mechanical properties with an adverse effect on its color. Thus, this study sought to assess the tensile and impact strength of a color modified heat cure acrylic resin reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles. In this in vitroexperimental study, 1wt% TiO2 nanoparticles were added to SR Triplex Hot heat-cure acrylic resin powder and mixed. Pigments and color fibers were also added and 18 samples were fabricated of this paste for tensile and impact strength testing (n=9) according to ISO5271. Eighteen control samples were also fabricated from the acrylic powder without any modification. Independent t-test was used for data analysis (P< 0.05). The mean tensile strength of the reinforced group was found to be significantly higher (difference of 11 MPa) than that of the control group (P=0.001). The mean impact strength of the reinforced group was 7 MPa higher than that of the control group and this difference was statistically significant as well (P=0.001). The color modified acrylic resin reinforced with 1wt% TiO2 showed significantly higher tensile and impact strength compared to the conventional acrylic resin. Thus, TiO2 nanoparticles may be incorporated into color-modified acrylic resin powder to enhance its tensile and impact strength, given that they have no adverse effect on other properties. Key words:Tensile strength, acrylic resins, titanium dioxide, impact strength.

  10. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  11. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  12. Altering physically effective fiber intake through forage proportion and particle length: digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-07-01

    Intake of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of dairy cows was altered by adjusting the proportion of forage in the diet and forage particle length, and effects on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, microbial N synthesis, and milk production were measured. The experiment was designed as a triplicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 12 lactating dairy cows, with 4 that were ruminally and duodenally cannulated, 4 that were ruminally cannulated, and 4 that were intact. Thus, the site and extent of digestion, and microbial N synthesis were measured in a single 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios (dry matter basis). Dietary peNDF content was determined from the sum of the proportion (dry matter basis) of dietary dry matter retained either on the 2 screens (8- and 19-mm) or on the 3 screens (1.18-, 8-, and 19-mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the neutral detergent fiber content of the diet. An increased F:C ratio reduced intakes of dry matter and starch by 9 and 46%, respectively, but increased intake of fiber from forage sources by 53%. Digestibility of dry matter in the total tract was not affected, whereas total digestion of fiber and N was improved by increasing the F:C ratio. Improved total fiber digestion resulted from higher ruminal digestion, which was partially due to a shift in starch digestion from the rumen to the intestine with the increased F:C ratio. Actual milk yield was decreased but production of 4% fat-corrected milk was similar between the low and high F:C diets because of increased milk fat content. Increased FPL increased intake of peNDF, especially when the high F:C diet was fed. However, nutrient intakes, N metabolism in the digestive tract, and milk production were not affected. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in

  13. A fiber-optic sensor for accurately monitoring biofilm growth in a hydrogen production photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Chen, Rong

    2014-04-15

    A new simple fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor was created to accurately monitor the growth and hydrogen production performance of biofilms. The proposed sensor consists of two probes (i.e., a sensor and reference probe), using the etched fibers with an appropriate surface roughness to improve its sensitivity. The sensor probe measures the biofilm growth and change of liquid-phase concentration inside the biofilm. The reference probe is coated with a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene membrane to separate the liquids from photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris CQK 01 and to measure the liquid concentration. We also developed a model to demonstrate the accuracy of the measurement. The biofilm measurement was calibrated using an Olympus microscope. A linear relationship was obtained for the biofilm thickness range from 0 to 120 μm with a synthetic medium under continuous supply to the bioreactor. The highest level of hydrogen production rate occurred at a thickness of 115 μm.

  14. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2017-02-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  15. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  16. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  17. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmings, Raymond T.

    2005-12-31

    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is

  18. Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2013-01-30

    Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry.

  19. An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Gallo, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    downstream (from the CO to the customer) voice and data transmission is offered over 1490 nm, the video (analog, digital and HDTV) transmission will be offered over 1550-nm wavelength, and the 1625-nm will be reserved for overhead, surveillance, and management functions. This paper will cover some of the new products that will be needed and the requirements that would apply. The FTTP deployments require the placement of a number of new products in the FTTP network from the CO to the customer premises. These new products are designed to be installed in an efficient manner with acceptable cost to the service provider in the outside plant and to perform the required functions. One such new product is an HFOC (Hardened Fiber Optic Connector). The HFOC products provide drop connections to customers from fiber distribution networks. They may be placed in pedestal closures, aerial and buried closures, or equipment located at a Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) enclosure or optical network termination (ONT) unit near customer premises. Current versions of this HFOC product have been based on a well-known and widely used SC fiber optic connector. Simply described, it consists of an SC connector in a protective shell made of a polymeric (plastic) material, and it allows highly efficient connections between the distribution cables from the FDH (Fiber Distribution Hub) where optical signal on a feeder cable from the CO is split for transmission over distribution cables and drop cables in locations near customer premises. In addition to the description of new products, the paper will review the environmental, mechanical and optical test criteria. Attendees would benefit from the knowledge of products and requirements needed to support FTTP deployment.

  20. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Salih, Ashraf M; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-08-04

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.

  1. A protocol for the production of recombinant spider silk-like proteins for artificial fiber spinning

    PubMed Central

    Teulé, Florence; Cooper, Alyssa R; Furin, William A; Bittencourt, Daniela; Rech, Elibio L; Brooks, Amanda; Lewis, Randolph V

    2009-01-01

    The extreme strength and elasticity of spider silks originate from the modular nature of their repetitive proteins. To exploit such materials and mimic spider silks, comprehensive strategies to produce and spin recombinant fibrous proteins are necessary. This protocol describes silk gene design and cloning, protein expression in bacteria, recombinant protein purification and fiber formation. With an improved gene construction and cloning scheme, this technique is adaptable for the production of any repetitive fibrous proteins, and ensures the exact reproduction of native repeat sequences, analogs or chimeric versions. The proteins are solubilized in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) at 25–30% (wt/vol) for extrusion into fibers. This protocol, routinely used to spin single micrometer-size fibers from several recombinant silk-like proteins from different spider species, is a powerful tool to generate protein libraries with corresponding fibers for structure–function relationship investigations in protein-based biomaterials. This protocol may be completed in 40 d. PMID:19229199

  2. Production of cell-free xanthan fermentation broth by cell adsorption on fibers

    PubMed

    Yang; Lo; Chattopadhyay

    1998-03-01

    Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide widely used in food and oil-drilling industries. Xanthan gum produced from the current commercial fermentation process usually contains cells and cell debris, which lower the filterability of the xanthan solution and limit its applications. The production of cell-free xanthan gum fermentation broth is thus desirable. The feasibility of removing cells from the xanthan fermentation broth by cell adsorption to various woven fibrous materials was studied. It was found that both cotton and polyester fibers could be used to adsorb Xanthomonas campestris cells present in the fermentation broth either during batch fermentation or after the fermentation. Almost all cells were removed from the fermentation broth by adsorption to fibers. Cotton terry cloth had rough surfaces and was the preferred material for cell adsorption. Cell adsorption to cotton was faster than to polyester fibers. The adsorption kinetics can be modeled by a first-order rate equation. The adsorption rate constants were 30-40% higher for cotton than for polyester. Cell adsorption was not efficient in the absence of xanthan gum, suggesting that the exopolysaccharide, xanthan gum, was important for efficient cell adsorption to fibers.

  3. Colour Stability of Heat and Cold Cure Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Sivakumar, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Materials and Methods: Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. Results: The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. Conclusion: ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes. PMID:25738078

  4. [Resistance and deformation of acrylic resin reinforced with cut and ground fiberglass. 3. Modus of elasticity].

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, L A; Campos, G M; Panzeri, H

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the elasticity module, it was observed that the incorporation of fiberglass to acrylic resin makes the test bodies more rigid, decreasing their rupture lengthening. The presence of fibers confers on the material a greater capacity of elastic recovery.

  5. Temperature and moisture effects on selected properties of wood fiber-cement composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenhorn, P.R.; Silsbee, M.R.; Blankenhorn, B.D.; DiCola, M.; Kessler, K.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of moisture cycling on the dimensional stability and temperature cycling on the compressive strength of treated wood fiber-cement composites were investigated. The Kraft softwood fibers and the hardwood fibers were treated with an aqueous acrylic emulsion or alkylalkoxysilane prior to manufacturing into wood fiber-cement composites. Moisture cycling results indicated that the treated fiber-cement composites were more resistant to deterioration than the neat cement specimens. The alkylalkoxysilane-treated fiber-cement composites resisted deterioration more than the acrylic emulsion-treated fiber-cement composites. Treated hardwood fiber-cement composites were more resistant than the treated Kraft fiber-cement composites. The effects of temperature cycling on the compressive strength values produced similar results. The treated fibers were more resistant to deterioration than the neat element. The alkylalkoxysilane-treated Kraft and hardwood fiber-cement composites had higher average compressive strength values than the acrylic emulsion-treated wood fiber-cement composites.

  6. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2013-08-01

    Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. (i) To investigate whether it is relevant to add isobornyl acrylate to the (meth)acrylate test series. (ii) To report patients with (meth)acrylate contact allergy at an occupational dermatology clinic. Our patch test database was screened for positive reactions to (meth)acrylates between 1993 and 2012. A selected group of 14 patients was tested with an isobornyl acrylate dilution series: 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.033%, and 0.01%. Readings were performed on D2, D3, and D7. One hundred and fifty-one patients were tested with our (meth)acrylate series; 24 had positive reactions. Most positive reactions were to 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and diethyleneglycol diacrylate. Hypothetical screening with 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate identified 91.7% of the 24 patients. No positive reactions were observed in 14 acrylate-positive patients tested with the isobornyl acrylate dilution series. The 0.3% isobornyl acrylate concentration induced irritant reactions in 3 patients. We report a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. However, this study provides insufficient support for isobornyl acrylate to be added to a (meth)acrylate series. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vitro bile acid binding and short-chain fatty acid profile of flax fiber and ethanol co-products.

    PubMed

    Fodje, Adele M L; Chang, Peter R; Leterme, Pascal

    2009-10-01

    Fibers from flaxseed and co-products from ethanol production could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human diet. In vitro fermentation and bile acid binding models were used to investigate the metabolic effects of lignaMax (Bioriginal Food and Science Corp., Saskatoon, SK, Canada) flax meal, spent flax meal, soluble flax gum, wheat insoluble fiber (WIF), and rye insoluble fiber (RIF). Wheat and rye bran were used as reference samples. Bile acid binding of substrates was analysed at taurocholate ([(14)C]taurocholate) concentration of 12.5 mM. Soluble flax gum showed the highest bile acid binding (0.57 micromol/mg of fiber) (P fiber) and WIF (0.26 micromol/mg of fiber). RIF had higher (P fiber) than rye bran (0.13 micromol/mg of fiber). Substrates were hydrolyzed and incubated with pig fecal samples. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and gas accumulation (G(f)) were compared. Soluble flax gum generated the highest amount of acetic and propionic acids. SCFA profiles of wheat/rye brans and WIF/RIF were similar (except for butyric acid). G(f) for soluble flax gum was greater (P < .001) than that of spent flax meal. G(f) values of the wheat samples were similar, whereas the G(f) of the rye bran was higher (P < .001) than that of RIF. Fractional degradation rate (micro(t = T/2)) (P < .001) was also recorded. The highest mu(t = T/2) was observed for the soluble flax gum. Oil-depleted flaxseed fractions and WIF/RIF (co-products from ethanol production) could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human nutrition.

  8. Production of astaxanthin from corn fiber as a value-added co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Johnston, David

    2009-05-01

    Five strains of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, NRRL Y-17268, NRRL Y-17270, ATCC 96594 (CBS 6938), ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210), and ATCC 74219 (UBV-AX2) were tested for astaxanthin production using the major sugars derived from corn fiber. The sugars tested included glucose, xylose, and arabinose. All five strains were able to utilize the three sugars for astaxanthin production. Among them, ATCC 74219 was the best astaxanthin producer. Kinetics of sugar utilization of this strain was studied, both with the individual sugars and with their mixtures. Arabinose was found to give the highest astaxanthin yield. It also was observed that glucose at high concentrations suppressed utilization of the other two sugars. Corn fiber hydrolysate obtained by dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and subsequent enzyme hydrolysis was tested for astaxanthin production by strain ATCC 74219. Dilution of the hydrolysate was necessary to allow growth and astaxanthin production. All the sugars in the hydrolysate diluted with two volumes of water were completely consumed. Astaxanthin yield of 0.82 mg/g total sugars consumed was observed.

  9. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    PubMed

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  10. Hollow Fibers Networked with Perovskite Nanoparticles for H2 Production from Heavy Oil

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yukwon; Park, Dae-Hwan; Park, Joo-Il; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao; Choy, Jin-Ho; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2013-01-01

    Design of catalytic materials has been highlighted to build ultraclean use of heavy oil including liquid-to-gas technology to directly convert heavy hydrocarbons into H2–rich gas fuels. If the H2 is produced from such heavy oil through high-active and durable catalysts in reforming process that is being constructed in hydrogen infrastructure, it will be addressed into renewable energy systems. Herein, the three different hollow fiber catalysts networked with perovskite nanoparticles, LaCr0.8Ru0.2O3, LaCr0.8Ru0.1Ni0.1O3, and LaCr0.8Ni0.2O3 were prepared by using activated carbon fiber as a sacrificial template for H2 production from heavy gas oil reforming. The most important findings were arrived at: (i) catalysts had hollow fibrous architectures with well-crystallized structures, (ii) hollow fibers had a high specific surface area with a particle size of ≈50 nm, and (iii) the Ru substituted ones showed high efficiency for H2 production with substantial durability under high concentrations of S, N, and aromatic compounds. PMID:24104596

  11. Dual-layer hollow fibers with enhanced flux as novel forward osmosis membranes for water production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Wang, Kai Yu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2009-04-15

    We have demonstrated in this work the prospect of dual-layer polybenzimidazole-polyethersulfone (PBI-PES) nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes in the forward osmosis (FO) process for water production: The state-of-the-art for dual-layer membrane fabrication via coextrusion technology could produce the resultant membrane consisting of an ultrathin selective skin, fully porous water channels underneath, and a microporous sponge-like support structure. Together with its sharp pore size distribution and self-charged PBI selective membrane surface, the dual-layer hollow fiber forward osmosis membrane can achieve a water flux as high as 33.8 L x m(-2) x hr(-1) and a salt flux less than 1.0 g x m(-2) x hr(-1) at room temperature of 23 degrees C using 5 M MgCl2 as the draw solution. A comprehensive literature review of previous efforts on identifying suitable membranes and appropriate draw solutions in the FO process for water production and seawater desalination have also been conducted. It shows that the water fluxes of the dual-layer hollow fiber FO membrane developed in this work utilizing MgCl2 as the draw solutions generally surpasses those FO processes utilizing RO membranes and is comparable to most FO processes using commercial FO membrane and employing other salts or sugar instead of MgCl2 as the draw solutions.

  12. Hollow Fibers Networked with Perovskite Nanoparticles for H2 Production from Heavy Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Yukwon; Park, Dae-Hwan; Park, Joo-Il; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao; Choy, Jin-Ho; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2013-10-01

    Design of catalytic materials has been highlighted to build ultraclean use of heavy oil including liquid-to-gas technology to directly convert heavy hydrocarbons into H2-rich gas fuels. If the H2 is produced from such heavy oil through high-active and durable catalysts in reforming process that is being constructed in hydrogen infrastructure, it will be addressed into renewable energy systems. Herein, the three different hollow fiber catalysts networked with perovskite nanoparticles, LaCr0.8Ru0.2O3, LaCr0.8Ru0.1Ni0.1O3, and LaCr0.8Ni0.2O3 were prepared by using activated carbon fiber as a sacrificial template for H2 production from heavy gas oil reforming. The most important findings were arrived at: (i) catalysts had hollow fibrous architectures with well-crystallized structures, (ii) hollow fibers had a high specific surface area with a particle size of ~50 nm, and (iii) the Ru substituted ones showed high efficiency for H2 production with substantial durability under high concentrations of S, N, and aromatic compounds.

  13. Lightweight Materials for Automotive Application: An Assessment of Material Production Data for Magnesium and Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M. C.; Sullivan, J. L.

