Science.gov

Sample records for acs favor comprehensive

  1. Comprehensive Analyses of Ventricular Myocyte Models Identify Targets Exhibiting Favorable Rate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bugana, Marco; Severi, Stefano; Sobie, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse rate dependence is a problematic property of antiarrhythmic drugs that prolong the cardiac action potential (AP). The prolongation caused by reverse rate dependent agents is greater at slow heart rates, resulting in both reduced arrhythmia suppression at fast rates and increased arrhythmia risk at slow rates. The opposite property, forward rate dependence, would theoretically overcome these parallel problems, yet forward rate dependent (FRD) antiarrhythmics remain elusive. Moreover, there is evidence that reverse rate dependence is an intrinsic property of perturbations to the AP. We have addressed the possibility of forward rate dependence by performing a comprehensive analysis of 13 ventricular myocyte models. By simulating populations of myocytes with varying properties and analyzing population results statistically, we simultaneously predicted the rate-dependent effects of changes in multiple model parameters. An average of 40 parameters were tested in each model, and effects on AP duration were assessed at slow (0.2 Hz) and fast (2 Hz) rates. The analysis identified a variety of FRD ionic current perturbations and generated specific predictions regarding their mechanisms. For instance, an increase in L-type calcium current is FRD when this is accompanied by indirect, rate-dependent changes in slow delayed rectifier potassium current. A comparison of predictions across models identified inward rectifier potassium current and the sodium-potassium pump as the two targets most likely to produce FRD AP prolongation. Finally, a statistical analysis of results from the 13 models demonstrated that models displaying minimal rate-dependent changes in AP shape have little capacity for FRD perturbations, whereas models with large shape changes have considerable FRD potential. This can explain differences between species and between ventricular cell types. Overall, this study provides new insights, both specific and general, into the determinants of AP duration

  2. Comprehensive review of high power factor ac-dc boost converters for PFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Castro Pereira, Dênis; Da Silva, Márcio Renato; Mateus Silva, Elder; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    High power factor rectifiers have been consolidated as an effective solution to improve power quality indices in terms of input power factor correction, reduction in the total harmonic distortion of the input current and also regulated dc voltages. Within this context, this subject has motivated the introduction of numerous converter topologies based on classic dc-dc structures associated with novel control techniques, thus leading to the manufacturing of dedicated integrated circuits that allow high input power factor by adding a front-end stage to switch-mode converters. In particular, boost converters in continuous current mode (CCM) are widely employed since they allow obtaining minimised electromagnetic interference levels. This work is concerned with a literature review involving relevant ac-dc single-phase boost-based topologies with high input power factor. The evolution of aspects regarding the conventional boost converter is shown in terms of improved characteristics inherent to other ac-dc boost converters. Additionally, the work intends to be a fast and concise reference to single-phase ac-dc boost converters operating in CCM for engineers, researchers and experts in the field of power electronics by properly analysing and comparing the aforementioned rectifiers.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Human Cells Motion under an Irrotational AC Electric Field in an Electro-Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kermarrec, Frédérique; Gidrol, Xavier; Peyrade, David

    2014-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a versatile tool for contact-less manipulation or characterization of cells and has been widely used for separation based on genotype translation to electrical phenotypes. Cells responses to an AC electric field result in a complex combination of electrokinetic phenomena, mainly dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamic forces. Human cells behaviors to AC electrokinetics remain unclear over a large frequency spectrum as illustrated by the self-rotation effect observed recently. We here report and analyze human cells behaviors in different conditions of medium conductivity, electric field frequency and magnitude. We also observe the self-rotation of human cells, in the absence of a rotational electric field. Based on an analytical competitive model of electrokinetic forces, we propose an explanation of the cell self-rotation. These experimental results, coupled with our model, lead to the exploitation of the cell behaviors to measure the intrinsic dielectric properties of JURKAT, HEK and PC3 human cell lines. PMID:24736275

  4. Comprehensibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This paper addresses the difficulty involved in creating easily understood information. The act of communicating is not complete until the message has been both received and understood by the audience. Messages must always be comprehensible, otherwise they will have no effect. The readability, legibility, and reading value of a graphic message is…

  5. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Bt Cotton on Coleomegilla maculata Demonstrates No Detrimental Effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Wang, Ping; Peng, Yufa; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms. PMID

  6. No identifiable Hb1Ac or lifestyle change after a comprehensive diabetes programme including motivational interviewing: A cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study the effectiveness of a comprehensive diabetes programme in general practice that integrates patient-centred lifestyle counselling into structured diabetes care. Design and setting Cluster randomised trial in general practices. Intervention Nurse-led structured diabetes care with a protocol, record keeping, reminders, and feedback, plus training in motivational interviewing and agenda setting. Subjects Primary care nurses in 58 general practices and their 940 type 2 diabetes patients with an HbA1c concentration above 7%, and a body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2. Main outcome measures HbA1c, diet, and physical activity (medical records and patient questionnaires). Results Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for baseline outcomes showed that despite active nurse participation in the intervention, the comprehensive programme was no more effective than usual care after 14 months, as shown by HbA1c levels (difference between groups = 0.13; CI 20.8–0.35) and diet (fat (difference between groups = 0.19; CI 20.82–1.21); vegetables (difference between groups = 0.10; CI-0.21–0.41); fruit (difference between groups = 20.02; CI 20.26–0.22)), and physical activity (difference between groups = 21.15; CI 212.26–9.97), or any of the other measures of clinical parameters, patient's readiness to change, or quality of life. Conclusion A comprehensive programme that integrated lifestyle counselling based on motivational interviewing principles integrated into structured diabetes care did not alter HbA1c or the lifestyle related to diet and physical activity. We thus question the impact of motivational interviewing in terms of its ability to improve routine diabetes care in general practice. PMID:23659710

  7. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle’ adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  8. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized.

  9. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  10. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 6 (AC6) Expression Persist Using a Catalytically Inactive AC6 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tong; Lai, Ngai Chin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Guo, Tracy; Tang, Rouying; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.; Hammond, H. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac-directed expression of AC6 has pronounced favorable effects on cardiac function possibly not linked with cAMP production. To determine rigorously whether cAMP generation is required for the beneficial effects of increased AC6 expression, we generated a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant (AC6mut) that has markedly diminished cAMP generating capacity by replacing aspartic acid with alanine at position 426 in the C1 domain (catalytic region) of AC6. Gene transfer of AC6 or AC6mut (adenovirus-mediated) in adult rat cardiac myocytes resulted in similar expression levels and intracellular distribution, but AC6mut expression was associated with marked reduction in cAMP production. Despite marked reduction in cAMP generation, AC6mut influenced intracellular signaling events similarly to that observed after expression of catalytically intact AC6. For example, both AC6 and AC6mut reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis (p < 0.001), expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (p < 0.01), and phospholamban (p < 0.05). AC6mut expression, similar to its catalytically intact cohort, was associated with increased Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes after isoproterenol stimulation. Many of the biological effects of AC6 expression are replicated by a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant, indicating that the mechanisms for these effects do not require increased cAMP generation. PMID:21127130

  12. GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Terry L; Williams, Paul T; Yin, Shengjun; Klasky, Hilda B; Tadinada, Sashi; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the objective of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface project is to create the capability to apply GRIZZLY 3-D finite element (thermal and stress) analysis results as input to FAVOR probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses. The one benefit of FAVOR to Grizzly is the PROBABILISTIC capability. This document describes the implementation of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface, the preliminary verification and tests results and a user guide that provides detailed step-by-step instructions to run the program.

  13. Small-Signal ac Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, James M.; Chen, Jess

    1987-01-01

    Program simulates power circuits and systems. Small Signal A.C. Analysis program (SSAC) valuable tool for design and analysis of electrical-power-system circuits. By combining "black box" power-system components operating in specified manner, user characterizes system modeled. Menu-driven program proved simple and cost effective in development and modification of arbitrary power-system configurations. Package includes sample data from Dynamic Explorer satellite family. Results compared favorable to calculations from such general circuit-analysis programs as SPICE. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. New Study Says CAI May Favor Introverts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmeier, George

    1981-01-01

    A personality research study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates that computer-assisted instruction programs favor introverts, i.e., those learners who can concentrate on details, memorize facts, and stay with a task until it is completed. (JJD)

  15. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  16. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  17. Design and synthesis of 225Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Michael R; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R Keith; Scheinberg, David A

    2002-12-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides 213Bi, 211At, 224Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. 213Bi and 211At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated 224Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. 225Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential 225Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach 225Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93+/-8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded 225Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95+/-5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted 225Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans.

  18. Evidence from Biochemical Pathways in Favor of Unfinished Evolution Rather than Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Edward J.; Marzluf, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An argument is made in favor of imperfect or unfinished evolution based on some metabolic pathways in which it seems that intelligent design would have done better. The case studies noted indicate the absence of highly intelligent design and are not intended as comprehensive collection but as a limited sample of inefficient situations in…

  19. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  20. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  1. Children's need for favorable acoustics in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy B.

    2003-10-01

    Children continue to improve their understanding of speech in noise and reverberation throughout childhood and adolescence. They do not typically achieve adult performance levels until their late teenage years. As a result, schools that are designed to be acoustically adequate for adult understanding may be insufficient for full understanding by young children. In addition, children with hearing loss, those with attention problems, and those learning in a non-native language require even more favorable signal-to-noise ratios. This tutorial will review the literature gathered by the ANSl/ASA working group on classroom acoustics that shaped the recommendations of the working group. Special topics will include speech perception data from typically developing infants and children, from children with hearing loss, and from adults and children listening in a non-native language. In addition, the tutorial will overview recommendations contained within ANSI standard 12.60-2002: Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools. The discussion will also include issues related to designing quiet classrooms and working with local schools and professionals.

  2. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  3. Tevatron AC dipole system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  4. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  5. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  6. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  7. Comprehensive Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Larger Text Print In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis ( ... Your Whole Health, Your Whole Team: Managing Your Complex MS Symptoms Webinar/telelearning presented by Roz Kalb, ...

  8. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  9. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, P; Belzile, F; Page, T; Dean, C

    1997-05-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity.

  10. On Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter

    Attempts have been made to develop a model of the process of reading comprehension as a whole that would indicate under what conditions and for what reasons a long sentence might be more effective than several short ones, when repetition is helpful and when distracting, when content is better left implicit in a text, and how overexplicitness might…

  11. Favorable and Unfavorable Book Reviews: A Quantitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Robert J.; Spornick, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    A periodical database was searched to investigate the occurrence of favorable and unfavorable book reviews to determine the role of reviews in library selection. Compares book reviews with other types of reviews, examines relationships between review evaluations and other review characteristics, and compares the number of favorable and unfavorable…

  12. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    favorable as the product matures and is made in high volumes. GreenRay's early customers have been highly enthusiastic about the AC Module system benefits.

  13. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

  14. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  15. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  16. Identification of /sup 233/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1983-09-01

    We report in this paper identification of the new isotope /sup 233/Ac. Uranium targets were irradiated with 28 GeV protons; after rapid retrieval of the target and separation of actinium from thorium, /sup 233/Ac was allowed to decay into the known /sup 233/Th daughter. Exhaustive chemical purification was employed to permit the identification of /sup 233/Th via its characteristic ..gamma.. radiations. The half-life derived for /sup 233/Ac from several experiments is 2.3 +- 0.3 min. The production cross section for /sup 233/Ac is 100 ..mu..b.

  17. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  18. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  19. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  20. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  1. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... of value under circumstances which arise from an obvious family or personal relationship(s) (such...

  2. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... advertising or promotional materials, such as pens, pencils, note pads, calendars and other items of...

  3. Thioesterification of 2-arylpropionic acids by recombinant acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACS1 and ACS2).

    PubMed

    Sevoz, C; Benoit, E; Buronfosse, T

    2000-04-01

    2-Arylpropionic acids are a class of frequently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exhibiting a potent inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms supported by the (+)S-enantiomer alone. Nevertheless, some of these compounds in the (-)R configuration may undergo extensive inversion of configuration to their antipode. The key molecular basis for this mechanism invokes the stereoselective formation of the coenzyme A (CoA) thioester of the 2-arylpropionic acid by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs). In this report, rat recombinant ACS1 and ACS2 enzymes, constitutively highly expressed in adult rat liver and brain, respectively, have been overproduced in Escherichia coli strains and purified to homogeneity to investigate the involvement of these enzymes in the thioesterification of fenoprofen and ibuprofen. Recombinant ACS1 efficiently catalyzed both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with Michaelis-Menten parameters of K(M) = 1686 +/- 93 microM, V(max) = 353 +/- 45 nmol/min/mg protein for (-)R-ibuprofen and K(M) = 103 +/- 12 microM, V(max) = 267 +/- 10 nmol/min/mg protein for (-)R-fenoprofen, and exhibited a marked stereoselectivity in favor of the (-)R-enantiomer. Recombinant ACS2, a closely related sequence with ACS1, exhibited a lower enzymatic efficacy from 7- to 130-fold for (-)R-ibuprofen and (-)R-fenoprofen, respectively. On the basis of these findings and considering the level of tissue expression of the different long-chain ACSs, ACS1 appears to be the major enzyme involved in the first step of the chiral inversion of 2-arylpropionic acids. Nevertheless, the participation of other ACS isoforms of minor quantitative importance could not be excluded in the thioesterification of xenobiotics.

  4. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  5. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  6. Conservatism in least favorable response analysis and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T L

    1980-01-01

    In order to assure that mechanical structures can meet design requirements it is desirable to test a structure using an input which is conservative but not a severe overtest. One method available for the specification of shock tests is the method of least favorable response. This method can be used analytically or in the laboratory and is guaranteed to provide tests which are conservative, at least in one sense. When the impulse response function, or equivalently the frequency response function, is available between a point of interest on a structure and the input point of the structure, and when we know the real function which envelops the modulus of the Fourier transform of all possible inputs which might excite the structure, then the method of least favorable response can be used to find an upper bound on the response which the point of interest on the structure can realize. We use this in the analysis of structural peak response. In the laboratory the least favorable response is generated experimentally, for example, by testing the structural unit on a shake table. If the structure survives the laboratory test, then we assume that it could survive any input in the class of inputs whose Fourier transform moduli are enveloped by the function used in the analysis. The objective of this study was to analyze the inherent conservatism of the method of least favorable response. A technique that can be used to do this is demonstrated. First, the method of least favorable response is reviewed and how it is used analytically and experimentally is demonstrated. Next the technique used to measure the conservatism in a least favorable response test is developed. Finally, the method is applied in some numerical examples where the degree of conservatism in the tests of some specific structures is measured. (LCL)

  7. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.519 Gifts, entertainment and favors. (a) Acceptance of gratuities... individuals with whom Commission employees do business. This prohibition extends to the acceptance of meals... reservation, or similar social activity when circumstances would make it rude for the employee to refuse....

  8. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.519 Gifts, entertainment and favors. (a) Acceptance of gratuities... individuals with whom Commission employees do business. This prohibition extends to the acceptance of meals... reservation, or similar social activity when circumstances would make it rude for the employee to refuse....

  9. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment and favors. 700.519 Section 700.519 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES... reservation, or similar social activity when circumstances would make it rude for the employee to refuse....

  10. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment and favors. 700.519 Section 700.519 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES... reservation, or similar social activity when circumstances would make it rude for the employee to refuse....

  11. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment and favors. 700.519 Section 700.519 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES... reservation, or similar social activity when circumstances would make it rude for the employee to refuse....

  12. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.202 Section 706.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202...

  13. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.202 Section 706.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202...

  14. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.303 Section 706.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees §...

  15. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.303 Section 706.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees §...

  16. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., particularly one with whom the employee has family, business, or financial ties. ... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR..., shall not receive or solicit from a person having business with the Commission anything of value such...

  17. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of value under circumstances which arise from an obvious family or personal relationship(s) (such as between the parents, children, or spouse of the employee and the employee), when the circumstances make it..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to...

  18. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  19. Filtering the Net in Libraries: The Case (Mostly) in Favor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues and decision-making involved in restricting Internet access in libraries, for the most part favoring filtering devices. Questions to consider when selecting a filtering program are provided. Some of the better filtering programs are described, and Web addresses are included for each. Security risks associated with Java and…

  20. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  1. DESIGN OF AN AC-DIPOLE FOR USE IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER,B.; BAI,M.; JAIN,A.; MCINTYRE,G.; METH,M.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    1999-03-29

    We present two options for implementing a pair of AC-dipoles in RHIC for spin flipping, measuring linear optical functions and nonlinear diagnostics. AC-dipoles are magnets that can be adiabatically excited and de-excited with a continuous sine-wave in order to coherently move circulating beam out to large betatron amplitudes without incurring emittance blow up [1]. The AGS already uses a similar device for getting polarized proton beams through depolarizing resonances [2]. By placing the magnets in the IP4 common beam region, two AC-dipoles are sufficient to excite both horizontal and vertical motion in both RHIC rings. While we initially investigated an iron-dominated magnet design using available steel tape cores; we now favor a new air coil plus ferrite design featuring mechanical frequency tuning, in order to best match available resources to demanding frequency sweeping requirements. Both magnet designs are presented here along with model magnet test results. The challenge is to make AC-dipoles available for year 2000 RHIC running.

  2. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  3. Multimodality therapy of favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Corder, M.P.; Leimert, J.T.; Tewfik, H.H.; Lovett, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-seven previously untreated patients with favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of total body irradiation followed by cyclophosphamide - vincristine - prednisone (CVP). The dose of total body irradiation was planned to be 150 rad followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 59%; the complete plus partial response rate, 93%. The 50% disease-free survival was 8 months. The actuarial projected 5 year survival was 60% and the disease-free survival at 5 years was 27%. The program was well tolerated by the majority of patients. It is possible for some patients with favorable non-Hodgkin's lymphomas to achieve prolonged periods of disesase-free survival when treated with combinations of irradiation plus chemotherapy.

  4. Factorization Tests with Cabibbo-Favored Hadronic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, Richard; Honscheid, K.; Pedlar, T.; von Toerne, E.; Wilksen, T.

    2002-04-01

    Based on a data sample of 9.7 million Υ(4s)arrow B barB decays recorded with CLEO II and II.V we present new measurements of cabibbo-favored, hadronic B meson decays. Precise measurements of these decays provide tests of the factorization hypothesis and allow us to examine the theoretical models which are used to constrain the unitarity triangle. Isospin relations in B arrow D(*) π decays permit the investigation of final state interactions.

  5. Favorable results with syringosubarachnoid shunts for treatment of syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Tator, C H; Meguro, K; Rowed, D W

    1982-04-01

    From 1969 to 1979, 20 patients with syringomyelia were treated with a syringosubarachnoid shunt. The principal indications for this procedure were: significant progressive neurological deterioration and absent or minimal tonsillar ectopia. There were 15 patients with idiopathic syringomyelia, four with posttraumatic syringomyelia, and one with syringomyelia secondary to spinal arachnoiditis. The operations were performed with an operating microscope, and attention was directed to preserving thearachnoid membrane to ensure proper placement of the distal end of the shunt in an intact subarachnoid space. In all cases, a silicone rubber ventricular catheter was inserted into the syrinx through a posterior midline myelotomy. The average follow-up period was 5 years. A favorable result was obtained in 15 of the 20 patients (75%), including an excellent result with improvement of neurological deficit in 11 patients and a good result with cessation of progression in four patients. In the remaining five patients the result was poor with further progression of neurological deficit. A short duration of preoperative symptoms was usually a favorable prognostic feature. Four patients with a history of less than 6 months all had excellent results. Thirteen patients had a syringosubarachnoid shunt only, and all had good or excellent results. Seven patients had other surgical procedures, before, accompanying, or after shunt placement, and two had favorable results. Thus, the syringosubarachnoid shunt is an effective therapeutic modality for many patients with syringomyelia, particularly if there is little or no tonsillar herniation.

  6. Authentic Leadership for Teacher's Academic Optimism: Moderating Effect of Training Comprehensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Anugamini Priya; Dhar, Rajib Lochan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyse the impact of authentic leadership (AL) on academic optimism (AO) through the mediating role of affective commitment (AC). As this study also examines the moderating role of training comprehensiveness (TC) in strengthening the relation between AC and AO. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from…

  7. Nanoscale zero-valent iron/AC as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts in three-dimensional electrode system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xinmin; Jiang, Yonghai; Zhou, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron/activated carbon (NZVI/AC) was investigated as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in three-dimensional (3D) electrode system for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Some important operating parameters such as cathodic potential, pH, and O₂ flow rate were investigated, exhibiting good decolorization. The mineralization of MO was significantly improved by 20-35% compared to two-dimensional (2D) AC system at the optimum conditions. Although the TOC removal of AC was higher than NZVI/AC due to its good adsorption capacity initially, heterogeneous Fenton catalysis played a more and more important roles in the following test. After eight runs, NZVI/AC still exhibited excellent catalytic properties with low iron leaching. Further, a relatively comprehensive mechanism of NZVI/AC as particle electrodes in 3D system was proposed.

  8. The ac53, ac78, ac101, and ac103 Genes Are Newly Discovered Core Genes in the Family Baculoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Miele, Solange Ana Belén; Iserte, Javier Alonso; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae is a large group of insect viruses containing circular double-stranded DNA genomes of 80 to 180 kbp, which have broad biotechnological applications. A key feature to understand and manipulate them is the recognition of orthology. However, the differences in gene contents and evolutionary distances among the known members of this family make it difficult to assign sequence orthology. In this study, the genome sequences of 58 baculoviruses were analyzed, with the aim to detect previously undescribed core genes because of their remote homology. A routine based on Multi PSI-Blast/tBlastN and Multi HaMStR allowed us to detect 31 of 33 accepted core genes and 4 orthologous sequences in the Baculoviridae which were not described previously. Our results show that the ac53, ac78, ac101 (p40), and ac103 (p48) genes have orthologs in all genomes and should be considered core genes. Accordingly, there are 37 orthologous genes in the family Baculoviridae. PMID:22933288

  9. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  10. Registered report: Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fiering, Steven; Ang, Lay-Hong; Lacoste, Judith; Smith, Tim D; Griner, Erin; Iorns, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replicating selected results from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012 were selected on the basis of citations and Altimetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis’ by Goetz and colleagues, published in Cell in 2011 (Goetz et al., 2011). The key experiments being replicated are those reported in Figures 7C (a-d), Supplemental Figure S2A, and Supplemental Figure S7C (a-c) (Goetz et al., 2011). In these experiments, which are a subset of all the experiments reported in the original publication, Goetz and colleagues show in a subcutaneous xenograft model that stromal caveolin-1 remodels the intratumoral microenvironment, which is correlated with increased metastasis formation. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04796.001 PMID:26179155

  11. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, MARY; MCWILLIAMS, J. MICHAEL; HSU, JOHN; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans. PMID:26389127

  12. Comprehensibility maximization and humanly comprehensible representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new information-theoretic method to measure the comprehensibility of network configurations in competitive learning. Comprehensibility is supposed to be measured by information contained in components in competitive networks. Thus, the increase in information corresponds to the increase in comprehensibility of network configurations. One of the most important characteristics of the method is that parameters can be explicitly determined so as to produce a state where the different types of comprehensibility can be mutually increased. We applied the method to two problems, namely an artificial data set and the ionosphere data from the well-known machine learning database. In both problems, we showed that improved performance could be obtained in terms of all types of comprehensibility and quantization errors. For the topographic errors, we found that updating connection weights prevented them from increasing. Then, the optimal values of comprehensibility could be explicitly determined, and clearer class boundaries were generated.

  13. ACS Expands Role In High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes some of the services and programs of special interests to high school chemistry teachers that are being provided by ACS, and meant to make ACS membership more attractive to the teachers. (GA)

  14. New opioid prescribing guidelines favor non-opioid alternatives.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Determined to make a dent in the growing problem of opioid addiction, the CDC has unveiled new guidelines for opioid prescribing for chronic pain. The recommendations urge providers to be more judicious in their prescribing, opting for opioids only after carefully weighing substantial risks and benefits. Public health authorities note the rampant use and misuse of opioids have "blurred the lines" between prescription opioids and illicit opioids. The new guidelines are designed to help frontline providers balance the need to manage their patients' chronic pain with the duty to curb dangerous prescribing practices. The recommendations are built around three principles: favor non-opioid alternatives for most cases of chronic pain, use the lowest effective dose when prescribing opioids, and exercise caution/monitor patients who are treated with opioids. PMID:27266000

  15. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips.

    PubMed

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard-Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity-based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co-occur with genetically variable asexual lineages. PMID:27346066

  16. White House Budget Proposal Favorable Overall for Federal Science Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed federal budget of 3.8 trillion for fiscal year (FY) 2013, released on 13 February, provides an overall favorable funding picture for federal science agencies in a tight economic environment. However, there are also a number of proposed decreases, including a sharp cut to NASA's Planetary Science account. Overall, the budget proposal includes 140.8 billion for the federal investment in research and development, a 1.4% increase above the FY 2012 enacted level. Funding for federal basic and applied research would be 64 billion, 3.3% above FY 2012 enacted levels. Funding for defense research and development (R&D) would decrease to 75.9 billion, a drop of 1.5%; nondefense R&D would increase 5% to $64.9 billion.

  17. Reticulate evolution is favored in influenza niche switching.

    PubMed

    Ma, Eric J; Hill, Nichola J; Zabilansky, Justin; Yuan, Kyle; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-05-10

    Reticulate evolution is thought to accelerate the process of evolution beyond simple genetic drift and selection, helping to rapidly generate novel hybrids with combinations of adaptive traits. However, the long-standing dogma that reticulate evolutionary processes are likewise advantageous for switching ecological niches, as in microbial pathogen host switch events, has not been explicitly tested. We use data from the influenza genome sequencing project and a phylogenetic heuristic approach to show that reassortment, a reticulate evolutionary mechanism, predominates over mutational drift in transmission between different host species. Moreover, as host evolutionary distance increases, reassortment is increasingly favored. We conclude that the greater the quantitative difference between ecological niches, the greater the importance of reticulate evolutionary processes in overcoming niche barriers. PMID:27114508

  18. On Favorable Thermal Fields for Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analyses [14] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  19. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips.

    PubMed

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard-Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity-based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co-occur with genetically variable asexual lineages.

  20. Favorable Geochemistry from Springs and Wells in COlorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno Nevada Originator: United States Geological Survey (USGS) Originator: Colorado Geological Survey Publication Date: 2012 Title: Favorable Geochemistry Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer contains favorable geochemistry for high-temperature geothermal systems, as interpreted by Richard "Rick" Zehner. The data is compiled from the data obtained from the USGS. The original data set combines 15,622 samples collected in the State of Colorado from several sources including 1) the original Geotherm geochemical database, 2) USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), 3) Colorado Geological Survey geothermal sample data, and 4) original samples collected by R. Zehner at various sites during the 2011 field season. These samples are also available in a separate shapefile FlintWaterSamples.shp. Data from all samples were reportedly collected using standard water sampling protocols (filtering through 0.45 micron filter, etc.) Sample information was standardized to ppm (micrograms/liter) in spreadsheet columns. Commonly-used cation and silica geothermometer temperature estimates are included. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4515595.841032 m Left: 149699.513964 m Right: 757959.309388 m Bottom: 4104156.435530 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  1. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  2. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  3. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  4. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  5. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion.

  6. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.

