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Sample records for act afa crab

  1. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  2. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  3. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  4. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  5. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  6. 76 FR 58414 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA715 Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject...

  7. 76 FR 59922 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA729 Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject...

  8. 78 FR 15705 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; American Fisheries Act (AFA): Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA): Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... currently approved information collection. In response to the American Fisheries Act (AFA), NMFS developed a management program for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI) pollock to include a set of...

  9. 76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA) vessels with historical participation in the Bering Sea snow crab fishery because these vessels are subject to GOA harvesting and processing restrictions under the AFA and the implementing regulations for the AFA (Sec. 679.64(b)). Vessels subject to the sideboards are referred to as ``non-AFA...

  10. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... authorized to conduct directed fishing for pollock under the American Fisheries Act (AFA) of 1998 (Public Law.... Vessels that meet these criteria subsequently will be referred to as ``non-AFA crab vessels.'' The CR Program did not establish sideboard limits for AFA vessels with historical participation in the Bering...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  13. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  16. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  17. 75 FR 3875 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  18. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in...

  19. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  20. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  1. The AfaR small RNA controls expression of the AfaD-VIII invasin in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Christophe; du Merle, Laurence; Lequeutre, Isabelle; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains carrying the afa-8 gene cluster are frequently associated with extra-intestinal infections in humans and animals. The afa-8 A to E genes determine the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath consisting of the AfaD-VIII invasin and the AfaE-VIII adhesin at the bacterial cell surface. This structure is thought to be required for host colonization. We characterized a new gene encoding the small RNA AfaR, which is transcribed in cis from the complementary strand of the 3′ untranslated region of the afaD messenger RNA, within the afaD–afaE intercistronic region. AfaR is a trans-acting Hfq-dependent antisense small RNA that binds the 5′ untranslated region of the afaD messenger RNA, initiating several ribonuclease E-dependent cleavages, thereby downregulating production of the AfaD-VIII invasin. AfaR transcription is dependent on σE, a member of the stress response family of extracytoplasmic alternative sigma factors. We found that the AfaR-dependent regulatory pathway was controlled by temperature, allowing the production of the AfaD-VIII invasin at temperatures above 37°C. Our findings suggest that the entry of afa-8-positive pathogenic E. coli strains into epithelial cells is tightly regulated by the AfaR small RNA. PMID:23563153

  2. 77 FR 3956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    .../ Processors Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels operating as catcher/ processors using pot gear in the Western... as catcher/processors using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  8. Factor C acts as a lipopolysaccharide-responsive C3 convertase in horseshoe crab complement activation.

    PubMed

    Ariki, Shigeru; Takahara, Shusaku; Shibata, Toshio; Fukuoka, Takaaki; Ozaki, Aya; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2008-12-01

    The complement system in vertebrates plays an important role in host defense against and clearance of invading microbes, in which complement component C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. In an effort to understand the molecular activation mechanism of invertebrate C3, we isolated and characterized an ortholog of C3 (designated TtC3) from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Flow cytometric analysis using an Ab against TtC3 revealed that the horseshoe crab complement system opsonizes both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Evaluation of the ability of various pathogen-associated molecular patterns to promote the proteolytic conversion of TtC3 to TtC3b in hemocyanin-depleted plasma indicated that LPS, but not zymosan, peptidoglycan, or laminarin, strongly induces this conversion, highlighting the selective response of the complement system to LPS stimulation. Although originally characterized as an LPS-sensitive initiator of hemolymph coagulation stored within hemocytes, we identified factor C in hemolymph plasma. An anti-factor C Ab inhibited various LPS-induced phenomena, including plasma amidase activity, the proteolytic activation of TtC3, and the deposition of TtC3b on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, activated factor C present on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria directly catalyzed the proteolytic conversion of the purified TtC3, thereby promoting TtC3b deposition. We conclude that factor C acts as an LPS-responsive C3 convertase on the surface of invading Gram-negative bacteria in the initial phase of horseshoe crab complement activation.

  9. 76 FR 13593 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... (AFA) of 1998 (Public Law 105-277, Title II of Division C); and (3) meet one or both of the following.... Vessels that meet these criteria subsequently will be referred to as ``non-AFA crab vessels.'' The CR Program did not establish sideboard limits for AFA vessels with historical participation in the Bering...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  20. Dra/AfaE adhesin of uropathogenic Dr/Afa+ Escherichia coli mediates mortality in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, K; Selvarangan, R; Hart, A; Pladzyk, R; Goluszko, P; Jafari, A; du Merle, L; Nowicki, S; Yallampalli, C; Le Bouguénec, C; Nowicki, B

    2005-11-01

    Escherichia coli bearing adhesins of the Dr/Afa family frequently causes urogenital infections during pregnancy in humans and has been associated with mortality in pregnant rats. Two components of the adhesin, Dra/AfaE and Dra/AfaD, considered virulence factors, are responsible for bacterial binding and internalization. We hypothesize that gestational mortality caused by Dr/Afa+ E. coli is mediated by one of these two proteins, Dra/AfaE or Dra/AfaD. In this study, using afaE and/or afaD mutants, we investigated the role of the afaE and afaD genes in the mortality of pregnant rats from intrauterine infection. Sprague-Dawley rats, on the 17th day of pregnancy, were infected with the E. coli afaE+ afaD and afaE afaD+ mutants. The clinical E. coli strain (afaE+ afaD+) and the afaE afaD double mutant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mortality rate was evaluated 24 h after infection. The highest maternal mortality was observed in the group infected with the afaE+ afaD+ strain, followed by the group infected with the afaE+ afaD strain. The mortality was dose dependent. The afaE afaD double mutant did not cause maternal mortality, even with the highest infection dose. The in vivo studies corresponded with the invasion assay, where the afaE+ strains were the most invasive (afaE+ afaD strain > afaE+ afaD+ strain), while the afaE mutant strains (afaE afaD+ and afaE afaD strains) seemed to be noninvasive. This study shows for the first time that the afaE gene coding for the AfaE subunit of Dr/Afa adhesin is involved in the lethal outcome of gestational infection in rats. This lethal effect associated with AfaE correlates with the invasiveness of afaE+ E. coli strains in vitro.

  1. Dra/AfaE Adhesin of Uropathogenic Dr/Afa+ Escherichia coli Mediates Mortality in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, K.; Selvarangan, R.; Hart, A.; Pladzyk, R.; Goluszko, P.; Jafari, A.; du Merle, L.; Nowicki, S.; Yallampalli, C.; Le Bouguénec, C.; Nowicki, B.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli bearing adhesins of the Dr/Afa family frequently causes urogenital infections during pregnancy in humans and has been associated with mortality in pregnant rats. Two components of the adhesin, Dra/AfaE and Dra/AfaD, considered virulence factors, are responsible for bacterial binding and internalization. We hypothesize that gestational mortality caused by Dr/Afa+ E. coli is mediated by one of these two proteins, Dra/AfaE or Dra/AfaD. In this study, using afaE and/or afaD mutants, we investigated the role of the afaE and afaD genes in the mortality of pregnant rats from intrauterine infection. Sprague-Dawley rats, on the 17th day of pregnancy, were infected with the E. coli afaE+ afaD and afaE afaD+ mutants. The clinical E. coli strain (afaE+ afaD+) and the afaE afaD double mutant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mortality rate was evaluated 24 h after infection. The highest maternal mortality was observed in the group infected with the afaE+ afaD+ strain, followed by the group infected with the afaE+ afaD strain. The mortality was dose dependent. The afaE afaD double mutant did not cause maternal mortality, even with the highest infection dose. The in vivo studies corresponded with the invasion assay, where the afaE+ strains were the most invasive (afaE+ afaD strain > afaE+ afaD+ strain), while the afaE mutant strains (afaE afaD+ and afaE afaD strains) seemed to be noninvasive. This study shows for the first time that the afaE gene coding for the AfaE subunit of Dr/Afa adhesin is involved in the lethal outcome of gestational infection in rats. This lethal effect associated with AfaE correlates with the invasiveness of afaE+ E. coli strains in vitro. PMID:16239563

  2. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  12. Pathogenesis of human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): current insights and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as "silent pathogens" with the capacity to emerge as "pathobionts" for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis.