    2014-09-01

    The use of lightweight materials in vehicle components, also known as “lightweighting,” can result in automobile weight reduction, which improves vehicle fuel economy and generally its environmental footprint. Materials often used for vehicle lightweighting include aluminum, magnesium, and polymers reinforced with either glass or carbon fiber. However, because alternative materials typically used for vehicle lightweighting require more energy to make on a per part basis than the material being replaced (often steel or iron), the fuel efficiency improvement induced by a weight reduction is partially offset by an increased energy for the vehicle material production. To adequately quantify this tradeoff, reliable and current values for life-cycle production energy are needed for both conventional and alternative materials. Our focus here is on the production of two such alternative materials: magnesium and carbon fibers. Both these materials are low density solids with good structural properties. These properties have enabled their use in applications where weight is an issue, not only for automobiles but also for aerospace applications. This report addresses the predominant production methods for these materials and includes a tabulation of available material and energy input data necessary to make them. The life cycle inventory (LCI) information presented herein represents a process chain analysis (PCA) approach to life cycle assessment (LCA) and is intended for evaluation as updated materials production data for magnesium and carbon fiber for inclusion into the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model (GREET2_2012). The summary life-cycle metrics used to characterize the cradle-to-gate environmental performance of these materials are the cumulative energy demand (CED) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) per kilogram of material.

  14. [Dietary fiber potential in Iberian-American countries: food, products and residues].

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Eliana B; Lajolo, Franco M; de Menezes, Elizabete W

    2003-03-01

    The reduced intake of dietary fiber (DF) has been associated with the increase in the incidence of several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Recently many researchers from Iberian-American countries have been studying DF of food and industrial residues in order to improve technological knowledge about concentrates production as well as the development and test of enriched products originated from regional food. The present study aimed to evaluate the regional DF potential based on compilation of data about this nutrient. There is great availability of regional and traditional food with considerable DF amounts as we may find in fruits, vegetables and cereals and legumes. Concentrated sources of DF obtained from different industrial residues were characterized and evaluated making possible their utilization in food enrichment. Cookies added to corn residues (16.8% DF in integral weight) in Colombia, and pasta added to lupine fiber in Chile (11.2%) are examples of tested enriched products. Products like bread with whole wheat (12%), products for especial uses as well as pills of citric DF (55%) and food for enteral diets (1-1.9%) are already available on Cuba market. The dietary fiber contents presented in this work allow us to have an idea of the potential of such nutrient in Iberian-American countries. Such potential has been proved to be considerably representative. It is worth to inform that the complete DF database is available on the CYTED X1.6/CNPq Project Web site (http://www.fcf.usp.br/cytedxi16). It provides data on 817 regional, traditional and not conventional foods, that can be searched and utilized by professional from different areas.

  15. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  16. Carbon fiber production using high pressure treatment of a precursor material

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, I.C.; Moore, A.W.

    1983-09-06

    A process for producing a carbon fiber includes the steps of heat treating a selected precursor material under high pressure, thereafter solvent extracting the treated precursor material to obtain mesophase pitch, spinning the mesophase pitch into at least one pitch fiber, thermosetting the pitch fiber, and carbonizing the pitch fiber to obtain the carbon fiber.

  17. Production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites through the use of polyhydroxybutyrate-rich biomass.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Loge, Frank J; Wolcott, Michael P; Englund, Karl; McDonald, Armando G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (NFRTCs) utilizing bacterially-derived pure polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) does not yield a product that is cost competitive with synthetic plastic-based NFRTCs. Moreover, the commercial production of pure PHB is not without environmental impacts. To address these issues, we integrated unpurified PHB in NFRTC construction, thereby eliminating a significant energy and cost sink (ca. 30-40%) while concurrently yielding a fully biologically based commodity. PHB-rich biomass synthesized with the microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii UWD was utilized to manufacture NFRTCs with wood flour. Resulting composites exhibited statistically similar bending strength properties despite relatively different PHB contents. Moreover, the presence of microbial cell debris allowed for NFRTC processing at significantly reduced polymer content, relative to pure PHB-based NFRTCs. Results further indicate that current commercial PHB production yields are sufficiently high to produce composites comparable to those manufactured with purified PHB.

  18. End-user exposures to synthetic vitreous fibers: II. Fabrication and installation fabrication of commercial products.

    PubMed

    Breysse, P N; Lees, P S; Rooney, B C; McArthur, B R; Miller, M E; Robbins, C

    2001-04-01

    This article summarizes the results of exposure monitoring conducted during the installation and fabrication of commercial synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF) products. Included in this investigation were fiberglass duct insulation and construction applications (duct board, duct liner, and duct wrap), pipe and vessel insulation, batt insulation for prefabricated homes, and general fiberglass products. Commercial mineral wool products sampled as a part of this investigation included ceiling tiles, building safing, and loose insulation for prefabricated homes. A total of 520 valid air samples were collected as a part of this investigation and were analyzed using gravimetric, phase contrast microscopy (PCM), or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Airborne fiber-size distributions were also determined for a subset of samples collected for SEM analysis. As a result of the task-based sampling strategy used in this study, sample times reflect exposures over the time the person was actually engaged in SVF-related work activities, and exposure results are therefore presented as task-length averages (TLAs). Thirty-five total dust samples were collected as a part of this investigation, resulting in 14 TLAs ranging from 0.3 to 7.6 mg/m3. A total of 125 PCM-based TLAs were collected, with the mean TLA time for all product and occupation categories ranging from 277 to 443 minutes. The mean PCM-based TLAs for all product/occupations were below 1.0 f/cm3, ranging from 0.04 to 0.68 f/cm3. A total of 116 SEM TLAs were determined. Average SEM-based TLA concentrations were slightly lower than the PCM-based estimates and ranged from <0.01 to 0.16 f/cm3. The geometric mean fiber diameters for commercial products and occupations sampled as a part of the investigation ranged from 0.8 microm to 1.9 microm. Geometric mean fiber length varied by a factor of approximately three, ranging from 9.5 microm to 29.5 microm.

  19. A method for preparing sodium acrylate-d3, a useful and stable precursor for deuterated acrylic monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A convenient and economical method for converting propiolic acid to sodium acrylate-d3 is described. Successive D/H exchange of the alkyne proton of sodium propiolate (prepared from propiolic acid) using D2O affords sodium propiolate-d having up to 99 atom% D. Sodium propiolate-d can be partially reduced to sodium acrylate-d3 with 90% conversion and 89% yield, using D2 and the Lindlar catalyst with control of reaction parameters to maximize conversion while minimizing over reduction.

  20. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources.

  1. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products.

  2. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  3. Closed hollow-fiber bioreactor: a new approach to retroviral vector production.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Whitley, C B

    1999-01-01

    The ability to obtain high-titer and large quantities of retroviral vector production in a 'closed' system would have profound implications in clinical and experimental gene therapy. We studied the cell growth and vector production of three retroviral packaging cell lines in a variety of conditions using hollow-fiber bioreactors designed as an 'artificial capillary system' (ACS) and enhanced with the application of a hermetically sealing device for sterile welding of connecting plastic tubings. Vector titer, fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration, volume and the duration of productivity were assessed to optimize vector production. In this pilot study, we observed that retroviral vector production (frozen-and-thawed) from cultures containing as low as 2.5% FBS yielded titers up to 2.2 x 10(7) cfu/ml, 14.4-fold higher than titers obtained from control dish cultures. Up to 3 liters of vector supernatant were generated during a 2-month large-scale production run. There was a potential to double this volume of higher-titer supernatant by increasing the frequency of harvest. It seemed that a lower metabolic rate (i.e. lactate production) in the packaging cell culture was associated with higher vector producing ability. These data demonstrated the feasibility of producing retroviral vector with enhanced titers and clinically useful quantities in a 'closed' ACS. Thus a new approach for large-scale retroviral vector production is developed.

  4. High bandwidth specialty optical fibers for data communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2008-11-01

    Perhaps the most common specialty optical fiber is HCS hard polymer clad silica fiber. It was invented almost 30 years ago for transmitting laser light to initiate explosives in mining industry and later adapted to be used in a variety of new applications, such as data communications. The most typical HCS fiber typically consists of a 200 μm pure silica glass core, a thin coating of low refractive index hard polymer as the cladding, and an ETFE buffer. This design enables the "crimp-and-cleave" technique of terminating and connectorizing fibers quickly and reliably. Its greater glass diameter also renders greater robustness allowing the fiber to endure greater forces during installation. Due to its larger core size and high numerical aperture (NA), the fiber can be used with a plastic connector and low cost LED transmitter that can greatly reduce the system cost. It can also be used at higher temperature and humidity conditions than standard optical fibers coated with telecommunications grade acrylate material. As applications evolve and require greater bandwidth and/or performance over a greater distance, the challenge now is to develop specialty optical fibers with significantly greater bandwidth-length product while maintaining all other characteristics critical to their ease of use and performance. As a response to the demand, two new fiber types have been designed and developed as higher bandwidth versions of the original HCS fiber. In this paper, we will discuss some of the main design requirements for the fibers, describe in detail the two designs, and present the results of fiber performance.

  5. ReaxFF Study of the Oxidation of Softwood Lignin in View of Carbon Fiber Production

    DOE PAGES

    Beste, Ariana

    2014-10-06

    We investigate the oxidative, thermal conversion of softwood lignin by performing molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF). The lignin samples are constructed from coniferyl alcohol units, which are connected through linkages that are randomly selected from a natural distribution of linkages in softwood. The goal of this work is to simulate the oxidative stabilization step during carbon fiber production from lignin precursor. We find that at simulation conditions where stabilization reactions occur, the lignin fragments have already undergone extensive degradation. The 5-5 linkage shows the highest reactivity towards cyclization and dehydrogenation.

  6. Whipping Instability of Electrodriven Jets and Production of Micro- and Nano-fibers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrikh, Sergey; Yu, Jian; Brenner, Michael; Rutledge, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    Electrodriven jets of polymeric fluids undergo a set of hydrodynamic instabilities causing either breaking of the jet into the droplets (electrospraying) or dramatic thinning of the jet and resulting in production of superfine fibers with diameters ranging form 10nm to 10micron (electrospinning). We present here a theoretical analysis of the whipping instability responsible for the thinning of the jet. The model tackles non-linear aspects or whipping behavior and predicts several important features of unstable electrodriven jet such as the final diameter. We find the model predictions to agree well with our experimental data.

  7. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  8. [Determination of acrylic acid from catalytic preparation lactic acid by anion-exchange chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Haining; Wang, Hui; Tao, Lizhi; Wang, Zonghua; Ding, Mingyu

    2010-06-01

    Acrylic acid is a kind of important monomer and basic organic chemical raw material. In the process of catalytic preparation of acrylic acid from lactic acid, in order to monitor the catalytic process effectively and timely, an anion-exchange chromatographic (AEC) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of lactic acid and acrylic acid. The separation was carried out on a Metrohm A Supp 5 anion-exchange column (150 mm x 4.0 mm) with 2 mmol/L Na2CO3 +2 mmol/L NaHCO3 as the mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.7 mL/min. A chemically suppressed conductivity detector was used. The linear ranges of calibration curves were 0.1-500 mg/L for lactic acid and 0.1-200 mg/L for acrylic acid. The detection limits with S/N = 3 were 0.030 mg/L for lactic acid and 0. 035 mg/L for acrylic acid. The recoveries of lactic acid and acrylic acid were 100.7%-106% and 99.6%-103% with the relative standard deviations of 2.16%-2.49% and 2.42%-2.48%, respectively. This method is accurate, speedy, sensitive and reproducible, and has been successfully used for the determination of lactic acid and acrylic acid in the catalytic reaction product.

  9. Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Richard; Brewer, Mark; Ho, Nancy; Sedlak, Miroslav; Dreshel, Richard; Welch, Gary; Dien, Bruce S; Aden, Andy; Ladisch, Michael R

    2005-05-01

    The pretreatment of cellulose in corn fiber by liquid hot water at 160 degrees C and a pH above 4.0 dissolved 50% of the fiber in 20 min. The pretreatment also enabled the subsequent complete enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining polysaccharides to monosaccharides. The carbohydrates dissolved by the pretreatment were 80% soluble oligosaccharides and 20% monosaccharides with <1% of the carbohydrates lost to degradation products. Only a minimal amount of protein was dissolved, thus enriching the protein content of the undissolved material. Replication of laboratory results in an industrial trial at 43 gallons per minute (163 L/min) of fiber slurry with a residence time of 20 min illustrates the utility and practicality of this approach for pretreating corn fiber. The added costs owing to pretreatment, fiber, and hydrolysis are equivalent to less than 0.84 dollars/gal of ethanol produced from the fiber. Minimizing monosaccharide formation during pretreatment minimized the formation of degradation products; hence, the resulting sugars were readily fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant hexose and by pentose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) and ethanologenic Escherichia coli at yields >90% of theoretical based on the starting fiber. This cooperative effort and first successful trial opens the door for examining the robustness of the pretreatment system under extended run conditions as well as pretreatment of other cellulose-containing materials using water at controlled pH.

  10. Invited article: CO2 laser production of fused silica fibers for use in interferometric gravitational wave detector mirror suspensions.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, A; Barton, M A; Bell, A; Cagnoli, G; Cantley, C A; Crooks, D R M; Cumming, A; Grant, A; Hammond, G D; Harry, G M; Hough, J; Jones, R; Kelley, D; Kumar, R; Martin, I W; Robertson, N A; Rowan, S; Strain, K A; Tokmakov, K; van Veggel, M

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the first mirror suspensions to use a quasi-monolithic final stage were installed at the GEO600 detector site outside Hannover, pioneering the use of fused silica suspension fibers in long baseline interferometric detectors to reduce suspension thermal noise. Since that time, development of the production methods of fused silica fibers has continued. We present here a review of a novel CO(2) laser-based fiber pulling machine developed for the production of fused silica suspensions for the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors and for use in experiments requiring low thermal noise suspensions. We discuss tolerances, strengths, and thermal noise performance requirements for the next generation of gravitational wave detectors. Measurements made on fibers produced using this machine show a 0.8% variation in vertical stiffness and 0.05% tolerance on length, with average strengths exceeding 4 GPa, and mechanical dissipation which meets the requirements for Advanced LIGO thermal noise performance.

  11. Effects of Restricted Launch Conditions for the Enhancement of Bandwidth-Distance Product of Multimode Fiber Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2000-01-01

    Several techniques had been proposed to enhance multimode fiber bandwidth-distance product. Single mode-to-multimode offset launch condition technique had been experimented with at Kennedy Space Center. Significant enhancement in multimode fiber link bandwidth is achieved using this technique. It is found that close to three-fold bandwidth enhancement can be achieved compared to standard zero offset launch technique. Moreover, significant reduction in modal noise has been observed as a function of offset launch displacement. However, significant reduction in the overall signal-to-noise ratio is also observed due to signal attenuation due to mode radiation from fiber core to its cladding.

  12. Engineering analysis of lightweight high-opacity newsprint production by fiber loading

    Treesearch

    John H. Klungness; Matthew L. Stroika; Marguerite S. Sykes; Said M. Abubakr; Werner. Witek; Oliver U. Heise

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the capital effectiveness of fiber loading in regard to producing lightweight high-opacity newsprint. Fiber loading enhances fiber bonding at increased precipitated calcium carbonate levels without significant loss in Canadian standard freeness or additional use of energy. We investigated the return on investment (ROI) for fiber loading precipitated...

  13. Simultaneous Production of High-Performance Flexible Textile Electrodes and Fiber Electrodes for Wearable Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liubing; Xu, Chengjun; Li, Yang; Wu, Changle; Jiang, Baozheng; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Enlou; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-02-24

    High-performance flexible textile electrodes and fiber electrodes are produced simultaneously by a newly proposed effective strategy. Activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and ACFC/MnO2/CNTs composites are designed as high-performance flexible textile electrodes. Theses textiles can also be easily dismantled into individual fiber bundles used as high-performance flexible fiber electrodes.