  7. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  8. Ecological Conditions Favoring Budding in Colonial Organisms under Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Takada, Takenori; Ohtsuki, Akiko; Suzuki, Sayaki U.; Miura, Kanan; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs), or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (super)organisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms. PMID:24621824

  9. Results of Orionid observations with the FAVOR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashova, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    The results of single-station TV observations of the Orionids for the period from 2006 to 2008 are presented. The high-sensitive TV camera FAVOR (FAst Variability Optical Registrator) was used for observations of meteors up to magnitude +8.5. In total, 3713 single-station meteors were obtained, 449 of which were associated with the Orionid meteor shower. The distribution of the influx rate to the Earth (IMA or Index of Meteor Activity) of the Orionids for the period from 2006 to 2008 is given. In 2006, the peak of activity of the Orionids was reached on 20 October, and the IMA at that moment was 135 × 10000 (particles to the Earth per hour). In 2007 and 2008, the IMA during maximum activity (October 20-21) was 4-6 × 10000. The magnitude distributions of the Orionids for the period from 2006 to 2008 are presented and discussed. Most Orionids caught have magnitudes between +5.0 and +7.0.

  10. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed. PMID:26561887

  11. Unemployment and mental health in a favorable labor market.

    PubMed

    Houssemand, Claude; Meyers, Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Labour market variables may moderate the link between unemployment and mental health, as has been found in numerous research papers. The aim of this study was to test, in the context of a very favorable labor market, (1) the detrimental effect of unemployment on mental health and (2) the predictive validity of mental health on further employment status. The population of the study comprised 384 newly registered unemployed persons. Mental health was assessed through four variables: self-esteem, psychological distress, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. The results did not confirm previous studies. Using analyses of variance for repeated measures and linear regression, a negative change of mental health was not found after 6 and 12 months' unemployment, and the four measurements of mental health at registration did not predict employment status 6 and 12 months later. Results are discussed in terms of moderating variables that capture Luxembourg labor market specificities. This research was supported by the Luxembourg National Research Fund in the framework of the VIVRE Program; grant no. FNR/02/05/07. We would like to thank Mary Devine for the linguistic revision of the text.

  12. Favorable Outcome of Juvenile Dermatomyositis Treated Without Systemic Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Deborah M.; Bingham, C. April; Kahn, Philip J.; Eichenfield, Andrew H.; Imundo, Lisa F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the course of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) treated effectively without systemic corticosteroids. Study design A retrospective study of 38 patients with JDM treated at a tertiary care children’s hospital identified 8 patients who had never received corticosteroids. Disease presentation and course, pharmacologic and ancillary treatments were recorded. Results Patients in the no corticosteroid group were followed for a median of 2.8 years (range 2.1 – 9.5 years). Treatment was primarily with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (75%) and methotrexate (MTX) (50%), with favorable response in all. No serious treatment complications were observed; headaches were reported by 3 patients receiving IVIG. Two patients had a myositis flare after discontinuing all medications for more than one year; complete resolution of symptoms was observed after either 1 or 2 further doses of IVIG. Two patients developed calcinosis (at 1 and 9 years of disease); however, no patient developed joint contractures, muscle atrophy, lipodystrophy, or functional limitations. Conclusion Systemic corticosteroids can be avoided in a select group of patients with JDM. Alternative agents such as MTX and IVIG may be prescribed to effectively treat JDM and prevent complications. PMID:19846111

  13. Coevolution of robustness, epistasis, and recombination favors asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Thomas; Bergman, Aviv

    2007-07-31

    The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains one of the most perplexing phenomena in evolutionary biology. The deterministic mutation hypothesis postulates that sexual reproduction will be advantageous under synergistic epistasis, a condition in which mutations cause a greater reduction in fitness when combined than would be expected from their individual effects. The inverse condition, antagonistic epistasis, correspondingly is predicted to favor asexual reproduction. To assess this hypothesis, we introduce a finite population evolutionary process that combines a recombination modifier formalism with a gene-regulatory network model. We demonstrate that when reproductive mode and epistasis are allowed to coevolve, asexual reproduction outcompetes sexual reproduction. In addition, no correlation is found between the level of synergistic epistasis and the fixation time of the asexual mode. However, a significant correlation is found between the level of antagonistic epistasis and asexual mode fixation time. This asymmetry can be explained by the greater reduction in fitness imposed by sexual reproduction as compared with asexual reproduction. Our findings present evidence and suggest plausible explanations that challenge both the deterministic mutation hypothesis and recent arguments asserting the importance of emergent synergistic epistasis in the maintenance of sexual reproduction.

  14. Verifying a comprehensive test ban

    SciTech Connect

    van der Vink, G.E.

    1990-11-01

    Verification can never be accomplished with 100% certainty. Decisions about verification therefore involve judgments about acceptable levels of risk. Such judgments, in turn, can only be made by weighing the potential costs of undetected cheating against the expected benefits of a proposed treaty. Given the recent changes in the international political climate and shifts in the focus of US security concerns, the scale that balances these arguments may now be tipping in favor of a comprehensive test ban (CTB). In this new security environment, the potential advantages cited by CTB advocates - strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime, limiting the development of destabilizing new weapons, stopping the remaining environmental hazards of underground testing, and providing a first step toward nuclear disarmament - appear ever more important. Meanwhile, the disadvantages critics warn of - the uncertainties of verification, the need for testing to develop new weapons, and the alleged difficulties of maintaining high weapons reliability without testing - seem less compelling.

  15. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX homeodomain mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    We report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations.

  16. Comprehension of Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosberg, Ludwig; Shima, Fred

    A rationale was developed for researching reading comprehension based on information gain. Previous definitions of comprehension which were reviewed included operational vs. nonoperational and skills vs. processes. Comprehension was viewed as an informational processing event which includes a constellation of cognitive and learning processes. Two…

  17. Comprehension for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Teaching and learning about comprehension is of paramount importance, from the beginning of reading instruction right through all years of school, in all curriculum areas. Research has shown that comprehension instruction can improve the reading comprehension of all readers, even beginning readers and struggling older readers. This article offers…

  18. Teaching Comprehension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Association of School Superintendents.

    Materials used in a one-day conference on teaching reading comprehension skills are summarized in this publication. Contents consist of three articles on teaching the comprehension skills, informal reading inventories in science and in geography, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address with comprehension questions, a checklist for the evaluation of teaching…

  19. Mechanical Heterogeneity Favors Fragmentation of Strained Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  20. Ground states of stealthy hyperuniform potentials: I. Entropically favored configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2015-08-01

    Systems of particles interacting with "stealthy" pair potentials have been shown to possess infinitely degenerate disordered hyperuniform classical ground states with novel physical properties. Previous attempts to sample the infinitely degenerate ground states used energy minimization techniques, introducing algorithmic dependence that is artificial in nature. Recently, an ensemble theory of stealthy hyperuniform ground states was formulated to predict the structure and thermodynamics that was shown to be in excellent agreement with corresponding computer simulation results in the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit). In this paper, we provide details and justifications of the simulation procedure, which involves performing molecular dynamics simulations at sufficiently low temperatures and minimizing the energy of the snapshots for both the high-density disordered regime, where the theory applies, as well as lower densities. We also use numerical simulations to extend our study to the lower-density regime. We report results for the pair correlation functions, structure factors, and Voronoi cell statistics. In the high-density regime, we verify the theoretical ansatz that stealthy disordered ground states behave like "pseudo" disordered equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. The pair statistics obey certain exact integral conditions with very high accuracy. These results show that as the density decreases from the high-density limit, the disordered ground states in the canonical ensemble are characterized by an increasing degree of short-range order and eventually the system undergoes a phase transition to crystalline ground states. In the crystalline regime (low densities), there exist aperiodic structures that are part of the ground-state manifold but yet are not entropically favored. We also provide numerical evidence suggesting that different forms of stealthy pair potentials produce the same ground-state ensemble in the zero

  1. Evoked and spontaneous transmission favored by distinct sets of synapses

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Einat S.; Newman, Zachary L.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Spontaneous “miniature” transmitter release takes place at low rates at all synapses. Long thought as an unavoidable leak, spontaneous release has recently been suggested to be mediated by distinct pre- and post-synaptic molecular machineries and to have a specialized role in setting up and adjusting neuronal circuits. It remains unclear how spontaneous and evoked transmission are related at individual synapses, how they are distributed spatially when an axon makes multiple contacts with a target and whether they are commonly regulated. Results Electrophysiological recordings in the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction, in the presence of the use-dependent glutamate receptor (GluR) blocker Philanthotoxin, indicated that spontaneous and evoked transmission employ distinct sets of GluRs. In vivo imaging of transmission using synaptically-targeted GCaMP3 to detect Ca2+ influx through the GluRs revealed little spatial overlap between synapses participating in spontaneous and evoked transmission. Spontaneous and evoked transmission were oppositely correlated with presynaptic levels of the protein Brp: synapses with high Brp favored evoked transmission, whereas synapses with low Brp were more active spontaneously. High frequency stimulation did not increase the overlap between evoked and spontaneous transmission, and instead decreased the rate of spontaneous release from synapses that were highly active in evoked transmission. Conclusions While individual synapses can participate in both evoked and spontaneous transmission, highly-active synapses show a preference for one mode of transmission. The presynaptic protein Brp promotes evoked transmission and suppresses spontaneous release. These findings suggest the existence of presynaptic mechanisms that promote synaptic specialization to either evoked or spontaneous transmission. PMID:24560571

  2. Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Favor Administration of Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) for treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with both benefits and adverse events. MPSS administration was the standard of care for acute SCI until recently when its use has become controversial. Patients with SCI have had little input in the debate, thus we sought to learn their opinions regarding administration of MPSS. A summary of the published literature to date on MPSS use for acute SCI was created and adjudicated by 28 SCI experts. This summary was then emailed to 384 chronic SCI patients along with a survey that interrogated the patients’ neurological deficits, communication with physicians and their views on MPSS administration. 77 out of 384 patients completed the survey. 28 respondents indicated being able to speak early after injury and of these 24 reported arriving at the hospital within 8 hours of injury. One recalled a physician speaking to them about MPSS and one patient reported choosing whether or not to receive MPSS. 59.4% felt that the small neurological benefits associated with MPSS were ‘very important’ to them (p<0.0001). Patients had ‘little concern’ for potential side-effects of MPSS (p = 0.001). Only 1.4% felt that MPSS should not be given to SCI patients regardless of degree of injury (p<0.0001). This is the first study to report SCI patients’ preferences regarding MPSS treatment for acute SCI. Patients favor the administration of MPSS for acute SCI, however few had input into whether or not it was administered. Conscious patients should be given greater opportunity to decide their treatment. These results also provide some guidance regarding MPSS administration in patients unable to communicate. PMID:26789007

  3. Favored Bc decay modes to search for a Majorana neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sanjoy; Sinha, Nita

    2016-08-01

    Recently, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of the decay mode Bc-→B¯s 0π- with the largest exclusive branching fraction amongst the known decay modes of all the B mesons. Here we propose a search for a few lepton-number violating (Δ L =2 ) decay modes of Bc which can only be induced by Majorana neutrinos. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana nature of neutrinos is an outstanding problem and hence, all possible searches for Majorana neutrinos need to be carried out. Since the lepton number violating modes are expected to be rare, when using meson decay modes for these searches one expects CKM favored modes to be the preferred ones; Bc→Bs is one such transition. With a resonance enhancement of the Majorana neutrino mediating the Bc-→B¯s 0ℓ1-ℓ2-π+ modes one can hope to observe these rare modes, or, even their nonobservation can be used to obtain tight constraints on the mixing angles of the heavy Majorana singlet with the light flavour neutrinos from upper limits of the branching fractions. Using these modes we obtain exclusion curves for the mixing angles which are tighter or compatible with results from earlier studies. However, we find that the relatively suppressed mode Bc-→J /ψ ℓ1- ℓ2-π+ can provide even tighter constraints on |Ve N|2, |Vμ N|2, |Ve NVμ N|, and in a larger range of the heavy neutrino mass. Further, exclusion regions for |Ve NVτ N|, |Vμ NVτ N| can also be obtained for masses larger than those accessible in tau decays. Upper limits on B (Bc-→π+ℓ1- ℓ2-) can also result in stringent exclusion curves for all the mixing elements, including that for |Vτ N|2 in a mass range where it is unconstrained thus far.

  4. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  5. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  6. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  7. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  8. Comprehensive Writing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Harvey, Ed.; Maimon, Elaine, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptions of comprehensive writing programs at nine colleges and universities and an essay on the topic are presented. Comprehensive writing programs transcend a single department or discipline and are designed to enhance liberal learning. Such programs not only teach students to write in the appropriate modes of various disciplines, but also…

  9. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  10. Paraphrasing for Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisk, Candace; Hurst, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that paraphrasing can be useful to promote reading comprehension skills. Finds paraphrasing for comprehension to be an excellent tool for reinforcing reading skills, such as identifying the main ideas, finding supporting details, and identifying the author's voice. Discusses how helping students see practical applications of accurately…

  11. Disentangling Accent from Comprehensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which linguistic aspects of second language speech are related to accent and which to comprehensibility. To address this goal, 19 different speech measures in the oral productions of 40 native French speakers of English were examined in relation to accent and comprehensibility, as rated by 60 novice raters…

  12. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  13. Teaching Comprehension and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdgrafer, Gary

    1982-01-01

    The uniform principle assuming that comprehension precedes production in language acquisition was examined using Down's Syndrome children taught to comprehend singular/plural nouns and produce such forms for another noun. Three subjects reached criterion production first and one reached comprehension first, suggesting the modes can develop…

  14. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  15. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  16. Superconductor coil geometry and ac losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, T. V., Jr.; Zapata, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical relation is presented which allows simple computation of volume-averaged winding fields from central fields for coils of small rectangular cross sections. This relation suggests that, in certain applications, ac-loss minimization can be accomplished by use of low winding densities, provided that hysteresis losses are independent of winding density. The ac-loss measurements on coils wound of twisted multifilamentary composite superconductors show no significant dependence on ac losses on winding density, thus permitting the use of winding density as an independent design parameter in loss minimization.

  17. Structural basis of Ac-SDKP hydrolysis by Angiotensin-I converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Douglas, Ross G; Sturrock, Edward D; Acharya, K Ravi

    2015-09-25

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase with two active domains and plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis, making it the principal target in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. More recently, the tetrapetide N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (Ac-SDKP) has emerged as a potent antifibrotic agent and negative regulator of haematopoietic stem cell differentiation which is processed exclusively by ACE. Here we provide a detailed biochemical and structural basis for the domain preference of Ac-SDKP. The high resolution crystal structures of N-domain ACE in complex with the dipeptide products of Ac-SDKP cleavage were obtained and offered a template to model the mechanism of substrate recognition of the enzyme. A comprehensive kinetic study of Ac-SDKP and domain co-operation was performed and indicated domain interactions affecting processing of the tetrapeptide substrate. Our results further illustrate the molecular basis for N-domain selectivity and should help design novel ACE inhibitors and Ac-SDKP analogues that could be used in the treatment of fibrosis disorders.

  18. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    A comprehensive metabolic panel is a group of blood tests. They provide an overall picture of your body's chemical balance and metabolism. Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes ...

  19. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  20. Comprehensive Faculty Flow Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Stefan D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive faculty flow model developed to forecast a "committed resources index" analyzes the future flexibility of a university. The model's construction, implementation, and assessment are described. (Editor/LBH)

  1. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... Families Guide - Search No. 52; Updated November 2012 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate ...

  2. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  3. Tevatron optics measurements using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to study beam optics of hadron synchrotrons. It can produce sustained large amplitude oscillations with virtually no emittance growth. A vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is recently implemented and a maximum oscillation amplitude of 2{sigma} (4{sigma}) at 980 GeV (150 GeV) is achieved [1]. When such large oscillations are measured with the BPM system of the Tevatron (20 {micro}m resolution), not only linear but even nonlinear optics can be directly measured. This paper shows how to measure {beta} function using an AC dipole and the result is compared to the other measurement. The paper also shows a test to detect optics changes when small changes are made in the Tevatron. Since an AC dipole is nondestructive, it allows frequent measurements of the optics which is necessary for such an test.

  4. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  5. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    SciTech Connect

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-12-21

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity.

  6. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission...''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b)(2) of the..., owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing...

  7. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1630 AC-powered photostimulator. (a) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1850 AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. (a) Identification. An AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope is an AC-powered device that is...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  15. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  16. "Time" and "Newsweek" Favor John F. Kennedy, Criticize Robert and Edward Kennedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Finds that the percentage of favorable, neutral, and unfavorable statements about the three Kennedy brothers in two national news magazines was similar and that both magazines published proportionately more favorable statements about John Kennedy than about either of his brothers. (FL)

  17. Spontaneous skepticism: the interplay of motivation and expectation in responses to favorable and unfavorable medical diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Munro, Geoffrey D; Apanovitch, Anne M; Scepansky, James A; Lockhart, Lisa K

    2003-09-01

    The quantity of processing view of motivated reasoning predicts that individuals are more likely to spontaneously question the validity of unfavorable than favorable feedback even when the objective likelihood of the feedback is equivalent. Participants were videotaped self-administering a bogus medical test revealing either a favorable or an unfavorable result. In Studies 1 and 2, unfavorable result participants required more time to accept the validity of the test result and were more likely to spontaneously recheck its validity than were favorable result participants. However, unfavorable results also were perceived as less expected than were favorable results, even though the information supplied about their objective likelihood was identical. Study 3 showed that participants evaluating another student's results perceived favorable and unfavorable outcomes as equally likely, suggesting that the subjective likelihood of positive and negative feedback is also subject to motivational influence. PMID:15189608

  18. Support for comprehensive reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

  19. Deletion of AcMNPV ac146 eliminates the production of budded virus.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia L; Willis, Leslie G; Sokal, Nadia R; Theilmann, David A

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac146 is a highly conserved gene in the Alpha- and Betabaculovirus genera that has an unknown function. Northern blot analysis and transcript mapping showed that ac146 is transcribed at late times post infection as a 1.2 kb mRNA. To determine the role of ac146 in the baculovirus life cycle ac146 knock out viruses were constructed. Transfection and plaque assays showed that all the ac146 deletions produced a single cell phenotype indicating that no infectious budded virus (BV) was produced, however occlusion bodies were formed. The lack of BV production was confirmed by viral titration utilizing both qPCR and TCID₅₀. Analysis of BV and occlusion derived virus (ODV) revealed that AC146 is associated with both forms of the virus and is modified specifically in ODV. This study therefore demonstrates that AC146 is a late virion associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle.

  20. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    PubMed

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  1. Cosmic Shear - with ACS Pure Parallel Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan

    2002-07-01

    The ACS, with greater sensitivity and sky coverage, will extend our ability to measure the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. We propose to use the ACS in pure parallel {non- proprietary} mode, following the guidelines of the ACS Default Pure Parallel Program. Using the HST Medium Deep Survey WFPC2 database we have measured cosmic shear at arc-min angular scales. The MDS image parameters, in particular the galaxy orientations and axis ratios, are such that any residual corrections due to errors in the PSF or jitter are much smaller than the measured signal. This situation is in stark contrast with ground-based observations. We have also developed a statistical analysis procedure to derive unbiased estimates of cosmic shear from a large number of fields, each of which has a very small number of galaxies. We have therefore set the stage for measurements with the ACS at fainter apparent magnitudes and smaller, 10 arc-second scales corresponding to larger cosmological distances. We will adapt existing MDS WFPC2 maximum likelihood galaxy image analysis algorithms to work with the ACS. The analysis would also yield an online database similar to that in archive.stsci.edu/mds/

  2. Graphics and Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhe, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of graphics as lecture comprehension supports for low-proficiency English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) listeners. The study compared the performance of Asian students in Canada listening to an audiotape while viewing an organizational graphic with that of a control group. Findings indicate that the graphics enhanced…

  3. The Comprehension Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie; Goudvis, Anne

    2005-01-01

    "The Comprehension Toolkit" focuses on reading, writing, talking, listening, and investigating, to deepen understanding of nonfiction texts. With a focus on strategic thinking, this toolkit's lessons provide a foundation for developing independent readers and learners. It also provides an alternative to the traditional assign and correct…

  4. Comprehensive Trail Making Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

  5. Comprehensive stormwater management study

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, T. ); Alter, M. ); Wassum, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    This article examines Tucson, Arizona's approach to stormwater management. The topics of the article include the quantity and quality of stormwater, developing the stormwater master plan, meeting environmental and regulatory constraints. Tucson's comprehensive, watershed by watershed approach to public works planning and stormwater program development is described.

  6. Cognition, Curriculum, and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.

    The papers in this volume were initially presented at a seminar on the development of reading comprehension, which explored basic research and the teaching of reading comprehenison. Researchers in cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics and experts in curriculum design in reading gave presentations and reacted to one another's ideas. Each…

  7. The Comprehensive Health Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

    This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

  8. Designing a Comprehensive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, T. L.

    1970-01-01

    A comprehensive rural "agribusiness industry" curriculum might include: (1) The World of Work (Grade 7 or 8), (2) Vocational Orientation (Grade 9), (3) Basic Agriculture and Industry (Grade 10), (4) Specialized Agribusiness Industry (Grade 11), and (5) Advanced Agribusiness Industry (Grade 12). (DM)

  9. Math Sense: Comprehensive Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Cathy Fillmore

    This book features a comprehensive review of the Math Sense series and is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers;…

  10. Comprehensive care in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sáez, Arlette

    2012-04-01

    Hemophilia is a chronic and inherited X-linked bleeding disorder that requires life-long medical care. Hemophilia treatment is costly and complex partly because of the cost of the factor concentrates used in replacement therapy. However, the management of hemophilia is not based solely on achieving access to better treatment with safe factor concentrates; it also includes accurately diagnosing the disorder and providing specialized comprehensive care by a multidisciplinary team of specialists trained in hemophilia management. Comprehensive care for the person with hemophilia is defined as the continuous supervision of all medical and psychological aspects affecting the patient and his family and it demands the establishment of specialized centers, called Hemophilia Treatment Centers. The services that should be offered by a comprehensive hemophilia healthcare center are diverse and the multidisciplinary team should be coordinated preferably by a hematologist with the participation of other health professionals. It has been demonstrated that the benefits of establishing hemophilia centers are observed even in developing countries and that changes can be achieved when resources are re-organized, especially when education and training are provided at all levels. To reach these objectives, it is essential to have the participation of the patient and family members, and to strive to obtain the financial and legislative support from the State or Government in order to achieve a national comprehensive care program contemplating all the aspects needed for improving the quality of life for the community of patients with hemophilia and other bleeding disorders.

  11. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

  12. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  13. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  14. Atrial-caval shunting (ACS) after trauma.

    PubMed

    Kudsk, K A; Sheldon, G F; Lim, R C

    1982-02-01

    Since 1968 the atrial-caval shunt (ACS), along with inflow occlusion at the porta hepatis, has been used at San Francisco General Hospital in 18 trauma patients to control massive hemorrhage from the inferior vena cava, hepatic veins, or liver. Thirteen patients died from irreversible shock. Five patients survived their initial injuries; one of them died 45 days later from the complications of shock and sepsis. No patients survived who sustained blunt trauma and were admitted in cardiac arrest. Only one of ten patients with BP less than 70 mm Hg after resuscitation survived, whereas four of eight with BP greater than 70 mm Hg survived. ACS was used to control caval injuries in seven patients (one survivor), severe hepatic parenchymal fractures in four patients (two survivors), and combined hepatic and caval injuries in seven patients (two survivors). Survivors had an average of 5.75 associated injuries; nonsurvivors had 3.8. No complications of ACS occurred in the surviving patients.

  15. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested.

  16. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested. PMID:24787317

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., entertainment, loan or similar favor of monetary value which stems from a family relationship such as that between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship...

  18. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., entertainment, loan or similar favor of monetary value which stems from a family relationship such as that between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  4. 45 CFR 73.735-501 - Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... directly or indirectly solicit or accept anything of monetary value, including gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainment or loans from a person who the employee knows, or should know because of the nature of...

  5. Transient AC voltage related phenomena for HVDC schemes connected to weak AC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Szechtman, M. ); Hammad, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper a didactic explanation of voltage stability associated phenomena at HVDC terminals is presented. Conditions leading to ac voltage collapse problems are identified. A mechanism that excites control-induced voltage oscillations is shown. The voltage stability factor is used for obtaining the maximum power limits of ac/dc systems operating with different control strategies. Correlation to Pd {times} Id curves is given. Solutions for eliminating the risks of voltage collapse and for avoiding control-induced oscillations are discussed. The results are supported by detailed digital simulations of a weak ac/dc system using EMTP.

  6. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  7. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx.

  8. Cinnarizine: Comprehensive Profile.

    PubMed

    Haress, Nadia G

    2015-01-01

    Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine. PMID:26051684

  9. TARGET Researchers Identify Mutations in SIX1/2 and microRNA Processing Genes in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    TARGET researchers molecularly characterized favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT), a pediatric renal cancer. Comprehensive genome and transcript analyses revealed single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in microRNA processing genes (15% of FHWT patients) and Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1/2 (SIX1/2) genes (7% of FHWT patients). SIX1/2 genes play a critical role in renal development and were not previously associated with FHWT, thus presenting a novel role for SIX1/2 pathway aberrations in this disease.

  10. A dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Starkloff, M.; Peiselt, K.; Anders, S.; Knipper, R.; Lee, J.; Behr, R.; Palafox, L.; Böck, A. C.; Schaidhammer, L.; Fleischmann, P. M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter system operated up to kilohertz frequencies and 7 V rms. A 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) array was installed on a pulse tube cooler (PTC) driven with a 4 kW air-cooled compressor. The operating margins at 70 GHz frequencies were investigated in detail and found to exceed 1 mA Shapiro step width. A key factor for the successful chip operation was the low on-chip power consumption of 65 mW in total. A thermal interface between PJVS chip and PTC cold stage was used to avoid a significant chip overheating. By installing the cryocooled PJVS array into an AC quantum voltmeter setup, several calibration measurements of dc standards and calibrator ac voltages up to 2 kHz frequencies were carried out to demonstrate the full functionality. The results are discussed and compared to systems with standard liquid helium cooling. For dc voltages, a direct comparison measurement between the dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter and a liquid-helium based 10 V PJVS shows an agreement better than 1 part in 1010.

  11. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  12. Manipulating Flames with AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kyle

    2013-11-01

    Time-oscillating electric fields applied to plasmas present in flames create steady flows of gas capable of shaping, directing, enhancing, or even extinguishing flames. Interestingly, electric winds induced by AC electric fields can be stronger that those due to static fields of comparable magnitude. Furthermore, unlike static fields, the electric force due to AC fields is localized near the surface of the flame. Consequently, the AC response depends only on the local field at the surface of the flame - not on the position of the electrodes used to generate the field. These results suggest that oscillating electric fields can be used to manipulate and control combustion processes at a distance. To characterize and explain these effects, we investigate a simple experimental system comprising a laminar methane-air flame positioned between two parallel-plate electrodes. We quantify both the electric and hydrodynamic response of the flame as a function of frequency and magnitude of the applied field. A theoretical model shows how steady gas flows emerge from the time-averaged electrical force due to the field-induced motion of ions generated within the flame and by their disappearance by recombination. These results provide useful insights into the application of AC fields to direct combustion processes.