  13. Pathogenesis of Human Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Expressing Afa/Dr Adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): Current Insights and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as “silent pathogens” with the capacity to emerge as “pathobionts” for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:25278576

  14. Good Crab, Bad Crab

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are crabs friends or foes of marsh grass, benefit or detriment to the salt marsh system? We examined Uca pugilator (sand fiddler) and Sesarma reticulatum (purple marsh crab) with Spartina patens (salt marsh hay) at two elevations (10 cm below MHW and 10 cm above MHW) in mesocosms...

  15. AFA Support for Research: Journals and Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.; Zarefsky, David

    2000-01-01

    Claims the American Forensic Association's (AFA) publications and conferences represent its principal commitment to research. Presents a review of the journals and conferences under AFA sponsorship. Reviews the strong commitment to research on the part of the AFA, particularly as it is manifested in the association's journal and in conferences.…

  16. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  1. 75 FR 6588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl... TAC allocated to the AFA inshore open access fishery in the BSAI is 2,762 metric tons (mt) as...://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/afa/afa_sf.htm . In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i),...

  2. 78 FR 25426 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act, Amendment 80 Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA), the Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, the Amendment 80 trawl fisheries in the Bering... Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) to the AFA, Aleutian... people who are knowledgeable about the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80, and...

  3. The afa-related gene cluster in necrotoxigenic and other Escherichia coli from animals belongs to the afa-8 variant.

    PubMed

    Gérardin, J; Lalioui, L; Jacquemin, E; Le Bouguénec, C; Mainil, J G

    2000-09-25

    Six hundred and nine necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli type 1 and 2 (NTEC1 and NTEC2) and non-NTEC isolated in Western and Southern Europe, North Africa and Canada from diseased calves, pigs, humans, poultry, and 55 isolated from asymptomatic calves were studied for the identification of afa-related sequences to the recently described afa-7 and afa-8 gene cluster variants from two bovine Escherichia coli (Lalioui et al., 1999). Colony hybridization and PCR assays for the afaD-7, afaE-7, afaD-8 and afaE-8 identified the afa-related sequences to the afa-8 gene cluster in most (67/79; 85%) of the E. coli positive with the Afa-f family probe and in 14 additional strains negative with the Afa-f probe. No E. coli was positive for the afa-7 gene cluster. The existence of afa-8 positive strains was thus confirmed among bovine E. coli and for the first time among porcine, poultry and human E. coli. Sequencing of the afaE-8 amplicon of nine strains from the different host species showed a high degree of conservation (>95% at the DNA level; >92% at the amino-acid level). The afa-8 gene cluster was more frequent in E. coli from diseased calves (18%) than from piglets (12%), humans (6%) and poultry (5%). Bovine NTEC2 (26%) were more frequently positive than NTEC 1 (20%) and non-NTEC (11%). E. coli isolated from asymptomatic calves were rarely positive: one NTEC2 (3%) and no non-NTEC. The afa-8 gene cluster was located on the Vir plasmid in 11/23 NTEC2, but no plasmid localization was detected in NTEC1 or non-NTEC.

  4. Adhesion to and invasion of HeLa cells by pathogenic Escherichia coli carrying the afa-3 gene cluster are mediated by the AfaE and AfaD proteins, respectively.

    PubMed

    Jouve, M; Garcia, M I; Courcoux, P; Labigne, A; Gounon, P; Le Bouguénec, C

    1997-10-01

    The afa-3 gene cluster, expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains, determines the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath composed of the AfaD and AfaE-III adhesins. The adherence to HeLa cells by recombinant HB101 strains producing both or only one of these two adhesins was investigated. Ultrastructural analyses of the interaction and gentamicin protection assays showed adherence to HeLa cells by HB101 producing both the AfaD and AfaE-III proteins and internalization of a subpopulation of the bacteria into the cells. The interactions of HeLa cells either with HB101 mutants producing AfaD or AfaE-III or with polystyrene beads coated with purified His6-tagged AfaD or His6-tagged AfaE-III proteins were studied. These experiments demonstrated that AfaE-III allows binding to HeLa cells and that AfaD mediates the internalization of the adherent bacteria. Ultrastructural analyses of the interaction of His6-AfaD-gold complexes with HeLa cells confirmed that AfaD is able to bind to the HeLa cell surface and indicated that it penetrates the cells via clathrin vesicles. These data demonstrate that the afa gene cluster is unique among bacteria, as alone it encodes both adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters encoding afimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli strains associated with diarrhea or septicemia in calves.

    PubMed

    Lalioui, L; Jouve, M; Gounon, P; Le Bouguenec, C

    1999-10-01

    The afa gene clusters, which encode proteins involved in adhesion to epithelial cells, from Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary and intestinal infections in humans have been characterized. Pathogenic isolates of bovine and porcine origin that possess afa-related sequences have recently been described. We report in this work the cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters from bovine isolates. Hybridization and sequencing experiments revealed that despite similarity in genetic organization, the afa-7 and afa-8 genes, and the well-characterized afa-3 operon expressed by human-pathogenic isolates, correspond to three different members of the afa family of gene clusters. However, like the afa-3 gene cluster, both the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters were found to encode an afimbrial adhesin (AfaE) and an invasin (AfaD). The AfaD peptides encoded by the three gene clusters were only 45% identical, but functional complementation experiments indicated that they belong to the same family of invasins. Hemagglutination and adhesion assays demonstrated that the AfaE-VII and AfaE-VIII adhesins bind to different receptors and that these receptors are not the human decay-accelerating factor recognized to be the receptor of all previously described AfaE adhesins. The AfaE-VIII adhesin is very similar to the M agglutinin of human-uropathogenic strains. We used PCR assays to screen 25 bovine strains for afaD and afaE genes of either the afa-7 or afa-8 gene cluster. The afa-8 gene cluster was highly prevalent in bovine isolates previously reported to carry afa-related sequences (23 of 24 strains), particularly in strains producing cytotoxic necrotizing factors (16 of 16 strains). The location of the afa-8 gene cluster on the plasmids or chromosome of these isolates suggests that it could be carried by a mobile element, facilitating its dissemination among bovine-pathogenic E. coli strains.

  6. 78 FR 54629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act, Amendment 80 Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... under the American Fisheries Act (AFA), the Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, the Amendment 80 trawl...-Stevens Act) to the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80 Program, CDQ Program, and the... participation by people who are knowledgeable about the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80,...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  17. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... 2010 Pacific cod directed fishing allowance for AFA trawl catcher processors in the BSAI has been...) allocated to AFA trawl catcher processors in the BSAI is 3,467 metric tons (mt) as established by the...

  18. 75 FR 44927 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher vessels... CFR part 679. The 2010 Bering Sea pollock TAC allocated to the AFA inshore open access fishery in the....gov/sustainablefisheries/afa/10bsaicoopallocations.pdf . In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i),...

  19. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the A season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl... cod TAC allocated to AFA trawl catcher-processors in the BSAI is 2,600 metric tons (mt) as...

  20. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl... cod TAC specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in the BSAI is 4,021 metric tons as established...

  1. Horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Botton, Mark L

    2002-10-01

    Horseshoe crabs are one of evolution's success stories. These living fossils have contributed immensely to biomedical research, and their eggs are a critical link in the migration cycle of New World waders (shorebirds) Can they endure threats posed by a growing commercial fishery and the loss of essential spawning habitats?