  14. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  15. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH4/gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH4/gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-scale production of lentiviral vector in a closed system hollow fiber bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Jonathan; Beltzer, Jim; Fury, Brian; Wilczek, Katarzyna; Tobin, Steve; Falconer, Danny; Nolta, Jan; Bauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are widely used in the field of gene therapy as an effective method for permanent gene delivery. While current methods of producing small scale vector batches for research purposes depend largely on culture flasks, the emergence and popularity of lentiviral vectors in translational, preclinical and clinical research has demanded their production on a much larger scale, a task that can be difficult to manage with the numbers of producer cell culture flasks required for large volumes of vector. To generate a large scale, partially closed system method for the manufacturing of clinical grade lentiviral vector suitable for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we developed a method employing a hollow fiber bioreactor traditionally used for cell expansion. We have demonstrated the growth, transfection, and vector-producing capability of 293T producer cells in this system. Vector particle RNA titers after subsequent vector concentration yielded values comparable to lentiviral iPSC induction vector batches produced using traditional culture methods in 225 cm2 flasks (T225s) and in 10-layer cell factories (CF10s), while yielding a volume nearly 145 times larger than the yield from a T225 flask and nearly three times larger than the yield from a CF10. Employing a closed system hollow fiber bioreactor for vector production offers the possibility of manufacturing large quantities of gene therapy vector while minimizing reagent usage, equipment footprint, and open system manipulation. PMID:26151065

  17. Production of multi-fiber modifying enzyme from Mamillisphaeria sp. for refining of recycled paper pulp.

    PubMed

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Khonzue, Parichart; Rattanaphan, Nakul; Tinnasulanon, Phungjai; Apawasin, Saowanee; Paemanee, Atchara; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Champreda, Verawat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic modification of pulp is receiving increasing interest for energy reduction at the refining step of the paper-making process. In this study, the production of a multi-fiber modifying enzyme from Mamillisphaeria sp. BCC8893 was optimized in submerged fermentation using a response-surface methodology. Maximal production was obtained in a complex medium comprising wheat bran, soybean, and rice bran supplemented with yeast extract at pH 6.0 and a harvest time of 7 d, resulting in 9.2 IU/mL of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), 14.9 IU/mL of filter paper activity (FPase), and 242.7 IU/mL of xylanase. Treatment of old corrugated container pulp at 0.2-0.3 IU of CMCase/g of pulp led to reductions in refining energy of 8.5-14.8%. The major physical properties were retained, including tensile and compression strength. Proteomic analysis showed that the enzyme was a complex composite of endo-glucanases, cellobiohydrolases, beta-1,4-xylanases, and beta-glucanases belonging to various glycosyl hydrolase families, suggestive of cooperative enzyme action in fiber modification, providing the basis for refining efficiency.

  18. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  19. Surface modification of cellulosic substrates via atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acrylic acid: Structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Sylla, Dioulde; Molina, Laura; Crespo, Eulalia; Mota, Jordi; Bautista, Llorenç

    2014-06-01

    Surface chemical modification of cellulose-based substrates has been carried out by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) of acrylic acid. The structure/properties relationship of the samples was studied as a function of the plasma experimental conditions. Acrylic acid monomer/helium ratio and treatment speed clearly influences the wettability properties of the paper substrate: advancing contact angle values were reduced to the half if compare to non-treated paper. Surface morphology of the films did not greatly vary at short polymerization times but fibers were covered by a poly(acrylic acid) film at longer times. FTIR and XPS techniques allowed detecting the retention of carboxylic acid groups/moieties. The possibility to quickly design architectures with tunable carboxylic functions by modifying the plasma processing parameters is shown.

  20. (Meth)Acrylate Vinyl Ester Hybrid Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, TaiYeon; Cramer, Neil; Hoyle, Charles; Stansbury, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In this study vinyl ester monomers were synthesized by an amine catalyzed Michael addition reaction between a multifunctional thiol and the acrylate double bond of vinyl acrylate. The copolymerization behavior of both methacrylate/vinyl ester and acrylate/vinyl ester systems was studied with near-infrared spectroscopy. In acrylate/vinyl ester systems, the acrylate groups polymerize faster than the vinyl ester groups resulting in an overall conversion of 80% for acrylate double bonds in the acrylate/vinyl ester system relative to only 50% in the bulk acrylate system. In the methacrylate/vinyl ester systems, the difference in reactivity is even more pronounced resulting in two distinguishable polymerization regimes, one dominated by methacrylate polymerization and a second dominated by vinyl ester polymerization. A faster polymerization rate and higher overall conversion of the methacrylate double bonds is thus achieved relative to polymerization of the pure methacrylate system. The methacrylate conversion in the methacrylate/vinyl ester system is near 100% compared to only ~60% in the pure methacrylate system. Utilizing hydrophilic vinyl ester and hydrophobic methacrylate monomers, polymerization-induced phase separation is observed. The phase separated domain size is on the order of ~1 μm under the polymerization conditions. The phase separated domains become larger and more distinct with slower polymerization and correspondingly increased time for diffusion. PMID:19855853

  1. An evaluation of dilute acid and ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Parameshwaran, Binod; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The challenge associated with cellulosic ethanol production is maximizing sugar yield at low cost. Current research is being focused to develop a pretreatment method to overcome biomass recalcitrance in an efficient way. This review is focused on two major pretreatments: dilute acid (DA) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover and how these pretreatment cause morphological and chemical changes to corn stover in order to overcome the biomass recalcitrance. This review highlights the key differences of these two pretreatments based on compositional analysis, cellulose and its crystallinity, morphological changes, structural changes to lignin, enzymatic reactivity and enzyme adsorption onto pretreated solids and finally cellulosic ethanol production from the hydrolysate of DA and AFEX treated corn stover. Each stage of the process, AFEX pretreated corn stover was superior to DA treated corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fiber-reinforced concretes with a high fiber volume fraction — a look in future. Can a design determine the fiber amount in concrete in real time in every part of a structure in production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepfers, R.

    2010-09-01

    addition is to be preferred? The target point where the concrete comes to rest into a structure has to be electronically noted and sent to the FEM system. The FEM analysis should then immediately send back the information for the correct amount of fibers at that point. This requires the elaboration of an appropriate signal system, which should not be impossible. An integrated system for the design and production of concrete structures could be developed excluding the heavy and time-consuming work with steel reinforcing bars. The result could be: no evaluation of moments and shear forces from a FEM analysis for determining the bar reinforcement; no bar anchorage requirements and reinforcement detailing; no reinforcement drawings; no reinforcing bars; no heavy work with the reinforcement. Finally, investigations have to be performed concerning the demolition of fiber-reinforced concrete structures and the reuse of the material. The fragments of fiber-reinforced concrete might be sticky and cause problems for nature. The recirculation of material has also to be solved.

  3. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (216±24 vs. 137±22 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17β, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T

  4. Continuous rhamnolipid production using denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in hollow-fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Cook, Aaron G; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2013-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are high-value effective biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Large-scale production of rhamnolipids is still challenging especially under free-cell aerobic conditions in which the highly foaming nature of the culture broth reduces the productivity of the process. Immobilized systems relying on oxygen as electron acceptor have been previously investigated but oxygen transfer limitation presents difficulties for continuous rhamnolipid production. A coupled system using immobilized cells and nitrate instead of oxygen as electron acceptor taking advantage of the ability of P. aeruginosa to perform nitrate respiration was evaluated. This denitrification-based immobilized approach based on a hollow-fiber setup eliminated the transfer limitation problems and was found suitable for continuous rhamnolipid production in a period longer than 1,500 h. It completely eliminated the foaming difficulties related to aerobic systems with a comparable specific productivity of 0.017 g/(g dry cells)-h and allowed easy recovery of rhamnolipids from the cell-free medium.

  5. Evaluating the impact of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment conditions on the cost of ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Bals, Bryan; Wedding, Chris; Balan, Venkatesh; Sendich, Elizabeth; Dale, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment is an ammonia-based process for improving the susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic attack. Four parameters--ammonia loading, water loading, reaction temperature, and residence time--can be varied in order to optimize AFEX pretreatment. The effect of these parameters on process economics of ethanol production was studied using a leading biorefinery model. Ammonia loading and residence time had the greatest impact on the economics of ethanol production, primarily due to processing costs for the chilled water condenser and the capital cost of the AFEX reactor. Water loading and reaction temperature had only modest impact on process economics. In addition, the impact of pretreatment conditions on makeup ammonia requirements was explored experimentally, which ranged from 15 to 25 g ammonia/kg biomass. Overall, pretreatment conditions can change the costs of ethanol production by up to 35 cents per gallon ethanol in an 850 ton/day refinery. By linking the results obtained from this Aspen model to experimental results for ethanol production and makeup ammonia recovery, this study can be used to create an economic optimum for AFEX pretreatment in contrast with simply maximizing fermentable sugar production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  7. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent.

  8. Needle coke and carbon fiber production from Venezuelan oil residues. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The conversion of high boiling petroleum residues to carbonaceous materials is investigated. A new integrated approach is presented in which Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, optical microscopy, physico-chemical separations, and pilot plant operations are combined to better understand the carbonization process and to develop criteria for prediction of product quality. This methodology is applied to several Venezuelan oil residues obtained from refinery and pilot plant operations to evaluate their potential for producing high value carbon products such as needle coke and carbon fibers. Feedstocks, reaction intermediates, and products are characterized by [sup 1]H and [sup 13]C NMR in terms of basic hydrocarbon constituents, and changes in carbon and proton distributions are measured. The extent of aromatization and other structural changes resulting from thermal cracking reactions are calculated for the first time by combining pilot plant data with NMR spectroscopic data in both the liquid and solid states. Improved methods for interpreting NMR data of liquid and solid materials from petroleum residues are developed. The effects of operating conditions and the role of different fractions obtained by distillation, n-pentane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography during reaction are documented. Delayed coking and thermal cracking pilot plant experiments were designed and carried out to simulate refinery operation and to provide samples for further characterization. Representative samples of coke were evaluated for use as electrodes in electric arc furnaces. It is shown that by proper selection of feedstock and operational parameters, premium quality needle cokes can be produced. A laboratory scale melt spinning apparatus to produce continuous mesophase pitch carbon fibers was designed and built. The ability to produce thin filaments (less than 20 [mu]m diameter) from petroleum pitches was demonstrated.

  9. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  10. Butanol production from acid hydrolyzed corn fiber with Clostridium beijerinckii mutant.

    PubMed

    Du, Teng-fei; He, Ai-yong; Wu, Hao; Chen, Jia-nan; Kong, Xiang-ping; Liu, Jun-li; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Ping-kai

    2013-05-01

    Sulfuric acid treated corn fiber hydrolysate (SACFH) inhibited cell growth and the production of butanol (4.7±0.2 g/L) by Clostridium beijerinckii IB4 in P2 medium. Optimal medium components were determined using fractional factorial design. NH4HCO3, FeSO4·7H2O and CaCO3 were demonstrated to be significant components in the production of butanol. The Box-Behnken design and a corresponding quadratic model were used to predict medium components (NH4HCO3 1.96 g/L, FeSO4·7H2O 0.26 g/L and CaCO3 3.15 g/L) and butanol yield (9.5 g/L). The confirmation experiment, under the predicted optimal conditions, yielded a butanol level of 9.5±0.1g/L. This study indicates that the Box-Behnken design is an effective approach for screening the optimal medium components required for the production of butanol. It also demonstrates that SACFH, which has high levels of inhibitors such as furan and phenolic compounds, may be used as a renewable carbon source in the production of biofuels.

  11. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    SciTech Connect

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  12. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics...% Biconstituent Fiber (65% Nylon, 35% Polyester) 80% Matrix Fiber (60% Nylon, 40% Polyester) 15% Polyester 5...

  13. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics...% Biconstituent Fiber (65% Nylon, 35% Polyester) 80% Matrix Fiber (60% Nylon, 40% Polyester) 15% Polyester 5...

  14. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics...% Biconstituent Fiber (65% Nylon, 35% Polyester) 80% Matrix Fiber (60% Nylon, 40% Polyester) 15% Polyester 5...

  15. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics...% Biconstituent Fiber (65% Nylon, 35% Polyester) 80% Matrix Fiber (60% Nylon, 40% Polyester) 15% Polyester 5...

  16. Monolithic F-16 Uniform Thickness Stretched Acrylic Canopy Transparency Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Thermoforming Finite Strain Analysis Finite Element Modeling Mooney Formulation Tensile Testing Acrylic Material Properties F-16 Transparency Thinning Uniform...OF ACRYLIC TENSILE SPECIMEN ...... 8 MARC ANALYSIS OF ACRYLIC HEMISPHERE ............ 12 IV ACRYLIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES AT THERMOFORMING TEMPERATURES...properties (necessary for finite element stress analysis work) were generated at temperatures in the range of thermoforming . A finite element code

  17. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the greater...

  18. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the greater...

  19. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the greater...

  20. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the greater...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic acid...

  2. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic...) Identity. For the purpose of this section, n-alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers are copolymers obtained by...

  4. Adaptation of healthy adult cats to select dietary fibers in vivo affects gas and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barry, K A; Wojcicki, B J; Bauer, L L; Middelbos, I S; Vester Boler, B M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2011-10-01

    Nine young adult (1.73 ± 0.03 yr) male cats were used to determine the effects of microbial adaptation to select dietary fiber sources on changes in pH in vitro and on total and hydrogen gas, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) production. Cats were adapted to diets containing 4% cellulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), or pectin for 30 d before fecal sampling. Each cat was used as a single donor, and fecal inoculum was reacted with each of the aforementioned fiber substrates. Adaptation to dietary FOS resulted in a greater change in pH when exposed to FOS than pectin (adaptation × substrate, P < 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, adaptation to dietary FOS or pectin increased hydrogen gas production (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.021). Adaptation to dietary FOS increased acetate and total SCFA production when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, propionate production tended to increase with adaptation to dietary cellulose (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.060). The BCFA + valerate tended to decrease with adaptation to dietary FOS when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.092). Fructooligosaccharides resulted in the greatest change in pH and production of total gas (P < 0.001), hydrogen gas (P < 0.001), acetate (P < 0.001), propionate (P < 0.001), butyrate (P < 0.001), total SCFA (P < 0.001), and total BCFA + valerate production (P < 0.001). Adaptation to the FOS or pectin diet increased production of hydrogen gas with FOS and pectin substrates. Adaptation to pectin increased (P = 0.033) total gas production with FOS and pectin substrates. Overall, adaptation to either FOS or pectin led to greater SCFA and gas production, but adaptation to FOS resulted in the greatest effect overall.

  5. Products of Floer Cohomology of Torus Fibers in Toric Fano Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Cheol-Hyun

    2005-12-01

    We compute the ring structure of Floer cohomology groups of Lagrangian torus fibers in some toric Fano manifolds continuing the study of [CO]. Related A∞-formulas hold for a transversal choice of chains. Two different computations are provided: a direct calculation using the classification of holomorphic discs by Oh and the author in [CO], and another method by using an analogue of divisor equation in Gromov-Witten invariants to the case of discs. Floer cohomology rings are shown to be isomorphic to Clifford algebras, whose quadratic forms are given by the Hessians of functions W, which turn out to be the superpotentials of Landau-Ginzburg mirrors. In the case of , this proves the prediction made by Hori, Kapustin and Li by B-model calculations via physical arguments. The latter method also provides correspondence between higher derivatives of the superpotential of LG mirror with the higher products of the A∞(or L∞)-algebra of the Lagrangian submanifold.

  6. 76 FR 71831 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... respondents, the law does not address DoD's ability to specify inherently flame-resistant cellulosic fibers... Amendment. F. Inequity in the Treatment of Foreign Fibers Comment: Nine respondents stated that the law produces inequity in the treatment of foreign fibers that are specified by DoD and are purchased under...

  7. Reduction of greenhouse gases by fiber-loaded lightweight, high-opacity newsprint production

    Treesearch

    John H. Klungness; Matthew L. Stroika; Said M. Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effectiveness of fiber loading in reducing greenhouse gas emissions for producing lightweight high-opacity newsprint. Fiber loading enhances fiber bonding at increased precipitated calcium carbonate levels without significant loss in Canadian Standard Freeness or additional energy use. We investigated the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for a...