  13. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  14. Integrated analysis of pediatric glioblastoma reveals a subset of biologically favorable tumors with associated molecular prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Andrey; Ryzhova, Marina; Hovestadt, Volker; Bender, Sebastian; Sturm, Dominik; Capper, David; Meyer, Jochen; Schrimpf, Daniel; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Zheludkova, Olga; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Kulozik, Andreas E; Reifenberger, Guido; Jabado, Nada; Perry, Arie; Lichter, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric glioblastoma (pedGBM) is amongst the most common malignant brain tumors of childhood and carries a dismal prognosis. In contrast to adult GBM, few molecular prognostic markers for the pediatric counterpart have been established. We, therefore, investigated the prognostic significance of genomic and epigenetic alterations through molecular analysis of 202 pedGBM (1-18 years) with comprehensive clinical annotation. Routinely prepared formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were assessed for genome-wide DNA methylation profiles, with known candidate genes screened for alterations via direct sequencing or FISH. Unexpectedly, a subset of histologically diagnosed GBM (n = 40, 20 %) displayed methylation profiles similar to those of either low-grade gliomas or pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA). These tumors showed a markedly better prognosis, with molecularly PXA-like tumors frequently harboring BRAF V600E mutations and 9p21 (CDKN2A) homozygous deletion. The remaining 162 tumors with pedGBM molecular signatures comprised four subgroups: H3.3 G34-mutant (15 %), H3.3/H3.1 K27-mutant (43 %), IDH1-mutant (6 %), and H3/IDH wild-type (wt) GBM (36 %). These subgroups were associated with specific cytogenetic aberrations, MGMT methylation patterns and clinical outcomes. Analysis of follow-up data identified a set of biomarkers feasible for use in risk stratification: pedGBM with any oncogene amplification and/or K27M mutation (n = 124) represents a particularly unfavorable group, with 3-year overall survival (OS) of 5 %, whereas tumors without these markers (n = 38) define a more favorable group (3-year OS ~70 %).Combined with the lower grade-like lesions, almost 40 % of pedGBM cases had distinct molecular features associated with a more favorable outcome. This refined prognostication method for pedGBM using a molecular risk algorithm may allow for improved therapeutic choices and better planning of clinical trial stratification for this otherwise devastating

  15. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  16. Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2007-01-01

    This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

  17. Emergent Comprehension: Understanding Comprehension Development among Young Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMunn Dooley, Caitlin; Matthews, Mona W.

    2009-01-01

    This article hones what is meant by "emergent comprehension". The authors define emergent comprehension as the period when young children, prior to conventional reading, engage in meaningful experiences that stimulate the development and use of meaning-making strategies with potential to affect later reading comprehension. The construct "emergent…

  18. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  19. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus which allows measurement of retinal or visual function by perceptual or electrical methods (e.g.,...

  1. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Burton, Allen W; Rhines, Laurence D; Mendel, Ehud

    2005-03-15

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are relatively new techniques used to treat painful vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Vertebroplasty is the injection of bone cement, generally polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), into a vertebral body (VB). Kyphoplasty is the placement of balloons (called "tamps") into the VB, followed by an inflation/deflation sequence to create a cavity prior to the cement injection. These procedures are most often performed in a percutaneous fashion on an outpatient (or short stay) basis. The mechanism of action is unknown, but it is postulated that stabilization of the fracture leads to analgesia. The procedures are indicated for painful VCFs due to osteoporosis or malignancy, and for painful hemangiomas. These procedures may be efficacious in treating painful vertebral metastasis and traumatic VCFs. Much evidence favors the use of these procedures for pain associated with the aforementioned disorders. The risks associated with the procedures are low but serious complications can occur. These risks include spinal cord compression, nerve root compression, venous embolism, and pulmonary embolism including cardiovascular collapse. The risk/benefit ratio appears to be favorable in carefully selected patients. The technical aspects of the procedures are presented in detail along with guidelines for patient selection. A comprehensive review of the evidence for the procedures and the reported complications is presented.

  2. CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

  3. Idiom Comprehension in Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagno, Costanza; Tabossi, Patrizia; Colombo, Maria Rosa; Zampetti, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Idiom comprehension was assessed in 10 aphasic patients with semantic deficits by means of a string-to-picture matching task. Patients were also submitted to an oral explanation of the same idioms, and to a word comprehension task. The stimuli of this last task were the words following the verb in the idioms. Idiom comprehension was severely…

  4. Understanding and Teaching Cohesion Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Judith W., Ed.

    Concerned with improving student comprehension of text, this book focuses particularly on teaching students how sentences tie together. Articles in the three sections are grouped as follows: Part 1, What Is Cohesion Comprehension? contains "Cohesion, Coherence, and Comprehension" (Alden J. Moe and Judith W. Irwin); "Identifying Types of Anaphoric…

  5. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  6. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  7. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  11. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  12. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  13. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  14. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  15. A HTS scanning magnet and AC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, K.; Nakagawa, J.; Fukuda, M.; Yorita, T.; Saito, T.; Sakemi, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Noda, K.

    2010-04-01

    A scanning magnet using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire was designed, built, and tested for its suitability as a beam scanner. After successful cooling tests, the magnet performance was studied using DC and AC currents. With DC current the magnet was successfully operated to generate designed field distributions and effective length. In AC mode, the magnet was operated at frequencies of 30-59 Hz and a temperature of 77 K as well as 10-20 Hz and 20 K. The power losses dissipated in the coils were measured and compared with the model calculations. The observed losses per cycle were independent of the frequency and the scaling law of the transport current was consistent with theoretical predictions for hysteretic losses in HTS wires.

  16. RHIC AC DIPOLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; METH,M.; PAI,C.; PARKER,B.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2001-06-18

    Two ac dipoles with vertical and horizontal magnetic field have been proposed at RHIC for applications in linear and non-linear beam dynamics and spin manipulations. A magnetic field amplitude of 380 Gm is required to produce a coherent oscillation of 5 times the rms beam size at the top energy. We take the ac dipole frequency to be 1.0% of the revolution frequency away from the betatron frequency. To achieve the strong magnetic field with minimum power loss, an air-core magnet with two seven turn winding of low loss Litz wire resonating at 64 kHz is designed. The system is also designed to allow one to connect the two magnet winding in series to resonate at 37 kHz for the spin manipulation. Measurements of a half length prototype magnet are also presented.

  17. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; De Jong, Roelof S. E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.edu E-mail: fabio@astro.washington.edu E-mail: aseth@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-07-15

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D < 4 Mpc). The survey volume encompasses 69 galaxies in diverse environments, including close pairs, small and large groups, filaments, and truly isolated regions. The galaxies include a nearly complete range of morphological types spanning a factor of {approx}10{sup 4} in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m {sub F475W} = 28.0 mag, m {sub F606W} = 27.3 mag, and m {sub F814W} = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  18. AC plasma anemometer—characteristics and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Curtis; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics and design of a high-bandwidth flow sensor that uses an AC glow discharge (plasma) as the sensing element is presented. The plasma forms in the air gap between two protruding low profile electrodes attached to a probe body. The output from the anemometer is an amplitude modulated version of the AC voltage input that contains information about the mean and fluctuating velocity components. The anemometer circuitry includes resistance and capacitance elements that simulate a dielectric-barrier to maintain a diffuse plasma, and a constant-current feedback control that maintains operation within the desired glow discharge regime over an extended range of air velocities. Mean velocity calibrations are demonstrated over a range from 0 to 140 m s-1. Over this velocity range, the mean output voltage varied linearly with air velocity, providing a constant static sensitivity. The effect of the electrode gap and input AC carrier frequency on the anemometer static sensitivity and dynamic response are investigated. Experiments are performed to compare measurements obtained with a plasma sensor operating at two AC carrier frequencies against that of a constant-temperature hot-wire. All three sensors were calibrated against the same known velocity reference. An uncertainty based on the standard deviation of the velocity calibration fit was applied to the mean and fluctuating velocity measurements of the three sensors. The motivation is not to replace hot-wires as a general measurement tool, but rather as an alternative to hot-wires in harsh environments or at high Mach numbers where they either have difficulty in surviving or lack the necessary frequency response.

  19. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  20. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  1. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  2. Stratification of brachytherapy-treated intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients into favorable and unfavorable cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Fiano, Ryan; Adamovich, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate biochemical failure (BF) and prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) in intermediate-risk (IR) brachytherapy patients stratified into favorable and unfavorable cohorts, and to compare those outcomes to patients with low (LR) and high-risk (HR) disease. Material and methods From March 1995 till February 2012, 2,502 consecutive patients underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Patients were stratified into risk groups as per the NCCN guidelines with further stratification of the intermediate risk cohort into unfavorable (primary Gleason pattern 4, ≥ 50% positive biopsies or ≥ 2 IR features) and favorable cohorts. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. The brachytherapy prescription dose was prescribed to the prostate gland with generous periprostatic margins. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA > 0.40 ng/ml after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or non-metastatic castrate resistant disease who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. Multiple parameters were evaluated for effect on outcomes. Results Fifteen year BF for LR, favorable IR, unfavorable IR, and HR were 1.4%, 2.2%, 7.1%, and 11.1% (p < 0.001), respectively. At 15 years, PCSM for LR, favorable IR, unfavorable IR, and HR was 0.3%, 0.6%, 2.2% and 4.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. In multivariate analysis, BF was best predicted by risk group, pre-implant PSA, percent positive biopsies, prostate volume, and ADT duration, while PCSM was most closely related to risk group, percent positive biopsies and prostate volume. Conclusions Patients with favorable IR disease have biochemical and PCSM outcomes comparable to those of patients with LR disease. Although unfavorable IR has greater than a 3-fold increased risk of BF and PCSM when compared to favorable IR, the outcomes remain superior to those men with HR disease. PMID:26816337

  3. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Systems (78 FR 34935-34958) (Docket No.: FAA-2013-0485; Notice No. 1209). AC 90-106A, Enhanced Flight... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-...

  4. The Validity of Reading Comprehension Rate: Reading Speed, Comprehension, and Comprehension Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Hale, Andre D.; Neddenriep, Christine E.; Hawkins, Renee O.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a secondary analysis of a brief reading comprehension rate measure, percent comprehension questions correct per minute spent reading (%C/M). This measure includes reading speed (seconds to read) in the denominator and percentage of comprehension questions answered correctly in the numerator. Participants were 22 4th-, 29…

  5. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  6. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  7. Molecular biology of maize Ac/Ds elements: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lazarow, Katina; Doll, My-Linh; Kunze, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Maize Activator (Ac) is one of the prototype transposable elements of the hAT transposon superfamily, members of which were identified in plants, fungi, and animals. The autonomous Ac and nonautonomous Dissociation (Ds) elements are mobilized by the single transposase protein encoded by Ac. To date Ac/Ds transposons were shown to be functional in approximately 20 plant species and have become the most widely used transposable elements for gene tagging and functional genomics approaches in plants. In this chapter we review the biology, regulation, and transposition mechanism of Ac/Ds elements in maize and heterologous plants. We discuss the parameters that are known to influence the functionality and transposition efficiency of Ac/Ds transposons and need to be considered when designing Ac transposase expression constructs and Ds elements for application in heterologous plant species.

  8. Predicting Carriers of Ongoing Selective Sweeps without Knowledge of the Favored Allele

    PubMed Central

    Zakov, Shay; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Bafna, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Methods for detecting the genomic signatures of natural selection have been heavily studied, and they have been successful in identifying many selective sweeps. For most of these sweeps, the favored allele remains unknown, making it difficult to distinguish carriers of the sweep from non-carriers. In an ongoing selective sweep, carriers of the favored allele are likely to contain a future most recent common ancestor. Therefore, identifying them may prove useful in predicting the evolutionary trajectory—for example, in contexts involving drug-resistant pathogen strains or cancer subclones. The main contribution of this paper is the development and analysis of a new statistic, the Haplotype Allele Frequency (HAF) score. The HAF score, assigned to individual haplotypes in a sample, naturally captures many of the properties shared by haplotypes carrying a favored allele. We provide a theoretical framework for computing expected HAF scores under different evolutionary scenarios, and we validate the theoretical predictions with simulations. As an application of HAF score computations, we develop an algorithm (PreCIOSS: Predicting Carriers of Ongoing Selective Sweeps) to identify carriers of the favored allele in selective sweeps, and we demonstrate its power on simulations of both hard and soft sweeps, as well as on data from well-known sweeps in human populations. PMID:26402243

  9. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Member or employee in a superior official position. (d) A Member or an employee in a superior official... Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. (a) Except as provided in...

  10. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of... Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle is at fault and that party can be reasonably...

  12. [Univentricular heart in a 50 year-old woman complicated with infective endocarditis with favorable evolution].

    PubMed

    Aboukhoudir, F; Errera, J; Aboukhoudir, I; Slama, I; Rekik, S

    2014-11-01

    Univentricular heart is a complex cyanotic congenital heart malformation classically repaired during early childhood. Despite correction, a residual risk of infective endocarditis still persists and may be associated with a severe prognosis. We report the case of a 50 year-old woman with a known partially corrected univentricular heart in whom we diagnosed an infective endocarditis with a favorable evolution under antibiotics.

  13. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  14. The Changing Format of Reference Collections: Are Research Libraries Favoring Electronic Access over Print?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Sarah; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the holdings of ARL libraries for core reference titles to see if there is a trend towards canceling the print in favor of electronic, and discusses the implications of duplication of titles in both formats. It also looks at the issue within the context of several areas of study including general reference, arts and humanities,…

  15. A Case of Mild Pulmonary Disease Due to Mycobacterium shimoidei with a Favorable Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Galizzi, Nadia; Tortoli, Enrico; Gori, Andrea; Morini, Fulvia

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of mild Mycobacterium shimoidei disease with a favorable course after treatment. Characteristics of nine M. shimoidei isolates in Italy between 1989 and 2009 were also reviewed. The M. shimoidei genome was highly conserved. Based on antimicrobial susceptibility, the combination of ethambutol, clarithromycin, and rifabutin appears to be a reasonable treatment. PMID:23926163

  16. Increasing long-term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  17. Effects of Test Interpretation Style and Favorability in the Counseling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    Two styles of test interpretation (TI), delivered and interactive, were manipulated in a 1-session counseling interview. The favorability of the interpretations (i.e., positive only and mixed) was also manipulated. After completing a well-known personality test, 46 participants completed the TI session. Participants' thoughts and perceptions of…

  18. Intercultural Attitudes Predict Favorable Study Abroad Expectations of U.S. College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Randi I.; Goldstein, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on identifying intercultural attitudes associated with favorable expectations about participation in study abroad programs. A total of 282 U.S. 1st-year college students completed a questionnaire that included measures of ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, prejudice,…

  19. Preferential Hiring and Reverse Discrimination in Favor of Blacks: A Moral Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husak, Douglas N.

    1978-01-01

    Sketches a broad and general defense of the constitutionality of some kinds of preferential admissions and hiring programs in favor of Blacks by constructing a moral justification of these practices. Available from American Journal of Jurisprudence, Notre Dame Law School, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; reprint, $1.00. (Author/IRT)

  20. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value, from a person.... (e) Members and employees shall not accept a gift, present, decoration, or other thing from a foreign... behalf, for excessive personal living expenses, gifts, entertainment, or other personal benefits....

  1. An automatic AC/DC thermal voltage converter and AC voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frquency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  2. Automatic ac/dc thermal voltage converter and ac voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1984-11-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  3. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc{sup 109KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc{sup 109KO} results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc{sup 109KO}-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID{sub 50} showed that vAc{sup 109KO} produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc{sup 109KO} BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  4. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious.

    PubMed

    Fang, Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc(109KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc(109KO) results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc(109KO)-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID(50) showed that vAc(109KO) produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc(109KO) BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  5. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  6. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  7. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  8. Comprehensive catalyst management

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, S.

    2007-05-15

    From January 2009, as SCR season expands from five months to year-round to meet new US Clean Air Interstate Rule standards, new catalyst strategies are increasingly important. Power plants will need a comprehensive management strategy that accounts for a wide range of old and new issues to achieve peak performance. An optimum plan is necessary for catalyst replacement or addition. SCR systems should be inspected and evaluated at least once a year. Levels of deactivation agents, most often arsenic and calcium oxide, need to match the particular coals used. Tools such as Cormetech's FIELD Guide are available to quantify the effect on catalyst life under various fuel-firing scenarios. Tests should be conducted to evaluate the NH{sub 3}/NOx distribution over time to maximise catalyst performance. The article gives a case study of catalyst management at the Tennessee Valley Authority Allen plant. Recent changes have created new variables to be considered in a catalyst management process, notably the expansion of the operating temperature range, mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} emission limits. Cormetech has researched these areas. 5 figs., 2 photos.

  9. Comprehensive piezoceramic actuator review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Chris J.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2002-07-01

    Piezoceramic actuation has become an area of increased interest in the past ten years. Having been used for many years as sensors in such applications as pressure transducers and smoke detectors, piezoceramics are now being used as prime movers in fuel injectors and valve lifters. In an effort to aid the engineering community, this paper will conduct a comprehensive review of several piezoceramic actuators. Classical design parameters will be derived for each actuator such as blocked force and free stroke. In addition, more esoteric entities such as mechanical efficiency and energy density will also be derived. The result will be design metrics of popular piezoceramic actuators containing vital design equations, validated with empirical data. Of the many different configurations of piezoceramic actuators, this paper will investigate the bimorph and unimorph bender. These actuator types are finding increased use in semi-active structural damping, energy harvesting and vibration control. The work in this paper will show experimental verification of various actuator types as well as theoretical derivations. In addition to unimorphs, bimorphs and stack actuators a novel type of unimorph bender, the THUNDER actuator (developed and licensed by NASA) will be included in the review.

  10. Comprehensive facilities plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  11. Theoretical study of electromagnetic electron cyclotron waves in the presence of AC field in Uranian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. S.; Kaur, Rajbir

    2015-10-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) waves with temperature anisotropy in the magnetosphere of Uranus have been studied in present work. EMEC waves are investigated using method of characteristic solution by kinetic approach, in presence of AC field. In 1986, Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus revealed that magnetosphere of Uranus exhibit non-Maxwellian high-energy tail distribution. So, the dispersion relation, real frequency and growth rate are evaluated using Lorentzian Kappa distribution function. Effect of temperature anisotropy, AC frequency and number density of particles is found. The study is also extended to oblique propagation of EMEC waves in presence and absence of AC field. Through comprehensive mathematical analysis it is found that when EMEC wave propagates parallel to intrinsic magnetic field of Uranus, its growth is more enhanced than in case of oblique propagation. Results are also discussed in context to magnetosphere of Earth and also gives theoretical explanation to existence of high energetic particles observed by Voyager 2 in the magnetosphere of Uranus. The results can present a further insight into the nature of electron-cyclotron instability condition for the whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belts of Uranus or other space plasmas.

  12. A.C. Susceptometry Utilizing GMR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Daniel; Shivaram, Bellave

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometers remain as the most sensitive instruments to measure magnetic properties. However, the ready availability and rapid improvements in the sensitivity of magnetic field sensors based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect combined with their low cost and ability to operate at room temperature opens up opportunities to exploit these new devices where the utmost sensitivity of SQUID based detection is not needed. In this article we present one such application of GMR sensors and demonstrate how they can enhance the signals obtained in a simple a.c. magnetic susceptibility apparatus.

  13. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  14. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    PubMed

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  15. Favorable Long-term Prognosis of Cataract Surgery in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash; Mahajan, Deepti; Panwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Scleritis is a rare presentation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complicated most commonly by iridocyclitis and raised intraocular pressure. These complications can recur in subsequent years, therefore they should be managed well. Case Report: We describe a female patient who developed scleritis, complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma 2 years after being diagnosed by HZO. Secondary glaucoma was managed medically, and the patient underwent extracapsular cataract extraction for the complicated cataract. Final visual acuity was 6/6 and IOP was 22.4 mm Hg. This is a rare report describing favorable long-term (>20 years) prognosis for surgical management of cataract associated with HZO together with scleritis, secondary glaucoma and post-herpetic neuralgia. Conclusion: A favorable outcome may be attained with surgery for complicated cataract associated with HZO if the condition is managed optimally and intraocular inflammation is well controlled. PMID:27413505

  16. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, William D; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  17. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  18. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  19. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  20. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    PubMed

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies. PMID:27254762

  1. Domain expertise insulates against judgment bias by monetary favors through a modulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Harvey, Ann; Montague, P. Read

    2011-01-01

    Recent work using an art-viewing paradigm shows that monetary sponsorship of the experiment by a company (a favor) increases the valuation of paintings placed next to the sponsoring corporate logo, an effect that correlates with modulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). We used the same art-viewing paradigm to test a prevailing idea in the domain of conflict-of-interest: that expertise in a domain insulates against judgment bias even in the presence of a monetary favor. Using a cohort of art experts, we show that monetary favors do not bias the experts’ valuation of art, an effect that correlates with a lack of modulation of the VMPFC across sponsorship conditions. The lack of sponsorship effect in the VMPFC suggests the hypothesis that their brains remove the behavioral sponsorship effect by censoring sponsorship-dependent modulation of VMPFC activity. We tested the hypothesis that prefrontal regions play a regulatory role in mediating the sponsorship effect. We show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited in the expert group. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis in nonexpert controls by contrasting brain responses in controls who did not show a sponsorship effect to controls who did. Changes in effective connectivity between the DLPFC and VMPFC were greater in nonexpert controls, with an absence of the sponsorship effect relative to those with a presence of the sponsorship effect. The role of the DLPFC in cognitive control and emotion regulation suggests that it removes the influence of a monetary favor by controlling responses in known valuation regions of the brain including the the VMPFC. PMID:21646526

  2. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  3. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  4. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  5. Domain expertise insulates against judgment bias by monetary favors through a modulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ulrich; Harvey, Ann; Montague, P Read

    2011-06-21

    Recent work using an art-viewing paradigm shows that monetary sponsorship of the experiment by a company (a favor) increases the valuation of paintings placed next to the sponsoring corporate logo, an effect that correlates with modulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). We used the same art-viewing paradigm to test a prevailing idea in the domain of conflict-of-interest: that expertise in a domain insulates against judgment bias even in the presence of a monetary favor. Using a cohort of art experts, we show that monetary favors do not bias the experts' valuation of art, an effect that correlates with a lack of modulation of the VMPFC across sponsorship conditions. The lack of sponsorship effect in the VMPFC suggests the hypothesis that their brains remove the behavioral sponsorship effect by censoring sponsorship-dependent modulation of VMPFC activity. We tested the hypothesis that prefrontal regions play a regulatory role in mediating the sponsorship effect. We show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited in the expert group. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis in nonexpert controls by contrasting brain responses in controls who did not show a sponsorship effect to controls who did. Changes in effective connectivity between the DLPFC and VMPFC were greater in nonexpert controls, with an absence of the sponsorship effect relative to those with a presence of the sponsorship effect. The role of the DLPFC in cognitive control and emotion regulation suggests that it removes the influence of a monetary favor by controlling responses in known valuation regions of the brain including the the VMPFC.

  6. Domain expertise insulates against judgment bias by monetary favors through a modulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ulrich; Harvey, Ann; Montague, P Read

    2011-06-21

    Recent work using an art-viewing paradigm shows that monetary sponsorship of the experiment by a company (a favor) increases the valuation of paintings placed next to the sponsoring corporate logo, an effect that correlates with modulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). We used the same art-viewing paradigm to test a prevailing idea in the domain of conflict-of-interest: that expertise in a domain insulates against judgment bias even in the presence of a monetary favor. Using a cohort of art experts, we show that monetary favors do not bias the experts' valuation of art, an effect that correlates with a lack of modulation of the VMPFC across sponsorship conditions. The lack of sponsorship effect in the VMPFC suggests the hypothesis that their brains remove the behavioral sponsorship effect by censoring sponsorship-dependent modulation of VMPFC activity. We tested the hypothesis that prefrontal regions play a regulatory role in mediating the sponsorship effect. We show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited in the expert group. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis in nonexpert controls by contrasting brain responses in controls who did not show a sponsorship effect to controls who did. Changes in effective connectivity between the DLPFC and VMPFC were greater in nonexpert controls, with an absence of the sponsorship effect relative to those with a presence of the sponsorship effect. The role of the DLPFC in cognitive control and emotion regulation suggests that it removes the influence of a monetary favor by controlling responses in known valuation regions of the brain including the the VMPFC. PMID:21646526

  7. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  8. AC Electroosmotic Pumping in Nanofluidic Funnels.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Andrew R; Haywood, Daniel G; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2016-06-21

    We report efficient pumping of fluids through nanofluidic funnels when a symmetric AC waveform is applied. The asymmetric geometry of the nanofluidic funnel induces not only ion current rectification but also electroosmotic flow rectification. In the base-to-tip direction, the funnel exhibits a lower ion conductance and a higher electroosmotic flow velocity, whereas, in the tip-to-base direction, the funnel has a higher ion conductance and a lower electroosmotic flow velocity. Consequently, symmetric AC waveforms easily pump fluid through the nanofunnels over a range of frequencies, e.g., 5 Hz to 5 kHz. In our experiments, the nanofunnels were milled into glass substrates with a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and the funnel design had a constant 5° taper with aspect ratios (funnel tip width to funnel depth) of 0.1 to 1.0. We tracked ion current rectification by current-voltage (I-V) response and electroosmotic flow rectification by transport of a zwitterionic fluorescent probe. Rectification of ion current and electroosmotic flow increased with increasing electric field applied to the nanofunnel. Our results support three-dimensional simulations of ion transport and electroosmotic transport through nanofunnels, which suggest the asymmetric electroosmotic transport stems from an induced pressure at the junction of the nanochannel and nanofunnel tip. PMID:27230495

  9. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  10. Pragmatic Comprehension Development through Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatic comprehension can be ideally developed through contact with target language speakers. This contact can be provided in English as Foreign Language contexts through telecollaboration. To test the actual effect of telecollaboration on the development of pragmatic comprehension, 30 Iranian undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language…

  11. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  12. Reading Strategies and Hypertext Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmeron, Ladislao, Canas, Jose J.; Kintsch, Walter; Fajardo, Immaculada

    2005-01-01

    The literature on assessing the cognitive processes involved in hypertext comprehension during the past 15 years has yielded contradictory results. In this article we explore a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext.…

  13. Comprehension Instruction: Perspectives and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gerald G., Ed.; And Others

    Prepared by members of the Institute for Research on Teaching and the Center for the Study of Reading, the papers in this collection examine reading comprehension as an interactive process and explore how comprehension instruction occurs in the complex workplace of the classroom. Specific topics discussed in 20 papers include the following: (1)…

  14. Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

    2008-01-01

    An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

  15. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  16. Expectation-Based Syntactic Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension,…

  17. Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

    This monograph describes how the comprehensive guidance model is transforming elementary-secondary school guidance and counseling programs in schools across the country. It incorporates the ideas and experiences of 12 guidance program developers in the actual use of the comprehensive guidance model in diverse school and cultural settings. The book…

  18. Some features of surface pressure fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers with zero and favorable pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, B. E.; Simpson, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of surface pressure fluctuation spectra, coherence and convective wave speeds from zero and favorable pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers are reported for momentum Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 18,800. The acceleration parameter K is near 2 x 10 to the -7 power for the favorable pressure gradient flow. The outer variables, U sub e, tau sub w and delta sub 1 non-dimensionalize and collapse the spectra for the low to middle range of frequencies for most test cases. The grouping using the inner variable, U sub tau and gamma, collapse the spectra for the middle to high range of frequencies for all test cases. The value of p'/tau sub w was near 3.8 and 2.8 for the smallest values of d+ in the zero and favorable pressure gradient flows, respectively. The coherence exhibits a decay that is not exponential in some cases, but the Corcos similarity parameters omega Delta x/U sub c and omega Delta z/U sub c collapse the data for all test cases. The ratio of U sub c/U sub e increases with omega delta sub 1/U sub e up to omega delta sub 1/U sub e on the order of unity, where U sub c/U sub e becomes nearly constant. This was observed in the present results for both streamwise pressure gradient flows. The experimental results presented show good agreement with previous research.