  2. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  4. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  5. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  8. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  9. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  10. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  12. Characterization of AfaE adhesins produced by extraintestinal and intestinal human Escherichia coli isolates: PCR assays for detection of Afa adhesins that do or do not recognize Dr blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Lalioui, L; du Merle, L; Jouve, M; Courcoux, P; Bouzari, S; Selvarangan, R; Nowicki, B J; Germani, Y; Andremont, A; Gounon, P; Garcia, M I

    2001-05-01

    Operons of the afa family are expressed by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans and animals. The recently demonstrated heterogeneity of these operons (L. Lalioui, M. Jouve, P. Gounon, and C. Le Bouguénec, Infect. Immun. 67:5048-5059, 1999) was used to develop a new PCR assay for detecting all the operons of the afa family with a single genetic tool. This PCR approach was validated by investigating three collections of human E. coli isolates originating from the stools of infants with diarrhea (88 strains), the urine of patients with pyelonephritis (97 strains), and the blood of cancer patients (115 strains). The results obtained with this single test and those previously obtained with several PCR assays were closely correlated. The AfaE adhesins encoded by the afa operons are variable, particularly with respect to the primary sequence encoded by the afaE gene. The receptor binding specificities have not been determined for all of these adhesins; some recognize the Dr blood group antigen (Afa/Dr(+) adhesins) on the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) as a receptor, and others (Afa/Dr(-) adhesins) do not. Thus, the afa operons detected in this study were characterized by subtyping the afaE gene using specific PCRs. In addition, the DAF-binding capacities of as-yet-uncharacterized AfaE adhesins were tested by various cellular approaches. The afaE8 subtype (Afa/Dr(-) adhesin) was found to predominate in afa-positive isolates from sepsis patients (75%); it was frequent in afa-positive pyelonephritis E. coli (55.5%) and absent from diarrhea-associated strains. In contrast, Afa/Dr(+) strains (regardless of the afaE subtype) were associated with both diarrhea (100%) and extraintestinal infections (44 and 25% in afa-positive pyelonephritis and sepsis strains, respectively). These data suggest that there is an association between the subtype of AfaE adhesin and the physiological site of the infection

  13. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  17. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  18. Pathogenesis of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2005-04-01

    Over the last few years, dramatic increases in our knowledge about diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) pathogenesis have taken place. The typical class of DAEC includes E. coli strains harboring AfaE-I, AfaE-II, AfaE-III, AfaE-V, Dr, Dr-II, F1845, and NFA-I adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC); these strains (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) allow binding to human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) (Afa/Dr(DAF) subclass) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (Afa/Dr(CEA) subclass). The atypical class of DAEC includes two subclasses of strains; the atypical subclass 1 includes E. coli strains that express AfaE-VII, AfaE-VIII, AAF-I, AAF-II, and AAF-III adhesins, which (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) do not bind to human DAF, and the atypical subclass 2 includes E. coli strains that harbor Afa/Dr adhesins or others adhesins promoting diffuse adhesion, together with pathogenicity islands such as the LEE pathogenicity island (DA-EPEC). In this review, the focus is on Afa/Dr DAEC strains that have been found to be associated with urinary tract infections and with enteric infection. The review aims to provide a broad overview and update of the virulence aspects of these intriguing pathogens. Epidemiological studies, diagnostic techniques, characteristic molecular features of Afa/Dr operons, and the respective role of Afa/Dr adhesins and invasins in pathogenesis are described. Following the recognition of membrane-bound receptors, including type IV collagen, DAF, CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, by Afa/Dr adhesins, activation of signal transduction pathways leads to structural and functional injuries at brush border and junctional domains and to proinflammatory responses in polarized intestinal cells. In addition, uropathogenic Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following recognition of beta(1) integrin as a receptor, enter epithelial cells by a zipper-like, raft- and microtubule-dependent mechanism. Finally, the presence of other, unknown virulence factors and the

  19. Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA) associated with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Ilikkan, Barbaros; Vural, Mehmet; Perk, Yildiz

    2002-01-01

    Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA) is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by single or multiple strands joining the upper and lower lids. Its etiology is unknown. A girl with a gestational age of 38 weeks is presented. It was interesting to find an association of AFA with hypoplasia of hair, eyelashes, eyebrows and nails and a karyotype of trisomy 18 in this case.

  20. The National Debate Tournament: A Test of the AFA's Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegelmueller, George; Baron, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Notes that for two decades issues related to the National Debate Tournament (NDT) consumed major portions of the American Forensic Association's (AFA) annual business meetings. Reviews the circumstances leading to the AFA's vote to sponsor the NDT; examines the association's role in overseeing the NDT; and judges the significance of the…

  1. Palladium complexes of 6-aminofulvene-2-aldiminate (AFA) ligands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Philip J; Collins, Anna; Haack, Peter; Parsons, Simon; Rahman, Mahmudur; Smith, Damian; White, Fraser J

    2010-02-14

    Bis(N,N'-2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-6-aminofulvene-2-aldimine (4) has been synthesised and characterised. The synthesis and characterisation of two zwitterionic Pd(ii) complexes [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(Me)DMAP] (1) and [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(N,N-dimethylbenzylamine-2-C,N)] (2) are reported. Activation of 1 and 2 for ethene polymerisation with Lewis acids such as BF(3) and B(C(6)F(5))(3) were not successful. Attempted synthesis of halide-bridged dimers of the form [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(mu-X)](2) resulted in formation of bis-chelated complexes [(Cy(2)AFA)(2)Pd] (3) and [((t)Bu(2)AFA)(2)Pd] (5).

  2. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  17. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA...

  18. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA...

  19. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA trawl catcher/processors in the...

  20. Recognition of the cellular beta1-chain integrin by the bacterial AfaD invasin is implicated in the internalization of afa-expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Plançon, Laure; Du Merle, Laurence; Le Friec, Sandrine; Gounon, Pierre; Jouve, Mabel; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2003-10-01

    The afa operons from Escherichia coli associated with extra-intestinal and intestinal infections have been characterized and the AfaD protein has been shown to be involved in the low internalization of laboratory strains expressing the afa-3 operon. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the AfaD invasin during the interaction of pathogenic E. coli with epithelial cells. We show that AfaD is implicated in the entry of a clinical isolate into both HeLa and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Once in the cytoplasm of these cells, the bacteria formed inclusions in which they were able to survive for at least 72 h. Internalization assays using polystyrene beads coated with His6-tagged purified AfaD (rAfaD) demonstrated that this invasin mediates entry into cells derived from various tissues (intestine and urothelium) that are targets for afa-positive strains. Consistent with the previous observation that an antibody blockade involving anti-alpha5beta1 integrin abolishes bacterial internalization, we show here that the entry of rAfaD-coated beads was dependent on the production and accessibility of beta1 integrins on the cells. The AfaD proteins belong to a family of invasins that are at least 45% identical. Despite their differences, the recombinant rAfaD-III and rAfaD-VIII proteins both bound to beta1 integrins. Our results suggest that beta1 integrin is a common receptor for AfaD invasins and that additional AfaD-type-specific receptors exist.

  1. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  7. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  18. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  20. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  2. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  5. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  6. The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, functions as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli by promoting lesions in tight junction of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guignot, Julie; Chaplais, Cécile; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Servin, Alain L

    2007-01-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are responsible for urinary tract and intestinal infections. Both in intestine and kidney, the epithelial cells forming epithelium are sealed by junctional domains. We provide evidence that the Secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, belonging to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs), acts as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr DAEC by promoting lesions in the tight junctions (TJs) of polarized epithelial Caco-2/TC7 cells. Southern blot analysis reveals that the prototype strains of the subclass-1 and subclass-2 typical Afa/Dr DAEC strains, hybridize with a sat probe. Using the wild-type IH11128 strain, the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 strain that expresses Sat, the recombinant E. coli that expresses both Dr adhesin and Sat, we report that Sat in monolayers of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells, induces rearrangements of the TJs-associated proteins ZO-1, ZO-3 and occludin, and increases the formation of domes as the result of an increase in the paracellular permeability without affecting the transepithelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers. Moreover, we observe that Sat-induced disassembly of TJs-associated proteins is dependent on the serine protease motif. Finally, an analysis of the prevalence of the sat gene in three collections of Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children with and without diarrhoea, and from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) shows that: (i) the sat gene is highly prevalent in UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains (88% positive), (ii) the sat gene is generally absent from Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children without diarrhoea (16% positive); whereas (iii) it is present in about half of the strains collected from the stools of children with diarrhoea (46% positive).

  7. The afimbrial adhesive sheath encoded by the afa-3 gene cluster of pathogenic Escherichia coli is composed of two adhesins.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M I; Gounon, P; Courcoux, P; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1996-02-01

    The afa-3 gene cluster determines the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath that is expressed by uropathogenic as well as diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli strains. It contains six genes (afaA-afaF), among which the afaE3 gene is known to code for the structural AfaE-III adhesin (previously designated AFA-III), whereas no role has yet been identified for the afaD gene product. The afa-3 gene cluster is closely related to the daa operon that codes for an adhesin, the F1845 adhesin, which is highly related to the AfaE-III adhesin; however, unlike the AfaE-III adhesin, F1845 is a fimbrial adhesin. Reported in this work is the construction of chimeras between the afa-3 and daa operons. Analyses of the phenotypes conferred by these afa-3/daa chimeric clusters allowed us to conclude that the biogenesis of a fimbrial or an afimbrial adhesin is fully determined by the amino acid sequence of the AfaE-III and F1845 adhesins. Moreover, the role of the AfaD product in the biosynthesis of the afimbrial sheath was assessed by immunogold and immunofluorescence experiments. The AfaD and the AfaE-III products were purified and used to raise rabbit and mouse antisera. Similar to AfaE-III, AfaD was found to be a surface-exposed protein as well as an adhesin; both AfaD and AfaE-III are concomittantly expressed by the bacterial cell. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the afimbrial adhesive sheath expressed by pathogenic E. coli is composed of two adhesins.