  8. Poly(meth)acrylate-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica

    2013-12-05

    Poly(meth)acrylate coatings for pharmaceutical applications were introduced in 1955 with the launch of EUDRAGIT(®) L and EUDRAGIT(®) S, two types of anionic polymers. Since then, by introducing various monomers into their polymer chains and thus altering their properties, diverse forms with specific characteristics have become available. Today, poly(meth)acrylates function in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and/or release the drug in a time-controlled manner. This article reviews the properties of various poly(meth)acrylates and discusses formulation issues as well as application possibilities.

  9. New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with bromine-containing monomer.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M

    2008-07-01

    Bromine-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the bromine-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of bromine-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque.

  10. Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2013-06-01

    Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries.

  11. Optimization studies on acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber for production of xylose.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S H A; Choudhury, J P; Ahmad, A L; Kamaruddin, A H

    2007-02-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It is a potential source of xylose which can be used as a raw material for production of xylitol, a high value product. The increasing interest on use of lignocellulosic waste for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals is justifiable as these materials are low cost, renewable and widespread sources of sugars. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of H(2)SO(4) concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time for production of xylose. Batch reactions were carried out under various reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentrations and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was followed to optimize the hydrolysis process in order to obtain high xylose yield. The optimum reaction temperature, reaction time and acid concentration found were 119 degrees C, 60 min and 2%, respectively. Under these conditions xylose yield and selectivity were found to be 91.27% and 17.97 g/g, respectively.

  12. Production of cellulase enzymes during the solid-state fermentation of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium verruculosum COKE4E is a fungal strain isolated from bituminous coal. The microorganism cultivated in a minimal medium supplemented with Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, and oat spelt xylan produced cellulase enzymes as exhibiting carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), Avicelase, xylanase, and cellobiosidase activities. In this study, the productivity of the extracellular enzymes in the strain was evaluated by using empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a lignocellulosic biomass, as a substrate for solid-state bioconversion. The highest cellulase activities were observed after 6 days of fermentation at pH 6.0 and 30 °C. The enzymes were secreted as cellulosomes for the degradation of EPFBF as a sole carbon source. Focused ion beam analysis showed that P. verruculosum COKE4E produced cellulolytic enzymes that were able to effectively biodegrade EPFBF during solid-state fermentation. In this process, 6.5 U of CMCase, 6.8 U of Avicelase, and 8.8 U of xylanase per gram of dry solid EPFBF were produced. These results demonstrate that EPFBF may be a potential raw material in solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulase enzymes to be used for biofuel production.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern.

    PubMed

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-02

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  14. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions.

  15. Metabolism of acrylate to {beta}-hydroxypropionate and its role in dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase induction by a salt marsh sediment bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis M3A

    SciTech Connect

    Ansede, J.H.; Pellechia, P.J.; Yoch, D.C.

    1999-11-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is degraded to dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate by the enzyme DMSP lyase. DMS or acrylate can serve as a carbon source for both free-living and endophytic bacteria in the marine environment. In this study, the authors report on the mechanism of DMSP-acrylate metabolism by Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. Suspensions of citrate-grown cells expressed a low level of DMSP lyase activity that could be induced to much higher levels in the presence of DMSP, acrylate, and its metabolic product, {beta}-hydroxypropionate. DMSP was degraded outside the cell, resulting in an extracellular accumulation of acrylate, which in suspensions of citrate-grown cells was then metabolized at a low endogenous rate. The inducible nature of acrylate metabolism was evidenced by both an increase in the rate of its degradation over time and the ability of acrylate-grown cells to metabolize this molecule at about an eight times higher rate than citrate-grown cells. Therefore, acrylate induces both its production (from DMSP) and its degradation by an acrylase enzyme. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to identify the products resulting from [1-{sup 13}C]acrylate metabolism. The results indicated that A.faecalis first metabolized acrylate to {beta}-hydroxypropionate outside the cell, which was followed by its intracellular accumulation and subsequent induction of DMSP lyase activity. In summary, the mechanism of DMSP degradation to acrylate and the subsequent degradation of acrylate to {beta}-hydroxypropionate in the aerobic {beta}-Proteobacterium A.faecalis has been described.

  16. Reactivity of Monovinyl (Meth)Acrylates Containing Cyclic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, Kathryn A; Nie, Jun; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2008-12-09

    The tremendous diversity of materials properties available with polymers is due in large part to the ability to design structures from the monomeric state. The ease of use of comonomer mixtures only expands this versatility. While final polymer properties are obviously important in the selection or development of a material for a given purpose, for a number of applications, such as optical fiber coatings, photolithography and microelectronics, the additional requirement of a very rapid polymerization process may be equally critical. A class of unusually reactive mono-(meth)acrylate monomers bearing secondary functionality that includes carbonates, carbamates and oxazolidones, has been demonstrated but not fully explained. Here, the influence of an integral cyclic carbonate functional group on (meth)acrylate photopolymerization kinetics is examined in detail with respect to monomers with a wide variety of alternative secondary functionality structure as well as in comparison to conventional mono- and di-(meth)acrylates. The kinetic results from full cure studies of several cyclic carbonate-containing monomers clearly highlight specific structural variations that effectively promote monomer reactivity. Copolymerizations with tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate reflect similar dramatic kinetic effects associated with the novel monomers while partial cure homopolymerization studies reveal exceptional dark cure behavior linked to observations of uncommonly low ratios of termination to propagation rates throughout the conversion profile. Temperature effects on reaction kinetics, including both reaction rate and the individual kinetic parameters, as well as the temperature dependence of hydrogen bonding interactions specifically involving the secondary functional groups are probed as a means to understand better the fundamentally interesting and practically important behavior of these monomers.

  17. Low temperature stabilization process for production of carbon fiber having structural order

    DOEpatents

    Rios, Orlando; McGuire, Michael Alan; More, Karren Leslie; Tenhaeff, Wyatt Evan; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Paulauskas, Felix Leonard

    2017-08-15

    A method for producing a carbon fiber, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a continuous carbon fiber precursor having a polymeric matrix in which strength-enhancing particles are incorporated to a stabilization process during which the carbon fiber precursor is heated to within a temperature range ranging from the glass transition temperature to no less than 20.degree. C. below the glass transition temperature of the polymeric matrix, wherein the maximum temperature employed in the stabilization process is below 400.degree. C., for a processing time within said temperature range of at least 1 hour in the presence of oxygen and in the presence of a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla, while said carbon fiber precursor is held under an applied axial tension; and (ii) subjecting the stabilized carbon fiber precursor, following step (i), to a carbonization process. The stabilized carbon fiber precursor, resulting carbon fiber, and articles made thereof are also described.

  18. 21 CFR 101.76 - Health claims: fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., fruits, and vegetables and cancer. 101.76 Section 101.76 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... and cancer. (a) Relationship between diets low in fat and high in fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more than 100 different diseases...

  19. Integrated production of nano-fibrillated cellulose and cellulosic biofuel (ethanol) by enzymatic fractionation of wood fibers

    Treesearch

    Junyong Zhu; Ronald Sabo; Xiaolin Luo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating the production of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), a potentially highly valuable biomaterial, with sugar/biofuel (ethanol) from wood fibers. Commercial cellulase enzymes were used to fractionate the less recalcitrant amorphous cellulose from a bleached Kraft eucalyptus pulp, resulting in a highly crystalline and...

  20. Cellulose and hemicellulose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers and production of sugars from the fibers.

    PubMed

    Palamae, Suriya; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Choorit, Wanna; Chisti, Yusuf; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2017-01-02

    A sequential two-step treatment with peracetic acid (PA) and alkaline peroxide (AP) at mild temperatures (20-35°C) removed more than 98% of the lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber. For each kilogram of EFB fiber treated, 200-250g of a solids fraction and 120-170g of a precipitate fraction were recovered after the treatment. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (45°C, 72h) of the recovered solids (excluding the precipitate) resulted in a glucose yield of 629.8±0.5g per kg of the original dry EFB biomass. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated EFB yielded only 3.0±0.0g glucose per kg of dry EFB. Therefore, the PA-AP pretreatment enhanced glucose recovery from EFB by nearly 210-fold. The total treatment time was 93h (a 9h PA treatment at 35°C, a 12h treatment with AP (20°C, 4% NaOH), 72h of enzymatic hydrolysis). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF AN ACRYLATE TERPOLYMER, POLYURETHANE COMPOSITE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Composite films consisting of a flexible acrylate terpolymer substrate and an outer layer of poly (ester-urethane) elastomer were prepared and evaluated for use in cosmetic glove applications. (Author)

  2. Determination of selected fate and aquatic toxicity characteristics of acrylic acid and a series of acrylic esters.

    PubMed

    Staples, C A; Murphy, S R; McLaughlin, J E; Leung, H W; Cascieri, T C; Farr, C H

    2000-01-01

    Acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate are commercially important and widely used materials. This paper reports the results of a series of fate and aquatic toxicity studies. The mobility in soil of acrylic acid and its esters ranged from 'medium' to 'very high'. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 1 to 37, suggesting a low bioconcentration potential. Acrylic acid and methyl acrylate showed limited biodegradability in the five day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test, while ethyl acrylate and butyl acrylate were degraded easily (77% and 56%, respectively). Using the OECD method 301D 28-d closed bottle test, degradability for acrylic acid was 81% at 28 days, while the acrylic esters ranged from 57% to 60%. Acrylic acid degraded rapidly to carbon dioxide in soil (t1/2 < 1 day). Toxicity tests were conducted using freshwater and marine fish, invertebrates, and algae. Acrylic acid effect concentrations for fish and invertebrates ranged from 27 to 236 mg/l. Effect concentrations (LC50 or EC50) for fish and invertebrates using methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate ranged from 1.1 to 8.2 mg/l. The chronic MATC for acrylic acid with Daphnia magna was 27 mg/l based on length and young produced per adult reproduction day and for ethyl acrylate was 0.29 mg/l based on both the reproductive and growth endpoints. Overall these studies show that acrylic acid and the acrylic esters studied can rapidly biodegrade, have a low potential for persistence or bioaccumulation in the environment, and have low to moderate toxicity.

  3. Long-term antihypertensive effect of a soluble cocoa fiber product in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vallinas, Sandra; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Methods This study evaluates the antihypertensive effect of long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP). Different doses of SCFP were evaluated (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and a dose of 800 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan 0.75 (BETA-G) was used as a standard fiber. Water, a neutral vehicle, was used as negative control, and 50 mg/kg/day captopril was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Body weight, food, and liquid intake were also registered weekly in the rats from 10 to 24 weeks of life. Glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; redox status; and the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity were also studied in the plasma samples of these animals. Results Throughout the 10 weeks of treatment, captopril and SCFP (400 mg/kg/day) demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (p<0.05; n=8). Paradoxically, neither the highest dose (800 mg/kg/day) of SCFP decreased SBP nor 800 mg/kg/day BETA-G (p>0.05; n=8). When the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, was disrupted the SBP values of the 400 mg/kg/day SCFP treated animals returned to control values (p>0.05; n=8). In addition, the SCFP significantly decreased (p<0.05; n=4) the glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and also the liver and plasma malondaldehyde levels. Moreover, the SCFP slightly increased the reduced glutathione levels in the liver. Conclusion The SCFP could be used to control the blood pressure of hypertensive subjects for a long period of time and could improve metabolic complications associated to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27211316

  4. Work production and work absorption in muscle strips from vertebrate cardiac and insect flight muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Maughan, D; Moore, J; Vigoreaux, J; Barnes, B; Mulieri, L A

    1998-01-01

    Stretch activation, which underlies the ability of all striated muscles to do oscillatory work, is a prominent feature of both insect flight and vertebrate cardiac muscle. We have examined and compared work-producing and work-absorbing processes in skinned fibers of Drosophila flight muscle, mouse papillary muscle, and human ventricular strips. Using small amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis, we distinguished viscoelastic properties attributable to crossbridge processes from those attributable to other structures of the sarcomere. Work-producing and work-absorbing processes were identified in Ca(2+)-activated fibers by deconvolving complex stiffness data. An 'active' work-producing process ("B"), attributed to crossbridge action, was identified, as were two work-absorbing processes, one attributable to crossbridge action ("C") and the other primarily to viscoelastic properties of parallel passive structures ("A"). At maximal Ca(2+)-activation (pCa 5, 27 degrees C), maximum net power output (processes A, B and C combined) occurs at a frequency of: 1.3 +/- 0.1 Hz for human, 10.9 +/- 2.2 Hz for mouse, and 226 +/- 9 Hz for fly, comparable to the resting heart rate of the human (1 Hz, 37 degrees C) and mouse (10 Hz, 37 degrees C) and to the wing beat frequency of the fruit fly (200 Hz, 22 degrees C). Process B maximal work production per myosin head is 7-11 x 10(-21) J per perturbation cycle, equivalent to approximately 2 kT of energy. Process C maximal work absorption is about the same magnitude. The equivalence suggests the possibility that a thermal ratchet type mechanism operates during small amplitude length perturbations. We speculate that there may be a survival advantage in having a mechanical energy dissipater (i.e., the C process) at work in muscles if they can be injuriously stretched by the system in which they operate.

  5. Improving Photovoltaic Energy Production with Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausner, M. B.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) generators declines sharply with increased temperatures. Peak solar exposure often occurs at the same time as peak temperatures, but solar PV installations are typically designed based on solar angle. In temperate areas, the peak temperatures may not be high enough to induce significant efficiency losses. In some of the areas with the greatest potential for solar development, however, summer air temperatures regularly reach 45 °C and PV panel temperatures exceed the air temperatures. Here we present a preliminary model of a PV array intended to optimize solar production in a hot and arid environment. The model begins with the diurnal and seasonal cycles in the angle and elevation of the sun, but also includes a meteorology-driven energy balance to project the temperatures of the PV panels and supporting structure. The model will be calibrated and parameterized using a solar array at the Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Renewable Energy Deployment and Display (REDD) facility in Reno, Nevada, and validated with a similar array at DRI's Las Vegas campus. Optical fibers will be installed on the PV panels and structural supports and interrogated by a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) to record the spatial and temporal variations in temperature. Combining the simulated panel temperatures, the efficiency-temperature relationship for the panels, and the known solar cycles at a site will allow us to optimize the design of future PV collectors (i.e., the aspect and angle of panels) for given production goals.

  6. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001. It is suggested that this model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  7. Hydrogen production in single chamber microbial electrolysis cells with stainless steel fiber felt cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Min; Wei, Liling; Qiu, Zhaozheng; Wang, Gang; Shen, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology for sustainable production of hydrogen from biodegradable carbon sources. Employing a low-cost and high efficient cathode to replace platinum catalyzed cathode (Pt/C) for hydrogen generation is a challenge for commercialization of MEC. Here we show that a 3D macroporous stainless steel fiber felt (SSFF) with high electrochemical active surface area has an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen generation, which is comparable to Pt/C cathode and superior to stainless steel mesh (SSM) cathode in the single-chamber MEC. The SSFF cathode (mean filter rating 100 μm) produces hydrogen at a rate of 3.66 ± 0.43 m3 H2 m-3d-1 (current density of 17.29 ± 1.68 A m-2), with a hydrogen recovery of 76.37 ± 15.04% and overall energy efficiency of 79.61 ± 13.07% at an applied voltage of 0.9 V. The performance of SSFF cathode improves over time due to a decrease in overpotential which caused by corrosion. These results demonstrate that SSFF can be a promising alternative for Pt catalytic cathode in MEC for hydrogen production.

  8. Functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).

    PubMed

    García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

    2013-09-01

    Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.