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists favorably address all components of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sanjay; Ghosal, Samit; Chatterjee, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular death is the leading cause of mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The etiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetes may be divided into hyperglycemia per se and factors operating through components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Hyperglycemia causes direct injury to vascular endothelium and possibly on cardiac myocytes. MetS is a cluster of risk factors like obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The incidence of this syndrome is rising globally. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are a group of drugs, which address all components of this syndrome favorably. Experimental evidence suggests that they have favorable actions on myocardium as well. Several compounds belonging to GLP-1RA class are in market now and a large number awaiting their entry. Although, originally this class of drugs emerged as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, more recent data generated revealed beneficial effects on multiple metabolic parameters. We have studied literature published between 2000 and 2016 to look into effects of GLP-1RA on components of MetS. Results from recently concluded clinical trials suggest that some of the molecules in this class may have favorable effects on cardiovascular outcome. PMID:27795818

  20. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    PubMed

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  1. Development of a new β Ti alloy with low modulus and favorable plasticity for implant material.

    PubMed

    Liang, S X; Feng, X J; Yin, L X; Liu, X Y; Ma, M Z; Liu, R P

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important development directions of the Ti and its alloys is the applications in medical field. Development of new Ti alloys with low elastic modulus and/or favorable biocompatibility plays an important role for promoting its application in medical field. In this work, a new β Ti alloy (Ti-31Nb-6Zr-5Mo, wt.%) was designed for implant material using d-electron alloy design method. Microstructure and tensile properties of the designed alloy after hot rolling (HR) and solution followed by aging treatments (SA) were investigated. Results show that the designed alloy is composed of single β phase. However, microstructural analysis shows that the β phase in the designed alloy separates into Nb-rich and Nb-poor phase regions. The Nb-rich regions in HR specimen are typical elongated fiber texture, but are equiaxed particles with several micrometers in SA specimen. Tensile results show that the designed alloy has low Young's modulus of 44 GPa for HR specimen and 48 GPa for SA specimen which are very close to the extreme of Young's modulus of bulk titanium alloys. At the same time, the designed alloy has favorable plasticity in term of elongation of 26.7% for HR specimen and 20.6% for SA specimen, and appropriate tensile strength over 700 MPa. In short, the designed alloy has low elastic modulus close to that of bone and favorable plasticity and strength which can be a potential candidate for hard tissue replacements. PMID:26838858

  2. Global health actors no longer in favor of user fees: a documentary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. Methods We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks. We then classified the GHAs according to their stance relative to the abolition of user fees, and conducted a thematic analysis of their discourse to understand the arguments used by each GHA to justify its stance. Results We identified 56 GHAs, for which we analyzed 140 documents. Among them, 55% were in favor of the abolition of user fees or in favor of free care at the point of delivery. None of the GHAs stated that they were in favor of user fees; however, 30% did not take a stand. Only the World Bank declares that it is both in favor of user fees and in favor of free care at point of service. GHAs generally circumscribe their stance to specific populations (pregnant women, children under 5 years, etc.) or to specific health services (primary, basic, essential). Three types of arguments are used by GHAs to justify their stance: economic, moral and ethical, and pragmatic. Conclusions The principle of “user pays” seems to have fizzled. Production and dissemination of evidence, as well as certain advocacy networks, may have contributed to this change in discourse. However, GHAs should go a step further and translate their words into action, so that free healthcare at the point of delivery becomes a reality in low- and middle-income countries. They should provide technical and financial support to those countries that have chosen to implement user fee

  3. AC corrosion -- A new challenge to pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e. less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels when cathodic protection was applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in the initiation of several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, normal levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion to acceptable levels and that AC mitigation is often required to prevent serious corrosion. Several other AC corrosion sites were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. A graph, relating AC voltage to holiday size at the minimum AC current density for corrosion, is presented to assist the pipeline operator in determining whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion activity.

  4. AC corrosion -- a new threat to pipeline integrity?

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e., less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels with cathodic protection applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, standard levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion and AC mitigation is required to prevent further corrosion. Several other corrosion anomalies were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. The authors have investigated several corrosion occurrences on pipelines in Ontario during the last 2--3 years which appear to be caused by AC corrosion. This presentation traces the literature record on AC electrolysis from the past to the present and discusses the key parameters which determine the likelihood of corrosion attack. Several case histories of suspected AC corrosion will be discussed and guidelines on how to assess whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion will be offered.

  5. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-02-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50-200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  6. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  7. Evidence on the Molecular Basis of the Ac/ac Adaptive Cyanogenesis Polymorphism in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Small, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis, with both cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants occurring in nature. This chemical defense polymorphism is one of the longest-studied and best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. It is controlled by two independently segregating genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolyzing enzyme, linamarase. Whereas Li is well characterized at the molecular level, Ac has remained unidentified. Here we report evidence that Ac corresponds to a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 of the CYP79D protein subfamily (CYP79D15), and we describe the apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism. CYP79D orthologs catalyze the first step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in other cyanogenic plant species. In white clover, Southern hybridizations indicate that CYP79D15 occurs as a single-copy gene in cyanogenic plants but is absent from the genomes of ac plants. Gene-expression analyses by RT–PCR corroborate this finding. This apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism parallels our previous findings for the Li/li polymorphism, which also arises through the presence/absence of a single-copy gene. The nature of these polymorphisms may reflect white clover's evolutionary origin as an allotetraploid derived from cyanogenic and acyanogenic diploid progenitors. PMID:18458107

  8. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  9. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  10. The HII Galaxy Hubble Diagram Strongly Favors Rh = ct over ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use HII galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model ΛCDM and the Rh = ct Universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat ΛCDM model, the best fit is obtained with Ω _m= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favor Rh = ct over the standard model with a likelihood of ≈94.8% - 98.8% versus only ≈1.2% - 5.2%. For wCDM (the version of ΛCDM with a dark-energy equation of state wde ≡ pde/ρde rather than wde = wΛ = -1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Ω _m=0.22_{-0.14}^{+0.16} and w_de= -0.51_{-0.25}^{+0.15} which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than Rh = ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that Rh = ct is strongly favored over wCDM with a likelihood of ≈92.9% - 99.6% versus only 0.4% - 7.1%. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ΛCDM/wCDM in favor of Rh = ct at a confidence level approaching 3σ.

  11. Molecular Crowding Favors Reactivity of a Human Ribozyme Under Physiological Ionic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Strulson, Christopher A.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to relate RNA folding to function under cellular-like conditions, we monitored the self-cleavage reaction of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like CPEB3 ribozyme in the background of physiological ionic concentrations and various crowding and cosolute agents. We found that under physiological free Mg2+ concentrations (~0.1 to 0.5 mM Mg2+), both crowders and cosolutes stimulate the rate of self-cleavage, up to ~6-fold, but that in 10 mM Mg2+—conditions widely used for in vitro ribozyme studies—these same additives have virtually no effect on self-cleavage rate. We further observe a dependence of self-cleavage rate on crowder size, wherein rate stimulation is diminished for crowders larger than the size of the unfolded RNA. Monitoring effects of crowding and cosolute agents on rates in biological amounts of urea revealed additive-promoted increases in both low and high Mg2+ concentrations, with a maximal stimulation of more than 10-fold and a rescue of the rate to its urea-free values. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments reveal a structural basis for this stimulation in that higher molecular weight crowding agents favor a more compact form of the ribozyme in 0.5 mM Mg2+ that is essentially equivalent to the form under standard ribozyme conditions of 10 mM Mg2+ and no crowder. This finding suggests that at least a portion of the rate enhancement arises from favoring the native RNA tertiary structure. We conclude that cellular-like crowding supports ribozyme reactivity by favoring a compact form of the ribozyme, but only under physiological ionic and cosolute conditions. PMID:24187989

  12. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Theilmann, David A

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  13. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  14. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  15. Favorable response of reticular erythematous mucinosis to ultraviolet B irradiation using a 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ken; Miyajima, Osamu; Yokogawa, Maki; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) is a rare chronic mucinosis. Histologically, the presence of mucin in the upper dermis is the most specific feature. A 73-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a 4-year history of netlike macular erythema with slight edema on her left arm. She was diagnosed as having REM on the basis of the clinical picture and histological findings. She was treated with ultraviolet B irradiation using the VTRAC Excimer Lamp system with favorable response. This is the first reported case that was treated with a 308-nm excimer lamp. PMID:20175851

  16. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-01

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  17. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1949-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

  18. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  19. Preliminary Geologic Mapping of the Ac-S-3 Hemisphere of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Scully, J. E. C.; Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P. M.; Marchi, S.; O'Brien, D. P.; Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schafer, M.; Platz, T.; Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Preusker, F.; Stephan, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft [1] was captured into orbit by the dwarf planet (1) Ceres on March 6, 2015. During the Approach phase capture was preceded and followed by a series of optical navigation and rotation characterization observations by Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) [2], which provided the first images of Ceres' surface. As was done at Vesta [3], the Dawn Science Team will conduct a geological mapping campaign at Ceres during the Nominal Mission, including iterative mapping using data obtained during each orbital phase. In this presentation we will describe the approach of the Ceres Mapping Campaign and discuss the preliminary geological mapping of the Ac-S-3 (180- 360˚E) hemisphere of Ceres.

  20. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  1. Characteristics of the Middle Jurassic marine source rocks and prediction of favorable source rock kitchens in the Qiangtang Basin of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenlong; Wan, Huan; Zhang, Yeqian; Han, Guangzhi

    2013-04-01

    We have evaluated the hydrocarbon-bearing potential of Middle Jurassic marine source rocks in the Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, through a comprehensive study of samples from a large number of surface outcrops in different structural units, and from the Qiang-D2 Well in the southern Qiangtang Depression. Data that were acquired, including the depositional environment, thickness of sedimentary units, and organic geochemistry, are used to identify the principal controlling factors and predict the location of favorable hydrocarbon kitchens. The source rocks are mainly platform limestone of the Middle Jurassic Buqu Formation. This formation comprises a suite of intra-platform sag marls, micrites, and black shales that were deposited in a deep-water and restricted depositional environment. The marls form hydrocarbon-rich source rocks with organic matter that is mainly type II and in the mature to highly mature stage. In the Dongco-Hulu Lake and Tupoco-Baitan Lake deep sags, limestone also forms a medium-level source rock. In the Qiangtang Basin, limestone is the favorable source rock kitchen and is more significant in this regard than mudstone. The results provide important constraints on evaluating the hydrocarbon potential of Jurassic marine source rocks and for locating petroleum resources in the Qiangtang Basin.

  2. Favorable vs Unfavorable Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Review of the New Classification System and Its Impact on Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Nicholas A; Anscher, Mitchell S

    2016-03-01

    The population of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer are a large and heterogeneous group with highly variable prognoses, which present a challenge to efforts to develop standardized treatment recommendations. New classification systems have been proposed that modify the existing National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines and that subdivide men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer into favorable and unfavorable subgroups. This review will examine the changing landscape of intermediate-risk prostate cancer and the effects on treatment decisions that may result from this new classification. The literature provides evidence that men with favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer have prostate cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality rates similar to the rates in patients with low-risk prostate cancer and thus may be candidates for active surveillance, dose-escalated radiation therapy without short-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or, interestingly, standard-dose radiation therapy plus short-term ADT. Conversely, patients with unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer have prostate cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality rates similar to the rates in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. These patients would not be candidates for active surveillance and may in fact require long-term ADT in addition to standard-dose or dose-escalated radiation therapy instead of 4 to 6 months of ADT.

  3. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  4. Paraphrasing: An Effective Comprehension Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletzien, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Paraphrasing, somewhat different from retelling and summarizing, helps students monitor their understanding and incorporate new knowledge with what they already know about a topic. Paraphrasing helps students realize that comprehension is the goal of reading.

  5. Children's Comprehension of Complex Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Children, aged 4-12, performed four tasks designed to test their comprehension of complex sentences that contained main verbs taking underlying sentences as their complements. Tasks involved imperatives, semantic anomalies, truth questioning and short-term memory. (JMB)

  6. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  7. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  8. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  9. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  10. 24 CFR Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A...

  11. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  12. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  13. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  14. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: Report of an ACS Presidential Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polik, William F.

    2006-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Presidential Symposium, Envisioning Undergraduate Chemistry Education in 2015 was organized by the ACS Committee on Professional Training (CPT), in response to the challenge to envision the chemistry enterprise in 2015. The need for more diverse role models at all levels is emphasized, including high school…

  15. Measurement of coupling resonance driving terms with the AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.

    2010-10-01

    Resonance driving terms for linear coupled betatron motion in a synchrotron ring can be determined from corresponding spectral lines of an excited coherent beam motion. An AC dipole is one of instruments to excite such a motion. When a coherent motion is excited with an AC dipole, measured Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron phase advance have apparent modulations, as if there is an additional quadrupole field at the location of the AC dipole. Hence, measurements of these parameters using the AC dipole require a proper interpretation of observed quantities. The situation is similar in measurements of resonance driving terms using the AC dipole. In this note, we derive an expression of coupled betatron motion excited with two AC dipoles in presence of skew quadrupole fields, discuss an impact of this quadrupole like effect of the AC dipole on a measurement of coupling resonance driving terms, and present an analytical method to determine the coupling resonance driving terms from quantities observed using the AC dipole.

  16. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  17. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  18. Equivalent circuit models for ac impedance data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    A least-squares fitting routine has been developed for the analysis of ac impedance data. It has been determined that the checking of the derived equations for a particular circuit with a commercially available electronics circuit program is essential. As a result of the investigation described, three equivalent circuit models were selected for use in the analysis of ac impedance data.

  19. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  20. Sustainable AC/AC hybrid electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte approaching the performance of organic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Babuchowska, Paulina; Frąckowiak, Elżbieta; Béguin, François

    2016-09-01

    A high energy hybrid AC/AC electrochemical capacitor has been realized in aqueous Li2SO4+KI electrolyte mixture. Owing to the redox processes associated with the 2I-/I2 system, the positive electrode operates in narrow potential range and displays high capacity. During prolonged potentiostatic floating at 1.6 V, the hybrid cell demonstrates remarkably stable capacitance and resistance. Analyses by temperature programmed desorption after floating at 1.6 V proved that oxidation of the positive AC electrode is prevented by the use of Li2SO4+KI, which enables the maximum potential of this electrode to be shifted below the water oxidation potential. When charged at 0.2 A g-1 up to U = 1.6 V, the hybrid cell displays a high capacitance of 75 F g-1 (300 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) compared to 47 F g-1 (188 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) for a symmetric cell in Li2SO4. At 0.2 A g-1 up to 1.6 V, the hybrid capacitor in Li2SO4+KI displays an energy density of 26 Wh kg-1 which approaches the energy density of 30.9 Wh kg-1 measured when the same carbon is implemented in a capacitor using TEABF4/ACN electrolyte and charged up to 2.5 V.

  1. The peptaibiotics database--a comprehensive online resource.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Nora K N; Stoppacher, Norbert; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present the 'Peptaibiotics Database' (PDB), a comprehensive online resource, which intends to cover all Aib-containing non-ribosomal fungal peptides currently described in scientific literature. This database shall extend and update the recently published 'Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database' and currently consists of 1,297 peptaibiotic sequences. In a literature survey, a total of 235 peptaibiotic sequences published between January 2013 and June 2014 have been compiled, and added to the list of 1,062 peptides in the recently published 'Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database'. The presented database is intended as a public resource freely accessible to the scientific community at peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at. The search options of the previously published repository and the presentation of sequence motif searches have been extended significantly. All of the available search options can be combined to create complex database queries. As a public repository, the presented database enables the easy upload of new peptaibiotic sequences or the correction of existing informations. In addition, an administrative interface for maintenance of the content of the database has been implemented, and the design of the database can be easily extended to store additional information to accommodate future needs of the 'peptaibiomics community'.

  2. Cytotoxicity of 213Bi- and 225Ac-immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, F M; Bos, E; Doornmalen, A V; Geerlings, M W; Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes in vitro cytotoxicity experiments with 213Bi- and 225Ac-immunoconjugates on the human epidermoid tumour cell line A431 using a blood group A-reactive murine IgG (2D11) as the specific antibody and MOPC 21 as the control antibody. With both radionuclides, specific cell-killing was achieved. The observed cytotoxicity of 213Bi (T1/2 - 47 min) indicates that this radionuclide is a useful alternative for the alpha-emitter 212Bi in the treatment of blood-borne malignancies. 225Ac-immunoconjugates (T1/2 of 225Ac is 10 days) may be applicable for the treatment of solid tumours, since the daughter radionuclides of 225Ac contribute to the cytotoxic efficacy by a field effect (i.e. toxicity in an area distal from the antibody-binding site). The lack of an adequate chelator for 225Ac is a major drawback.

  3. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, W W; Harris, C; Long, E M; Hopkins, D R

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a natural dietary supplement produced favorable changes in body composition during a 4-week diet- and-exercise program. The active compound contains a patented combination of chromium picolinate, inulin, capsicum, L-phenylalanine, and other lipotropic nutrients. A double-blind, weight-loss intervention design was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either a diet/exercise/supplement group (n = 56) or a diet/exercise/placebo group (n = 67). Caloric intake was reduced to 1500 kcal/d and participants walked for 45 minutes, 5 days a week, to attain between 60% and 80% of predicted maximal heart rate. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed significant differences (P < .05) between groups in percent body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass; no significant differences were found (P > .05) in body weight, body mass index, or energy intake. Independent t tests showed no significant differences (P > .05) in diet composition between groups. Results indicate that the addition of a natural dietary supplement during a 4-week diet-and-exercise weight-loss program accelerates the rate of body fat loss and helps maintain fat-free mass (lean tissue), thereby producing favorable changes in body composition.

  4. Introgression in hybrid ants is favored in females but selected against in males.

    PubMed

    Kulmuni, Jonna; Pamilo, Pekka

    2014-09-01

    Hybridization is not a mere reproductive dead end but has been suggested to play a central role in speciation, for example, by introducing adaptive genetic variation. Our previous study uncovered a unique consequence of hybridization in Formica ants. In a population including two isolated but partially introgressed genetic groups, the females have an apparent hybrid background, whereas the males do not. This situation results in large-scale differences between male and female genomes that are stable throughout generations. Here, we compare genotypes from different developmental stages to investigate how sex-specific introgression and genetic differences between sexes are maintained. We show that strong selection rather than sex-dependent transmission maintains the genetic differences between sexes. All genotype combinations are produced and observed in the eggs of both sexes, but the alleles acquired through hybridization disappear from the haploid males during development from egg to adult as their frequencies drop toward zero. However, the same introgressed alleles increase in frequency and are favored when heterozygous in the females. Genotypes eliminated from males most likely represent incompatibilities arising from hybridization. Our results show an unusual situation of opposite selection, where introgression is favored in diploid females but selected against in haploid males. This finding suggests that introgressed genomic regions harbor both fitness-enhancing and -reducing elements. Our work highlights the complex consequences of hybridization and provides a rare opportunity to observe natural selection in real time in nature. PMID:25136088

  5. A More Favorable Lower-Lip Incision for the Removal of Deep Intraoral Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xian Wang; Feng, Da Jun; Chen, XiaoYang; Chen, Chuan Jun

    2016-05-01

    The straight midline lower lip-splitting incision has traditionally been performed with different types of deep intraoral malignancies for obtaining wide surgical access, and it can also be extended to the submandibular region or the neck to concurrently perform a neck dissection. But meanwhile, it is associated with unfavorable aesthetic and functional complications such as conspicuous facial scar, lip vermilion notching, stenosis of the labial sulcus, decreased lip sensation and movement, and oral incontinence. We designed a more favorable lower-lip incision, namely, para-lower lip incision, using the exposure and en blot resection of deep intraoral tumors. Compared with the traditional incision line, our designed line is shorter, and 20 outpatients (primary tumor site including buccal mucosa, tongue, mandibular gingiva, maxillary sinus, palate, and mouth floor) follow-ups indicated the postoperative scar is inconspicuous, no lip contour deformity and dysfunction or complications of facial paralysis such as distortion of commissure happened. This article reports one case of our patients who underwent para-lower-lip incision approach for the removal of squamous cell carcinoma (T3N2M0) in the left plate and the results of the patient were favorable. PMID:27159868

  6. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, William D; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability. PMID:27497576

  7. Spatial heterogeneity in human activities favors the persistence of wolves in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people.

  8. Glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in nondieting obese female patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laviano, A; Molfino, A; Lacaria, M T; Canelli, A; De Leo, S; Preziosa, I; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients, and prevents obesity in animals fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in humans. Obese and overweight female patients (n=6) were enrolled in a pilot, cross-over study. After recording anthropometric (that is, body weight, waist circumference) and metabolic (that is, glycemia, insulinemia, homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) characteristics, patients were randomly assigned to 4-week supplementation with glutamine or isonitrogenous protein supplement (0.5 g/KgBW/day). During supplementation, patients did not change their dietary habits nor lifestyle. At the end, anthropometric and metabolic features were assessed, and after 2 weeks of washout, patients were switched to the other supplement for 4 weeks. Body weight and waist circumference significantly declined only after glutamine supplementation (85.0±10.4 Kg vs 82.2±10.1 Kg, and 102.7±2.0 cm vs 98.9±2.9 cm, respectively; P=0.01). Insulinemia and HOMA-IR declined by 20% after glutamine, but not significantly so. This pilot study shows that glutamine is safe and effective in favoring weight loss and possibly enhancing glucose metabolism.

  9. Selection on Inversion Breakpoints Favors Proximity to Pairing Sensitive Sites in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B

    2016-09-01

    Chromosomal inversions are widespread among taxa, and have been implicated in a number of biological processes including adaptation, sex chromosome evolution, and segregation distortion. Consistent with selection favoring linkage between loci, it is well established that length is a selected trait of inversions. However, the factors that affect the distribution of inversion breakpoints remain poorly understood. "Sensitive sites" have been mapped on all euchromatic chromosome arms in Drosophila melanogaster, and may be a source of natural selection on inversion breakpoint positions. Briefly, sensitive sites are genomic regions wherein proximal structural rearrangements result in large reductions in local recombination rates in heterozygotes. Here, I show that breakpoints of common inversions are significantly more likely to lie within a cytological band containing a sensitive site than are breakpoints of rare inversions. Furthermore, common inversions for which neither breakpoint intersects a sensitive site are significantly longer than rare inversions, but common inversions whose breakpoints intersect a sensitive site show no evidence for increased length. I interpret these results to mean that selection favors inversions whose breakpoints disrupt synteny near to sensitive sites, possibly because these inversions suppress recombination in large genomic regions. To my knowledge this is the first evidence consistent with positive selection acting on inversion breakpoint positions. PMID:27343234

  10. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  11. [Rectal tenesmus due to tumor invasion into the pelvic cavity responding favorably to antiarrhythmic drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Kazuho; Koizumi, Takahisa; Nakazato, Kenei; Nakagawa, Tomoki; Masuda, Ryota; Mikami, Mikio; Tokuda, Yutaka; Iwasaki, Masayuki

    2012-12-01

    We experienced 3 patients(Cases 1, 3, and 4)with pelvic tumor-related rectal tenesmus showing favorable responses to antiarrhythmic drugs. Based on this experience, we administered antiarrhythmic drugs preferentially to 2 others with tumor derived rectal tenesmus(Cases 2 and 5), and again obtained favorable responses. These 5 patients(1 man, 4 women)were 28-89(mean 58)years of age. The primary lesion was cervical cancer in 3 patients, ovarian cancer in 1, and bladder cancer in 1. In the 3 with cervical cancer, the tumor had directly infiltrated the rectum and vulva. The patient with ovarian cancer had a residual tumor in the Douglas pouch postoperatively. The patient with bladder cancer had undergone total cystectomy and urinary diversion using an ileal conduit at another institution. All 5 patients complained of a frequent desire to defecate without feces(rectal tenesmus). Their rectal tenesmus was attributed to pelvic neurological dysfunction around the rectum. Drug therapy was initiated with oral mexiletine hydrochloride(Mexitil)150 mg in 3 divided doses in 4 patients and with continuous infusion of intravenous lidocaine 2%(Xylocaine)500mg/day in the other(Case 2). None had adverse reactions; all 5 experienced palliation of symptoms and improved quality of life. PMID:23235181

  12. New risk-adjustment system was associated with reduced favorable selection in medicare advantage.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, J Michael; Hsu, John; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Health plans participating in the Medicare managed care program, called Medicare Advantage since 2003, have historically attracted healthier enrollees than has the traditional fee-for-service program. Medicare Advantage plans have gained financially from this favorable risk selection since their payments have traditionally been adjusted only minimally for clinical characteristics of enrollees, causing overpayment for healthier enrollees and underpayment for sicker ones. As a result, a new risk-adjustment system was phased in from 2004 to 2007, and a lock-in provision instituted to limit midyear disenrollment by enrollees experiencing health declines whose exodus could benefit plans financially. To determine whether these reforms were associated with intended reductions in risk selection, we compared differences in self-reported health care use and health between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare beneficiaries before versus after these reforms were implemented. We similarly compared differences between those who switched into or out of Medicare Advantage and nonswitchers. Most differences in 2001-03 were substantially narrowed by 2006-07, suggesting reduced selection. Similar risk-adjustment methods may help reduce incentives for plans competing in health insurance exchanges and accountable care organizations to select patients with favorable clinical risks.

  13. Bound on the Slope of Steady Water Waves with Favorable Vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Wheeler, Miles H.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the angle {θ} of inclination (with respect to the horizontal) of the profile of a steady two dimensional inviscid symmetric periodic or solitary water wave subject to gravity. Although {θ} may surpass 30° for some irrotational waves close to the extreme wave, Amick (Arch Ration Mech Anal 99(2):91-114, 1987) proved that for any irrotational wave the angle must be less than 31.15°. Is the situation similar for periodic or solitary waves that are not irrotational? The extreme Gerstner wave has infinite depth, adverse vorticity and vertical cusps (θ = 90°). Moreover, numerical calculations show that even waves of finite depth can overturn if the vorticity is adverse. In this paper, on the other hand, we prove an upper bound of 45° on {θ} for a large class of waves with favorable vorticity and finite depth. In particular, the vorticity can be any constant with the favorable sign. We also prove a series of general inequalities on the pressure within the fluid, including the fact that any overturning wave must have a pressure sink.