  8. Pubic Lice (Crabs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Pubic Lice (Crabs) KidsHealth > For Teens > Pubic Lice (Crabs) A A A en español Ladilla (piojo del pubis) What Are They? Pubic lice are tiny insects that can crawl from the ...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  19. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): hitherto unrecognized pathogens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Servin, Alain L

    2006-03-01

    Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are currently considered to constitute a putative sixth group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, on the basis of their diffuse adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, the detection of afa/dra/daa-related operons encoding this adherence phenotype, and the mobilization of decay-accelerating factor, both commensal and pathogenic strains can be classified as Afa/Dr DAEC isolates. Furthermore, strains associated with diarrheal diseases and strains causing extra-intestinal infections can also be identified as Afa/Dr DAEC strains. Although several cell signaling events that occur after epithelial cells have been infected by Afa/Dr DAEC have been reported, the pathophysiological processes that allow intestinal and extra-intestinal infections to develop are not fully understood. This review focuses on the genetic organization of the afa/dra/daa-related operons and on the virulence factors that trigger cellular responses, some of which are deleterious for the host cells. Finally, this review suggests future lines of research that could help to elucidate these questions.

  20. Afa, a diffuse adherence fibrillar adhesin associated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rogéria; Ordoñez, Juana G; de Oliveira, Rosana R; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Baldwin, Thomas J; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    O55 is one of the most frequent enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O serogroups implicated in infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis showed that this serogroup includes two major electrophoretic types (ET), designated ET1 and ET5. ET1 corresponds to typical EPEC, whilst ET5 comprises strains with different combinations of virulence genes, including those for localized adherence (LA) and diffuse adherence (DA). Here we report that ET5 DA strains possess a DA adhesin, designated EPEC Afa. An 11.6-kb chromosomal region including the DA adhesin operon from one O55:H(-) ET5 EPEC strain was sequenced and found to encode a protein with 98% identity to AfaE-1, an adhesin associated with uropathogenic E. coli. Although described as an afimbrial adhesin, we show that both AfaE-1 and EPEC Afa possess fine fibrillar structures. This is the first characterization and demonstration of an Afa adhesin associated with EPEC.

  1. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. CHANGES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are learning more about how pulsars work by studying a series of Hubble Space Telescope images of the heart of the Crab Nebula. The images, taken over a period of several months, show that the Crab is a far more dynamic object than previously understood. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar. The pulsar is a tiny object by astronomical standards -- only about six miles across -- but has a mass greater than that of the Sun and rotates at a rate of 30 times a second. As the pulsar spins its intense magnetic field whips around, acting like a sling shot, accelerating subatomic particles and sending them hurtling them into space at close to the speed of light. The tiny pulsar and its wind are the powerhouse for the entire Crab Nebula, which is 10 light-years across -- a feat comparable to an object the size of a hydrogen atom illuminating a volume of space a kilometer across. The three pictures shown here, taken from the series of Hubble images, show dramatic changes in the appearance of the central regions of the nebula. These include wisp-like structures that move outward away from the pulsar at half the speed of light, as well as a mysterious 'halo' which remains stationary, but grows brighter then fainter over time. Also seen are the effects of two polar jets that move out along the rotation axis of the pulsar. The most dynamic feature seen -- a small knot that 'dances around' so much that astronomers have been calling it a 'sprite' -- is actually a shock front (where fast-moving material runs into slower-moving material)in one of these polar jets. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using a filter that passes light of wavelength around 550 nanometers, near the middle of the visible part of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  3. Immunocytochemistry of the AfaE adhesin and AfaD invasin produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains during interaction of the bacteria with HeLa cells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gounon, P; Jouve, M; Le Bouguénec, C

    2000-04-01

    We used a recent scanning electron microscope equipped with field emission gun and highly sensitive detectors to develop a fast and simple protocol for double immunogold staining using 10- and 15-nm gold particles. We used this approach to analyse the afimbrial adhesive sheath produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli interacting with the surface of epithelial cells. We demonstrated that AfaE adhesin and AfaD invasin were exposed at the bacterial surface during the interaction. This method could be easily and widely extended to the study of the early invasion process of many bacterial and viral pathogens, by immunocytochemical probing.

  4. CLIC Crab Cavity Design Optimisation for Maximum Luminosity

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, A.C.; Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dolgashev, V.; Jones, R.; /Manchester U.

    2012-04-25

    The bunch size and crossing angle planned for CERN's compact linear collider CLIC dictate that crab cavities on opposing linacs will be needed to rotate bunches of particles into alignment at the interaction point if the desired luminosity is to be achieved. Wakefield effects, RF phase errors between crab cavities on opposing linacs and unpredictable beam loading can each act to reduce luminosity below that anticipated for bunches colliding in perfect alignment. Unlike acceleration cavities, which are normally optimised for gradient, crab cavities must be optimised primarily for luminosity. Accepting the crab cavity technology choice of a 12 GHz, normal conducting, travelling wave structure as explained in the text, this paper develops an analytical approach to optimise cell number and iris diameter.

  5. Presence of pap-, sfa-, and afa-related sequences in necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from cattle: evidence for new variants of the AFA family.

    PubMed

    Mainil, J G; Jacquemin, E; Hérault, F; Oswald, E

    1997-07-01

    Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli (NTEC) are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in animals and human beings and produce Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) or 2 (CNF2). Fourty-three NTEC1, 42 NTEC2, and 32 CNF-negative isolates from cattle were tested by colony DNA hybridization, by plasmid DNA hybridization and by PCR assays for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the operons coding for fimbrial (PAP/PRS, SFA/FIC, and F17) and afimbrial (AFA/Dr) adhesins of extraintestinal E. coli. Most NTEC1 isolates hybridized with the PAP probes and either the SFA probe (37%) or the AFA probes (49%). Most NTEC2 isolates, in contrast, hybridized with the F17 probe (45%), the AFA probes (19%), or the F17 and AFA probes (22%). A probe-positive plasmid was identified in each of the 19 NTEC2 isolates studied. They all hybridized with the CNF2 toxin probe (Vir plasmids) and most of them with the F17 (6 plasmids) or AFA (7 plasmids) probes. PCR amplification was obtained with 6 of the 11 NTEC isolates tested for the papGII/prsG genes; with all 5 NTEC isolates tested for the sfa and related operons; but with none of the 18 NTEC isolates tested for the afa and related operons. pap-, sfa-, and afa-related sequences are thus present in NTEC isolates from cattle in addition to f17-related operons and may code for adhesins corresponding to specific colonization factors. f17- and afa-related sequences can be located on the Vir plasmids along with the cnf2 gene. Existence of new variants of the AFA/Dr family is evident from the negative results of this family-specific PCR assay.

  6. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.278 - Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? 1000.278 Section 1000.278 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? No, subcontractors or subgrantees providing services to a Pub. L....

  2. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  9. Evidence and Ethics in Individual Events: An Examination of an AFA-NIET Final Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronn-Mills, Daniel; Schnoor, Larry G.

    A study investigated the use of source citations and evidence in the final round of Informative Speaking at the 1998 American Forensic Association-National Individual Events Tournament (AFA-NIET). The "AFA Code of Forensics Program and Forensics Tournament Standards for College and Universities" was the framework for the analysis.…

  10. A new case of acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) syndrome with an expanded phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Savoia, A; Lomuto, M; Pellicano, R

    2000-07-01

    A patient presenting with the findings of Acromegaloid Facial Appearance (AFA) syndrome is reported. This case also shows pericardial effusion and skin lesions that both enlarge the spectrum of the phenotype and lump AFA syndrome with another proposed distinct condition [Irvine et al., (1996) J med Genet 33:972-974].