  9. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  10. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  11. Fuzed-Quartz Fibers. A Survey of Properties, Applications and Production Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1956-01-25

    by rotat- densities and coefficients of expansion of ing the torsion fiber with a wheel calibrated the members. Silica fibers are particularly to...asbestos blocks appro- a coefficient of expansion the same as or priately grooved are used as templates. The similar to that of the fibers wound [107...larger coefficient for annealed specimens types, for studies on fused silica are lim- than for unannealed ones [2601. In addition ited by insolubility and

  12. Acrylated chitosan for mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, Yulia; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2017-01-30

    A new mucoadhesive polymer was synthesized by conjugating chitosan to poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) via the Michael type reaction. The product was characterized using NMR. Higher PEGDA grafting efficacy was observed with low molecular weight PEGDA (0.7kDa), compared to long 10kDa PEGDA. The acrylation percentage was calculated based on the reaction of ninhydrin with chitosan, and supported the qualitative NMR findings. The adhesive properties were studied by tensile test and rotating system involving detachment of polymer tablets from a fresh intestine sample. Chitosan modified with high molecular weight PEGDA presented improvement in mucoadhesive properties compared to both non-modified and thiolated chitosan. On the molecular level, rheology measurements of polymer/mucin mixtures provided additional evidence of strong interaction between modified chitosan and mucin glycoproteins. This new polymer shows promise as a useful polymeric carrier matrix for delivery systems, which could provide prolonged residence time of the vehicle on the mucosa surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Valorization of residual Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF) by microfluidization: production of nanofibrillated cellulose and EPFBF nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Ana; Filpponen, Ilari; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-12-01

    Different cellulose pulps were produced from sulfur-free chemical treatments of Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF), a by-product from palm oil processing. The pulps were microfluidized for deconstruction into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanopaper was manufactured by using an overpressure device. The morphological and structural features of the obtained NFCs were characterized via atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The physical properties as well as the interactions with water of sheets from three different pulps were compared with those of nanopaper obtained from the corresponding NFC. Distinctive chemical and morphological characteristics and ensuing nanopaper properties were generated by the EPFBF fibers. The NFC grades obtained compared favorably with associated materials typically produced from bleached wood fibers. Lower water absorption, higher tensile strengths (107-137 MPa) and elastic modulus (12-18 GPa) were measured, which opens the possibility for valorization of such widely available bioresource. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chrysotile and crocidolite fibers with IR-spectroscopy: application to asbestos-cement products.

    PubMed

    Balducci, D; Valerio, F

    1986-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectrophotometry allows simple and quick qualitative and quantitative evaluations of different kinds of asbestos, as well as of other inorganic particles. In particular, chrysotile and crocidolite have characteristic IR spectra and optical density measures of 2,710 nm band for chrysotile, of 12,820 nm band for crocidolite permit quantitative evaluation of each fiber alone or in mixture. IR spectra also give informations about changes of fiber structure and of chemical composition due, for example, to thermal treatment or acid leaching. The analytical method we developed can detect levels as low as 0.1 mg of fiber in a 300 mg disk of KBr using a low cost IR spectrophotometer. The use of a Fourier Transform IR spectrophotometer (FTIR) improves dramatically the sensitivity and selectivity. Computer assisted analysis of spectra offers the possibility to reduce matrix interferences and to compare different spectra. Examples of IR technique applied to asbestos-cement products and insulating materials are presented.

  15. Ceramic fiber insulation impregnated with an infra-red retardant coating and method for production thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Alfred A. (Inventor); Tarkanian, Ryan Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invented insulation is a ceramic fiber insulation wherein the ceramic fibers are treated with a coating which contains transition metal oxides. The invented process for coating the insulation is a process of applying the transition metal oxide coating to the fibers of the insulation after the fibers have been formed into a tile or other porous body. The coating of transition metal oxide lowers the transmittance of radiation through the insulation thereby lowering the temperature of the backface of the insulation and better protecting the structure that underlies the insulation.

  16. An integrative analysis of four CESA isoforms specific for fiber cellulose production between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Xia, Tao; Xu, Wen; Chen, Tingting; Li, Xianliang; Fan, Jian; Wang, Ruyi; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai

    2013-06-01

    Cotton fiber is an excellent model system of cellulose biosynthesis; however, it has not been widely studied due to the lack of information about the cellulose synthase (CESA) family of genes in cotton. In this study, we initially identified six full-length CESA genes designated as GhCESA5-GhCESA10. Phylogenetic analysis and gene co-expression profiling revealed that CESA1, CESA2, CESA7, and CESA8 were the major isoforms for secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas CESA3, CESA5, CESA6, CESA9, and CESA10 should involve in primary cell wall formation for cotton fiber initiation and elongation. Using integrative analysis of gene expression patterns, CESA protein levels, and cellulose biosynthesis in vivo, we detected that CESA8 could play an enhancing role for rapid and massive cellulose accumulation in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. We found that CESA2 displayed a major expression in non-fiber tissues and that CESA1, a housekeeping gene like, was predominantly expressed in all tissues. Further, a dynamic alteration was observed in cell wall composition and a significant discrepancy was observed between the cotton species during fiber elongation, suggesting that pectin accumulation and xyloglucan reduction might contribute to cell wall transition. In addition, we discussed that callose synthesis might be regulated in vivo for massive cellulose production during active secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers.

  17. Potential environmental impact of bioethanol production chain from fiber sorghum to be used in passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Forte, Annachiara; Zucaro, Amalia; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2017-11-15

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology. The purpose was the evaluation of the environmental performance of different EtOH-gasoline mixtures in midsize passenger cars: E10 (10% of EtOH and 90% of gasoline) and E85 (85% of EtOH and 15% of gasoline). N fertilization appeared as the prevailing contributor of the crop phase. The "cradle-to-wheels" results concerning E10 passenger car disclosed that the main hotspots were represented by the input of low sulphur petrol (66%) and the linked tailpipe emissions (15%), for almost all the impact categories. Otherwise, for E85 flex-fuel vehicle, the major drivers were represented by the feedstock production (46%) and the imported electricity used in the conversion facility (18%). The FS EtOH blends entailed potential environmental benefits compared with the fossil counterpart (gasoline) for climate change, ozone and fossil depletions. Otherwise, they evidenced a worse profile in terms of acidification, eutrophication and particulate matter formation. Within the context of a the prospective territorial bio-refinery network, the comparison of the annual FS bioethanol based systems with similar EtOH scenarios from giant reed perennial crops highlighted: (i) the importance to optimize the N-management for FS feedstock cultivation and (ii) the need to increase the use of the renewable energy carriers along the industrial conversion

  18. Chemical Fixation of CO{sub 2} to Acrylates Using Low-Valent Molybdenum Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bernskoetter, Wesley

    2013-09-30

    The kinetic, mechanistic, and reactivity experiments to access the viability and possible reaction design of coupling of carbon dioxide and ethylene at a zerovalent molybdenum for the production of acrylates are described. A general model of the reaction mechanism has been outlined, including assessment of the rate limiting step in the reaction. Kinetic and computational data have valuated the influence of a range of tridentate ligand platforms on the rate of coupling. An in situ reduction and acrylate formation activity screen protocol has also been developed to aid in the technology development of this process. Portions of descriptions of the research products presented here have also been adapted with permission from journal publications.

  19. Evaluation of shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Ana Paula G. O.; Karam, Leandro Z.; Galvão, José R.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was evaluate the shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique. Two implants were placed in an artificial bone, with the two transfer copings joined with dental floss and acrylic resins; two dental resins are used. Measurements of deformation and temperature were performed with Fiber Braggs grating sensor for 17 minutes. The results revealed that one type of resin shows greater values of polymerization shrinkage than the other. Pattern resins did not present lower values of shrinkage, as usually reported by the manufacturer.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  1. Genetic improvement of hardwood fiber production in the north-central region: potentials and breeding alternatives

    Treesearch

    R.E., Jr. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    In the Lake States, aspens are now growing towards senility Faster than they are being harvested (Groff 1966). In the Central States, wood processing residues have recently supplied about one-half of the area's hardwood fiber requirement (Blyth 1970), thus allowing hardwood growing stock to continue its recuperation. In fact, the national hardwood fiber supply...

  2. Xylo-oligosaccharides production by autohydrolysis of corn fiber separated from DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are reported to have beneficial health properties, and are considered to be functional food ingredients. XOS was produced using corn fiber separated from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Corn fiber was treated with deionized water in a Parr-reactor, at temper...

  3. Specialty flat-top beam delivery fibers with controlled beam parameter product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollivet, C.; Farley, K.; Conroy, M.; Abramczyk, J.; Belke, S.; Becker, F.; Tankala, K.

    2016-03-01

    Beam delivery fibers have been used widely for transporting the optical beams from the laser to the subject of irradiation in a variety of markets including industrial, medical and defense applications. Standard beam delivery fibers range from 50 to 1500 μm core diameter and are used to guide CW or pulsed laser light, generated by solid state, fiber or diode lasers. Here, we introduce a novel fiber technology capable of simultaneously controlling the beam profile and the angular divergence of single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) beams using a single-optical fiber. Results of beam transformation from a SM to a MM beam with flat-top intensity profile are presented in the case of a controlled BPP at 3.8 mm*mrad. The scaling capabilities of this flat-top fiber design to achieve a range of BPP values while ensuring a flat-top beam profile are discussed. In addition, we demonstrate, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the homogenizer capabilities of this novel technology, able to transform random MM beams into uniform flat-top beam profiles with very limited impact on the beam brightness. This study is concluded with a discussion on the scalability of this fiber technology to fit from 50 up to 1500 μm core fibers and its potential for a broader range of applications.

  4. Production of corn fiber gum under conditions that retain its functional components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a hemicellulose (arabinoxylan)-enriched fraction obtained by the extraction of corn bran/fiber using a mild alkaline hydrogen peroxide process. The unique polysaccharide, CFG, with its low solution viscosity has been proposed as a stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions. We ha...

  5. Laser-Heated Floating Zone Production of Single-Crystal Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzert, Frank; Westfall, Leonard

    1996-01-01

    This report describes how a laser-heated floating zone apparatus can be used to investigate single-crystal fibers of various compositions. A feedrod with a stoichiometric composition of high-purity powders was connected to a pedestal and fed into a laser scan where it combined with a single-crystal fiber seed. A molten zone was formed at this junction. As the feedrod was continuously fed into the laser scan, a single-crystal fiber of a prescribed orientation was withdrawn from the melt. The resultant fibers, whose diameters ranged from 100 to 250 gm, could then be evaluated on the basis of their growth behavior, physical properties, mechanical properties, and fiber perfection.

  6. Predictive control of hollow-fiber bioreactors for the production of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dowd, J E; Weber, I; Rodriguez, B; Piret, J M; Kwok, K E

    1999-05-20

    The selection of medium feed rates for perfusion bioreactors represents a challenge for process optimization, particularly in bioreactors that are sampled infrequently. When the present and immediate future of a bioprocess can be adequately described, predictive control can minimize deviations from set points in a manner that can maximize process consistency. Predictive control of perfusion hollow-fiber bioreactors was investigated in a series of hybridoma cell cultures that compared operator control to computer estimation of feed rates. Adaptive software routines were developed to estimate the current and predict the future glucose uptake and lactate production of the bioprocess at each sampling interval. The current and future glucose uptake rates were used to select the perfusion feed rate in a designed response to deviations from the set point values. The routines presented a graphical user interface through which the operator was able to view the up-to-date culture performance and assess the model description of the immediate future culture performance. In addition, fewer samples were taken in the computer-estimated cultures, reducing labor and analytical expense. The use of these predictive controller routines and the graphical user interface decreased the glucose and lactate concentration variances up to sevenfold, and antibody yields increased by 10% to 43%.

  7. Product characteristics from the torrefaction of oil palm fiber pellets in inert and oxidative atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Zhuang, Yi-Qing; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Juang, Tarng-Tzuen; Tsai, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of solid and liquid products from the torrefaction of oil palm fiber pellets (OPFP) in inert and oxidative environments. The torrefaction temperature and O2 concentration in the carrier gas were in the ranges of 275-350°C and 0-10 vol%, respectively, while the torrefaction duration was 30 min. The oxidative torrefaction of OPFP at 275°C drastically intensified the HHV of the biomass when compared to the non-oxidative torrefaction. OPFP torrefied at 300°C is recommended to upgrade the biomass, irrespective of the atmosphere. The HHV of condensed liquid was between 10.1 and 13.2 MJ kg(-)(1), and was promoted to 23.2-28.7 MJ kg(-)(1) following dewatering. This accounts for 92-139% improvement in the calorific value of the liquid. This reveals that the recovery of condensed liquid with dewatering is able to enhance the energy efficiency of a torrefaction system.

  8. Glass fibre reinforced acrylic resin complete dentures: a 5-year clinical study.

    PubMed

    Goguţă, Luciana Maria; Bratu, Dorin; Jivănescu, Anca; Erimescu, Raluca; Mărcăuţeanu, Corina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the wear resistance of the glass fiber reinforced complete dentures comparative to the traditional acrylic complete dentures. Complete new dentures were made to replace old fractured 'un'-reinforced acrylic dentures. The total number of dentures was 30 and woven E-glass fibre reinforcements were used in maxillary complete dentures. Unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforcements were used as partial fibre reinforcements in mandibular complete dentures. Ten complete acrylic un-reinforced dentures were used as control. The follow-up period was 5 years and the recalls were made at 6 months. After 5 years of wearing the new dentures, the control dentures suffered seven fractures. After 5 years all the mandibular reinforced dentures were in good shape. The maxillary complete reinforced dentures suffered four partial fractures. Fracture lines were restricted by the glass fibre net and the patients could still use their dentures. Pre-impregnated E-glass fibre nets and polymer pre-impregnated E-glass unidirectional fibres are useful in reinforcing acrylic resin complete dentures especially were heavy occlusal forces are involved. Glass fibre reinforcement will be applied on the tension side in both cases (total fibre reinforcement and partial fibre reinforcement). The reinforcement cannot replace the necessary linings and occlusal adjustments. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Synthesis of poly(methyl urethane) acrylate oligomer using 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate for UV curable coating.

    PubMed

    Park, M N; Oh, S W; Ahn, B H; Moon, M J; Kang, Y S

    2009-02-01

    The poly(methyl urethane) acrylate oligomer was obtained by the reaction of methyl acrylate oligomer and 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. Synthesis of poly(methyl urethane) acrylate oligomer was done with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-MEOH), methyl acrylate, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator) and dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. Then 2-MEOH was used for functional chain transfer agent. The structure and property of the synthesized oligomers were characterized by FT-IR, FT-NMR, rheometer, and DSC. In this study, by synthetic method including the addition of 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate, thermal behavior of synthesized material was improved more than that reported in the previous study. Poly(methyl urethane) oligomer can be used for UV curable coatings, inks and adhesives. UV curable coating have high resistance against weather, ozone, aging, frictional wear, and heat. Besides they can absorb the shock and resist rust according to the thickness of film. It is used as an adhesive, paint, optical fiber coating agent, and waterproof agent because of these advantages at the present time.

  10. Chemical modification of jute fibers for the production of green-composites.

    PubMed

    Corrales, F; Vilaseca, F; Llop, M; Gironès, J; Méndez, J A; Mutjè, P

    2007-06-18

    Natural fiber reinforced composites is an emerging area in polymer science. Fibers derived from annual plants are considered a potential substitute for non-renewable synthetic fibers like glass and carbon fibers. The hydrophilic nature of natural fibers affects negatively its adhesion to hydrophobic polymeric matrices. To improve the compatibility between both components a surface modification has been proposed. The aim of the study is the chemical modification of jute fibers using a fatty acid derivate (oleoyl chloride) to confer hydrophobicity and resistance to biofibers. This reaction was applied in swelling and non-swelling solvents, pyridine and dichloromethane, respectively. The formation of ester groups, resulting from the reaction of oleoyl chloride with hydroxyl group of cellulose were studied by elemental analysis (EA) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization methods applied has proved the chemical interaction between the cellulosic material and the coupling agent. The extent of the reactions evaluated by elemental analysis was calculated using two ratios. Finally electron microscopy was applied to evaluate the surface changes of cellulose fibers after modification process.

  11. Production of continuous fiber thermoplastic composites by in-situ pultrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, S.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    The constructive design in the automotive industry, but also in many other industrial sectors has changed steadily over the past decades. It became much more complex due to e.g. increased use of hybrid materials. Combined with the desire to minimize the weight of vehicles and thus the CO2 emissions, the use of low density materials and especially fiber-reinforced plastics is increasing. E.g. Continuous fiber thermoplastic composites are used to reinforce injection molded parts. Low viscosity monomers like caprolactam, which is used to produce polyamide 6 by anionic polymerization are able to easily impregnate and penetrate the textile reinforcement. After wetting the fibers, the ring-opening polymerization starts and the matrix is becoming a polymer. At IKT, a method based on the RIM process (reaction injection molding) was developed to produce continuous fiber thermoplastic composites with high contents of continuous glass fibers. The anionic polymerization of polyamide 6 was now combined with the pultrusion process. Continuous glass fibers are pulled through a mold and wetted with caprolactam (including activator and catalyst). After the material polymerized in the mould, the finished continuous fiber thermoplastic composites can be pulled out and is finally sawn off.