  14. Curtailing the hydroxylaminobarbituric acid-hydantoin rearrangement to favor HNO generation.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Daryl A; Nourian, Saghar; Takahashi, Cyrus G; Toscano, John P

    2015-02-01

    Due to its inherent reactivity, HNO must be generated in situ through the use of donor compounds. One of the primary strategies for the development of new HNO donors has been modifying hydroxylamines with good leaving groups. A recent example of this strategy is the (hydroxylamino)barbituric acid (HABA) class of HNO donors. In this case, however, an undesired intramolecular rearrangement pathway to the corresponding hydantoin derivative competes with HNO formation, particularly in the absence of chemical traps for HNO. This competitive non-HNO-producing pathway has restricted the development of the HABA class to examples with fast HNO release profiles at physiological pH and temperature (t(1/2) < 1 min). Herein, the factors that favor the rearrangement pathway have been examined and two independent strategies that protect against rearrangement to favor HNO generation have been developed. The timecourse and stoichiometry for the in vitro conversion of these compounds to HNO (trapped as a phosphine aza-ylide) and the corresponding barbituric acid (BA) byproduct have been determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy under physiologically relevant conditions. These results confirm the successful extension of the HABA class of pure HNO donors with half-lives at pH 7.4, 37 °C ranging from 19 to 107 min. PMID:25585151

  15. Messages from the Inside. The Dynamic Environment that Favors Intestinal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Eri, Rajaraman; Chieppa, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    An organism is defined as "an individual living thing capable of responding to stimuli, growing, reproducing, and maintaining homeostasis." Early during evolution multicellular organisms explored the advantages of a symbiotic life. Mammals harbor a complex aggregate of microorganisms (called microbiota) that includes bacteria, fungi, and archaea. Some of these bacteria have already defined beneficial roles for the human host that include the ability to break down nutrients that could not otherwise be digested, preventing the growth of harmful species, as well as the ability to produce vitamins or hormones. It is intuitive that along the evolutionary path several mechanisms favored bacteria that provided advantages to the host which, in return, avoided launching an aggressive immunological response against them. The intestinal immunological response does not ignore the lumenal content, on the contrary, immune surveillance is favored by continuous antigen sampling. Some intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) are crucial during the sampling process, others actively participate in the defense mechanism. In essence the epithelium acts as a traffic light, communicating to the inside world whether conditions are safe or dangerous, and thus influencing immunological response. In this review we will discuss the dynamic factors that act on the intestinal ECs and how they directly or indirectly influence immune cells during states of health and disease. PMID:24130559

  16. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  17. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  18. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  19. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: An evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trexler, Joel C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade‐offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade‐offs of age‐specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  20. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  1. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption.

  2. The A to Z of A/C plasmids.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-07-01

    Plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups A and C (now A/C) were among the earliest to be associated with antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. A/C plasmids are large, conjugative plasmids with a broad host range. The prevalence of A/C plasmids in collections of clinical isolates has revealed their importance in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. They also mobilize SGI1-type resistance islands. Revived interest in the family has yielded many complete A/C plasmid sequences, revealing that RA1, designated A/C1, is different from the remainder, designated A/C2. There are two distinct A/C2 lineages. Backbones of 128-130 kb include over 120 genes or ORFs encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids, but very few have been characterized. Genes potentially required for replication, stability and transfer have been identified, but only the replication system of RA1 and the regulation of transfer have been studied. There is enormous variety in the antibiotic resistance genes carried by A/C2 plasmids but they are usually clustered in larger regions at various locations in the backbone. The ARI-A and ARI-B resistance islands are always at a specific location but have variable content. ARI-A is only found in type 1 A/C2 plasmids, which disseminate blaCMY-2 and blaNDM-1 genes, whereas ARI-B, carrying the sul2 gene, is found in both type 1 and type 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of A/C plasmids, and highlights areas of research to be considered in the future.

  3. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  4. Low preoperative albumin-globulin score predicts favorable survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, De Shen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Feng-Hua; Fu, Jian-Hua; Xu, Rui-Hua; Li, Yu-Hong

    2016-05-24

    This study retrospectively investigated the prognostic significance of the preoperative albumin-globulin score (AGS) and albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A cohort of 458 newly diagnosed ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) between January 2006 and December 2010 were selected into this study. The optimal cut-off value was identified to be 45.6 g/L, 26.9 g/L and 1.30 for albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB) and AGR in terms of survival, respectively. Patients with low ALB levels (< 45.6 g/L) and high GLB levels (≥ 26.9 g/L) were assigned an AGS of 2, those with only one of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 0. Univariate survival analysis showed that low AGS (0) was significantly associated with favorable disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.635; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.441-0.914; P = 0.015] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 0.578; 95% CI, 0.387-0.862; P = 0.007), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.630; 95% CI, 0.418-0.952; P = 0.028), but not for DFS (HR, 0.697; 95% CI, 0.479-1.061; P = 0.060) in multivariate models. High AGR (≥ 1.30) was also correlated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.626; 95% CI, 0.430-0.910; P = 0.014) and OS (HR, 0.622; 95% CI, 0.422-0.916; P = 0.016) in univariate analysis, but it failed to be an independent prognostic indicator for DFS (HR, 0.730; 95% CI, 0.494-1.078; P = 0.114) or OS (HR, 0.759; 95% CI, 0.507-1.137; P = 0.181) by multivariate analysis. Low preoperative AGS could serve as a valuable and convenient biochemical marker to predict favorable long-term survival in ESCC patients. PMID:27105522

  5. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less

  6. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S -matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. We also present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  7. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented.

  8. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. PMID:25528494

  9. Evaluation Of Levels Of Climate Favorability For Viticulture In Breasta Viticultural Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzatu, Gilda-Diana; Mărăcineanu, Liviu Cristian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this present research was to evaluate the climatic conditions of a viticultural centre, as there are always needed studies to determine the climate favorability of the vine cultivation and the varieties resistant to heat and water stress, especially when climate change affects globally viticulture. The present research was made using the interpretation of Craiova Regional Weather Centre's meteorological records for the year of 2014, for Breasta viticultural centre. The climatic factors permitted the determination of several indexes used in viticultural climatology for the appreciation of the viticultural biotope characteristics. Assessment of climatic resources through synthetic climatic indexes, clearly express the generous heliothermic offer available for Breasta viticultural centre, the guarantee of quality and specificity of vine products obtained in this area.

  10. Cosmology Favoring Extra Radiation and Sub-eV Mass Sterile Neutrinos as an Option

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{sub s} and effective number N{sub s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{sub s} is in the sub-eV range.

  11. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  12. Luminal cells are favored as the cell of origin for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu A.; Toivanen, Roxanne; Bergren, Sarah K.; Chambon, Pierre; Shen, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/–; Pten+/–, Pten+/–, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells. PMID:25176651

  13. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range. PMID:21231094

  14. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  15. Large-scale identification of membrane proteins with properties favorable for crystallization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jared; Kagawa, Allison; Kurasaki, Kellie; Ataie, Niloufar; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Ng, Ho Leung

    2015-11-01

    Membrane protein crystallography is notoriously difficult due to challenges in protein expression and issues of degradation and structural stability. We have developed a novel method for large-scale screening of native sources for integral membrane proteins that have intrinsic biochemical properties favorable for crystallization. Highly expressed membrane proteins that are thermally stable and nonaggregating in detergent solutions were identified by mass spectrometry from Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sus scrofa cerebrum. Many of the membrane proteins identified had been crystallized previously, supporting the promise of the approach. Most identified proteins have known functions and include high-value targets such as transporters and ATPases. To validate the method, we recombinantly expressed and purified the yeast protein, Yop1, which is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum curvature. We demonstrate that Yop1 can be purified with the detergent dodecylmaltoside without aggregating.

  16. Slow conformational motions that favor sub-ps motions important for catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, J.R. Exequiel T.; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    It has been accepted for many years that functionally important motions are crucial to binding properties of ligands in such molecules as hemoglobin and myoglobin. In enzymatic reactions, theory and now experiment, are beginning to confirm the importance of motions on a fast (ps) timescale in the chemical step of the catalytic process. What is missing is a clear physical picture of how slow conformational fluctuations are related to the fast motions that have been identified as crucial. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of this issue for human heart lactate dehydrogenase. We will examine how slow conformational motions bring the system to conformations that are distinguished as catalytically competent because they favor specific fast motions. PMID:21077591

  17. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity.

  18. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    PubMed

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography.

  19. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    PubMed

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography. PMID:26545236

  20. Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2009-07-01

    Cry1ab/ac gene was fused by both the cry1ab gene (GenBank Accession No. X54939) and the cry1ac gene (GenBank Accession No. Y09787), which was widely used in genetically modified (GM) rice, cotton, maize and so on. In order to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing Cry1Ab/Ac protein, sufficient quantities of Cry1Ab/Ac protein were produced in Escherichia coli for in vitro evaluation and animal studies. The Cry1Ab/Ac protein does not possess the characteristics associated with food toxins or allergens, i.e., it has no sequence homology with any known allergens or toxins, and no N-glycosylation sites, can be rapidly degraded in gastric and intestinal fluids, and is devoid of adverse effects in mice by gavage at a high dose level of 5g (Cry1Ab/Ac protein)/kg body weight. In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the Cry1Ab/Ac protein in human food or animal feed.

  1. Trapping polar molecules in an ac trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Veldhoven, Jacqueline van; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard

    2006-12-15

    Polar molecules in high-field seeking states cannot be trapped in static traps as Maxwell's equations do not allow a maximum of the electric field in free space. It is possible to generate an electric field that has a saddle point by superposing an inhomogeneous electric field to an homogeneous electric field. In such a field, molecules are focused along one direction, while being defocused along the other. By reversing the direction of the inhomogeneous electric field the focusing and defocusing directions are reversed. When the fields are being switched back and forth at the appropriate rate, this leads to a net focusing force in all directions. We describe possible electrode geometries for creating the desired fields and discuss their merits. Trapping of {sup 15}ND{sub 3} ammonia molecules in a cylindrically symmetric ac trap is demonstrated. We present measurements of the spatial distribution of the trapped cloud as a function of the settings of the trap and compare these to both a simple model assuming a linear force and to full three-dimensional simulations of the experiment. With the optimal settings, molecules within a phase-space volume of 270 mm{sup 3} (m/s){sup 3} remain trapped. This corresponds to a trap depth of about 5 mK and a trap volume of about 20 mm{sup 3}.

  2. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Phinney, Stephen D; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Puglisi, Michael J; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Doug M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D

    2009-04-01

    We recently proposed that the biological markers improved by carbohydrate restriction were precisely those that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and that the common thread was regulation of insulin as a control element. We specifically tested the idea with a 12-week study comparing two hypocaloric diets (approximately 1,500 kcal): a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = 12:59:28) and a low-fat diet (LFD) (56:24:20) in 40 subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. Despite a threefold higher intake of dietary saturated fat during the CRD, saturated fatty acids in TAG and cholesteryl ester were significantly decreased, as was palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), an endogenous marker of lipogenesis, compared to subjects consuming the LFD. Serum retinol binding protein 4 has been linked to insulin-resistant states, and only the CRD decreased this marker (-20%). The findings provide support for unifying the disparate markers of MetS and for the proposed intimate connection with dietary carbohydrate. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.

  3. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Sharma, M D; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male-male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male-male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  4. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa M.; Sharma, M. D.; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male–male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male–male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  5. Favorable effects of turbulent plasma mixing on the performance of innovative tokamak divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2013-10-01

    The problem of reducing the heat load on plasma-facing components is one of the most demanding issues for MFE devices. The general approach to the solution of this problem is the use of a specially configured poloidal magnetic field, so called magnetic divertors. In recent years, novel divertors possessing the 2-nd and 3-rd order nulls of the poloidal field (PF) have been proposed. They are called a ``snowflake'' (SF) and a ``cloverleaf'' (CL) divertor, respectively, due to characteristic shape of the magnetic separatrix. Among several beneficial features of such divertors is an effect of strong turbulent plasma mixing that is intrinsic to the zone of weak PF near the null-point. The turbulence spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor exhaust channels and increases the heat flux width within each channel. Among physical processes affecting the onset of convection the curvature-driven mode of axisymmetric rolls is most prominent. The effect is quite significant for the SF and is even stronger for the CL divertor. Projections to future ITER-scale facilities are discussed. Work performed for U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. A model of poetic comprehension

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, K.

    1996-12-31

    This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

  7. Cyclotron production of Ac-225 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; McGinley, J; Abbas, K; Möllenbeck, J; Morgenstern, A

    2005-03-01

    The feasibility of producing Ac-225 by proton irradiation of Ra-226 in a cyclotron through the reaction Ra-226(p,2n)Ac-225 has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Proton energies were varied from 8.8 to 24.8 MeV and cross-sections were determined by radiochemical analysis of reaction yields. Maximum yields were reached at incident proton energies of 16.8 MeV. Radiochemical separation of Ac-225 from the irradiated target yielded a product suitable for targeted alpha therapy of cancer.

  8. Dielectrophoretic particle-particle interaction under AC electrohydrodynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh-Hyoung; Yu, Chengjie; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Farouk, Bakhtier; Noh, Hongseok M

    2011-09-01

    We used the Maxwell stress tensor method to understand dielectrophoretic particle-particle interactions and applied the results to the interpretation of particle behaviors under alternating current (AC) electrohydrodynamic conditions such as AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and electrothermal flow (ETF). Distinct particle behaviors were observed under ACEO and ETF. Diverse particle-particle interactions observed in experiments such as particle clustering, particles keeping a certain distance from each other, chain and disc formation and their rotation, are explained based on the numerical simulation data. The improved understanding of particle behaviors in AC electrohydrodynamic flows presented here will enable researchers to design better particle manipulation strategies for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:21823132

  9. Cyclotron production of Ac-225 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; McGinley, J; Abbas, K; Möllenbeck, J; Morgenstern, A

    2005-03-01

    The feasibility of producing Ac-225 by proton irradiation of Ra-226 in a cyclotron through the reaction Ra-226(p,2n)Ac-225 has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Proton energies were varied from 8.8 to 24.8 MeV and cross-sections were determined by radiochemical analysis of reaction yields. Maximum yields were reached at incident proton energies of 16.8 MeV. Radiochemical separation of Ac-225 from the irradiated target yielded a product suitable for targeted alpha therapy of cancer. PMID:15607913

  10. Help with Teaching Reading Comprehension: Comprehension Instructional Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Dole, Janice A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents five instructional frameworks demonstrated by research as being effective in teaching reading comprehension: (1) The Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE); (2) Questioning the Author (QtA); (3) Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR); (4) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and (5) Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction…

  11. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

  12. Selective Comprehensives: The Social Composition of Top Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at publicly available data on the proportion of pupils eligible and claiming for free school meals (FSM) in the top 500 comprehensive state schools and at how representative they are of their localities and of their school type. We have looked at the top 500 when measured by five good GCSEs including English and Maths and at the…

  13. Reading comprehension and its underlying components in second-language learners: A meta-analysis of studies comparing first- and second-language learners.

    PubMed

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2014-03-01

    We report a systematic meta-analytic review of studies comparing reading comprehension and its underlying components (language comprehension, decoding, and phonological awareness) in first- and second-language learners. The review included 82 studies, and 576 effect sizes were calculated for reading comprehension and underlying components. Key findings were that, compared to first-language learners, second-language learners display a medium-sized deficit in reading comprehension (pooled effect size d = -0.62), a large deficit in language comprehension (pooled effect size d = -1.12), but only small differences in phonological awareness (pooled effect size d = -0.08) and decoding (pooled effect size d = -0.12). A moderator analysis showed that characteristics related to the type of reading comprehension test reliably explained the variation in the differences in reading comprehension between first- and second-language learners. For language comprehension, studies of samples from low socioeconomic backgrounds and samples where only the first language was used at home generated the largest group differences in favor of first-language learners. Test characteristics and study origin reliably contributed to the variations between the studies of language comprehension. For decoding, Canadian studies showed group differences in favor of second-language learners, whereas the opposite was the case for U.S. studies. Regarding implications, unless specific decoding problems are detected, interventions that aim to ameliorate reading comprehension problems among second-language learners should focus on language comprehension skills.

  14. Fast oscillatory dynamics during language comprehension: Unification versus maintenance and prediction?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley Glen; Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The role of neuronal oscillations during language comprehension is not yet well understood. In this paper we review and reinterpret the functional roles of beta- and gamma-band oscillatory activity during language comprehension at the sentence and discourse level. We discuss the evidence in favor of a role for beta and gamma in unification (the unification hypothesis), and in light of mounting evidence that cannot be accounted for under this hypothesis, we explore an alternative proposal linking beta and gamma oscillations to maintenance and prediction (respectively) during language comprehension. Our maintenance/prediction hypothesis is able to account for most of the findings that are currently available relating beta and gamma oscillations to language comprehension, and is in good agreement with other proposals about the roles of beta and gamma in domain-general cognitive processing. In conclusion we discuss proposals for further testing and comparing the prediction and unification hypotheses.

  15. β-Turn analogues in model αβ-hybrid peptides: structural characterization of peptides containing β(2,2)Ac6c and β(3,3)Ac6c residues.

    PubMed

    Basuroy, Krishnayan; Rajagopal, Appavu; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Shamala, Narayanaswamy; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2012-06-01

    The effect of gem-dialkyl substituents on the backbone conformations of β-amino acid residues in peptides has been investigated by using four model peptides: Boc-Xxx-β(2,2)Ac(6)c(1-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid)-NHMe (Xxx = Leu (1), Phe (2); Boc = tert-butyloxycarbonyl) and Boc-Xxx-β(3,3)Ac(6)c(1-aminocyclohexaneacetic acid)-NHMe (Xxx = Leu (3), Phe (4)). Tetrasubstituted carbon atoms restrict the ranges of stereochemically allowed conformations about flanking single bonds. The crystal structure of Boc-Leu-β(2,2)Ac(6)c-NHMe (1) established a C(11) hydrogen-bonded turn in the αβ-hybrid sequence. The observed torsion angles (α(ϕ≈-60°, ψ≈-30°), β(ϕ≈-90°, θ≈60°, ψ≈-90°)) corresponded to a C(11) helical turn, which was a backbone-expanded analogue of the type III β turn in αα sequences. The crystal structure of the peptide Boc-Phe-β(3,3)Ac(6)c-NHMe (4) established a C(11) hydrogen-bonded turn with distinctly different backbone torsion angles (α(ϕ≈-60°, ψ≈120°), β(ϕ≈60°, θ≈60°, ψ≈-60°)), which corresponded to a backbone-expanded analogue of the type II β turn observed in αα sequences. In peptide 4, the two molecules in the asymmetric unit adopted backbone torsion angles of opposite signs. In one of the molecules, the Phe residue adopted an unfavorable backbone conformation, with the energetic penalty being offset by a favorable aromatic interaction between proximal molecules in the crystal. NMR spectroscopy studies provided evidence for the maintenance of folded structures in solution in these αβ-hybrid sequences.

  16. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    PubMed

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations.

  17. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    PubMed

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations. PMID:24906895

  18. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcárcel, D.; Neto, A.; Fortunato, J.; Carvalho, I.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-12-01

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed. In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented. The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat.

  19. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcarcel, D.; Neto, A.; Fortunato, J.; Carvalho, I.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-12-04

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed.In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented.The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat.

  20. Fabrication and study of AC electro-osmotic micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin

    In this thesis, microelectrode arrays of micropumps have been designed, fabricated and characterized for transporting microfluid by AC electro-osmosis (ACEO). In particular, the 3D stepped electrode design which shows superior performance to others in literature is adopted for making micropumps, and the performance of such devices has been studied and explored. A novel fabrication process has also been developed in the work, realizing 3D stepped electrodes on a flexible substrate, which is suitable for biomedical use, for example glaucoma implant. There are three major contributions to ACEO pumping in the work. First, a novel design of 3D "T-shaped" discrete electrode arrays was made using PolyMUMPsRTM process. The breakthrough of this work was discretizing the continuous 3D stepped electrodes which were commonly seen in the past research. The "T-shaped" electrodes did not only create ACEO flows on the top surfaces of electrodes but also along the side walls between separated electrodes. Secondly, four 3D stepped electrode arrays were designed, fabricated and tested. It was found from the experiment that PolyMUMPsRTM ACEO electrodes usually required a higher driving voltage than gold electrodes for operation. It was also noticed that a simulation based on the modified model taking into account the surface oxide of electrodes showed a better agreement with the experimental results. It thus demonstrated the possibility that the surface oxide of electrodes had impact on fluidic pumping. This methodology could also be applied to metal electrodes with a native oxide layer such as titanium and aluminum. Thirdly, a prototype of the ACEO pump with 3D stepped electrode arrays was first time realized on a flexible substrate using Kapton polyimide sheets and packaged with PDMS encapsulants. Comprehensive experimental testing was also conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties as well as the pumping performance. The experimental findings indicated that this fabrication

  1. Initial Tests of an AC Dipole for the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.

    2006-11-20

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  2. Initial Tests of an AC Dipole for the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, R.; Jansson, A.; Kopp, S.; Syphers, M.

    2006-11-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2σ at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  3. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Jansson, A.; Kopp, S.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  4. High-Frequency ac Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Mildice, James

    1987-01-01

    Loads managed automatically under cycle-by-cycle control. 440-V rms, 20-kHz ac power system developed. System flexible, versatile, and "transparent" to user equipment, while maintaining high efficiency and low weight. Electrical source, from dc to 2,200-Hz ac converted to 440-V rms, 20-kHz, single-phase ac. Power distributed through low-inductance cables. Output power either dc or variable ac. Energy transferred per cycle reduced by factor of 50. Number of parts reduced by factor of about 5 and power loss reduced by two-thirds. Factors result in increased reliability and reduced costs. Used in any power-distribution system requiring high efficiency, high reliability, low weight, and flexibility to handle variety of sources and loads.

  5. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in /sup 225/Ra, /sup 225/Ac, and /sup 227/Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in /sup 225/Ra and /sup 225/Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in /sup 227/Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Effect of ac on current-induced domain wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Lee, T. D.; Choa, S. H.; Seo, S. M.; Lee, K. J.

    2007-05-01

    Saitoh et al. [Nature (London) 432, 203 (2004)] have reported the experimental result showing the interplay of a transverse domain wall with an electrical ac of megahertz-range frequencies. They observed a single peak of resistance in the frequency range and interpreted it with a nonadiabatic spin torque. It was argued that an ac current can induce a micrometer-range displacement of domain wall. We reconstructed the experiment in micromagnetic simulations considering the local nonzero nonadiabatic spin torque. We could not observe either an explicit single peak in the frequency-dependent resistance or an eventual displacement of domain wall by use of an ac. It indicates the local nonadiabatic torque is inappropriate to explain the experimental results of ac-induced domain wall motion. Other approaches such as the nonlocal nonadiabatic spin torque may be needed.

  7. Instrument sequentially samples ac signals from several accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1967-01-01

    Scanner circuit sequentially samples the ac signals from accelerometers used in conducting noise vibration tests, and provides a time-averaged output signal. The scanner is used in conjunction with other devices for random noise vibration tests.

  8. Basic concepts of induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    The phenomena of induced AC on pipelines sharing common rights-of-way with overhead high-voltage electrical transmission power lines is discussed. Basic concepts and techniques for personnel safety and some pipeline protective measures are reviewed.

  9. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  10. Comprehensive Schools and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that comprehensive reorganisation was not a one-off policy reform but a complex, bottom-up campaign for equity and fairness in education, with varied consequences and outcomes. Recent battles over student fees, free schools and academies show that the quest for democratic education does not lead to a permanent achievement but…

  11. Innovation Learning in Comprehensive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…

  12. Analyzing Retellings To Assess Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feathers, Karen; And Others

    Three studies examined the impact of different instructional reading materials and subsequent analysis of comprehension by retellings. The first study investigated the influence of the presentation of the material. Subjects, 83 freshmen enrolled in a biology course, were shown one of four combinations of course material involving a slide…

  13. A Generic Comprehension Instructional Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a practical strategy for teaching reading comprehension that is based on current research and consists of five steps: (1) introduction, (2) example, (3) direct instruction, (4) teacher-directed and (5) independent practice. Provides sample lessons for each step. (FL)

  14. BASIC TEST OF READING COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLOWARD, ROBERT D.; COHEN, S. ALAN

    THE TEST WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPEED OF READING COMPREHENSION. IT CONSISTED OF NUMBERED PASSAGES, ONE TO THREE SENTENCES IN LENGTH, ARRANGED IN PARAGRAPH FORM TO SIMULATE THE NORMAL READING EXERCISE. TOWARD THE END OF EACH PASSAGE, A WORD WAS INSERTED WHICH SPOILED THE MEANING OF THE PASSAGE. THE PUPILS WERE INSTRUCTED TO FIND THE WORD THAT…

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation: Benefit or Burden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, K. Larry

    1982-01-01

    Reviews developments in faculty evaluation since 1968. Considers various evaluation models (e.g., Teacher Performance Test, comprehensive evaluation, and student evaluation). Concludes that rather than improving faculty performance, the emphasis on teacher evaluation has resulted in more faculty mistrust, lower self-esteem, less innovation and…

  16. Assessment Format and Comprehension Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, Ileana

    In response to the tradition of examining a new test's validity by comparing it with a well-established multiple-choice test, a study investigated whether multiple-choice tests with one right answer can measure the reading comprehension process as defined by constructivists. The study compared the information obtained from two different…

  17. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  18. Phonemic Support in Children's Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; McCutchen, Deborah

    A study investigated the role of phonemic information in young readers' silent reading comprehension. Subjects, 56 children in grades 2 and 4, from Seattle parochial schools, were blocked into groups based on their grade and skill level (skilled and less skilled). Each subject saw 48 sentences presented in a random order on an Apple II…

  19. Quantifier Comprehension in Corticobasal Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated patients with focal neurodegenerative diseases to examine a formal linguistic distinction between classes of generalized quantifiers, like "some X" and "less than half of X." Our model of quantifier comprehension proposes that number knowledge is required to understand both first-order and higher-order quantifiers.…

  20. Guidelines for Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline; And Others

    These guidelines are designed to assist local school districts and their Boards of Education in developing and implementing comprehensive guidance and counseling services in thier school systems. The components of the comprehensive guidance program are comprehensive guidance services, certified personnel, and comprehensive guidance facilities.…

  1. Designation of less favorable areas by the regionalization of soil degradation on various spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, L.; Szabó, J.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Laborczi, A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is to encourage maintaining agricultural production in less favorable areas (LFA) in order (among others) to sustain agricultural production and use natural resources, in such a way to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. LFA assignment has both ecological and severe economical aspects. Delimitation of LFAs can be carried out by using biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions. Identification of low-productivity areas requires regionalization of soil functions related to food and other biomass production. This process can be carried out in different scales from national to local level, but always requires map-based pedological and further environmental information with appropriate spatial resolution. For the regionalization of less productive areas in national scale a functional approach was used which integrates the knowledge on soil degradation processes in nationwide level. Specific soil threats were classified into ranked categories. Supposing (quasi)uniform distribution of vulnerability measure along these classes, we introduced a "standardized" value as a ratio of the class order to the maximum class order expressed in percentage. For the overall spatial characterization of degradation status, spatial information was integrated in a result map by summarizing the degradation specific "standardized" cell values. This map in one hand has been used for the delineation of soil degradation regions. On the other hand appropriate spatial aggregation of index values on geographical and administrative regions is suitable for their quantitative comparison thus they can be ranked and this feature can be used for the identification of less favorable areas. At the more detailed, county level the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System was used as a tool of the regionalization of soil functions related to soil

  2. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people’s actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant’s arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants’ grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant’s target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate’s grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings

  3. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people's actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant's arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants' grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant's target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate's grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings provide

  4. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  5. Search for {beta}-delayed fission of {sup 228}Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yanbing; Ding Huajie; Yuan Shuanggui; Yang Weifan; Niu Yanning; Li Yingjun; Xiao Yonghou; Zhang Shengdong; Lu Xiting

    2006-10-15

    Radium was radiochemically separated from natural thorium. Thin {sup 228}Ra{yields}{beta}{sup -228}Ac sources were prepared and exposed to mica fission track detectors, and measured by an HPGe {gamma}-ray detector. The {beta}-delayed fission events of {sup 228}Ac were observed and its {beta}-delayed fission probability was found to be (5{+-}2)x10{sup -12}.