  11. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  14. Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA) Improves the Performance of Microtiter Plate ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Rudd, Edwin A; Laugharn, James A

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the use of Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA) technology to improve the performance of microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Experiments were performed with commercially available AFA instrumentation and off-the-shelf 96-well microtiter plate sandwich ELISAs. AFA was applied over a range of acoustic energies, temperatures, and durations to the antigen/antibody binding step of an ELISA for measuring HIV-1 p24 in tissue culture samples. AFA-mediated antigen/antibody binding was enhanced up to 2-fold over passive binding at comparable temperatures and was superior or comparable at low temperature (8-10 °C) to passive binding at 37 °C. Lower nonspecific binding (NSB), lower inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs), higher Z' factors, and lower limits of detection (LODs) were measured in AFA-mediated assays compared with conventional passive binding. In a more limited study, AFA enhancement of antigen/antibody binding and lower NSB was measured in an ELISA for measuring IGFBP-3 in human plasma. We conclude from this study that application of AFA to antigen/antibody binding steps in microtiter plate ELISAs can enhance key assay performance parameters, particularly Z' factors and LODs. These features render AFA-mediated binding assays potentially more useful in applications such as high-throughput screening and in vitro diagnostics than assays processed with conventional passive antigen/antibody binding steps.

  15. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  5. Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC).

    PubMed

    Berger, Cedric N; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Servin, Alain L; Kansau, Imad

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the molecular bases underlying the virulence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring the Afa/Dr family of adhesins. These adhesins recognize as receptors the GPI-anchored proteins CD55 (decay-accelerating factor, DAF) and CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). CD66e is a member of the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) family, comprising seven members. We analysed the interactions of Afa/Dr DAEC with the CEACAMs using CEACAM-expressing CHO and HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that only E. coli expressing a subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, named here Afa/Dr-I, including Dr, F1845 and AfaE-III adhesins, bound onto CHO cells expressing CEACAM1, CEA or CEACAM6. Whereas all the Afa/Dr adhesins elicit recruitment of CD55 around adhering bacteria, only the Afa/Dr-I subfamily elicits the recruitment of CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6. In addition, although CEACAM3 is not recognized as a receptor by the subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, it is recruited around bacteria in HeLa cells. The recruited CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6 around adhering bacteria resist totally or in part a detergent extraction, whereas the recruited CEACAM3 does not. Finally, the results show that recognition of CEA and CEACAM6, but not CEACAM1, is accompanied by tight attachment to bacteria of cell surface microvilli-like extensions, which are elongated. Moreover, recognition of CEA is accompanied by an activation of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and by a phosphorylation of ERM, which in turn elicit the observed cell surface microvilli-like extensions.

  6. AFA and F17 adhesins produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Bertin, Y

    1999-01-01

    AFA and F17 are afimbrial and fimbrial adhesins, respectively, produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals. F17-related fimbriae are mainly detected on bovine and ovine E. coli associated with diarrhoea or septicaemia. The F17-G adhesin subunits recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) receptors present on bovine intestinal cells. Some F17 subtypes also bind to GlcNAc receptors present on human uroepithelial and intestinal Caco-2 cells or to the laminin contained in the basement of mammalian membranes. F17 is often associated with other virulence factors (aerobactin, serum resistance, CNF2 toxin, K99, CS31A or AFA adhesins) on pathogenic E. coli. A cluster of only four genes is required to synthesize functional F17-related fimbrial structures. The hypothesis of multifunctional F17 fimbrial subunits is supported by the fact that: i) the N-terminal part of the adhesin subunit participates in receptor recognition, whereas the C-terminal part is required for biogenesis of the fimbrial filament; and ii) the interaction between structural and adhesin subunits seems to be crucial for the initiation of monomer polymerization. Recently, determinants related to the afa gene clusters from human pathogenic E. coli associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections were identified in strains isolated from calves and piglets with diarrhoea and septicaemia. Two afa-related gene clusters, designated afa-7 and afa-8, that encode afimbrial adhesins were cloned and characterized from bovine pathogenic E. coli. These animal afa gene clusters were plasmid and chromosome borne and were expressed by strains that produced other virulence factors such as CNF toxins, F17, PAP and CS31A adhesins. A high frequency of afa-8 and a low prevalence of afa-7 among bovine E. coli isolates were suggested by preliminary epidemiological studies. As with the human afa gene clusters, the animal ones encode an adhesive structure composed of two proteins: AfaE which

  7. The solution structure of the invasive tip complex from Afa/Dr fibrils.

    PubMed

    Cota, Ernesto; Jones, Celine; Simpson, Peter; Altroff, Harri; Anderson, Kirstine L; du Merle, Laurence; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain; Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Mardon, Helen; Matthews, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    Afa/Dr family of adhesins are produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains that are especially prevalent in chronic diarrhoeal and recurrent urinary tract infections. Most notably, they are found in up to 50% of cystitis cases in children and 30% of pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Afa/Dr adhesins are capped surface fibrils that mediate recognition of the host and subsequent bacterial internalization. Using the newly solved three-dimensional structure of the minimal invasive complex (AfaDE) combined with biochemical and cellular assays, we reveal the architecture of the fibrillar cap and identify a novel mode of synergistic integrin recognition.

  8. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  9. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  10. Bdellovibrios in Callinectus sapidus, the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jacqueline I.; Williams, Henry N.

    1992-01-01

    Bdellovibrios were recovered from the gill tissue of all of 31 crabs sampled and from all samples of epibiota obtained from the ventral shell surface of 15 crabs. The results suggest that the blue crab is a reservoir for bdellovibrios. The association with crabs may be an important factor in the ecology of the bdellovibrios. PMID:16348706

  11. Mode of action of dopamine in inducing hyperglycemia in the fresh water edible crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex.

    PubMed

    Swetha, Ch; Sainath, S B; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mode of action of dopamine in regulating hemolymph sugar level in the fresh water edible crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex. Injection of dopamine produced hyperglycemia in a dose-dependent manner in intact crabs but not in eyestalkless crabs. Administration of dopamine resulted in a significant decrease in total carbohydrates and glycogen levels with a significant increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity levels in hepatopancreas and muscle of intact crabs, indicating dopamine-induced glycogenolysis resulting in hyperglycemia. Bilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in significant increase in the total carbohydrates and glycogen levels with a significant decrease in the activity levels of phosphorylase in the hepatopancreas and muscle of the crabs. Eyestalk ablation resulted in significant decrease in hemolymph hyperglycemic hormone levels. The levels of hyperglycemic hormone in the hemolymph of dopamine injected crabs were significantly higher than in control crabs. However, no significant changes in the levels of hemolymph hyperglycemic hormone and sugar and tissue carbohydrate and phosphorylase activity were observed in dopamine injected eyestalk ablated crabs when compared with eyestalk ablated crabs. These results support an earlier hypothesis in crustaceans that dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter and induces hyperglycemia by triggering the release of hyperglycemic hormone in the crab, O. senex senex.

  12. Detection of pap-, sfa- and afa-specific DNA sequences in Escherichia coli strains isolated from extraintestinal material.

    PubMed

    Bogyiová, E; Kmetová, M; Biros, E; Siegfried, L

    2002-01-01

    P-fimbriae, S-fimbriae and AFA-adhesins are virulence factors responsible for adherence of Escherichia coli strains to extraintestinal host-cell surface. Detection of pap-, sfa- and afa-specific sequences performed by PCR revealed 74% pap+, 65% sfa+, and 8.3% afa+ strains in a group of 84 extraintestinal E. coli isolates. Detection in a group of fecal strains showed 29% pap+, 21% sfa+ and 4% afa+ strains. pap together with sfa were found as the most frequent combination (56%) among extraintestinal isolates probably due to localization of pap- and sfa-operons on a common pathogenicity island. The occurrence of afa-specific sequence among 56 urine strains was 11%, although no afa+ strain was detected among 28 gynecological isolates. No strains with detected adhesin operons were found among twenty (24%) extraintestinal E. coli strains.

  13. Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Nishiyama, Yuta; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Based on the field observation of soldier crabs, we previously proposed a model for a swarm of soldier crabs. Here, we describe the interaction of coherent swarms in the simulation model, which is implemented in a logical gate. Because a swarm is generated by inherent perturbation, a swarm can be generated and maintained under highly perturbed conditions. Thus, the model reveals a robust logical gate rather than stable one. In addition, we show that the logical gate of swarms is also implemented by real soldier crabs (Mictyris guinotae).