  12. Fiber digestion, VFA production, and microbial population changes during in vitro ruminal fermentations of mixed rations by monensin-adapted and unadapted microbes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mixed ruminal microbes were incubated for 24 h in vitro with mixed forage and concentrate rations containing 20% or 30% non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) to assess in vitro fiber digestibility, fermentation end products, and relative population sizes (RPS, expressed as a percentage of 16S rRNA gene cop...

  13. Fiber crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much research continues to develop renewable, recyclable, sustainable, and bio-based products from agricultural feed stocks such as cotton and flax fiber. Primary requirements are sustainable production, low cost, and consistent and known quality. To better understand these products, research contin...

  14. Development of a core sheath process for production of oxide fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freske, S.

    1972-01-01

    Improvements were sought in an oxide fiber of a core sheath configuration intended for structural applications at 2000 F (1093 C). Discontinuities in the core were eliminated by using core materials other than pure alumina, and continuous core sheath fibers were produced. In the case of some core materials, the continuous sections were sufficiently long for applications in short fiber composites. Creep at 2000 F (1093 C) was found to be due, in most cases, to breaks in the core, allowing the glass sheath to creep. Evidence was obtained indicating that a closer match between the thermal expansion coefficient of the sheath and the core would greatly improve the strength.

  15. Dexamethasone normalizes aberrant elastic fiber production and collagen 1 secretion by Loeys-Dietz syndrome fibroblasts: a possible treatment?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Christopher P; Chitayat, David; Bradley, Timothy J; Wang, Yanting; Hinek, Aleksander

    2011-06-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, cleft palate, dilation of the aortic arch, blood vessel tortuosity and a high risk of aortic dissection. It is caused by mutations in the transforming growth factor β-receptor 1 and 2 (TGFβ-R1 and TGFβ-R2) genes. Fibroblasts derived from 12 Loeys-Dietz syndrome patients, six with TGFB-R1 mutations and six with TGFB-R2 mutations, were analyzed using RT-PCR, biochemical assays, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy for production of elastin, fibrillin 1, fibulin 1 and fibulin 4 and deposition of collagen type I. All LDS fibroblasts with TGFβ-R1 mutations demonstrated decreased expression of elastin and fibulin 1 genes and impaired deposition of elastic fibers. In contrast, fibroblasts with TGFβ-R2 mutations consistently demonstrated intracellular accumulation of collagen type I in the presence of otherwise normal elastic fiber production. Treatment of the cell cultures with dexamethasone induced remarkable upregulation in the expression of tropoelastin, fibulin 1- and fibulin 4-encoding mRNAs, leading to normalization of elastic fiber production in fibroblasts with TGFβ-R1 mutations. Treatment with dexamethasone also corrected the abnormal secretion of collagen type I from fibroblasts with TGFβ-R2 gene mutations. As the organogenesis-relevant elastic fiber production occurs exclusively in late fetal and early neonatal life, these findings may have implications for treatment in early life. Further studies are required to determine if dexamethasone treatment of fetuses prenatally diagnosed with LDS would prevent or alleviate the connective tissue and vascular defects seen in this syndrome.

  16. Economic potential of short-rotation woody crops on agricultural land for pulp fiber production in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Darius M. Adams; Bruce A. McCarl; Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    A model of the U.S. forestry and agricultural sectors is used to simulate the consequences of growing short-rotation woody crops on agricultural lands as a fiber source for pulp and paper production. Hybrid poplar, a short-rotation woody crop, annually produces 4 to 7 dry tons per acre of hardwood pulpwood over a 6- to 10-year rotation. When harvested, the material...

  17. Enzyme production by wood-rot and soft-rot fungi cultivated on corn fiber followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir K; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2009-05-27

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert lignocellulosic corn fiber into fermentable sugars at a moderate temperature (37 °C) with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum), and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used for in situ enzyme production to hydrolyze cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber by either white- or brown-rot fungi followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with coculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown a possibility of enhancing wood rot saccharification of corn fiber for ethanol fermentation. The laboratory-scale fungal saccharification and fermentation process incorporated in situ cellulolytic enzyme induction, which enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose components of corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides). The yeast fermentation of the hydrolyzate yielded 7.8, 8.6, and 4.9 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol per 100 g initial corn fiber) is equivalent to 35% of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. This research has significant commercial potential to increase net ethanol production per bushel of corn through the utilization of corn fiber. There is also a great research opportunity to evaluate the remaining biomass residue (enriched with fungal protein) as animal feed.

  18. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  19. Cellulose fibers modified with nano-sized antimicrobial polymer latex for pathogen deactivation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanfeng; Xiao, Huining; Cai, Pingxiong; Colpitts, Meaghan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial cellulose fibers and paper products are of great importance for various applications. In this work, novel core-shell antimicrobial latexes based on hydrophobic acrylate monomers and antimicrobial macromonomer (GPHGH) were successfully prepared via a seeded semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization in the presence of a cationic surfactant. The surface properties as well as size of latex were tailored by varying the amount of GPHGH incorporated during the copolymerization. The resulting cationic nano-sized latexes showed the strong adsorption and formed monolayer on the surfaces of bleached sulfite fibers, thus rendering the cellulose fibers antimicrobial. An excellent antimicrobial activity (>99.99% inhibition) of modified fiber toward Escherichia coli was achieved at 0.3wt% of latex dosage (on dry fibers). Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation confirmed that the particles obtained indeed possessed a desired core-shell structure. The latexes themselves exhibited high antimicrobial activities against E. coli with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as low as 6.25ppm (similar to that of pure guanidine-based polymer). Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hand-sheets made from latex-modified cellulose fibers was also improved due to the filming of the latex on fiber surfaces.

  20. Production of High Performance Bioinspired Silk Fibers by Straining Flow Spinning.

    PubMed

    Madurga, Rodrigo; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Plaza, Gustavo R; Guinea, Gustavo V; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2017-03-03

    In the last years, there has been an increasing interest in bioinspired approaches for different applications, including the spinning of high performance silk fibers. Bioinspired spinning is based on the natural spinning system of spiders and worms and requires combining changes in the chemical environment of the proteins with the application of mechanical stresses. Here we present the novel straining flow spinning (SFS) process and prove its ability to produce high performance fibers under mild, environmentally friendly conditions, from aqueous protein dopes. SFS is shown to be an extremely versatile technique which allows controlling a large number of processing parameters. This ample set of parameters allows fine-tuning the microstructure and mechanical behavior of the fibers, which opens the possibility of adapting the fibers to their intended uses.

  1. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  2. Production of quasi-2D graphene nanosheets through the solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, Youngju; Lee, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Youl; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Byoungnam; In, Insik

    2015-09-01

    Stable dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets with a concentration up to 1.27 mg mL-1 was prepared by sonication-assisted solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber in N-methyl pyrrolidone with the mass yield of 2.32%. Prepared quasi-2D graphene sheets have multi-layered 2D plate-like morphology with rich inclusions of graphitic carbons, a low number of structural defects, and high dispersion stability in aprotic polar solvents, and facilitate the utilization of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared from pitch-based carbon fiber for various electronic and structural applications. Thin films of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared by vacuum filtration of the dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets demonstrated electrical conductivity up to 1.14 × 104 Ω/□ even without thermal treatment, which shows that pitch-based carbon fiber might be useful as the source of graphene-related nanomaterials. Because pitch-based carbon fiber could be prepared from petroleum pitch, a very cheap structural material for the pavement of asphalt roads, our approach might be promising for the mass production of quasi-2D graphene nanomaterials.

  3. Production of quasi-2D graphene nanosheets through the solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Youngju; Lee, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Youl; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Byoungnam; In, Insik

    2015-09-18

    Stable dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets with a concentration up to 1.27 mg mL(-1) was prepared by sonication-assisted solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber in N-methyl pyrrolidone with the mass yield of 2.32%. Prepared quasi-2D graphene sheets have multi-layered 2D plate-like morphology with rich inclusions of graphitic carbons, a low number of structural defects, and high dispersion stability in aprotic polar solvents, and facilitate the utilization of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared from pitch-based carbon fiber for various electronic and structural applications. Thin films of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared by vacuum filtration of the dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets demonstrated electrical conductivity up to 1.14 × 10(4) Ω/□ even without thermal treatment, which shows that pitch-based carbon fiber might be useful as the source of graphene-related nanomaterials. Because pitch-based carbon fiber could be prepared from petroleum pitch, a very cheap structural material for the pavement of asphalt roads, our approach might be promising for the mass production of quasi-2D graphene nanomaterials.

  4. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  6. Multifaceted metabolomics approaches for characterization of lignocellulosic biomass degradation products formed during ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vismeh, Ramin

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused resource for production of biofuels, and it offers an alternative to food sources including corn starch. However, structural and compositional impediments limit the digestibility of sugar polymers in biomass cell walls. Thermochemical pretreatments improve accessibility of cellulose and hemicellulose to hydrolytic enzymes. However, most pretreatment methods generate compounds that either inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis or exhibit toxicity to fermentive microorganisms. Characterization and quantification of these products are essential for understanding chemistry of the pretreatment and optimizing the process efficiency to achieve higher ethanol yields. Identification of oligosaccharides released during pretreatment is also critical for choosing hydrolases necessary for cost-effective hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable monomeric sugars. Two chapters in this dissertation describe new mass spectrometry-based strategies for characterization and quantification of products that are formed during ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover. Comparison of Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) profiles of AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEXTCS) and untreated corn stover (UTCS) extract shows that ammonolysis of lignin carbohydrate ester linkages generates a suite of nitrogenous compounds that are present only in the AFEXTCS extract and represent a loss of ammonia during processing. Several of these products including acetamide, feruloyl, coumaroyl and diferuloyl amides were characterized and quantified in the AFEXTCS extracts. The total amount of characterized and uncharacterized phenolic amides measured 17.4 mg/g AFEXTCS. Maillard reaction products including pyrazines and imidazoles were also identified and measured in the AFEXTCS extract totaling almost 1 mg/g AFEXTCS. The total of quantified nitrogenous products that are formed during AFEX was 43.4 mg/g AFEXTCS which was equivalent

  7. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  8. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  12. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in producing...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in producing...

  14. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in producing...

  15. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  17. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  18. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10519 - Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10519 Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (PMN P-11-63) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10519 - Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10519 Perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer (PMN P-11-63) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as articles...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as articles...

  6. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  7. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10180 - Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10180 Trifunctional acrylic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylic ester (PMN P-04-692) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as articles...

  6. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  7. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  8. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  9. Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok fiber) as a resource for second generation bioethanol: effect of various simple pretreatment methods on sugar production.

    PubMed

    Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Leh, Cheu Peng

    2012-07-01

    The importance of bioethanol currently has increased tremendously as it can reduce the total dependency on fossil-fuels, especially gasoline, in the transportation sector. In this study, Ceiba pentandra (kapok fiber) was introduced as a new resource for bioethanol production. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that the cellulose (alpha- and beta-) contents were 50.7%. The glucose composition of the fiber was 59.8%. The high glucose content indicated that kapok fiber is a potential substrate for bioethanol production. However, without a pretreatment, the kapok fiber only yielded 0.8% of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, it is necessary to pre-treat the kapok fiber prior to hydrolysis. Taking into account environmentally friendliness, only simple pretreatments with minimum chemical or energy consumption was considered. It was interesting to see that by adopting merely water, acid and alkaline pretreatments, the yield of reducing sugar was increased to 39.1%, 85.2% and >100%, respectively.

  10. [Exposure to ceramic fibers in the occupational environment. I. Production, kinds of ceramic fibers, changes in structure of these fibers, preliminary studies in the working environment].

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, J

    1994-01-01

    The production of fireproof SiO2/Al2O3 ceramic fibres started in the late forties. Primarily, the production was designed entirely for the aircraft industry. In the sixties the application of ceramic fibres became more wider. The first ceramic fibrous materials were characterised by thermal resistance reaching 1200 degrees C. Certain kinds of materials produced currently can be used in the temperature accounting for 1600 degrees C. Aluminosiliceous ceramic fibres recrystallise at high temperature (above 1000 degrees C) and produce mullite and crostobalite. Ceramic fibrous material may become hazardous to workers as a source of respirable fibres. Studies, carried out in plants which manufacture products from aluminosiliceous ceramic fibres, indicated that mean concentrations of respirable fibres ranged from 0.14 to 1.13 f/cm3 while the levels of mean concentrations of total dust accounted for 0.4-13.6 mg/m3. At working posts of plants producing china, where heat-insulating materials were changed mean level of respirable fibre concentration was 0.28-1.65 f/cm3 and concentration of total dust ranged from 7.0 to 17.7 mg/m3.

  11. The Influence of Polymerization Type and Reinforcement Method on Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N = 10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25 × 2 × 2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a = 5%) showing significant interaction (P = 0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71 ± 67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05 ± 71.97)a, Ind (215.21 ± 46.59)ab, SW (190.51 ± 31.49)abc, Short (156.31 ± 28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51 ± 20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47 ± 19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93 ± 105.65)a, Uni (215.14 ± 67.60)ab, Short (198.44 ± 95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56 ± 92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32 ± 62.51)cd, SW (106.69 ± 28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39 ± 39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics. PMID:25879079

  12. The influence of polymerization type and reinforcement method on flexural strength of acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Naves, Lucas Zago; Hoeppner, Márcio Grama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin bars by varying the types of resin polymerization and reinforcement methods. Fourteen groups (N=10) were created by the interaction of factors in study: type of resin (self-cured (SC) or heat-cured (HC)) and reinforcement method (industrialized glass fiber (Ind), unidirectional glass fiber (Uni), short glass fiber (Short), unidirectional and short glass fiber (Uni-Short), thermoplastic resin fiber (Tpl), and steel wire (SW)). Reinforced bars (25×2×2 mm) were tested in flexural strength (0.5 mm/min) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data (MPa) were submitted to factorial analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey and T-student tests (a=5%) showing significant interaction (P=0.008), for SC: Uni (241.71±67.77)a, Uni-Short (221.05±71.97)a, Ind (215.21±46.59)ab, SW (190.51±31.49)abc, Short (156.31±28.76)bcd, Tpl (132.51±20.21)cd, Control SC (101.47±19.79)d and for HC: Ind (268.93±105.65)a, Uni (215.14±67.60)ab, Short (198.44±95.27)abc, Uni-Short (189.56±92.27)abc, Tpl (161.32±62.51)cd, SW (106.69±28.70)cd, and Control HC (93.39±39.61)d. SEM analysis showed better fiber-resin interaction for HC. Nonimpregnated fibers, irrespective of their length, tend to improve fracture strength of acrylics.

  13. Characterization of the reaction products and precipitates at the interface of carbon fiber reinforced magnesium–gadolinium composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaping; Jiang, Longtao; Chen, Guoqin; Lin, Xiu; Zhang, Shaofeng; Pei, Risheng; Wu, Gaohui

    2016-03-15

    In the present work, carbon fiber reinforced magnesium-gadolinium composite was fabricated by pressure infiltration method. The phase composition, micro-morphology, and crystal structure of reaction products and precipitates at the interface of the composite were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the segregation of gadolinium element at the interface between carbon fiber and matrix alloy. It was shown that block-shaped Gd4C5, GdC2 and nano-sized Gd2O3 were formed at the interface during the fabrication process due to the interfacial reaction. Furthermore, magnesium-gadolinium precipitates including needle-like Mg5Gd (or Mg24Gd5) and thin plate-shaped long period stacking-ordered phase, were also observed at the interface and in the matrix near the interface. The interfacial microstructure and bonding mode were influenced by these interfacial products, which were beneficial for the improvement of the interfacial bonding strength. - Highlights: • Gadolinium element segregated on the surface of carbon fibers. • Block-shaped Gd{sub 4}C{sub 5} and GdC{sub 2} were formed at the interface via chemical reaction. • Gadolinium and oxygen reacted at the interface and formed nano-scaled Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The precipitates formed in the interface were identified to be Mg{sub 5}Gd (or Mg{sub 24}Gd{sub 5}) and plate-shaped long period stacking-ordered phase.