  6. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields, which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small subvolume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field. © 2013 Optical Society of America PMID:23503278

  7. Accelerator Production of {sup 225}Ac For Alpha-Immunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    {sup 225}Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four alpha-particles emitted during its decay to stable {sup 209}Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few alpha-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated {sup 225}Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of {sup 225}Ac. Existing {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of {sup 225}Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the {sup 225}Ac production cross section is 12.4{+-}0.6 mb and the {sup 225}Ra production cross section is 3.2{+-}0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the {sup 227}Ac production cross section is 16{+-}1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.

  8. Accelerator Production of 225Ac For Alpha-Immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    225Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four alpha-particles emitted during its decay to stable 209Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few alpha-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated 225Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of 225Ac. Existing 232Th(p,x)225Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of 225Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the 232Th(p,x)225Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the 225Ac production cross section is 12.4±0.6 mb and the 225Ra production cross section is 3.2±0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the 227Ac production cross section is 16±1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.

  9. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f˜20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  10. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials. PMID:23218240

  11. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials.

  12. Update on bedside ultrasound (US) diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (AC).

    PubMed

    Zenobii, Maria Francesca; Accogli, Esterita; Domanico, Andrea; Arienti, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) represents a principal cause of morbidity worldwide and is one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization due to gastroenteric tract diseases. AC should be suspected in presence of clinical signs and of gallstones on an imaging study. Upper abdominal US represents the first diagnostic imaging step in the case of suspected AC. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast (IV) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast and technetium hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (Tc-HIDA) can be employed to exclude complications. US examination should be performed with right subcostal oblique, with longitudinal and intercostal scans. Normal gallbladder US findings and AC major and minor US signs are described. Polyps, sludge and gallbladder wall thickening represent the more frequent pitfalls and they must be differentiated from stones, duodenal artifacts and many other non-inflammatory conditions that cause wall thickening, respectively. By means of bedside ultrasound, the finding of gallstones in combination with acute pain, when the clinician presses the gallbladder with the US probe (the sonographic Murphy's sign), has a 92.2 % positive predictive value for AC. In our preliminary experience, bedside US-performed by echoscopy (ES) and/or point-of-care US (POCUS) demonstrated good reliability in detecting signs of AC, and was always integrated with physical examination and performed by a skilled operator.

  13. Temperature integration at the AC thermosensory neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Platt, Michael D; Lagnese, Christopher M; Leslie, Jennifer R; Hamada, Fumika N

    2013-01-16

    Temperature sensation has a strong impact on animal behavior and is necessary for animals to avoid exposure to harmful temperatures. It is now well known that thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels in thermosensory neurons detect a variable range of temperature stimuli. However, little is known about how a range of temperature information is relayed and integrated in the neural circuits. Here, we show novel temperature integration between two warm inputs via Drosophila TRPA channels, TRPA1 and Pyrexia (Pyx). The internal AC (anterior cell) thermosensory neurons, which express TRPA1, detect warm temperatures and mediate temperature preference behavior. We found that the AC neurons were activated twice when subjected to increasing temperatures. The first response was at ∼25°C via TRPA1 channel, which is expressed in the AC neurons. The second response was at ∼27°C via the second antennal segments, indicating that the second antennal segments are involved in the detection of warm temperatures. Further analysis reveals that pyx-Gal4-expressing neurons have synapses on the AC neurons and that mutation of pyx eliminates the second response of the AC neurons. These data suggest that AC neurons integrate both their own TRPA1-dependent temperature responses and a Pyx-dependent temperature response from the second antennal segments. Our data reveal the first identification of temperature integration, which combines warm temperature information from peripheral to central neurons and provides the possibility that temperature integration is involved in the plasticity of behavioral outputs.

  14. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  15. Sequential control by speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    The speed drive for ac motor is widely used in the industrial field to allow direct control for the speed and torque without any feedback from the motor shaft. By using the ABB ACS800 speed drive unit, the speed and torque can be controlled using sequential control method. Sequential control is one of the application control method provided in the ABB ACS800 Drive, where a set of events or action performed in a particular order one after the other to control the speed and torque of the ac motor. It was claimed that sequential control method is using the preset seven constant speeds being provided in ABB ACS800 drive to control the speed and torque in a continuous and sequential manner. The characteristics and features of controlling the speed and torque using sequential control method can be investigated by observing the graphs and curves plotted which are obtained from the practical result. Sequential control can run either in the Direct Torque Control (DTC) or Scalar motor control mode. By using sequential control method, the ABB ACS800 drive can be programmed to run the motor automatically according to the time setting of the seven preset constant speeds. Besides, the intention of this project is to generate a new form of the experimental set up.

  16. Equivalent Electrical Circuit Representations of AC Quantized Hall Resistance Standards

    PubMed Central

    Cage, M. E.; Jeffery, A.; Matthews, J.

    1999-01-01

    We use equivalent electrical circuits to analyze the effects of large parasitic impedances existing in all sample probes on four-terminal-pair measurements of the ac quantized Hall resistance RH. The circuit components include the externally measurable parasitic capacitances, inductances, lead resistances, and leakage resistances of ac quantized Hall resistance standards, as well as components that represent the electrical characteristics of the quantum Hall effect device (QHE). Two kinds of electrical circuit connections to the QHE are described and considered: single-series “offset” and quadruple-series. (We eliminated other connections in earlier analyses because they did not provide the desired accuracy with all sample probe leads attached at the device.) Exact, but complicated, algebraic equations are derived for the currents and measured quantized Hall voltages for these two circuits. Only the quadruple-series connection circuit meets our desired goal of measuring RH for both ac and dc currents with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of 10−8 RH or less during the same cool-down with all leads attached at the device. The single-series “offset” connection circuit meets our other desired goal of also measuring the longitudinal resistance Rx for both ac and dc currents during that same cool-down. We will use these predictions to apply small measurable corrections, and uncertainties of the corrections, to ac measurements of RH in order to realize an intrinsic ac quantized Hall resistance standard of 10−8 RH uncertainty or less.

  17. The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib—an oral AKT inhibitor—in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

  18. The Effects of Eliminating Lectures in Favor of In-class Collaborative Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause Dandaneau, Debra; Caracappa, Erin

    2009-05-01

    To meet the objectives of a general-education conceptual physics course (namely to ``reduce students' fears of science and to convey to them a substantial understanding'', students must be engaged in the learning process. Hands-on work and peer instruction are thought to be most effective, and when such methods are used, the course can reinforce research-based pedagogy to preservice teachers. Often, due to time constraints, interactive engagement is nonetheless auxiliary. In the current conceptual courses at our institution, the lecture has been virtually eliminated in favor of collaborative in-class activities, which make use of free, online, research-based simulations. Students perform experiments using simple materials when simulations are not available or can be supplemented. The course will be described and compared to a lecture-based course, in terms of attitudes improvement and learning gains. How Things Work text description from L. Bloomfield's site: http://howthingswork.virginia.edu/course.html) Primarily those on the PhET site: http://phet.colorado.edu/index.php

  19. Temporal variation favors the evolution of generalists in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Condon, Catriona; Cooper, Brandon S; Yeaman, Sam; Angilletta, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    In variable environments, selection should favor generalists that maintain fitness across a range of conditions. However, costs of adaptation may generate fitness trade-offs and lead to some compromise between specialization and generalization that maximizes fitness. Here, we evaluate the evolution of specialization and generalization in 20 populations of Drosophila melanogaster experimentally evolved in constant and variable thermal environments for 3 years. We developed genotypes from each population at two temperatures after which we measured fecundity across eight temperatures. We predicted that constant environments would select for thermal specialists and that variable environments would select for thermal generalists. Contrary to our predictions, specialists and generalists did not evolve in constant and spatially variable environments, respectively. However, temporal variation produced a type of generalist that has rarely been considered by theoretical models of developmental plasticity. Specifically, genotypes from the temporally variable selective environment were more fecund across all temperatures than were genotypes from other environments. These patterns suggest certain allelic effects and should inspire new directions for modeling adaptation to fluctuating environments.

  20. In a variable thermal environment selection favors greater plasticity of cell membranes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Brandon S; Hammad, Loubna A; Fisher, Nicholas P; Karty, Jonathan A; Montooth, Kristi L

    2012-06-01

    Theory predicts that developmental plasticity, the capacity to change phenotypic trajectory during development, should evolve when the environment varies sufficiently among generations, owing to temporal (e.g., seasonal) variation or to migration among environments. We characterized the levels of cellular plasticity during development in populations of Drosophila melanogaster experimentally evolved for over three years in either constant or temporally variable thermal environments. We used two measures of the lipid composition of cell membranes as indices of physiological plasticity (a.k.a. acclimation): (1) change in the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) and (2) change in lipid saturation (number of double bonds) in cool (16°C) relative to warm (25°C) developmental conditions. Flies evolved under variable environments had a greater capacity to acclimate the PE/PC ratio compared to flies evolved in constant environments, supporting the prediction that environments with high among-generation variance favor greater developmental plasticity. Our results are consistent with the selective advantage of a more environmentally sensitive allele that may have associated costs in constant environments.

  1. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Zak, Donald R; Cline, Lauren C

    2016-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil. PMID:26973633

  2. Small-Molecule Anticonvulsant Agents with Potent in vitro Neuroprotection and Favorable Drug-like Properties

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Garry R.; Brenneman, Douglas E.; Zhang, Yan; Du, Yanming; Reitz, Allen B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe seizure activity is associated with reoccurring cycles of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress that result in progressive neuronal damage and death. Intervention with these pathological processes is a compelling disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of seizure disorders. We have optimized a series of small molecules for neuroprotective and anticonvulsant activity as well as altered their physical properties to address potential metabolic liabilities, to improve CNS penetration and to prolong the duration of action in vivo. Utilizing phenotypic screening of hippocampal cultures with nutrient medium depleted of antioxidants as a disease model, cell death and decreased neuronal viability produced by acute treatment with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide were prevented. Modifications to our previously reported proof of concept compounds have resulted in a lead which has full neuroprotective action at < 1 nM and antiseizure activity across six animal models, including the kindled rat, and displays excellent pharmacokinetics including high exposure to the brain. These modifications have also eliminated the requirement for a chiral molecule, removing the possibility of racemization and making large scale synthesis more easily accessible. These studies strengthen our earlier findings which indicate that potent, multifunctional neuroprotective anticonvulsants are feasible within a single molecular entity which also possesses favorable CNS-active drug properties in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24277343

  3. Membrane anchoring stabilizes and favors secretion of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase.

    PubMed

    González, Lisandro J; Bahr, Guillermo; Nakashige, Toshiki G; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Bonomo, Robert A; Vila, Alejandro J

    2016-07-01

    Carbapenems, 'last-resort' β-lactam antibiotics, are inactivated by zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The host innate immune response withholds nutrient metal ions from microbial pathogens by releasing metal-chelating proteins such as calprotectin. We show that metal sequestration is detrimental for the accumulation of MBLs in the bacterial periplasm, because those enzymes are readily degraded in their nonmetallated form. However, the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) can persist under conditions of metal depletion. NDM-1 is a lipidated protein that anchors to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Membrane anchoring contributes to the unusual stability of NDM-1 and favors secretion of this enzyme in outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs containing NDM-1 can protect nearby populations of bacteria from otherwise lethal antibiotic levels, and OMVs from clinical pathogens expressing NDM-1 can carry this MBL and the blaNDM gene. We show that protein export into OMVs can be targeted, providing possibilities of new antibacterial therapeutic strategies.

  4. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  5. Multipotent adult hippocampal progenitor cells maintained as neurospheres favor differentiation toward glial lineages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisun; Daniels, Gabrielle J.; Chiou, Lawrence S.; Ye, Eun-Ah; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Sakaguchi, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) are generally maintained as a dispersed monolayer population of multipotent neural progenitors. To better understand cell-cell interactions among neural progenitors and their influences on cellular characteristics, we generated free-floating cellular aggregates, or neurospheres, from the adherent monolayer population of AHPCs. Results from in vitro analyses demonstrated that both populations of AHPCs were highly proliferative under maintenance conditions, but AHPCs formed in neurospheres favored differentiation along a glial lineage and displayed greater migrational activity, than the traditionally cultured AHPCs. To study the plasticity of AHPCs from both populations in vivo, we transplanted GFP-expressing AHPCs via intraocular injection into the developing rat eyes. Both AHPC populations were capable of surviving and integrating into the developing host central nervous system, but considerably more GFP-positive cells were observed in the retinas transplanted with neurosphere AHPCs, compared to adherent AHPCs. These results suggest that the culture configuration during maintenance for neural progenitor cells (NPCs) influences cell fate and motility in vitro as well as in vivo. Our findings have implication for understanding different cellular characteristics of NPCs according to distinct intercellular architectures and for developing cell-based therapeutic strategies using lineage-committed NPCs. PMID:24844209

  6. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. PMID:26913619

  7. The multiscale factors favorable for a persistent heavy rain event over Hainan Island in October 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijie; Sun, Jianhua; Zhao, Sixiong; Wei, Jie

    2016-06-01

    A case study is presented of the multiscale characteristics that produced the record-breaking persistent heavy rainfall event (PHRE) over Hainan Island, northern South China Sea (SCS), in autumn 2010. The study documents several key weather systems, from planetary scale to mesoscale, that contributed to the extreme rainfall during this event. The main findings of this study are as follows. First, the convectively active phase of the MJO was favorable for the establishment of a cyclonic circulation and the northward expansion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The active disturbances in the northward ITCZ helped direct abundant moisture from adjacent oceans towards Hainan Island continuously throughout the event, where it interacted with cold air from the midlatitudes and caused heavy rain. Second, the 8-day-long PHRE can be divided into three processes according to different synoptic systems: peripheral cloud clusters of a tropical depression-type disturbance over the central SCS in process 1; interactions between the abnormally far north ITCZ and the invading cold air in process 2; and the newly formed tropical depression near Hainan Island in process 3. In the relatively stable synoptic background of each process, meso- α- and meso- β-scale cloud clusters repeatedly traveled along the same path to Hainan Island. Finally, based on these analyses, a conceptual model is proposed for this type of PHRE in autumn over the northern SCS, which demonstrates the influences of multiscale systems.

  8. Reward and uncertainty favor risky decision-making in pilots: evidence from cardiovascular and oculometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Causse, Mickaël; Baracat, Bruno; Pastor, Josette; Dehais, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we examined plan continuation error (PCE), a well known error made by pilots consisting in continuing the flight plan despite adverse meteorological conditions. Our hypothesis is that a large range of strong negative emotional consequences, including those induced by economic pressure, are associated with the decision to revise the flight plan and favor PCE. We investigated the economic hypothesis with a simplified landing task (reproduction of a real aircraft instrument) in which uncertainty and reward were manipulated. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and eye tracking measurements were performed to get objective clues both on the cognitive and emotional state of the volunteers. Results showed that volunteers made more risky decisions under the influence of the financial incentive, in particular when uncertainty was high. Psychophysiological examination showed that HR increased and total HRV decreased in response to the cognitive load generated by the task. In addition, HR also increased in response to the financially motivated condition. Eventually, fixation times increased when uncertainty was high, confirming the difficulty in obtaining/interpreting information from the instrument in this condition. These results support the assumption that risky-decision making observed in pilots can be, at least partially, explained by a shift from cold to hot (emotional) decision-making in response to economic constraints and uncertainty.

  9. The streamwise development of Goertler vortices in a favorable pressure gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Finnis, M.V.; Brown, A.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the streamwise velocity variation within a laminar boundary layer on a concave surface of 4 m radius of curvature for which the free-stream velocity gradient factor ({nu}/U{sub 0}{sup 2})dU{sub 0}/dx was approximately 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. The velocity variation was consistent with the presence of counterrotating vortices resulting from the Goertler instability. The vortices exhibited exponential growth over the streamwise extent of the measurements to a disturbance amplitude of approximately 13% of the local free-stream velocity. The vortex growth rates were found to be less than those for a zero velocity gradient factor, indicating that a favorable pressure gradient stabilizes the flow with respect to the Goertler instability. Boundary layer profiles at local upwash and downwash positions are compared with the linear theory for which the mean flow was modeled using the Pohlhausen approximation to the solution of the boundary layer equations. The agreement between the measured and predicted profiles indicates that the linear stability theory can provide a fair approximation to the small amplitude growth of the Goertler instability.

  10. Anastrozole is a dose-specific superovulator and favors implantation in rats: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mwakikunga, Anthony; Hosie, Margot J

    2016-04-01

    An alternative superovulator to replace clomiphene citrate (CC) is needed as it is unsuitable for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective superovulator, but has not been well researched. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dose of anastrozole as a superovulator and ascertain its effects on implantation and uterine ultrastructure during early pregnancy in Wistar rats using scanning electron microscopy. The uterine morphological characteristics which were studied in day 1 and 6 pregnant rats include microvilli density, length, surface "beads", surface glycocalyx, cell borders and apices, uterine surface fording and large surface protrusions. A significant increase in implantation sites is seen in the 15 mg/kg anastrozole group, compared to control. Day 1 and 6 anastrozole groups have similar morphology to the control and different to the CC group. At day 6, large surface protrusions are mostly noted but not limited to anastrozole-treated rats; anastrozole also appears to retain glycocalyx to some extent. The increased number of implantation sites in the 15 mg/kg anastrozole group suggests that this dose superovulates and favors implantation. Anastrozole is probably dose-/species-specific and additionally the surface uterine morphology suggests that anastrozole is implantation friendly.

  11. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering.

  12. Biogenesis and Early Life on Earth and Europa: Favored by an Alkaline Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempe, Stephan; Kazmierczak, Jozef

    2002-03-01

    Recent discoveries about Europa - the probable existence of a sizeable ocean below its ice crust; the detection of hydrated sodium carbonates, among other salts; and the calculation of a net loss of sodium from the subsurface - suggest the existence of an alkaline ocean. Alkaline oceans (nicknamed "soda oceans" in analogy to terrestrial soda lakes) have been hypothesized also for early Earth and Mars on the basis of mass balance considerations involving total amounts of acids available for weathering and the composition of the early crust. Such an environment could be favorable to biogenesis since it may have provided for very low Ca2+ concentrations mandatory for the biochemical function of proteins. A rapid loss of CO2 from Europa's atmosphere may have led to freezing oceans. Alkaline brine bubbles embedded in ice in freezing and impact-thawing oceans could have provided a suitable environment for protocell formation and the large number of trials needed for biogenesis. Understanding these processes could be central to assessing the probability of life on Europa.

  13. Behavioral tradeoff in estuarine larvae favors seaward migration over minimizing visibility to predators.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Anastasia, Jean R

    2008-01-01

    The ability of microscopic larvae to control their fate and replenish populations in dynamic marine environments has been a long-running topic of debate of central importance to understanding the ecology and evolution of life in the sea and managing resources in a changing global environment. After decades of research documenting behaviors that keep larvae close to natal populations, it is becoming apparent that larval behaviors in a broader spectrum of species promote long-distance migrations to offshore nursery grounds. Larvae must exert considerable control over their movements. We now show that larval emigration from estuaries is favored even over minimizing visibility to predators. An endogenous tidal vertical migration that would expedite seaward migration of Uca pugilator larvae was maintained experimentally across two tidal regimes. The periodicity of the rhythm doubled to match the local tidal regime, but larvae ascended to the surface during the daytime rather than at night. This process would conserve larval emigration but increase the visibility to predators across part of the species range. The periodicity of tidal vertical migration by Sesarma cinereum larvae failed to double and was inappropriately timed relative to both environmental cycles in the absence of a diel cycle. The timing system regulating tidally timed behaviors in these two species of crabs evidently differed. Phenotypic plasticity can conserve larval transport of both species when tidal and diel cycles are present. It may be widespread in the sea where diverse habitats are encountered across extensive species ranges.

  14. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana.

    PubMed

    Varó, I; Redón, S; Garcia-Roger, E M; Amat, F; Guinot, D; Serrano, R; Navarro, J C

    2015-04-01

    The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological fitness also indicates out-competitive advantages.

  15. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Zachary B.; Upchurch, Rima A.; Zak, Donald R.; Cline, Lauren C.

    2016-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil. PMID:26973633

  16. Anthropogenic N Deposition Slows Decay by Favoring Bacterial Metabolism: Insights from Metagenomic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Zak, Donald R; Cline, Lauren C

    2016-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil.

  17. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Dubost, Audrey; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Muller, Daniel; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five). This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads. PMID:27610110

  18. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  19. GALNT2 suppresses malignant phenotypes through IGF-1 receptor and predicts favorable prognosis in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lu, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yung-Li; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens such as Tn antigen is associated with malignant transformation and cancer progression. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), one of the enzymes that mediate the initial step of mucin-type O-glycosylation, is responsible for forming Tn antigen. GALNT2 is expressed differentially in nervous tissues during mouse embryogenesis; however, the role of GALNT2 in neuroblastoma (NB) remains unclear. Here we showed that increased GALNT2 expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry in NB tumor tissues correlated well with the histological grade of differentiation as well as younger age at diagnosis, early clinical stage, primary tumor originated from the extra-adrenal site, favorable INPC histology, and MYCN non-amplification. Multivariate analysis showed that GALNT2 expression is an independent prognostic factor for better survival for NB patients. GALNT2 overexpression suppressed IGF-1-induced cell growth, migration, and invasion of NB cells, whereas GALNT2 knockdown enhanced these NB phenotypes. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that GALNT2 overexpression modified O-glycans on IGF-1R, which suppressed IGF-1-triggered IGF-1R dimerization and subsequent downstream signaling events. Conversely, these properties were reversed by GALNT2 knockdown in NB cells. Our findings suggest that GALNT2 regulates malignant phenotypes of NB cells through the IGF-1R signaling pathway, suggesting a critical role for GALNT2 in the pathogenesis of NB. PMID:25362349

  20. Favorable Impact of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cholesterol Levels in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujieda, Kenji; Fujita, Keinosuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu; Yorifuji, Toru; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to having metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in increased risks of developing atherosclerotic diseases. Objective: To determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on serum cholesterol levels in prepubertal girls with TS enrolled in the Turner syndrome Research Collaboration (TRC) in Japan. Patients and methods: Eighty-one girls with TS were enrolled in the TRC, and their total cholesterol (TC) levels before GH therapy were compared with reported levels of healthy school-aged Japanese girls. TC levels after 1, 2 and 3 yr of GH treatment were available for 28 of the 81 patients with TS. GH was administered by daily subcutaneous injections, 6 or 7 times/wk, with a weekly dose of 0.35 mg/kg body weight. Results: Baseline TC levels revealed an age-related increase in TS that was in contrast to healthy girls showing unchanged levels. During GH therapy, TC decreased significantly after 1 yr of GH treatment and remained low thereafter. Conclusions: Girls with untreated TS showed an age-related increase in TC that was a striking contrast to healthy girls, who showed unchanged levels. GH therapy in girls with TS brought about a favorable change in TC that indicates the beneficial impact of GH on atherogenic risk. PMID:23926408

  1. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  2. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  3. Flare Stars—a Favorable Object for Studying Mechanisms of Nonthermal Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, E.; Gershberg, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  4. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics.

  5. High CO sub 2 concentration alters carbohydrate partitioning in favor of shoots in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kroen, W.K.; Peet, M.M. )

    1991-05-01

    Two tomato cultivars were grown under ambient (350 {mu}1 1{sup {minus}1})or elevated (1,000 {mu}1 1{sup {minus}1}) levels of CO{sub 2} for 15 weeks. Stem and leaf dry biomass was significantly increased under high CO{sub 2} conditions, whereas there was no difference in root biomass in either cultivar. Carbon exchange rate was not enhanced by high CO{sub 2} after an initial increase. Leaf starch was dramatically increased in the high CO{sub 2}-grown plants, along with significant increases in leaf hexose and sucrose. There were no differences in stem or root carbohydrate concentrations between CO{sub 2} treatments. Partitioning of carbohydrates was thus altered in favor of above ground biomass at the expense of roots under conditions of high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen concentrations are decreased in the high CO{sub 2}-grown plants, indicating that the lack of partitioning to roots may have detrimental effects on leaf photosynthetic capacity. Fruit size and number were increased at high CO{sub 2}, with the enlarged fruit being potential sinks for nutrients and carbohydrates at the expense of roots.

  6. Range expansions favor the evolution of cooperation in an experimental microbial metapopulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Manoshi; Korolev, Kirill; Cvijovic, Ivana; Dudley, Carmel; Gore, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Natural populations frequently undergo range expansions in response to changes in the environment. Recent work suggests that range expansions can have a strong effect on evolution, even leading to the fixation of deleterious alleles that would normally be outcompeted in the absence of migration. However, little is known about how range expansions might influence alleles under frequency- or density-dependent selection. Moreover, there is very little experimental evidence to complement existing theory, since expanding populations are difficult to study in nature. In this study, we have used a yeast experimental system to explore the effect of range expansions on the evolution of cooperative behaviors, which commonly display frequency- and density-dependent selection and are widespread in nature. We found that range expansions favor the evolution of cooperation in two ways: (1) through the enrichment of cooperators at the front of the expanding population, and (2) by allowing cooperators to ``outrun'' an invading wave of defectors. In this system, cooperation is enhanced through the coupling of population ecology and evolutionary dynamics in expanding populations, providing experimental evidence for a novel mechanism through which cooperative behaviors could be maintained in nature.

  7. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Dubost, Audrey; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Muller, Daniel; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five). This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads.

  8. Quantifying favorableness for occurrence of a mineral deposit type using fuzzy logic; an example from Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.; Bultman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    An application of possibility theory from fuzzy logic to the quantification of favorableness for quartz-carbonate vein deposits in the southern Santa Rita Mountains of southeastern Arizona is described. Three necessary but probably not sufficient conditions for the formation of these deposits were defined as the occurrence of carbonate berain rocks within hypabyssal depths, significant fracturing of the rocks, and proximity to a felsic intrusive. The quality of data available to evaluate these conditions is variable over the study area. The possibility of each condition was represented as a fuzzy set enumerated over the area. The intersection of the sets measures the degree of simultaneous occurrence of hte necessary factors and provides a measure of the possibility of deposit occurrence. Using fuzzy set technicques, the effect of one or more fuzzy sets relative to the others in the intersection can be controlled and logical combinations of the sets can be used to impose a time sequential constraint on the necessary conditions. Other necessary conditions, and supplementary conditions such as variable data quality or intensity of exploration can be included in the analysis by their proper representation as fuzzy sets.

  9. Favorable effect of in-situ generated platinum in the membrane on fuel cell membrane durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Natalia; Wong, Ka Hung; Watson, Mark; Kjeang, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The overall lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is often determined by the membrane durability. Platinum, which may dissolve from the catalyst layers during fuel cell operation and deposit in the membrane, has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on membrane stability. In the present work, we analyze what specific conditions are required in order to reach a favorable, membrane stabilizing effect with the controlled use of platinum in the membrane. Using accelerated membrane durability testing, field operated membrane samples, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that a high platinum concentration with specific particle shapes and sizes is essential for enhanced membrane stability. Specifically, star shaped and dendritic particles with high particle density and high surface area are shown to be preferable. These particles contain high levels of Pt(111) and are expected to have high catalytic activity toward peroxide quenching and crossover gas consumption, thereby mitigating chemical membrane degradation. On the other hand, small, dispersed cubic particles are found to have no effect or the opposite, negative effect on membrane stability.