  14. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  15. The Great Crab Nebula Superflare

    NASA Video Gallery

    There are strange goings-on in the Crab Nebula. On April 12, 2011, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the most powerful in a series of gamma-ray flares occurring somewhere within the s...

  16. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  17. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  18. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  19. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  20. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  1. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  2. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  3. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  4. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  5. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  6. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  7. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  8. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-01-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate

  9. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-12-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate

  10. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on: (1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  11. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on: (1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  12. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on:(1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  13. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on:(1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  14. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on: (1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  15. Characterization of plasmid-borne afa-3 gene clusters encoding afimbrial adhesins expressed by Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal or urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguenec, C; Garcia, M I; Ouin, V; Desperrier, J M; Gounon, P; Labigne, A

    1993-12-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFA) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains and belong to a family of hemagglutinins recognizing the Dr blood group antigen as a receptor. This family so far includes AFA-I and AFA-III as well as the Dr and F1845 adhesins (B. Nowicki, A. Labigne, S. Moseley, R. Hull, S. Hull, and J. Moulds, Infect. Immun. 58:279-281, 1990). Reported in this work is the genetic organization of the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a uropathogenic E. coli strain (A30) which expressed a subtype of AFA designated AFA-III. The amino acid sequence of AFA-III was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the afaE3 gene and was found to be highly homologous to that of the Dr adhesin (98.1% identity). A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect the presence of afa-3 gene clusters in E. coli strains. Study of the genetic support of the afa-3 gene clusters in the strains which showed positive amplification revealed that they were always located on large, 100-kb plasmids whether the strains originated from patients with cystitis or with diarrhea. Moreover, the cloned afa-3 gene clusters from A30 and from the diarrhea-associated strain AL845 appeared to be carried by 9-kb plasmid regions which displayed a similar genetic organization. Chloramphenicol was reported to be a potent inhibitor of receptor binding by the Dr adhesin (Nowicki et al., Infect. Immun. 58:279-281, 1990). AFA-III expressed by strains AL845 and AL847 appeared to mediate, like the Dr adhesin, chloramphenicol-sensitive hemagglutination, whereas AFA-III produced by A30 conferred chloramphenicol-resistant adherence. A comparison of the sequences of these four proteins indicated that the amino acid at position 52 of the processed AFA could be part of the receptor-binding domain.

  16. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to Electron Cloud and Global Crabbing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2008-08-01

    Crab cavities may be used improve the luminosity in colliding beam colliders with crab crossing. In a global crab crossing correction, only one crab cavity is installed in each ring and the crab cavities generate a horizontally titled bunch oscillating around the ring. The electron cloud in positively charged rings may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This paper briefly estimates the distortion of positron bunch due to the electron cloud with global crab and estimates the effect in the KEKB and possible LHC upgrades.

  17. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  5. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  6. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  11. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  18. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  19. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  2. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  7. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  13. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  17. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  2. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  4. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  9. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  18. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  20. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  6. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  9. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  11. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  17. Metalloligands containing aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) ligands and their bimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Philip J; Rahman, Mahmudur; Parsons, Simon; Azhar, Muhammad R; White, Fraser J

    2013-02-28

    A simple and convenient route to η(5)-coordinated Ru and Rh aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) complexes is described. The metalloligands [Cp*Ru{η(5)-(Ph(2)AFAH)}][BF(4)] (3), [Cp*Ru{η(5)-(benzyl(2)AFAH)}][OTf] (7), [Cp*Rh{η(5)-(Cy(2)AFA)H}][BF(4)](2) (8) and [Cp*Rh{η(5)-(Cy(2)AFA)}][BF(4)] (9) have been synthesised and characterised. The basicity of 9 has been found to be significantly less than its neutral analogue and thus eliminates the need for a deprotonation step to ligate to a second metal in the κ(2)-N,N'-coordination mode. The reaction of 9 with a palladium precursor provides a mixed-metal complex [Cp*Rh(η(5)/κ(2)-Cy(2)AFA)PdCl(2)][BF(4)] (12). Cyclic voltammetry studies of the Ph(2)AFAH ligand shows an irreversible one electron oxidation peak at +1.0 V (vs. Fc/Fc(+)). Complex 3 shows an irreversible oxidation at +1.5 V and a reduction peak at -1.0 V. The oxidation of 3 occurs on the AFA ligand backbone whereas the structurally analogous neutral 1,2-bis(imidoyl)pentamethyl-ruthenocene shows reversible oxidation at the Ru center.

  18. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  2. Representational difference analysis between Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli and nonpathogenic E. coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Potard, Anne-Beatrice; Tinsley, Colin; Scaletsky, Isabel; Le Bouguenec, Chantal; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain L; Nassif, Xavier; Bernet-Camard, Marie-Francoise

    2002-10-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains harboring Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) have been associated with diarrhea and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The present work is the first extensive molecular study of a Afa/Dr DAEC strain using the representational difference analysis technique. We have searched for DNA sequences present in strain C1845, recovered from a diarrheagenic child, but absent from a nonpathogenic K-12 strain. Strain C1845 harbors part of a pathogenicity island (PAI(CFT073)) and several iron transport systems found in other E. coli pathovars. We did not find genes encoding factors known to subvert host cell proteins, such as type III secretion system or effector proteins. Several C1845-specific sequences are homologous to putative virulence genes or show no homology with known sequences, and we have analyzed their distribution among Afa/Dr and non-Afa/Dr clinical isolates and among strains from the E. coli Reference Collection. Three C1845-specific sequences (MO30, S109, and S111) have a high prevalence (77 to 80%) among Afa/Dr strains and a low prevalence (12 to 23%) among non-Afa/Dr strains. In addition, our results indicate that strain IH11128, an Afa/Dr DAEC strain recovered from a patient with a UTI, is genetically closely related to strain C1845.

  3. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  4. Monitoring The Crab Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of the X-ray pulses from the Crab pulsar is still ongoing at the time of this writing, and we hope to be able to continue the campaign for the life of the XTE mission. We have established beyond all doubt that: (1) the X-ray main pulse leads the radio pulse by approximately 300 microseconds, (2) this phase lag is constant and not influenced by glitches, (3) this lag does not depend on X-ray energy, (4) the relative phase of the two X-ray pulses does not vary, and (5) the spectral indices of primary, secondary, and inter-pulse are distinct and constant. At this time we are investigating whether the radio timing ephemeris can be replaced by an x-ray ephemeris and whether any long-time timing ephemeris can be established. If so, it would enable use to study variations in pulse arrival times at a longer time scales. Such a study is easier in x-rays than at radio wavelengths since the dispersion measure plays no role. These results were reported at the 2000 HEAD Meeting in Honolulu, HI. Travel was paid partly out of this grant. The remainder was applied toward the acquisition of a laptop computer that allows independent and fast analysis of all monitoring observations.

  5. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, Albert; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  6. Tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences from Leymus racemosus and Psathyrostachys juncea (Poaceae)

    PubMed

    Nagaki; Kishii; Tsujimoto; Sasakuma

    1999-12-01

    Tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences of 340 bp are known to occur in wheat and related species of tribe Triticeae. We isolated six and three Afa-family sequences from Leymus racemosus and Psathyrostachys juncea, respectively, both of which are perennial species. The sequences account for 0.5% and 0.2% of L. racemosus and P. juncea genomes, respectively, and using in situ hybridization were located in subtelomeric and interstitial regions of L. racemosus chromosomes. These sequences are clustered with those of Elymus trachycaulus in the phylogenetic tree. Our findings indicate that the Afa-family sequences have been amplified at least twice in the lineage of L. racemosus, P. juncea, and E. trachycaulus.

  7. [Revised prevalence of afa+ Escherichia coli strains in acute pyelonephritis of children].

    PubMed

    Licznar, P; Eychenne, I; Azéma, C; Decramer, S; Bouissou, F; Fayet, O; Prère, M-F

    2003-10-01

    Two hundred E. coli strains isolated from children with pyelonephritis were investigated for the presence of six virulence factors. The used primers amplified adhesin pap and sfa, toxin haemolysin (hly) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer). For afimbrial adhesin, the previously used set of primers could not allow to detect the newly reported afa operons (Le Bouguenec et al., 2001). With a new set of primers specific for the afa operon family the prevalence of afa+ strains increased from 3.5% to 13.5%. Combinations of three or more factors in a same strain were found in 48.5%. Thirty two different urovirulent genotypes were observed; two strains contained the six studied factors.