  14. USDA Flax fiber utilization research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  15. Ceria-based electrospun fibers for renewable fuel production via two-step thermal redox cycles for carbon dioxide splitting.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, William T; Venstrom, Luke J; De Smith, Robert M; Davidson, Jane H; Jackson, Gregory S

    2014-07-21

    Zirconium-doped ceria (Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2) was synthesized through a controlled electrospinning process as a promising approach to cost-effective, sinter-resistant material structures for high-temperature, solar-driven thermochemical redox cycles. To approximate a two-step redox cycle for solar fuel production, fibrous Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2 with relatively low levels of Zr-doping (0 < x < 0.1) were cycled in an infrared-imaging furnace with high-temperature (up to 1500 °C) partial reduction and lower-temperature (∼800 °C) reoxidation via CO2 splitting to produce CO. Increases in Zr content improve reducibility and sintering resistance, and, for x≤ 0.05, do not significantly slow reoxidation kinetics for CO production. Cycle stability of the fibrous Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2 (with x = 0.025) was assessed for a range of conditions by measuring rates of O2 release during reduction and CO production during reoxidation and by assessing post-cycling fiber crystallite sizes and surface areas. Sintering increases with reduction temperature but occurs primarily along the fiber axes. Even after 108 redox cycles with reduction at 1400 °C and oxidation with CO2 at 800 °C, the fibers maintain their structure with surface areas of ∼0.3 m(2) g(-1), higher than those observed in the literature for other ceria-based structures operating at similarly high temperature conditions. Total CO production and peak production rate stabilize above 3.0 mL g(-1) and 13.0 mL min(-1) g(-1), respectively. The results show the potential for electrospun oxides as sinter-resistant material structures with adequate surface area to support rapid CO2 splitting in solar thermochemical redox cycles.

  16. Fiber designs for micro-seismic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillooly, Andy M.; Hill, Mark D.

    2013-05-01

    Acrylate and polyimide coatings are found to have a suitable modulus for micro-seismic sensors whilst carbon coatings are too hard and inelastic for reliable use in this application. Fiber cladding designs can be optimized for mechanical reliability by using 80μm or 50μm cladding diameters and the numerical aperture (NA) increased to give low bend losses. To reduce splice losses, a bridging fiber has been developed, capable of reducing splice losses between telecoms fibers and reduced cladding diameter high NA sensor fibers by <50%.

  17. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Mechanical Force Sensitive Acrylic Latex Coating.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-05-03

    We prepared force sensitive acrylic latex coatings by covalently incorporating spiropyran mechanophore. The acrylic latexes were obtained through emulsion copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) as interparticle cross-linker, and (1'-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-3',3'-dimethylspiro[chromene-2,2'-indolin]-6-yl)methyl methacrylate) (SP) as intraparticle cross-linker. The latexes of P(BA-co-MMA-co-SP-co-VTES) were subsequently cast onto Teflon-coated surface to form latex coatings. The condensation of hydrolyzed VTES provided interparticle cross-linking and improved mechanical properties of the formed thin films. Intraparticle cross-linker SP endowed the coatings with mechanoreponsiveness. The mechanoactivation of SP-containing latex films was demonstrated. Increasing the content of intra-cross-linker SP resulted in higher stress sensitivity and lower critical stress required for mechanoactivation. Increasing the content of interparticle cross-linker VTES resulted in higher critical stress for SP mechanoactivation but had little effect on the stress sensitivity. Tg and operation temperature also showed significant effect on mechanoactivation. Slower strain rate allowed for higher SP-to-MC conversion. This work represents the first example of mechanochromic acrylic latexes and provides insight into the design of force sensitive and self-reporting polymer coatings.

  19. 40 CFR 721.2805 - Acrylate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2805 Acrylate ester. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an...

  20. Stainless steel mesh-acrylic cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Tysvaer, A T; Hovind, K H

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-four steel mesh-acrylic plates have been used for repair of skull defects in 1970-73. Three plates had to be removed due to complications, two due to infection and one due to an allergic reaction. The plate is easy to mould, strong, and light. The cosmetic results are excellent.

  1. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production

    DOEpatents

    Muradov, Nazim Z [Melbourne, FL

    2012-02-21

    This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.

  3. Sorbitol and gluconic acid production using permeabilized zymomonas mobilis cells confined by hollow-fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, H C; Borges, C P; Alves, T L

    2000-10-01

    Immobilization of Zymomonas mobilis by different methods was investigated. Experiments were performed in order to choose the most appropriate support for the immobilization of the cells. The most advantageous option was to use permeabilized cells in the bore of microporous hollow fibers. Whereas the reaction rate was about 33 g of gluconate/(g of protein x h) using hollow fibers, which is comparable to that observed by using free cells, the calcium alginate immobilized cells presented a reaction rate of 4 g of gluconate/(g of protein x h). These results can be explained by the mass transfer resistance effect, which, indeed, was much lower in the case of hollow-fiber membranes than in the alginate gel beads. A loss of enzymatic activity during the reaction was observed in all experiments, which was attributed to the lactone produced as an intermediate of the reaction.

  4. UV microbeam irradiations of the mitotic spindle. II. Spindle fiber dynamics and force production

    SciTech Connect

    Spurck, T.P.; Stonington, O.G.; Snyder, J.A.; Pickett-Heaps, J.D.; Bajer, A.; Mole-Bajer, J. )

    1990-10-01

    Metaphase and anaphase spindles in cultured newt and PtK1 cells were irradiated with a UV microbeam (285 nM), creating areas of reduced birefringence (ARBs) in 3 s that selectively either severed a few fibers or cut across the half spindle. In either case, the birefringence at the polewards edge of the ARB rapidly faded polewards, while it remained fairly constant at the other, kinetochore edge. Shorter astral fibers, however, remained present in the enlarged ARB; presumably these had not been cut by the irradiation. After this enlargement of the ARB, metaphase spindles recovered rapidly as the detached pole moved back towards the chromosomes, reestablishing spindle fibers as the ARB closed; this happened when the ARB cut a few fibers or across the entire half spindle. We never detected elongation of the cut kinetochore fibers. Rather, astral fibers growing from the pole appeared to bridge and then close the ARB, just before the movement of the pole toward the chromosomes. When a second irradiation was directed into the closing ARB, the polewards movement again stopped before it restarted. In all metaphase cells, once the pole had reestablished connection with the chromosomes, the unirradiated half spindle then also shortened to create a smaller symmetrical spindle capable of normal anaphase later. Anaphase cells did not recover this way; the severed pole remained detached but the chromosomes continued a modified form of movement, clumping into a telophase-like group. The results are discussed in terms of controls operating on spindle microtubule stability and mechanisms of mitotic force generation.

  5. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p < 0.05) with a negative correlation between fiber content and overall AUC following a standardized in vitro digestion method (r = -0.910). Starch content, WAI, and WSI were positively correlated to AUC of extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  6. Efficient enzymatic acrylation through transesterification at controlled water activity.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mathias; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2008-04-15

    Enzymatic acrylation is a process of potentially strong interest to the chemical industry. Direct esterification involving acrylic acid is unfortunately rather slow, with inhibition phenomena appearing at high acid concentrations. In the present study the acrylation of 1-octanol catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was shown to be as much as an order of magnitude faster when ethyl acrylate served as the donor of the acrylic group. Water activity is a key parameter for optimizing the rate of ester synthesis. The optimum water activity for the esterification of octanol by acrylic acid was found to be 0.75, that for its esterification by propionic acid to be 0.45 and the transesterification involving ethyl acrylate to be fastest at a water activity of 0.3. The reasons for these differences in optimum water activity are discussed in terms of enzyme specificity, substrate solvation, and mass transfer effects.

  7. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  8. Treatment of cereal products with a tailored preparation of trichoderma enzymes increases the amount of soluble dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Aurora; Lanzuise, Stefania; Ruocco, Michelina; Arlotti, Guido; Ranieri, Roberto; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Lorito, Matteo; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2006-10-04

    Nutritionists recommend increasing the intake of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), which is very low in most cereal-based products. Conversion of insoluble DF (IDF) into SDF can be achieved by chemical treatments, but this affects the sensorial properties of the products. In this study, the possibility of getting a substantial increase of SDF from cereal products using a tailored preparation of Trichoderma enzymes is reported. Enzymes were produced cultivating Trichoderma using durum wheat fiber (DWF) and barley spent grain (BSG) as unique carbon sources. Many Trichoderma strains were screened, and the hydrolysis conditions able to increase by enzymatic treatment the amount of SDF in DWF and BSG were determined. Results demonstrate in both products that it is possible to triple the amount of SDF without a marked decrease of total DF. The enzymatic treatment also causes the release of hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic acid, that are linked to the polysaccharides chains. This increases the free phenolic concentration, the water-soluble antioxidant activity, and, in turn, the phenol compounds bioavailability.

  9. Effects of dietary fiber and reduced crude protein on nitrogen balance and egg production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A; Xin, H; Kerr, B J; Russell, J R; Bregendahl, K

    2007-08-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry and can be lowered by dietary inclusion of fibrous ingredients and by lowering the dietary CP content. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of dietary fiber and reduced-CP diets, which may lower NH(3) emission, on egg production and N balance in laying hens. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 contents of CP (normal and reduced) and 4 fiber treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement from 23 to 58 wk of age. The fiber treatments included a corn and soybean meal-based control diet and diets formulated with either 10.0% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 7.3% wheat middlings (WM), or 4.8% soybean hulls (SH) added to contribute equal amounts of neutral detergent fiber. The CP contents of the reduced-CP diets were approximately 1 percentage unit lower than that of the normal-CP diets. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis to be isoenergetic. There were no effects (P > 0.05) of including corn DDGS, WM, or SH in the diet on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, yolk color, feed consumption, feed utilization, or BW gain. Although the corn DDGS and WM diets resulted in an increase (P < 0.001) in N consumption, N excretion was not affected (P > 0.10) compared with hens fed the control diet. The reduced-CP diets did not affect egg weight, feed consumption, or BW gain (P > 0.05); however, egg production, egg mass, feed utilization, N consumption, and N excretion were lower than that from the hens fed the normal-CP diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that the diets containing 10% corn DDGS, 7% WM, or 5% SH did not affect egg production or N excretion. However, the 1% lower CP diets caused a lower egg production and lower N excretion.

  10. Maximizing Production of Fiber, Fermentable Sugars, and Energy by Matching Biomass Species to Landscape Position

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research project is to characterize a diverse group of potential biomass species (corn, alfalfa, perennial flax, switchgrass, poplar, and willow) for their yield of biomass, fiber, and fermentable sugars across a diverse set of within-field environments. Our goal is to advance ...

  11. Optimization of SO2-catalyzed steam pretreatment of corn fiber for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Bura, Renata; Bothast, Rodney J; Mansfield, Shawn D; Saddler, John N

    2003-01-01

    A batch reactor was employed to steam explode corn fiber at various degrees of severity to evaluate the potential of using this feedstock as part of an enzymatically mediated cellulose-to-ethanol process. Severity was controlled by altering temperature (150-230 degrees C), residence time (1-9 min), and SO2 concentration (0-6% [w/w] dry matter). The effects of varying the different parameters were assessed by response surface modeling. The results indicated that maximum sugar yields (hemicellulose-derived water soluble, and cellulose-derived following enzymatic hydrolysis) were recovered from corn fiber pretreated at 190 degrees C for 5 minutes after exposure to 3% SO2. Sequential SO2-catalyzed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in a conversion efficiency of 81% of the combined original hemicellulose and cellulose in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars. An additional posthydrolysis step performed on water soluble hemicellulose stream increased the concentration of sugars available for fermentation by 10%, resulting in the high conversion efficiency of 91%. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to ferment the resultant corn fiber hydrolysates, perhydrolysate, and liquid fraction from the posthydrolysis steps to 89, 94, and 85% of theoretical ethanol conversion, respectively. It was apparent that all of the parameters investigated during the steam explosion pretreatment had a significant effect on sugar recovery, inhibitory formation, enzymatic conversion efficiency, and fermentation capacity of the yeast.

  12. Know your fibers : process and properties, or, a material science approach to designing pulp molded products

    Treesearch

    John F. Hunt

    1998-01-01

    The following results are preliminary, but show some basic information that will be used in an attempt to model pulp molded structures so that by measuring several basic fundamental properties of a fiber furnish and specifying process conditions, a molded structure could be designed for a particular performance need.

  13. PPARγ Level Contributes to Structural Integrity and Component Production of Elastic Fibers in the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Haw-Chih; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Ju-Yi; Lai, Chao-Han; Wang, Kuan-Chieh; Teng, Shih-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Alice Y. W.; Jiang, Meei-Jyh; Li, Yi-Heng; Wu, Hua-Lin; Maeda, Nobuyo; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Loss of integrity and massive disruption of elastic fibers are key features of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to attenuate AAA through inhibition of inflammation and proteolytic degradation. However, its involvement in elastogenesis during AAA remains unclear. PPARγ was highly expressed in human AAA within all vascular cells, including inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. In the aortas of transgenic mice expressing PPARγ at 25% normal levels (PpargC/− mice), we observed the fragmentation of elastic fibers and reduced expression of vital elastic fiber components of elastin and fibulin-5. These were not observed in mice with 50% normal PPARγ expression (Pparg+/− mice). Infusion of a moderate dose of angiotensin II (AngII) (500 ng/kg/min) did not induce AAA but Pparg+/− aorta developed flattened elastic lamellae, while PpargC/− aorta showed severe destruction of elastic fibers. After infusion of AngII at 1000 ng/kg/min, 73% of PpargC/− mice developed atypical suprarenal aortic aneurysms: superior mesenteric arteries were dilated with extensive collagen deposition in adventitia and infiltrations of inflammatory cells. Although matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by doxycycline somewhat attenuated the dilation of aneurysm, it did not reduce the incidence nor elastic lamella deterioration in AngII-infused PpargC/− mice. Furthermore, PPARγ antagonism down-regulated elastin and fibulin-5 in fibroblasts, but not in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated PPARγ binding in the genomic sequence of fibulin-5 in fibroblasts. Our results underscore the importance of PPARγ in AAA development though orchestrating proper elastogenesis and preserving elastic fiber integrity. PMID:27045031

  14. Coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules as a basis for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper production.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Fan, Jun; Chen, Wensen; Shu, Jiayan; Qian, Xueren; Wei, Haifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Shen, Jing

    2016-09-20

    The sustainable, efficient use of renewable bio-based additives in the production of various materials fits well into the concept of sustainability. Here, the concept of coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper-based cellulosic networks is presented. Coaggregation of precipitated calcium carbonate filler particles and uncooked, unmodified corn starch granules by cationic polyacrylamide (a cationic high molecular weight polymer flocculant) in combination with bentonite (an anionic microparticle) prior to addition to cellulosic fiber slurry delivered enhanced filler bondability with cellulosic fibers. For instance, under the conditions studied, preaggregation resulted in an increase in filler bondability factor from 9.24 to 15.21 at starch dosage of 1% (on the basis of the dry weight of papermaking stock). The swelling and gelatinization of the starch granules in starch-filler preaggregates or hybrids enabled the "bridging" of the gaps in cellulosic networks, leading to structural consolidation and strength enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and electromechanical characterization of a new acrylic dielectric elastomer with high actuation strain and dielectric strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Niu, Xiaofan; Yang, Xinguo; Zhang, Naifang; Pei, Qibing

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric Elastomers (DEs) can be actuated under high electric field to produce large strains. Most high-performing DE materials such as the 3M™ VHB™ membranes are commercial products designed for industrial pressure-sensitive adhesives. The limited knowledge of the exact chemical structures of these commercial materials has made it difficult to understand the relationship between molecular structures and electromechanical properties. In this work, new acrylic elastomers based on n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid were synthesized from monomer solutions by UV-initiated bulk polymerization. The new acrylic copolymers have a potential to obtain high dielectric constant, actuation strain, dielectric strength, and a high energy density. Silicone and ester oligomer diacrylates were also added onto the copolymer structures to suppress crystallization and to crosslink the polymer chains. Four acrylic formulations were developed with different amounts of acrylic acid. This gives a tunable stiffness, while the dielectric constant is varied from 4.3 to 7.1. The figure-of-merit performance of the best formulation is 186 % area strain, 222 MV/m of dielectric strength, and 2.7 MJ/m3 of energy density. To overcome electromechanical instability, different prestrain ratios were investigated, and under the optimized prestrain, the material has a lifetime of thousands of cycles at 120 % area strain.