  10. Soluble OX40L favors tumor rejection in CT26 colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O; Yuzhakova, Diana V; Ryumina, Alina P; Druzhkova, Irina N; Sharonov, George V; Kotlobay, Alexey A; Zagaynova, Elena V; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Shirmanova, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    OX40 receptor-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) populate tumors and suppress a variety of immune cells, posing a major obstacle for cancer immunotherapy. Different ways to functionally inactivate Tregs by triggering OX40 receptor have been suggested, including anti-OX40 antibodies and Fc:OX40L fusion proteins. To investigate whether the soluble extracellular domain of OX40L (OX40Lexo) is sufficient to enhance antitumor immune response, we generated an OX40Lexo-expressing CT26 colon carcinoma cell line and studied its tumorigenicity in immunocompetent BALB/c and T cell deficient nu/nu mice. We found that soluble OX40L expressed in CT26 colon carcinoma favors the induction of an antitumor response which is not limited just to cells co-expressing EGFP as an antigenic determinant, but also eliminates CT26 cells expressing another fluorescent protein, KillerRed. Tumor rejection required the presence of T lymphocytes, as indicated by the unhampered tumor growth in nu/nu mice. Subsequent re-challenge of tumor-free BALB/c mice with CT26 EGFP cells resulted in no tumor growth, which is indicative of the formation of immunological memory. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice that successfully rejected CT26 OX40Lexo EGFP tumors to naïve mice conferred 100% resistance to subsequent challenge with the CT26 EGFP tumor. PMID:27203665

  11. The atmospheric conditions over Europe and the Mediterranean, favoring snow events in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssos, E. E.; Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.

    2007-09-01

    The 3-dimensional structure and the evolution of atmospheric circulation favoring snowfall in Athens are examined. The study refers to 61 snow events, which occurred during the period 1958-2001. For each one of the events, the patterns of MSL pressure, 850 hPa and 500 hPa air temperatures, 500 hPa geopotential height and 1000-500 hPa thickness are constructed for the European region, for the day before (D-1), the first day (D) and the day after the end of the event (END). A statistical methodology involving Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis is applied to the above data sets and the 61 cases are finally classified into five clusters. These clusters are generally characterized by a north-easterly flow in the lower troposphere over the Athens area. This flow is associated with the presence of a low pressure system around Cyprus and an anticyclone over Europe. The position, the intensity and the trajectories of the surface and the upper air systems during D-1, D and END days are generally different among the five clusters.

  12. Prediction of the most favorable configuration in the ACBP-membrane interaction based on electrostatic calculations.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Diego F; Zamarreño, Fernando; Guérin, Diego M A; Grigera, J Raul; Costabel, Marcelo D

    2009-03-01

    Acyl-CoA binding proteins (ACBPs) are highly conserved 10 kDa cytosolic proteins that bind medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters. They act as intracellular carriers of acyl-CoA and play a role in acyl-CoA metabolism, gene regulation, acyl-CoA-mediated cell signaling, transport-mediated lipid synthesis, membrane trafficking and also, ACBPs were indicated as a possible inhibitor of diazepam binding to the GABA-A receptor. To estimate the importance of the non-specific electrostatic energy in the ACBP-membrane interaction, we computationally modeled the interaction of HgACBP with both anionic and neutral membranes. To compute the Free Electrostatic Energy of Binding (dE), we used the Finite Difference Poisson Boltzmann Equation (FDPB) method as implemented in APBS. In the most energetically favorable orientation, ACBP brings charged residues Lys18 and Lys50 and hydrophobic residues Met46 and Leu47 into membrane surface proximity. This conformation suggests that these four ACBP amino acids are most likely to play a leading role in the ACBP-membrane interaction and ligand intake. Thus, we propose that long range electrostatic forces are the first step in the interaction mechanism between ACBP and membranes.

  13. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  14. Aerosol deposition favors red tide phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.; Chien, C.; Chen, Y.; Glover, D. M.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Chinese marginal seas support vast fisheries and vital economies, but their productivity is threatened by eutrophication from runoff and atmospheric deposition. The East China Sea is inundated with nitrogen from the Yangtze River and anthropogenic emissions, leading to elevated N:P ratios. We show that aerosol additions approximating one week of moderate deposition to offshore waters favor the growth of red tide phytoplankton, such as Skeletonema costatum, by providing nutrients and trace metals (iron and zinc) needed for growth. In contrast toxin-producing Pseudonitzchia does not benefit from aerosols in this region, possibly due to its preference for lower N:P ratios. A dose-dependent toxic response was observed in Synechococcus at high aerosol loads approximating a week of heavy deposition in the region. In contrast, phytoplankton growth at an onshore station was light limited, and aerosol additions did not have an appreciable effect on phytoplankton growth. Aerosol and chlorophyll observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite have the potential to explore the effect of aerosols on phytoplankton blooms over longer time scales and seasons. This study shows the potential for aerosols to control N:P ratios in offshore waters and to shape the phytoplankton community through fertilization and toxicity, contributing to the occurrence of red tides.

  15. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Vacheron, Jordan; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Dubost, Audrey; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Muller, Daniel; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five). This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads. PMID:27610110

  16. Preschool children favor copying a successful individual over an unsuccessful group.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Matti; Collier-Baker, Emma; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The human aptitude for imitation and social learning underpins our advanced cultural practices. While social learning is a valuable evolutionary survival strategy, blind copying does not necessarily facilitate survival. Copying from the majority allows individuals to make rapid judgments on the value of a trait, based on its frequency. This is known as the majority bias: an individual's tendency to copy the behavior elicited by the largest number of individuals in a population. An alternative approach is to follow those who are the most proficient. While there is evidence that children do show both processes, no study has directly pitted them against each other. To do this, in the current experiment 36 children aged between 4 and 5 years watched live actors demonstrate, as a group or individually, how to open novel puzzle boxes. Children exhibited a bias to the majority when group and individual methods were successful, but favored the individual if the group method was unsuccessful. Affiliating children with the unsuccessful majority group did not impact on this pattern. PMID:25529854

  17. Music, clicks, and their imaginations favor differently the event-based timing component for rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Del Tongo, Claudia; Carbonaro, Nicola; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The involvement or noninvolvement of a clock-like neural process, an effector-independent representation of the time intervals to produce, is described as the essential difference between event-based and emergent timing. In a previous work (Bravi et al. in Exp Brain Res 232:1663-1675, 2014a. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-3845-9 ), we studied repetitive isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs), performed while minimizing visual and tactile information, to clarify whether non-temporal and temporal characteristics of paced auditory stimuli affect the precision and accuracy of the rhythmic motor performance. Here, with the inclusion of new recordings, we expand the examination of the dataset described in our previous study to investigate whether simple and complex paced auditory stimuli (clicks and music) and their imaginations influence in a different way the timing mechanisms for repetitive IWFEs. Sets of IWFEs were analyzed by the windowed (lag one) autocorrelation-wγ(1), a statistical method recently introduced for the distinction between event-based and emergent timing. Our findings provide evidence that paced auditory information and its imagination favor the engagement of a clock-like neural process, and specifically that music, unlike clicks, lacks the power to elicit event-based timing, not counteracting the natural shift of wγ(1) toward positive values as frequency of movements increase.

  18. The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Eric M.; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  19. Niacin status and genomic instability in bone marrow cells; mechanisms favoring the progression of leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James B

    2012-01-01

    Niacin deficiency causes dramatic genomic instability in bone marrow cells in an in vivo rat model. The end result is seen in the increased incidence of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations and the eventual development of nitrosourea-induced leukemias. From a mechanistic perspective, niacin deficiency delays excision repair and causes double strand break accumulation, which in turn favor chromosome breaks and translocations. Niacin deficiency also impairs cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, which combine to encourage the survival of cells with leukemogenic potential. Niacin deficiency also enhances the level of oxidant damage found in cellular proteins and DNA, but not through depression of GSH levels. Pharmacological supplementation of niacin decreases the development of nitrosourea-induced leukemias, while short term effects of high niacin intake include a large increase in cellular NAD+ and poly(ADP-ribose) content and enhanced apoptosis. These results are important to cancer patients, which tend to be niacin deficient, are exposed to large doses of genotoxic drugs, and suffer short-term bone marrow suppression and long-term development of secondary leukemias. The data from our rat model suggest that niacin supplementation of cancer patients may decrease the severity of short and long-term side effects, and may also improve tumor cell killing through activation of poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent apoptosis pathways.

  20. Thermodynamic Conditions Favorable to Superlative Thunderstorm Updraft, Mixed Phase Microphysics and Lightning Flash Rate. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E.; Mushtak, V.; Rosenfeld, D.; Goodman, S.; Boccippio, D.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash rate have been merged with proximal surface station thermodynamic observations toward improving the understanding of the response of the updraft and lightning activity in the tropical atmosphere to temperature. The tropical results have led in turn to an examination of thermodynamic climatology over the continental United States in summertime and its comparison with exceptional electrical conditions documented in earlier studies. The tropical and mid-latitude results taken together support an important role for cloud base height in regulating the transfer of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) to updraft kinetic energy in thunderstorms. In the tropics, cloud base height is dominated by the dry bulb temperature over the wet bulb temperature as the lightning-regulating temperature in regions characterized by moist convection. In the extratropics, an elevated cloud base height may enable larger cloud water concentrations in the mixed phase region, a favorable condition for the positive charging of large ice particles that may result in thunderclouds with a reversed polarity of the main cloud dipole. The combined requirements of instability and cloud base height serve to confine the region of superlative electrification to the vicinity of the ridge in moist entropy in the western Great Plains.

  1. Three-phase ac-to-ac series-resonant power converter with a reduced number of thyristors

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassens, J.B.; de Beer, F. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that ac-ac series-resonant converters have been proven to be functional and useful. Power pulse modulation with internal frequencies of tens of kHz and suited for multikilowatt power levels is applied to a series-resonant converter system for generating synthesized multiphase bipolar waveforms with reversible power flow and flow distortion. The use of a series-resonant circuit for power transfer and control obtains natural current commutation of the thyristors and the prevention of excessive stresses on components. Switches are required which have bidirectional current conduction and voltage blocking ability. The conventional series-resonant ac-ac converter applies a total for 24 anti-parallel thyristors. An alternative circuit configuration for the series-resonant ac-ac converter with only 12 thyristors is also presented. The alternative power circuit has three neutrals, related to the polyphase source, the load and the converter, which may be interconnected. If they are connected, the high-frequency component of the source and load currents will flow through the connection between the neutrals. The test results of a converter system generating three-phase sinusoidal input and output waveforms have demonstrated the significant aspects of this type of power interfaces.

  2. 21 CFR 880.6320 - AC-powered medical examination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered medical examination light. 880.6320... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6320 AC-powered medical examination light. (a) Identification. An AC-powered medical examination light is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes that is used to illuminate...

  3. Comprehensive numerical modelling of tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.; Dubois, P.F.

    1991-01-03

    We outline a plan for the development of a comprehensive numerical model of tokamaks. The model would consist of a suite of independent, communicating packages describing the various aspects of tokamak performance (core and edge transport coefficients and profiles, heating, fueling, magnetic configuration, etc.) as well as extensive diagnostics. These codes, which may run on different computers, would be flexibly linked by a user-friendly shell which would allow run-time specification of packages and generation of pre- and post-processing functions, including workstation-based visualization of output. One package in particular, the calculation of core transport coefficients via gyrokinetic particle simulation, will become practical on the scale required for comprehensive modelling only with the advent of teraFLOP computers. Incremental effort at LLNL would be focused on gyrokinetic simulation and development of the shell.

  4. Comprehensible Presentation of Topological Information

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beketayev, Kenes; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Hamann, Bernd; Haranczyk, Maciej; Hlawitschka, Mario; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-03-05

    Topological information has proven very valuable in the analysis of scientific data. An important challenge that remains is presenting this highly abstract information in a way that it is comprehensible even if one does not have an in-depth background in topology. Furthermore, it is often desirable to combine the structural insight gained by topological analysis with complementary information, such as geometric information. We present an overview over methods that use metaphors to make topological information more accessible to non-expert users, and we demonstrate their applicability to a range of scientific data sets. With the increasingly complex output of exascale simulations, the importance of having effective means of providing a comprehensible, abstract overview over data will grow. The techniques that we present will serve as an important foundation for this purpose.

  5. Design of a novel chimeric tissue plasminogen activator with favorable Vampire bat plasminogen activator properties.

    PubMed

    Kazemali, MohammadReza; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Sardari, Soroush; Saadatirad, Amir Hossein; Khalaj, Vahid; Zarei, Najmeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-12-01

    Fibrinolytic agents are widely used in treatment of the thromboembolic disorders. The new generations like recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, alteplase) are not showing promising results in clinical practice in spite of displaying specific binding to fibrin in vitro. Vampire bat plasminogen activator (b-PA) is a plasminogen activator with higher fibrin affinity and specificity in comparison to t-PA resulting in reduced probability of hemorrhage. b-PA is also resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showing higher half-life compared to other variants of t-PA. However, its non-human origin was a driving force to design a human t-PA with favorable properties of b-PA. In the present study, we designed a chimeric t-PA with desirable b-PA properties and this new molecule was called as CT-b. The construct was prepared through kringle 2 domain removal and replacement of t-PA finger domain with b-PA one. In addition, the KHRR sequence at the initial part of protease domain was replaced by four alanine residues. The novel construct was integrated in Pichia pastoris genome by electroporation. Catalytic activity was investigated in the presence and absence of fibrin. The purified protein was analyzed by western blot. Fibrin binding and PAI resistance assays were also conducted. The activity of the recombinant protein in the presence of fibrin was 1560 times more than its activity in the absence of fibrin, showing its higher specificity to fibrin. The fibrin binding of CT-b was 1.2 fold more than t-PA. In addition, it was inhibited by PAI enzyme 44% less than t-PA. Although the presented data demonstrate a promising in vitro activity, more in vivo studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic advantage of this novel plasminogen activator.

  6. PolyA-Mediated DNA Assembly on Gold Nanoparticles for Thermodynamically Favorable and Rapid Hybridization Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Song, Ping; Shen, Juwen; Su, Shao; Chao, Jie; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zhou, Ziang; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Zuo, Xiaolei; Tian, Yang; Wang, Lianhui; Pei, Hao

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of biomolecules on nanointerface is critical in bioanalysis, which is great challenge due to the instability and the difficulty to control the orientation and loading density of biomolecules. Here, we investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization on gold nanoparticle, with the aim to improve the efficiency and speed of DNA analysis. We achieved precise and quantitative surface control by applying a recently developed poly adenines (polyA)-based assembly strategy on gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs). PolyA served as an effective anchoring block based on the preferential binding with the AuNP surface and the appended recognition block adopted an upright conformation that favors DNA hybridization. The lateral spacing and surface density of DNA on AuNPs can be systematically modulated by adjusting the length of polyA block. We found the stability of duplex on AuNP was enhanced with the increasing length of polyA block. When the length of polyA block reached to 40 bases, the thermodynamic properties were more similar to that of duplex in solution. Fast hybridization rate was observed on the diblock DNA-AuNPs and was increased along with the length of polyA block. We consider the high stability and excellent hybridization performance come from the minimization of the DNA-DNA and DNA-AuNP interactions with the use of polyA block. This study provides better understanding of the behavior of biomolecules on the nanointerface and opens new opportunities to construct high-efficiency and high-speed biosensors for DNA analysis. PMID:27058116

  7. Resection of ictal high-frequency oscillations leads to favorable surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Greiner, Hansel M.; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D.; Seo, Joo Hee; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T.; Leach, James L.; Rose, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown. Methods We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG. Key Findings Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%). Significance Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome. PMID

  8. Elevated CO2 and phosphate limitation favor Micromonas pusilla through stimulated growth and reduced viral impact.

    PubMed

    Maat, Douwe S; Crawfurd, Katherine J; Timmermans, Klaas R; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2014-05-01

    Growth and viral infection of the marine picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla was studied under a future-ocean scenario of elevated partial CO2 (pCO2; 750 μatm versus the present-day 370 μatm) and simultaneous limitation of phosphorus (P). Independent of the pCO2 level, the ratios of M. pusilla cellular carbon (C) to nitrogen (N), C:P and N:P, increased with increasing P stress. Furthermore, in the P-limited chemostats at growth rates of 0.32 and 0.97 of the maximum growth rate (μmax), the supply of elevated pCO2 led to an additional rise in cellular C:N and C:P ratios, as well as a 1.4-fold increase in M. pusilla abundance. Viral lysis was not affected by pCO2, but P limitation led to a 150% prolongation of the latent period (6 to 12 h) and an 80% reduction in viral burst sizes (63 viruses per cell) compared to P-replete conditions (4 to 8 h latent period and burst size of 320). Growth at 0.32 μmax further prolonged the latent period by another 150% (12 to 18 h). Thus, enhanced P stress due to climate change-induced strengthened vertical stratification can be expected to lead to reduced and delayed virus production in picoeukaryotes. This effect is tempered, but likely not counteracted, by the increase in cell abundance under elevated pCO2. Although the influence of potential P-limitation-relieving factors, such as the uptake of organic P and P utilization during infection, is unclear, our current results suggest that when P limitation prevails in future oceans, picoeukaryotes and grazing will be favored over larger-sized phytoplankton and viral lysis, with increased matter and nutrient flow to higher trophic levels. PMID:24610859

  9. UVB radiation as a potential selective factor favoring microcystin producing bloom forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280-320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m(2) in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years' continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers. PMID:24058503

  10. The crossed leg sign indicates a favorable outcome after severe stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rémi, J.; Pfefferkorn, T.; Owens, R.L.; Schankin, C.; Dehning, S.; Birnbaum, T.; Bender, A.; Klein, M.; Adamec, J.; Pfister, H.-W.; Straube, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether crossed legs are a prognostic marker in patients with severe stroke. Methods: In this controlled prospective observational study, we observed patients with severe stroke who crossed their legs during their hospital stay and matched them with randomly selected severe stroke patients who did not cross their legs. The patients were evaluated upon admission, on the day of leg crossing, upon discharge, and at 1 year after discharge. The Glasgow Coma Scale, the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and the Barthel Index (BI) were obtained. Results: Patients who crossed their legs (n = 34) and matched controls (n = 34) did not differ in any scale upon admission. At the time of discharge, the GCS did not differ, but the NIHSS was better in crossed legs patients (6.5 vs 10.6; p = 0.0026), as was the mRS (3.4 vs 5.1, p < 0.001), and the BI (34.0 vs 21.1; p = 0.0073). At 1-year follow-up, mRS (2.9 vs 5.1, p < 0.001) and the BI (71.3 vs 49.2; p = 0.045) were also better in the crossed leg group. The mortality between the groups differed grossly; only 1 patient died in the crossing group compared to 18 in the noncrossing group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Leg crossing is an easily obtained clinical sign and is independent of additional technical examinations. Leg crossing within the first 15 days after severe stroke indicates a favorable outcome which includes less neurologic deficits, better independence in daily life, and lower rates of death. PMID:21987641

  11. Suboptimal temperature favors reserve formation in biennial carrot (Daucus carota) plants.

    PubMed

    González, María V; Sadras, Victor O; Equiza, María A; Tognetti, Jorge A

    2009-09-01

    In response to suboptimal temperatures, temperate annual plants often increase root:shoot ratios, build-up carbohydrates and display typical morphological and anatomical changes. We know less about the responses of biennials such as carrot. As a model plant, carrot has the additional feature of two functionally and morphologically distinct root parts: the taproot, which stores carbohydrate and other compounds, and the fibrous root system involved in acquisition of water and nutrients. Here, we analyze the effects of temperature (12 vs 25°C) on growth, carbohydrate accumulation and whole-plant morphology in two carrot cultivars. Our working hypothesis is that suboptimal temperature favors active formation of reserve structures, rather than passive accumulation of storage carbohydrates. In comparison with plants grown at 25°C, plants grown at 12°C had: (1) higher fibrous root:shoot ratio (13%) , (2) thicker (10-15%) and smaller (up to two- to three-fold) leaves, (3) lower leaf cuticular permeance (two- to four-fold), (4) higher taproot:shoot ratio (two-fold), (5) higher phloem:xylem ratios in taproot (two- to six-fold), (6) unchanged percentage dry matter content (%DMC) in leaves, petioles or fibrous roots and (7) higher %DMC in taproot (20%). However, %DMC of individual taproot tissues (phloem and xylem) was unaffected by temperatures and was consistently higher in the phloem (up to 30%). Therefore, the higher %DMC of whole taproots at 12°C was attributed solely to the increased development of phloem tissue. Carrot, therefore, shares many of the most conspicuous elements of temperate plant responses to low temperatures. Consistently with our hypothesis, however, carrots grown at suboptimal temperature promoted reserve structures, rather than the increase in carbohydrate concentration typical of most temperate annual species and woody perennials.

  12. Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Viruses Leads to a Favorable Cytokine Profile of Specific T Cells.

    PubMed

    Luckau, Stefanie; Wehrs, Tim P; Brandau, Sven; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Several human papilloma viruses (HPV) are known to cause malignant transformation. The high-risk type HPV 16 is associated with cervical carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16-positive tumor cells exclusively carry the HPV 16 oncogenes E6 and E7. These oncogenes appear as excellent targets for an adoptive immunotherapy. We here addressed the question whether specific T cells from HPV-vaccinated healthy volunteers could be especially suitable for an HPV-specific cellular immunotherapy. Of note, vaccines contain HPV 16. To quantify HPV 16 E6-specific and E7-specific cells, enzyme-linked immunospot assays to measure interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (Th1-Th2 balance) and the secretion of the cytotoxic molecules granzyme B and perforin have been optimized. The frequency of peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting IFN-γ and perforin was significantly (P<0.05) increased in HPV-vaccinated versus nonvaccinated volunteers. Overall, however, the median frequency of HPV 16-specific cells with a favorable secretion profile (Th1 balanced and cytotoxic) was low even in vaccinated volunteers (IFN-γ: 0.0018% and 0.0023%, perforin: 0.01% and 0.0087% for E6-specific and E7-specific cells, respectively). But some vaccinated volunteers showed up to 0.1% HPV-specific, IFN-γ or perforin-secreting cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that vaccinated volunteers are superior to nonvaccinated donors for HPV-specific cellular cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27548034

  13. Purification and characterization of a novel phloretin-2′-O-glycosyltransferase favoring phloridzin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingjing; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Panxue; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yutang; Wei, Xinyuan; Fan, Mingtao

    2016-01-01

    Phloretin-2′-O-glycosyltransferase (P2′GT) catalyzes the last glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of phloridzin that contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apples and processed apple products. In this work, a novel P2′GT of Malus x domestica (MdP2′GT) with a specific activity of 46.82 μkat/Kg protein toward phloretin and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) at an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH 8.0 was purified from the engineered Pichia pastoris broth to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, His-Trap affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified MdP2′GT was low N-glycosylated and secreted as a stable dimer with a molecular mass of 70.7 kDa in its native form. Importantly, MdP2′GT also exhibited activity towards quercetin and adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG), kaempferol and UDPG, quercetin and UDP-galactose, isoliquiritigenin and UDPG, and luteolin and UDPG, producing only one isoquercitrin, astragalin, hyperoside, isoliquiritin, or cynaroside, respectively. This broad spectrum of activities make MdP2′GT a promising biocatalyst for the industrial preparation of the corresponding polyphenol glycosides, preferably for their subsequent isolation and purification. Besides, MdP2′GT displayed the lowest Km and the highest kcat/Km for phloretin and UDPG compared to all previously reported P2′GTs, making MdP2′GT favor phloridzin synthesis the most. PMID:27731384

  14. CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration is an independent favorable prognostic indicator in basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may indicate an immune response to cancer development, but their significance remains controversial in breast cancer. We conducted this study to assess CD8+ (cytotoxic T) lymphocyte infiltration in a large cohort of invasive early stage breast cancers, and to evaluate its prognostic effect in different breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. Methods Immunohistochemistry for CD8 staining was performed on tissue microarrays from 3992 breast cancer patients. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were counted as intratumoral when in direct contact with tumor cells, and as stromal in adjacent locations. Kaplan-Meier functions and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to examine the associations between tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and breast cancer specific survival. Results Among 3403 cases for which immunohistochemical results were obtained, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were identified in an intratumoral pattern in 32% and stromal pattern in 61% of the cases. In the whole cohort, the presence of intratumoral tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly correlated with young age, high grade, estrogen receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity and core basal intrinsic subtype, and was associated with superior breast cancer specific survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that the favorable prognostic effect of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes was significant only in the core basal intrinsic subgroup (Hazard ratio, HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.23-0.54). No association with improved survival was present in those triple negative breast cancers that lack expression of basal markers (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.48-2.04) nor in the other intrinsic subtypes. Conclusions CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an independent prognostic factor associated with better patient survival in basal-like breast cancer, but not in non-basal triple negative breast cancers nor in other intrinsic

  15. Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial pneumonia: is the outcome more favorable in non-ventilated than ventilated patients?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is associated with a high mortality worldwide. Non-ventilated patients with HAP (NVHAP) caused by nosocomial pathogens are reported to have a more favorable outcome than those with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The current study was designed to determine whether bacteremic patients with A. baumannii NVHAP also have a lower mortality than those receiving assisted ventilation. Methods This retrospective 10-year study was conducted at a 2900-bed teaching hospital located in Northern Taiwan. The population consisted of 144 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia and HAP. Of these 96 had VAP and 48 had NVHAP. Charts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, antimicrobial susceptibility, and 14-day mortality. Clonal relationships were determined by molecular typing. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in comorbidities (Charlson scores). Patients with NVHAP were more likely to have developed bacteremia earlier, outside the ICU and undergone fewer invasive procedures. They had significantly lower APACHE II scores, fewer bilateral pneumonias and lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. No specific clones were identified in either group. The unadjusted (crude) 14-day mortality rates were not significantly different between the groups (NVHAP 43.8% vs. VAP 31.3%, p = 0.196). The adjusted 14-day mortality risk was significantly lower in ventilator-assisted patients (odds ratio = 0.201; 95% confidence interval = 0.075-0.538; p = 0.001). Conclusions Patients with bacteremic NVHAP and VAP caused by A. baumannii had similar crude mortality rates, but on logistic regression analysis those receiving ventilator assistance had a significantly lower mortality. This may have been due to better airway protection, more intensive monitoring with earlier diagnosis and treatment in patients with VAP, greater innate susceptibility to

  16. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  17. Design of a novel chimeric tissue plasminogen activator with favorable Vampire bat plasminogen activator properties.