  8. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  9. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  10. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  11. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The... ashore. (a) A golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ must be maintained in whole condition...

  12. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The... ashore. (a) A golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ must be maintained in whole condition...

  13. Seed Predation by the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: A Positive Feedback Preventing Eelgrass Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to restore the ecosystem services that eelgrass provides, after their continuous worldwide decline. Most attempts to restore eelgrass using seeds are challenged by very high seed losses and the reasons for these losses are not all clear. We assess the impact of predation on seed loss and eelgrass establishment, and explore methods to decrease seed loss during restoration in the Swedish northwest coast. In a laboratory study we identified three previously undescribed seed predators, the shore crab Carcinus maenas, the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, of which shore crabs consumed 2–7 times more seeds than the other two species. The importance of shore crabs as seed predators was supported in field cage experiments where one enclosed crab caused 73% loss of seeds over a 1-week period on average (~ 21 seeds per day). Seedling establishment was significantly higher (14%) in cages that excluded predators over an 8-month period than in uncaged plots and cages that allowed predators but prevented seed-transport (0.5%), suggesting that seed predation constitutes a major source of seed loss in the study area. Burying the seeds 2 cm below the sediment surface prevented seed predation in the laboratory and decreased predation in the field, constituting a way to decrease seed loss during restoration. Shore crabs may act as a key feedback mechanism that prevent the return of eelgrass both by direct consumption of eelgrass seeds and as a predator of algal mesograzers, allowing algal mats to overgrow eelgrass beds. This shore crab feedback mechanism could become self-generating by promoting the growth of its own nursery habitat (algal mats) and by decreasing the nursery habitat (seagrass meadow) of its dominant predator (cod). This double feedback-loop is supported by a strong increase of shore crab abundance in the last decades and may partly explain the regime shift in vegetation observed

  14. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  15. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  16. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  17. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  18. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  19. Bacterial diseases of crabs: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, W

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of crabs are manifested as bacteremias caused by organisms such as Vibrio, Aeromonas, and a Rhodobacteriales-like organism or tissue and organ tropic organisms such as chitinoclastic bacteria, Rickettsia intracellular organisms, Chlamydia-like organism, and Spiroplasma. This paper provides general information about bacterial diseases of both marine and freshwater crabs. Some bacteria pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus occur commonly in blue crab haemolymph and should be paid much attention to because they may represent potential health hazards to human beings because they can cause serious diseases when the crab is consumed as raw sea food. With the development of aquaculture, new diseases associated with novel pathogens such as spiroplasmas and Rhodobacteriales-like organisms have appeared in commercially exploited crab species in recent years. Many potential approaches to control bacterial diseases of crab will be helpful and practicable in aquaculture.

  20. Hermit crabs, humans and crowded house markets.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A

    2002-12-01

    There is a complex and dynamic interrelationhip between hermit crabs, humans and the coastal environment. Hermit crab homes (shells) are often hard to come by, but humans are helping out by piling middens of shells and rubbish on beachers. Hermit crabs are useful to humans as fishing bait, pets and living wasted disposal systems, and so useful to other animals that they may even be hijacked.

  1. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomyagkov, A.; Levichev, E.; Piminov, P.

    2016-12-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA Φ NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA Φ NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  2. Does the Crab Have a Shell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    We present deep images of a region around the Crab Nebula made with the VLA, utilizing new imaging and deconvolution algorithms in a search for a...the observed nebula. No radio emission was detected from an extended source outside the Crab Nebula . Our limits on surface brightness are sufficiently...a steepening of the spectral index along the boundary of the Crab Nebula itself, the signature of an outer shock. However, contrary to previous

  3. OSSE Observations of the Crab Pulsar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Crab nebula and pulsar (Leventhal, MacCallum, & Watts 1977; Ling et al. 1979; Strickman, Johnson, & Kurfess 1979; Ayre et al. 1983; Agrinier et al...emission from the Crab nebula , as well as detector background. The background portion was then subtracted from the entire light curve. The phase ranges we...detections c) References for previous upper limits d) Based on total Crab nebula plus pulsar spectrum e) Upper limits (3) f) Comments related to

  4. The Crab pulsar at VHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2017-03-01

    The last six years have witnessed major revisions of our knowledge about the Crab Pulsar. The consensus scenario for the origin of the high-energy pulsed emission has been challenged with the discovery of a very-high-energy power law tail extending up to 400 GeV, above the expected spectral cut off at a few GeV. Now, new measurements obtained by the MAGIC collaboration extend the energy spectrum of the Crab Pulsar even further, on the TeV regime. Above 400 GeV the pulsed emission comes mainly from the interpulse, which becomes more prominent with energy due to a harder spectral index. These findings require γ -ray production via inverse Compton scattering close to or beyond the light cylinder radius by an underlying particle population with Lorentz factors greater than 5 × 106. We will present those new results and discuss the implications in our current knowledge concerning pulsar environments.

  5. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  11. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  12. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  14. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  16. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  19. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Smith, J. D.A.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; Delayen, J.; Calaga, R.

    2009-05-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

  20. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOEpatents

    Delayen, Jean [Yorktown, VA

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  1. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  2. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  3. Orientation relationships of Laves phase and NiAl particles in an AFA stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, Geneva; Baker, Ian

    2015-12-01

    The alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, Fe-20Cr-30Ni-2Nb-5Al (in at. %) was solutionized at 1250 °C in order to obtain a fully austenitic microstructure and then aged for up to 1325 h at 800 °C to precipitate the Laves phase and B2-NiAl particles typically found in AFAs. This paper describes detailed analyses of the orientation relationships between these particles and the matrix which were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Four variants of the (1 1 1)m//(0 0 0 1)p, ?m//? orientation relationship proposed by Denham and Silcock (J. Iron Steel Inst. 207 (1969) p.582) were observed for the Laves phase, and six variants of the (1 1 1)m//(0 1 1)p, ?m//? Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship were observed for the B2-NiAl phase.

  4. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  5. Dynamics of tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences in Triticeae, wheat-related species.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Sasakuma, T

    1998-08-01

    The Afa-family sequences in wheat-related species, Triticeae, are tandem repetitive sequences of 340 bp. All the analyzed Triticeae species carried the sequences in their genomes, though the copy numbers varied about 100-fold among the species. The nucleotide fragments amplified by PCR were cloned and sequenced, and their behavior in the evolution of Triticeae was analyzed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. The sequences in genomes with many copies of this family clustered at independent branches of the phylogenic tree, whereas the sequences in genomes with a few copies did not. This may suggest that Afa-family sequences had amplified several times in the evolution of Triticeae, each using a limited number of different master copies. In addition, the sequences of the A and B genomes of hexaploid common wheat indicated that the Afa-family sequences had not evolved in a concerted manner between the genomes. Furthermore, the sequences of each chromosome of the D genome of this species indicated that the sequences had amplified on all over the D-genome chromosomes in a short period.

  6. Increased rate of apoptosis and diminished phagocytic ability of human neutrophils infected with Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Brest, Patrick; Bétis, Frédéric; Cuburu, Nicolas; Selva, Eric; Herrant, Magali; Servin, Alain; Auberger, Patrick; Hofman, Paul

    2004-10-01

    The proinflammatory effect of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains have been recently demonstrated in vitro by showing that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transepithelial migration is induced after bacterial colonization of apical intestinal monolayers. The effect of Afa/Dr DAEC-PMN interaction on PMN behavior has been not investigated. Because of the putative virulence mechanism of PMN apoptosis during infectious diseases and taking into account the high level of expression of the decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the receptor of Afa/Dr DAEC on PMNs, we sought to determine whether infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains could promote cell apoptosis. We looked at the behavior of PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains once they had transmigrated across polarized monolayers of intestinal (T84) cells. Infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced PMN apoptosis characterized by morphological nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and a high level of annexin V expression. However, transmigrated and nontransmigrated PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains showed similar elevated global caspase activities. PMN apoptosis depended on their agglutination, induced by Afa/Dr DAEC, and was still observed after preincubation of PMNs with anti-CD55 and/or anti-CD66 antibodies. Low levels of phagocytosis of Afa/Dr DAEC strains were observed both in nontransmigrated and in transmigrated PMNs compared to that observed with the control E. coli DH5alpha strain. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that interaction of Afa/Dr DAEC with PMNs may increase the bacterial virulence both by inducing PMN apoptosis through an agglutination process and by diminishing their phagocytic capacity.