  16. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.

  17. Investigation of a carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg curing behavior for thick composite materials production: An industrial case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Loris; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Minak, Giangiacomo; Dolcini, Enrico

    2012-07-01

    A case-study is presented, in cooperation with RI-BA Composites srl, where the industrial production of a thick part for primary structural application is analysed. The final product is a bulk carbon fiber reinforced object characterized by great dimensions, with thickness ranging between 10mm and 35mm and obtained by Hand-Lay-Up of prepregs. The study shows that prepregs age along the time required for the process work up. Moreover, the isothermal curing investigation of the prepreg used in the production gives some useful hint for the design of a new thermal curing cycle, in order to avoid exotherm problems along the thickness of the object. The effect of the applied curing cycle on thermal properties of the object are reported.

  18. GhCaM7-like, a calcium sensor gene, influences cotton fiber elongation and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Lu, Lili; Yang, Zhaoen; Wu, Zhixia; Qin, Wenqiang; Yu, Daoqian; Ren, Zhongying; Li, Yi; Wang, Lingling; Li, Fuguang; Yang, Zuoren

    2016-12-01

    Calcium signaling regulates many developmental processes in plants. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most conserved calcium sensors and has a flexible conformation in eukaryotes. The molecular functions of CaM are unknown in cotton, which is a major source of natural fiber. In this study, a Gossypium hirsutum L.CaM7-like gene was isolated from upland cotton. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the GhCaM7-like gene was highly conserved as compared with Arabidopsis AtCaM7. The GhCaM7-like gene showed a high expression level in elongating fibers. Expression of β-glucuronidase was observed in trichomes on the stem, leaf and root in transgenic Arabidopsis plants of a PROGhCaM7-like:GUS fusion. Silencing of the GhCaM7-like gene resulted in decreased fiber length, but also caused reduction in stem height, leaf dimensions, seed length and 100-seed weight, in comparison with those of the control. Reduced expression of the GhCaM7-like gene caused decreased Ca(2+) influx in cells of the leaf hypodermis and stem apex, and down-regulation of GhIQD1 (IQ67-domain containing protein), GhAnn2 (Annexins) and GhEXP2 (Expansin). These results indicate that the GhCaM7-like gene plays a vital role in calcium signaling pathways, and may regulate cotton fiber elongation and biomass production by affecting Ca(2+) signatures and downstream signaling pathways of CaM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of pilot plant for the production of vapor grown carbon fiber from Ohio coal. Final report, July 1997 to July 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Alig, Robert; Burton, David; Kennel, Elliot; Lake, Max

    2000-11-30

    The objective of this project was to develop, build, and operate a pilot-scale plant for the production of Pyrograf-III™ carbon nanofiber from Ohio high-sulfur coal. The fiber production scale-up program was conducted in three phases. In Phase I, the design parameters were developed using a single reactor system, for a process where sulfur bearing coal replaced hydrogen sulfide as the sulfur source. Optimization trials for different reactor tube dimensions were conducted and compared to theoretical predictions for temperature and flow conditions in the reactor as a function of the reactor dimensions. The process was also refined to optimize intrinsic and surface properties of the carbon fiber. Methods of separating fiber from coal ash and de-bulking the fiber were also developed and demonstrated. Under Phase I, a considerable body of knowledge was developed that yielded valuable data bearing on the design of fiber production and handling equipment. The Phase I effort was comprised of complementary programs sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Delphi Chassis Division of General Motors Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC). In Phase II, equipment was designed based upon the body of knowledge developed under Phase I. The pilot plant equipment was designed to have a production capacity up to 100,000 pounds of fiber per year based on a process (PR-11) that generates a fiber diameter of 200 nm and a model indicating energy throughput as the rate-limiting variable. As the program progressed, it become evident that the near-term customers required a fiber with a much smaller diameter, PR-24 grade, to achieve the required performance in the end product. In order to meet the needs of the initial customer base, modifications were made to the pilot plant reactors to produce the smaller diameter fiber. This change in the intrinsic properties of the fiber caused the production capacity to be cut to a

  20. Pyrolysis as a way to close a CFRC life cycle: Carbon fibers recovery and their use as feedstock for a new composite production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Loris; Benelli, Tiziana; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Leonardi, Chiara; Zattini, Giorgio; Minak, Giangiacomo; Dolcini, Enrico; Tosi, Cristian; Montanari, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Pyrolysis is shown to be an efficient method for recycling carbon fiber composites in the form of both uncured prepregs scraps or as cured end-of-life objects. The pyrolytic process leads to different products in three physical states of matter. The gaseous fraction, called syngas, can be used as energy feedstock in the process itself. The oil fraction can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock. The solid residue contains substantially unharmed carbon fibers that can be isolated and recovered for the production of new composite materials, thus closing the life cycle of the composite in a "cradle to cradle" approach. All the pyrolysis outputs were thoroughly analyzed and characterized in terms of composition for oil and gas fraction and surface characteristics of the fibers. In particular, it is of paramount importance to correlate the aspect and properties of the fibers obtained with different composite feedstock and operational conditions, that can be significantly different, with the reinforcing performance in the newly produced Recycled Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers. Present results have been obtained on a pyrolysis pilot plant that offers the possibility of treating up to 70kg of materials, thus leading to a significant amount of products to be tested in the further composites production, focused mainly on chopped carbon fiber reinforcement.

  1. Cycloolefin effect in cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soon; Seo, Dong Chul; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Sang Wok; Kim, Sang Jin; Shin, Dae Hyeon; Shin, Jin Bong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2008-11-01

    One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low transmittance in COMA type copolymer most researchers were interested in developing of (meth)acryl type copolymer again for ArF photoresist. On the other hand, we have studied various polymer platforms suitable ArF photoresist except for meth(acryl) type copolymer. As a result of this study we had developed ROMA type polymers and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymers. Among the polymers cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer has many attractions such as etch roughness, resist reflow which needs low glass transition temperature and solvent solubility. In this study, we intend to find out cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer characteristics compared with (meth)acryl copolymer. And, we have tried to find out any differences between acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate type copolymer with various evaluation results. As a result of this study we are going to talk about the reason that the resist using acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer show good pattern profile while acrylate type copolymer show poor pattern profile. We also intend to explain the role of cycloolefin as a function of molecular weight variation and substitution ratio variation of cycloolefin in cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate resin.One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low

  2. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  3. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  4. Screening of Catalyst and Important Variable for The Esterification of Acrylic Acid with 2 Ethylhexanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Chin, S. Y.

    2017-06-01

    The global demand of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2EHA) market has witnessed a significant growth in the past few years and this growth is anticipated to increase in the coming years. 2EHA is one of the basic organic building blocks that mainly used in the production of coatings, adhesives, superabsorbents, thickeners and plastic additives. Homogenous acid-catalysed esterification of acrylic acid (AA) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) is commonly used for the production of 2EHA. The homogeneous catalysts such as sulfuric and para-toluene sulfonic acid have resulted the costly and complicated downstream process that generates acidic, corrosive and non-environmental friendly waste. Therefore, it is importance to develop a cheaper process that employing heterogeneous catalysts and alternative raw material from wastewater containing acrylic acid. In this research, the study for the esterification of AA with 2EH catalysed by ion-exchange resin was conducted. The best sulfonic acid functional cation-exchange resin among SK104, SK1B, PK208, PK216, PK228, RCP145, and RCP160 was screened. PK208 outperformed the other resins and it was used subsequently in the parametric studies. The effect of important parameters (initial concentration of acrylic acid (AA), temperature, molar ratio of reactant (AA and 2EH), catalyst loading, and polymerisation inhibitor loading) was studied using 2 factorial design to determine the significant parameters to the esterification. It was found that the initial concentration of AA and temperature were most significantly affecting the esterification of AA with 2EH.

  5. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  6. Acrylic emulsion binder for tape casting

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.; Ibbitson, S.A.; Donato, A.T.

    1996-06-01

    A crosslinkable acrylic emulsion binder has been demonstrated to significantly increase tensile strength of green tapes. A low Tg acrylic emulsion binder is blended with the crosslinkable binder to retain flexibility and elasticity of green tapes. The tensile strength of green tapes can be increased from 1.19 MPa to 2.34 MPa by incorporating a crosslinkable binder into the formulation while the tapes remain flexible and elastic with {approximately}15% strain at break. Upon stretching, the green tapes do not yield before breaking. Increasing the drying temperature appears to slightly increase the tensile strength of the green tapes, and has a marginal effect on the strain at break of the tapes. This binder system does not liberate formaldehyde as a result of crosslinking.

  7. In-fiber production of polymeric particles for biosensing and encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joshua J.; Ottman, Richard; Tao, Guangming; Shabahang, Soroush; Banaei, Esmaeil-Hooman; Liang, Xiangdong; Johnson, Steven G.; Fink, Yoel; Chakrabarti, Ratna; Abouraddy, Ayman F.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric micro- and nanoparticles are becoming a mainstay in biomedicine, medical diagnostics, and therapeutics, where they are used in implementing sensing mechanisms, as imaging contrast agents, and in drug delivery. Current approaches to the fabrication of such particles are typically finely tuned to specific monomer or polymer species, size ranges, and structures. We present a general scalable methodology for fabricating uniformly sized spherical polymeric particles from a wide range of polymers produced with complex internal architectures and continuously tunable diameters extending from the millimeter scale down to 50 nm. Controllable access to such a wide range of sizes enables broad applications in cancer treatment, immunology, and vaccines. Our approach harnesses thermally induced, predictable fluid instabilities in composite core/cladding polymer fibers drawn from a macroscopic scaled-up model called a “preform.” Through a stack-and-draw process, we produce fibers containing a multiplicity of identical cylindrical cores made of the polymers of choice embedded in a polymer cladding. The instability leads to the breakup of the initially intact cores, independent of the polymer chemistry, into necklaces of spherical particles held in isolation within the cladding matrix along the entire fiber length. We demonstrate here surface functionalization of the extracted particles for biodetection through specific protein–protein interactions, volumetric encapsulation of a biomaterial in spherical polymeric shells, and the combination of both surface and volumetric functionalities in the same particle. These particles used in distinct modalities may be produced from the desired biocompatible polymer by changing only the geometry of the macroscopic preform from which the fiber is drawn. PMID:24019468

  8. Multiple Internal Reflections in Acrylic Triangle Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Setiawan, D.; Purwanto, H.; Yunianto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental study of light propagation in acrylic triangle waveguides has been studied theoretically and experimentally aimed to obtain a light cone which can tunnel and bring the light to a certain place. Numerical aperture of light cones which have a length of 7 cm but different cross-section area have been measured using he-Ne laser (λ=632 nm) and the results were compared to those obtained theoretically and no significant different was observed.

  9. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  10. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Overview of advanced fiber optic sensor equipment for energy production applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, John W.; Lopushansky, Richard L.

    2004-12-01

    Over the last several years, fiber optic sensor technology has matured to the point that it is now ready for use in industrial applications. Fiber optic sensors have the potential for significant cost savings to the customer, primarily because installation is straightforward and maintenance is minimal. Substantial improvements in the performance of process control systems are a major benefit that has now been demonstrated and is now understood by many in the energy and petrochemical industries. This paper describes the basic principles and components that make up an industrial fiber optic sensing system, the results of an extensive characterization program performed on Fabry-Perot sensors configured to measure various parameters, the multiplexing approach for a multi-sensor system, data communications options, and potential applications of the technology within the industry. The results of a beta test program performed on a thirty-two channel temperature measurement system are reported also. The test program was conducted in an operating catalyst tube reactor to measure changes in the reactor temperature profile versus time.

  12. Fluorine End-Capped Optical Fibers for Photosensitizer Release and Singlet Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David; Ghosh, Goutam; Minnis, Mihaela; Greer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of a fiber optic technique for generating singlet oxygen and releasing the pheophorbide photosensitizer has been increased by the fluorination of the porous Vycor glass tip. Singlet oxygen emerges through the fiber tip with 669-nm light and oxygen, releasing the sensitizer molecules upon a [2 + 2] addition of singlet oxygen with the ethene spacer and scission of a dioxetane intermediate. Switching from a non-fluorinated to a fluorinated glass tip led to a clear reduction of the adsorbtive affinity of the departing sensitizer with improved release into homogeneous toluene solution and bovine tissue. But no difference was found in water since the sensitizer was insoluble. High surface coverage of the nonafluorohexylsilane enhanced the cleavage efficiency by 15% at the ethene site. The fluorosilane groups also caused crowding and seemed to reduce access of 1O2 to the ethene site, which attenuated the total quenching rate constant kT, although there was less wasted 1O2 (from surface physical quenching) at the fluorosilane-coated than the native SiOH silica. The observations support a quenching mechanism that the replacement of the SiOH groups for the fluorosilane C-H and C-F groups enhanced the 1O2 lifetime at the fiber tip interface due to less efficient electronic-to-vibronic energy transfer. PMID:22546013

  13. Modeling the free radical polymerization of acrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Hakan; Salman, Seyhan; Tüzün, Nurcan Şenyurt; Avci, Duygu; Aviyente, Viktorya

    Acrylates have gained importance because of their ease of conversion to high-molecular-weight polymers and their broad industrial use. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a well-known monomer for free radical polymerization, but its α-methyl substituent restricts the chemical modification of the monomer and therefore the properties of the resulting polymer. The presence of a heteroatom in the methyl group is known to increase the polymerizability of MMA. Methyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (MHMA), methyl α-methoxymethylacrylate (MC1MA), methyl α-acetoxymethylacrylate (MAcMA) show even better conversions to high-molecular-weight polymers than MMA. In contrast, the polymerization rate is known to decrease as the methyl group is replaced by ethyl in ethyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (EHMA) and t-butyl in t-butyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (TBHMA). In this study, quantum mechanical tools (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in order to understand the mechanistic behavior of the free radical polymerization reactions of acrylates. The polymerization rates of MMA, MHMA, MC1MA, MAcMA, EHMA, TBHMA, MC1AN (α-methoxymethyl acrylonitrile), and MC1AA (α-methoxymethyl acrylic acid) have been evaluated and rationalized. Simple monomers such as allyl alcohol (AA) and allyl chloride (AC) have also been modeled for comparative purposes.

  14. ICI/BASF PP for acrylics swap

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    ICI (London) and BASF (Ludwigshafen) have announced their long-awaited polypropylene (PP) for acrylics swap deal. ICI is buying BASF's European acrylic resin business, and the German firm will acquire ICI's European PP operations. The deal is due for completion by mid-1993, subject to regulatory approvals. BASF, hitherto a small-scale PP producer, doubles capacity to 600,000 m.t./year and moves up the European PP league to number three, behind Himont and Shell. BASF, whose process is used in the plants, secures a foothold in the UK PP market, where Shell - planning a merger with Himont - is the only other producer, with 170,000 m.t./year. ICI's purchase involves BASF's Resart GmbH and Critesa SA subsidiaries, located at Mainz, Germany and near Barcelona, Spain, respectively. The business - which will add about [Brit pounds]60 million ($93 million) to ICI Acrylics [Brit pounds]300-million revenues - employs 400 people, who will transfer to ICI.

  15. In-process 3D laser measurement to control the fiber tape-laying for composite production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Mersmann, Christoph; Damm, Björn

    2010-05-01

    Metrology is the key to an economically feasible production of fiber-reinforced composites in the field of automated tape laying, applying a novel laser light-section sensor system (LLSS) to measure process quality and feed back the results to close control loops of the production system. The developed method derives 3D measurements from height profiles through an in-process surface scan by the integrated LLSS. Gaps, overlaps, misalignment and defects of the composite tapes are detected during their lay-up and consolidation by comparing the measurement results with a CAD/CAM model of the lay-up. The height profiles are processed with a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a set of sigmoid functions to ensure sub-pixel accuracy.

  16. Dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  17. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  18. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  19. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.

  20. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.