    PubMed

    Kazemali, MohammadReza; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Sardari, Soroush; Saadatirad, Amir Hossein; Khalaj, Vahid; Zarei, Najmeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-12-01

    Fibrinolytic agents are widely used in treatment of the thromboembolic disorders. The new generations like recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, alteplase) are not showing promising results in clinical practice in spite of displaying specific binding to fibrin in vitro. Vampire bat plasminogen activator (b-PA) is a plasminogen activator with higher fibrin affinity and specificity in comparison to t-PA resulting in reduced probability of hemorrhage. b-PA is also resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showing higher half-life compared to other variants of t-PA. However, its non-human origin was a driving force to design a human t-PA with favorable properties of b-PA. In the present study, we designed a chimeric t-PA with desirable b-PA properties and this new molecule was called as CT-b. The construct was prepared through kringle 2 domain removal and replacement of t-PA finger domain with b-PA one. In addition, the KHRR sequence at the initial part of protease domain was replaced by four alanine residues. The novel construct was integrated in Pichia pastoris genome by electroporation. Catalytic activity was investigated in the presence and absence of fibrin. The purified protein was analyzed by western blot. Fibrin binding and PAI resistance assays were also conducted. The activity of the recombinant protein in the presence of fibrin was 1560 times more than its activity in the absence of fibrin, showing its higher specificity to fibrin. The fibrin binding of CT-b was 1.2 fold more than t-PA. In addition, it was inhibited by PAI enzyme 44% less than t-PA. Although the presented data demonstrate a promising in vitro activity, more in vivo studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic advantage of this novel plasminogen activator. PMID:25442953

  18. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    alcohol-preferring P rats as a result of chronic voluntary exposure may have favorable vs. detrimental effects on lipid profiles in this genetic line, consistent with data supporting beneficial cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption. PMID:26405804

  19. Fate of pharmaceuticals in rivers: Deriving a benchmark dataset at favorable attenuation conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Pharmaceutical residues are commonly detected organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment. Their actual fate in rivers is still incompletely understood as their elimination is highly substance specific and studies often report contradictory results. To elucidate the ceiling of attenuation rates of pharmaceuticals in rivers we carried out a study at a river with favorable conditions for the elimination of organic micropollutants. Experiments were carried out at a small stream in Germany. Composite samples were taken at both ends of a 12.5 km long river stretch located downstream of a sewage treatment plant and analyzed for 10 pharmaceuticals. Moreover, pore water samples were taken and in situ photolysis experiments at several sites within the river stretch were performed to assess the importance of these individual elimination mechanisms. Pharmaceutical concentration in the surface water at the first sampling site ranged from 3.5 ng L(-1) for propranolol to 1400 ng L(-1) for diclofenac. In comparison to carbamazepine which was used as persistent tracer, all other pharmaceuticals were attenuated along the river stretch. Their elimination was higher in a sunny, dry weather period (period I) compared to a period with elevated discharge after a heavy rainfall (period II). Overall, the measured elimination rates ranged from 25% for sulfamethoxazole (period II) to 70% for propranolol (period I). Photolysis was only a relevant elimination process for diclofenac and potentially also for sotalol; for these compounds phototransformation half-life times of some hours were determined in the unshaded parts of the river. Biotransformation in the sediments was also an important attenuation process since the concentrations of the other pharmaceuticals in the sediments decreased relative to carbamazepine with depth. For the chiral betablocker metoprolol this biotransformation was also confirmed by a decrease in the enantiomer fractionation from 0.49 at site A to 0.43 at

  20. UVB Radiation as a Potential Selective Factor Favoring Microcystin Producing Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280–320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years’ continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers. PMID

  1. Greenland englacial drainage: conditions favoring water transport through a fractured aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyts, T. T.; Fountain, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the subglacial hydrology of glaciers and ice sheets has garnered intense interest because of its effects on ice sliding and potential ice sheet responses leading to sea level rise. Less attention has focused on the englacial water system that connects surface meltwater sources to the basal drainage system. Observations of englacial drainage have revealed diametrically opposed behaviors, so that understanding the role of the englacial system is critical to developing knowledge of ice sheet responses. The englacial connections either enhance or limit subglacial processes, including sliding. Some observations show cases where water drainage is mainly through an englacial system of fractures so that water flow at the bed is stunted. Other observations show static englacial water systems that play little role in drainage with primary drainage routes being along the bed. Here, we use a thermomechanical model of englacial water flow to understand the interaction between ice and water along these connections. We assume that water flow is through a series of connected fractures analogous to crevassed Greenland outlet glaciers. The fractures are modified by ice flow, and freezing and melting of the water system. Simple mathematical analyses show trade offs between closure rates and melting rates that determine the englacial flowpaths. From numerical experiments, we show that the dominance of englacial flow follows the locations of both bed overdeepenings and areas where the basal water system is compressed dynamically. The preponderance of overdeependenings in Greenland suggests that englacial systems may be favored in critical areas of ice sheet flow. We conclude by relating the insights from the analytic and numerical results to the broad scale patterns of change of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  2. A comprehensive dairy valorization model.

    PubMed

    Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

    2013-02-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. PMID:23200469

  3. Predictive mechanisms in idiom comprehension.

    PubMed

    Vespignani, Francesco; Canal, Paolo; Molinaro, Nicola; Fonda, Sergio; Cacciari, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    Prediction is pervasive in human cognition and plays a central role in language comprehension. At an electrophysiological level, this cognitive function contributes substantially in determining the amplitude of the N400. In fact, the amplitude of the N400 to words within a sentence has been shown to depend on how predictable those words are: The more predictable a word, the smaller the N400 elicited. However, predictive processing can be based on different sources of information that allow anticipation of upcoming constituents and integration in context. In this study, we investigated the ERPs elicited during the comprehension of idioms, that is, prefabricated multiword strings stored in semantic memory. When a reader recognizes a string of words as an idiom before the idiom ends, she or he can develop expectations concerning the incoming idiomatic constituents. We hypothesized that the expectations driven by the activation of an idiom might differ from those driven by discourse-based constraints. To this aim, we compared the ERP waveforms elicited by idioms and two literal control conditions. The results showed that, in both cases, the literal conditions exhibited a more negative potential than the idiomatic condition. Our analyses suggest that before idiom recognition the effect is due to modulation of the N400 amplitude, whereas after idiom recognition a P300 for the idiomatic sentence has a fundamental role in the composition of the effect. These results suggest that two distinct predictive mechanisms are at work during language comprehension, based respectively on probabilistic information and on categorical template matching.

  4. Distributed cooperative control of AC microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidram, Ali

    In this dissertation, the comprehensive secondary control of electric power microgrids is of concern. Microgrid technical challenges are mainly realized through the hierarchical control structure, including primary, secondary, and tertiary control levels. Primary control level is locally implemented at each distributed generator (DG), while the secondary and tertiary control levels are conventionally implemented through a centralized control structure. The centralized structure requires a central controller which increases the reliability concerns by posing the single point of failure. In this dissertation, the distributed control structure using the distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems is exploited to increase the secondary control reliability. The secondary control objectives are microgrid voltage and frequency, and distributed generators (DGs) active and reactive powers. Fully distributed control protocols are implemented through distributed communication networks. In the distributed control structure, each DG only requires its own information and the information of its neighbors on the communication network. The distributed structure obviates the requirements for a central controller and complex communication network which, in turn, improves the system reliability. Since the DG dynamics are nonlinear and non-identical, input-output feedback linearization is used to transform the nonlinear dynamics of DGs to linear dynamics. Proposed control frameworks cover the control of microgrids containing inverter-based DGs. Typical microgrid test systems are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control protocols.

  5. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed.

  6. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  7. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR. PMID:18237425

  8. Atypical pediatric ganglioglioma is common and associated with a less favorable clinical course.

    PubMed

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Ridder, Thomas; Dorris, Kathleen; Torok, Michelle R; Liu, Arthur K; Handler, Michael H; Stence, Nicholas V; Fenton, Laura Z; Hankinson, Todd C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Ganglioglioma (GG) is commonly recognized as a low-grade tumor located in the temporal lobe, often presenting with seizures. Most are amenable to complete resection and are associated with excellent oncological outcome. The authors encountered several GGs in various locations, which seem to have a less favorable clinical course than GGs in the temporal lobe. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective review of all children with a histological diagnosis of GG who were treated at Children's Hospital Colorado between 1997 and 2013. Each tumor was categorized by 2 pediatric neuroradiologists as typical or atypical based on preoperative MRI appearance. Typical lesions were cortically based, within a single cerebral lobe, well-circumscribed, and solid or mixed solid/cystic. The treatment and clinical course of each patient was analyzed. RESULTS Thirty-seven children were identified, with a median age at presentation of 8.2 years and median follow-up of 38.0 months. Eighteen tumors (48.6%) were typical and 19 (51.4%) were atypical. All typical lesions presented with seizures, whereas no atypical lesions did so. Sixteen (88.9%) typical lesions were located in the temporal lobe. In the atypical group, tumor location was variable, including 11 (57.9%) in the brainstem. Death during follow-up was statistically more common in the atypical group (31.6% vs 0%, p = 0.02). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved for 15 of 16 typical tumors (93.8%), compared with 3 atypical tumors (15.8%, p < 0.0001). Presentation with seizure or non-brainstem location were each associated with survival (p = 0.02 and 0.004, respectively). The presence of mutation in BRAF exon 15 did not differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Pediatric GG with typical imaging features is associated with excellent rates of GTR and overall survival. Atypical GG is commonly encountered, less amenable to GTR, and associated with a worse outcome. This may relate to anatomical or biological

  9. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR. PMID:18237425

  10. Human vergence eye movements to oblique disparity stimuli: evidence for an anisotropy favoring horizontal disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rambold, H. A.; Miles, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    are no major differences in the disparity detectors mediating the initial HDVR and VDVR, we sought an alternative explanation for our data. We show that the dependence of the initial HDVR and VDVR on grating orientation can be successfully modeled by a bias in the number and/or efficacy of the detectors that favors horizontal disparities. PMID:18675438

  11. An ignored but most favorable channel for NCO+C2H2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shao-wen; Ding, Yi-hong; Sun, Chia-chung

    2006-09-28

    The NCO+C(2)H(2) reaction has been considered as a prototype for understanding the chemical reactivity of the isocyanate radical towards unsaturated hydrocarbons in fuel-rich combustion. It has also been proposed to provide an effective route for formation of oxazole-containing compounds in organic synthesis, and might have potential applications in interstellar processes. Unfortunately, this reaction has met mechanistic controversy both between experiments and between experiments and theoretical calculations. In this paper, detailed theoretical investigations at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP6-31G(d), B3LYP6-311++G(d,p), quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations QCISD6-31G(d), and Gaussian-3 levels are performed for the NCO+C(2)H(2) reaction, covering various entrance, isomerization, and decomposition channels. Also, the highly cost-expensive coupled-cluster theory including single and double excitations and perturbative inclusion of triple excitations CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ single-point energy calculation is performed for the geometries obtained at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP6-311++G(d,p) level. A previously ignored yet most favorable channel via a four-membered ring intermediate with allyl radical character is found. However, formation of P(3) H+HCCNCO and the five-membered ring channel predicted by previous experimental and theoretical studies is kinetically much less competitive. With the new channel, master equation rate constant calculations over a wide range of temperatures (298-1500 K) and pressures (10-560 Torr) show that the predicted total rate constants exhibit a positive-temperature dependence and no distinct pressure dependence effect. This is in qualitative agreement with available experimental results. Under the experimental conditions, the predicted values are about 50% lower than the latest experimental results. Also, the branching ratio variations of the fragments P(2) HCN+HCCO and P

  12. An ignored but most favorable channel for NCO +C2H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong-bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shao-wen; Ding, Yi-hong; Sun, Chia-chung

    2006-09-01

    The NCO +C2H2 reaction has been considered as a prototype for understanding the chemical reactivity of the isocyanate radical towards unsaturated hydrocarbons in fuel-rich combustion. It has also been proposed to provide an effective route for formation of oxazole-containing compounds in organic synthesis, and might have potential applications in interstellar processes. Unfortunately, this reaction has met mechanistic controversy both between experiments and between experiments and theoretical calculations. In this paper, detailed theoretical investigations at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP /6-31G(d), B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p), quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations QCISD /6-31G(d), and Gaussian-3 levels are performed for the NCO +C2H2 reaction, covering various entrance, isomerization, and decomposition channels. Also, the highly cost-expensive coupled-cluster theory including single and double excitations and perturbative inclusion of triple excitations CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ single-point energy calculation is performed for the geometries obtained at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p) level. A previously ignored yet most favorable channel via a four-membered ring intermediate with allyl radical character is found. However, formation of P3 H +HCCNCO and the five-membered ring channel predicted by previous experimental and theoretical studies is kinetically much less competitive. With the new channel, master equation rate constant calculations over a wide range of temperatures (298-1500K) and pressures (10-560Torr) show that the predicted total rate constants exhibit a positive-temperature dependence and no distinct pressure dependence effect. This is in qualitative agreement with available experimental results. Under the experimental conditions, the predicted values are about 50% lower than the latest experimental results. Also, the branching ratio variations of the fragments P2 HCN +HCCO and P5

  13. ac electroosmotic pumping induced by noncontact external electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shau-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Electroosmotic (EO) pumps based on dc electroosmosis is plagued by bubble generation and other electrochemical reactions at the electrodes at voltages beyond 1 V for electrolytes. These disadvantages limit their throughput and offset their portability advantage over mechanical syringe or pneumatic pumps. ac electroosmotic pumps at high frequency (>100 kHz) circumvent the bubble problem by inducing polarization and slip velocity on embedded electrodes,1 but they require complex electrode designs to produce a net flow. We report a new high-throughput ac EO pump design based on induced-polarization on the entire channel surface instead of just on the electrodes. Like dc EO pumps, our pump electrodes are outside of the load section and form a cm-long pump unit consisting of three circular reservoirs (3 mm in diameter) connected by a 1x1 mm channel. The field-induced polarization can produce an effective Zeta potential exceeding 1 V and an ac slip velocity estimated as 1 mmsec or higher, both one order of magnitude higher than earlier dc and ac pumps, giving rise to a maximum throughput of 1 mulsec. Polarization over the entire channel surface, quadratic scaling with respect to the field and high voltage at high frequency without electrode bubble generation are the reasons why the current pump is superior to earlier dc and ac EO pumps. PMID:19693362

  14. Muc5ac Mucin Expression During Rat Skin Development

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, V.; Segal-Eiras, A.; Barbeito, C.G.; Croce, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during pre- and post-natal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days after birth when the surface epidermis became negative and the reaction was restricted to secreting sebum cells. In coincidence with IHC findings, WB analysis showed a band at approximately 200KDa at the same periods of development. Results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report that confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development. PMID:25820562

  15. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  16. Impedance, AC conductivity and dielectric behavior Adeninium Trichloromercurate (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fersi, M. Amine; Chaabane, I.; Gargouri, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we report the measurements impedance spectroscopy technique for the organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C5H6N5) HgCl3, 11/2H2O measured in the 209 Hz-5 MHz frequency range from 378 to 428 K. Besides, the Cole-Cole (Z″ versus Z‧) plots were well fitted to an equivalent circuit built up by a parallel combination of resistance (R), fractal capacitance (CPE) and capacitance (C). Furthermore, the AC conductivity was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency in the same range. The experiment results indicated that AC conductivity (σac) was proportional to σdc + A ωS . The obtained results are discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. An agreement between the experimental and theoretical results suggests that the AC conductivity behavior of Adeninium Trichloromercurate (II) can be successfully explained by CBH model. The contribution of single polaron hopping to AC conductivity in a present alloy was also studied.

  17. AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Schwenterly, S W

    2011-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

  18. Oxidative coupling of methane with ac and dc corona discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marafee, A.; Hill, B.; Xu, G.; Mallinson, R.; Lobban, L.

    1996-10-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is being actively studied for the production of higher hydrocarbons from natural gas. The present study concentrated on the oxidative conversion of methane in an atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasma formed by ac or dc corona discharges. Methyl radicals are formed by reaction with negatively-charged oxygen species created in the corona discharge. The selectivity to products ethane and ethylene is affected by electrode polarity, frequency, and oxygen partial pressure in the feed. Higher C{sub 2} yields were obtained with the ac corona. All the ac corona discharges are initiated at room temperature (i.e., no oven or other heat source is used), and the temperature increases to 300--500 C due to the exothermic reactions and the discharge itself. The largest C{sub 2} yield is 21% with 43.3% methane conversion and 48.3% C{sub 2} selectivity at a flowrate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min when the ac corona is at 30 Hz, 5 kV (rms) input power was used. The methane conversion may be improved to more than 50% by increasing the residence time, but the C{sub 2} selectivity decreases. A reaction mechanism including the oxidative dehydrogenation (OXD) of ethane to ethylene is presented to explain the observed phenomena. The results suggest that ac and/or dc gas discharge techniques have significant promise for improving the economics of OCM processes.

  19. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  20. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and

  1. A Comprehensive Ubiquitous Healthcare Solution on an Android™ Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    Hii, Pei-Cheng; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    Provision of ubiquitous healthcare solutions which provide healthcare services at anytime anywhere has become more favorable nowadays due to the emphasis on healthcare awareness and also the growth of mobile wireless technologies. Following this approach, an Android™ smart phone device is proposed as a mobile monitoring terminal to observe and analyze ECG (electrocardiography) waveforms from wearable ECG devices in real time under the coverage of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The exploitation of WSN in healthcare is able to substitute the complicated wired technology, moving healthcare away from a fixed location setting. As an extension to the monitoring scheme, medicine care is taken into consideration by utilizing the mobile phone as a barcode decoder, to verify and assist out-patients in the medication administration process, providing a better and more comprehensive healthcare service. PMID:22163986

  2. Linguistic rhythm guides parsing decisions in written sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Gerrit

    2012-04-01

    Various recent studies attest that reading involves creating an implicit prosodic representation of the written text which may systematically affect the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in sentence comprehension. Research up to now suggests that implicit prosody itself depends on a partial syntactic analysis of the text, raising the question of whether implicit prosody contributes to the parsing process, or whether it merely interprets the syntactic analysis. The present reading experiments examine the influence of stress-based linguistic rhythm on the resolution of local lexical-syntactic ambiguities in German. Both speech production data from unprepared oral reading and eye-tracking results from silent reading demonstrate that readers favor syntactic analyses that allow for a prosodic representation in which stressed and unstressed syllables alternate rhythmically. The findings contribute evidence confirming immediate and guiding effects of linguistic rhythm on the earliest stages of syntactic parsing in reading. PMID:22217385

  3. A comprehensive ubiquitous healthcare solution on an Android™ mobile device.

    PubMed

    Hii, Pei-Cheng; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    Provision of ubiquitous healthcare solutions which provide healthcare services at anytime anywhere has become more favorable nowadays due to the emphasis on healthcare awareness and also the growth of mobile wireless technologies. Following this approach, an Android™ smart phone device is proposed as a mobile monitoring terminal to observe and analyze ECG (electrocardiography) waveforms from wearable ECG devices in real time under the coverage of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The exploitation of WSN in healthcare is able to substitute the complicated wired technology, moving healthcare away from a fixed location setting. As an extension to the monitoring scheme, medicine care is taken into consideration by utilizing the mobile phone as a barcode decoder, to verify and assist out-patients in the medication administration process, providing a better and more comprehensive healthcare service. PMID:22163986

  4. Linguistic rhythm guides parsing decisions in written sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Gerrit

    2012-04-01

    Various recent studies attest that reading involves creating an implicit prosodic representation of the written text which may systematically affect the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in sentence comprehension. Research up to now suggests that implicit prosody itself depends on a partial syntactic analysis of the text, raising the question of whether implicit prosody contributes to the parsing process, or whether it merely interprets the syntactic analysis. The present reading experiments examine the influence of stress-based linguistic rhythm on the resolution of local lexical-syntactic ambiguities in German. Both speech production data from unprepared oral reading and eye-tracking results from silent reading demonstrate that readers favor syntactic analyses that allow for a prosodic representation in which stressed and unstressed syllables alternate rhythmically. The findings contribute evidence confirming immediate and guiding effects of linguistic rhythm on the earliest stages of syntactic parsing in reading.

  5. Intrahepatic Tissue Implantation Represents a Favorable Approach for Establishing Orthotopic Transplantation Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Quan; You, Abin; Guo, Zhenglong; Zuo, Bingfeng; Gao, Xianjun; Zhang, Ti; Du, Zhi; Wu, Chenxuan; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used for studying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology and exploring new therapeutic interventions. Currently three main modalities of HCC mouse models have been extensively employed in pre-clinical studies including chemically induced, transgenic and transplantation models. Among them, transplantation models are preferred for evaluating in vivo drug efficacy in pre-clinical settings given the short latency, uniformity in size and close resemblance to tumors in patients. However methods used for establishing orthotopic HCC transplantation mouse models are diverse and fragmentized without a comprehensive comparison. Here, we systemically evaluate four different approaches commonly used to establish HCC mice in preclinical studies, including intravenous, intrasplenic, intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. Four parameters--the latency period, take rates, pathological features and metastatic rates--were evaluated side-by-side. 100% take rates were achieved in liver with intrahepatic, intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. In contrast, no tumor in liver was observed with intravenous injection of tumor cells. Intrahepatic tissue implantation resulted in the shortest latency with 0.5 cm (longitudinal diameter) tumors found in liver two weeks after implantation, compared to 0.1cm for intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells. Approximately 0.1cm tumors were only visible at 4 weeks after intrasplenic inoculation. Uniform, focal and solitary tumors were formed with intrahepatic tissue implantation whereas multinodular, dispersed and non-uniform tumors produced with intrahepatic and intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells. Notably, metastasis became visible in liver, peritoneum and mesenterium at 3 weeks post-implantation, and lung metastasis was visible after 7 weeks. T cell infiltration was evident in tumors, resembling the situation in HCC patients. Our study

  6. Metaphor comprehension in Alzheimer's disease: novelty matters.

    PubMed

    Amanzio, Martina; Geminiani, Giuliano; Leotta, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    The comprehension of non-literal language was investigated in 20 probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients by comparing their performance to that of 20 matched control subjects. pAD patients were unimpaired in the comprehension of conventional metaphors and idioms. However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of non-conventional (novel) metaphor comprehension. This ability was not related to global cognitive deterioration or to deficits in the cognitive domains of attention, memory and language comprehension. On the other hand, the impairment in verbal reasoning appeared to be relevant for both novel and conventional metaphor comprehension. The relationship between novel metaphor comprehension and performance in the visual-spatial planning task of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) suggests that executive impairment, possibly related to prefrontal dysfunction, may be responsible for the pAD patients' poor performance in novel metaphor comprehension. The present findings suggest a role of the prefrontal cortex in novel metaphor comprehension.

  7. On the importance of listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

    2014-06-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.

  8. On the importance of listening comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Alonzo, Crystle

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills: poor comprehenders. Finally it discusses key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

  9. How Do We Motivate Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy

    1982-01-01

    Considers the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Uses A. Maslow's hierarchy of motivation as a heuristic for examining the motivational quality of several teaching methods commonly proposed for comprehension instruction. (FL)

  10. On the importance of listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

    2014-06-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

  11. Variable transposition of eight maize activator (ac) elements located on the short arm of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, William F

    2011-09-01

    Eight Activator (Ac) transposable elements mapped to the maize chromosome arm 1S were assessed for Ac transposition rates. For each of the Ac stocks, plants homozygous for the single Ac element and the Ds reporter r1-sc:m3 on chromosome 10 were crossed as females by a homozygous r1-sc:m3 tester color-converted W22 line. The resulting ears produced mostly coarsely spotted kernels and a low frequency of either near-colorless fine-spotted kernels or nonspotted kernels. The relative frequency of these two types of near-colorless kernels differed among the eight Ac stocks. The extent to which increased Ac dosage results in nonspotted kernels may be Ac-specific. Although all of the Ac elements are in near-isogenic inbred W22 lines, they varied to a large extent in their transposition frequency. These differences might possibly result from structural differences among the Ac elements. Because one pair of Ac elements derived from Ac33 on chromosome arm 5S differed about 13-fold in transposition frequency and a second pair of Ac elements derived from Ac12 on chromosome arm 1S differed about 3-fold in transposition frequency, this is not a likely explanation for all eight Ac elements. The data presented here support the notion that the differences in transposition frequency of the eight Ac elements may be a reflection of variability in Ac transcription or accessibility of the transposase to the Ac element, resulting from differences in the chromatin environments wherein the Ac elements are located. This is the first report of variability in transposition rates among different Ac donor lines.

  12. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  13. Flux-motion related ac losses in high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. Y.

    1993-03-01

    The ac losses of high-temperature superconductors in the flux-depinned mixed-state have been treated using the classical magnetic diffusion equation in conjunction with various models of flux-motion. With the imaginary part representing the ac losses, the field- and frequency-dependent ac susceptibilities were investigated. The imaginary component was found to obey a scaling rule with a characteristic frequency, estimated to be about 10 exp 5-10 exp 9 Hz, that depended on the sample size and normal state resistivity. This frequency range agrees with earlier experimental results, which could not be accounted for previously based upon the notion of thermally activated hopping of vortices. The frequency scaling behaviors using flux-creep and flux-flow models are presented.

  14. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Reddy, C. Narayana; Gowda, Veeranna

    2011-07-01

    Glasses in the system xLi2SO4-20Li2O-(80-x) [80P2O5-20V2O5] (5⩾x⩾20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aωs where `s' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  15. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  16. Theory of the ac spin-valve effect.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Denis; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2011-10-21

    The spin-valve complex magnetoimpedance of symmetric ferromagnet-normal-metal-ferromagnet junctions is investigated within the drift-diffusion (standard) model of spin injection. The ac magnetoresistance-the real part difference of the impedances of the parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations-exhibits an overall damped oscillatory behavior, as an interplay of the diffusion and spin relaxation times. In wide junctions the ac magnetoresistance oscillates between positive and negative values, reflecting resonant amplification and depletion of the spin accumulation, while the line shape for thin tunnel junctions is predicted to be purely Lorentzian. The ac spin-valve effect could be a technique to extract spin transport and spin relaxation parameters in the absence of a magnetic field and for a fixed sample size. PMID:22107552

  17. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  18. Modeling and Correcting the Time-Dependent ACS PSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Taylor, James E.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2006-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure the shapes of faint objects in images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) depends upon detailed knowledge of the Point Spread Function (PSF). We show that thermal fluctuations cause the PSF of the ACS Wide Field Camera (WFC) to vary over time. We describe a modified version of the TinyTim PSF modeling software to create artificial grids of stars across the ACS field of view at a range of telescope focus values. These models closely resemble the stars in real ACS images. Using 10 bright stars in a real image, we have been able to measure HST s apparent focus at the time of the exposure. TinyTim can then be used to model the PSF at any position on the ACS field of view. This obviates the need for images of dense stellar fields at different focus values, or interpolation between the few observed stars. We show that residual differences between our TinyTim models and real data are likely due to the effects of Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) degradation. Furthermore, we discuss stochastic noise that is added to the shape of point sources when distortion is removed, and we present MultiDrizzle parameters that are optimal for weak lensing science. Specifically, we find that reducing the MultiDrizzle output pixel scale and choosing a Gaussian kernel significantly stabilizes the resulting PSF after image combination, while still eliminating cosmic rays/bad pixels, and correcting the large geometric distortion in the ACS. We discuss future plans, which include more detailed study of the effects of CTE degradation on object shapes and releasing our TinyTim models to the astronomical community.

  19. Idiom Comprehension in Mandarin-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…

  20. Years Later, Comprehension Strategies Still at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Ellin Oliver; Zimmermann, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, authors Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmermann reflect on comprehension strategy instruction 15 years after the publication of their book, "Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop." They reassert their claim that to teach comprehension well, we must first read widely and scrutinize our own reading…