  7. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  8. Ultraviolet studies of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talavera, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Crab Nebula (Messier 1) is one of the most observed sources with the XMM-Newton space telescope of ESA. The Crab and its related pulsar are a calibration source for the on-board X-rays cameras. There are around 80 observations between 2000 and 2015. In this observations, the XMM-Newton Optical and UV Monitor (OM) has also been used. We present a preliminary study of the Crab using images obtained the OM UV filters at 291, 231 and 212 nm. Photometric data for the pulsar (PSR0531+21), created in the supernova event of AD 1054 origin of the nebula, are also presented

  9. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  10. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  11. 78 FR 40696 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Crab Cost Recovery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Crab Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab includes the Crab Rationalization (CR) Program, a limited access system that allocates BSAI Crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities....

  12. High resolution studies of the Afa/Dr adhesin DraE and its interaction with chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, David; Anderson, Kirstine L; Billington, Jason; Cota, Ernesto; Simpson, Peter; Urvil, Petri; Rabuzin, Filip; Roversi, Pietro; Nowicki, Bogdan; du Merle, Laurence; Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Matthews, Stephen; Lea, Susan M

    2004-11-05

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins are able to cause both urinary tract and diarrheal infections. The Afa/Dr adhesins confer adherence to epithelial cells via interactions with the human complement regulating protein, decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55). Two of the Afa/Dr adhesions, AfaE-III and DraE, differ from each other by only three residues but are reported to have several different properties. One such difference is disruption of the interaction between DraE and CD55 by chloramphenicol, whereas binding of AfaE-III to CD55 is unaffected. Here we present a crystal structure of a strand-swapped trimer of wild type DraE. We also present a crystal structure of this trimer in complex with chloramphenicol, as well as NMR data supporting the binding position of chloramphenicol within the crystal. The crystal structure reveals the precise atomic basis for the sensitivity of DraE-CD55 binding to chloramphenicol and demonstrates that in contrast to other chloramphenicol-protein complexes, drug binding is mediated via recognition of the chlorine "tail" rather than via intercalation of the benzene rings into a hydrophobic pocket.

  13. 76 FR 47083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the.../processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  9. Metals in horseshoe crabs from Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Dixon, C; Shukla, T; Tsipoura, N; Jensen, H; Fitzgerald, M; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the eggs, leg muscle, and apodeme (carapace musculature) in horseshoe crabs ( Limulus polyphemus) from eight places on the New Jersey and Delaware sides of Delaware Bay to determine whether there were locational differences. Although there were locational differences, the differences were not great. Further, contaminant levels were generally low. The levels of contaminants found in horseshoe crabs were well below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or in organisms that consume them or their eggs. Contaminant levels have generally declined in the eggs of horseshoe crabs from 1993 to 2001, suggesting that contaminants are not likely to be a problem for secondary consumers or a cause of their decline.

  10. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  11. Why do fiddler crabs build chimneys?

    PubMed

    Slatyer, R A; Fok, E S Y; Hocking, R; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-12-23

    Chimneys are mud mounds built by fiddler crabs that encircle the entrance to their burrow. Their function in many species is unknown. In Uca capricornis, crabs of both sexes and all sizes build chimneys, but females do so disproportionately more often. There are no differences in the immediate physical or social environments between crabs with and without a chimney. Chimney owners spend less time feeding and more time underground than non-owners. We show experimentally that burrows with a chimney are less likely to be located by an intruder. It is possible that some crabs construct chimneys around their burrow to conceal the entrance and reduce the risk of losing it to an intruder.

  12. Wakefield Damping for the CLIC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ambattu, P.K.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Carter, R.G.; Khan, V.; Jones, R.M.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively.

  13. Inhibition of ovarian growth by cadmium in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator (Decapoda, ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, E M; López Greco, L S; Fingerman, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride (1 mg/L) on oocyte growth of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, was studied during the slow vitellogenesis phase of ovarian maturation of this carb. In vivo experiments were done with both intact and eyestalkless crabs. The intact cadmium-exposed crabs exhibited a significantly lower oocyte diameter than the controls at the end of the 2-week exposure period, but no significant differences were detected among the eyestalkless crabs, suggesting that the effect of cadmium could be on the sinus gland in the eyestalks, increasing secretion of the gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH). To test this hypothesis, in vitro experiments were done, incubating pieces of ovary with and without eyestalk tissue, in the presence of thoracic ganglion, needed for oocyte growing due to the secretion of the gonad-stimulating hormone (GSH). Only when eyestalk tissue was present in the incubation media was oocyte growth inhibited by cadmium compared to the controls. These results strongly suggest that cadmium acts at least in part to increase the secretion of GIH from the sinus gland. GIH could then in turn act by (a) inhibiting secretion of GSH by the thoracic ganglion, (b) directly inhibit the oocytes, or (c) both (a) and (b).

  14. Epidemiology of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jeffrey D; Taylor, David M; Sutton, Stephen G; O'Keefe, Paul G; Ings, Danny W; Pardy, Amanda L

    2005-05-20

    The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. causes a condition known as bitter crab disease (BCD) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio and Tanner crabs C. bairdi. As the name of the condition implies, crabs infected with BCD are unmarketable due to their bitter flavor. We surveyed the distribution of BCD in 3 regions within the snow crab fishery of Newfoundland from 1997 to 2003. Over time, the disease has become firmly established in Conception and Bonavista Bays and persists at low levels on the Avalon fishing grounds. An epizootic occurred within Bonavista and Conception Bays in 1999 and persisted in Conception Bay in 2000, reaching prevalences of over 2% to 9% in trapped and trawled male crabs and from 19 to 26% in trawled and trapped female crabs, respectively. Infections were highest in females and small males, i.e. the unfished and pre-recruit portions of the fishery. In a mortality study, all of the naturally infected crabs died and 50% of the experimentally inoculated crabs died. Patterns in the molting cycle and prevalence of infection indicate that transmission occurs during the post-molt condition, and that overt infections probably develop 2 to 4 mo later with mortalities occurring at least 3 to 4 mo thereafter. The hydrography of this bay may have contributed to the epizootic as infections were centered within the deeper confines of the bay. Analysis of various abiotic factors uncovered a significant positive association between prevalence, depth and mud/sand substrates; the nature of this relationship was not apparent but may be related to diet or alternate hosts. Lastly, given the increase in BCD in snow crabs in Newfoundland, we recommend that fishery management programs for Chionoecetes fisheries employ non-selective gear to monitor for Hematodinium infections in female and juvenile crabs because these under-sampled members of the population may forewarn of impending recruitment declines that might otherwise remain unexplained.

  15. afa-8 Gene cluster is carried by a pathogenicity island inserted into the tRNA(Phe) of human and bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Lalioui, L; Le Bouguénec, C

    2001-02-01

    We recently described a new afimbrial adhesin, AfaE-VIII, produced by animal strains associated with diarrhea and septicemia and by human isolates associated with extraintestinal infections. Here, we report that the afa-8 operon, encoding AfaE-VIII adhesin, from the human blood isolate Escherichia coli AL862 is carried by a 61-kb genomic region with characteristics typical of a pathogenicity island (PAI), including a size larger than 10 kb, the presence of an integrase-encoding gene, the insertion into a tRNA locus (pheR), and the presence of a small direct repeat at each extremity. Moreover, the G+C content of the afa-8 operon (46.4%) is lower than that of the E. coli K-12/MG1655 chromosome (50.8%). Within this PAI, designated PAI I(AL862), we identified open reading frames able to code for products similar to proteins involved in sugar utilization. Four probes spanning these sequences hybridized with 74.3% of pathogenic afa-8-positive E. coli strains isolated from humans and animals, 25% of human pathogenic afa-8-negative E. coli strains, and only 8% of fecal strains (P = 0.05), indicating that these sequences are strongly associated with the afa-8 operon and that this genetic association may define a PAI widely distributed among human and animal afa-8-positive strains. One of the distinctive features of this study is that E. coli AL862 also carries another afa-8-containing PAI (PAI II(AL862)), which appeared to be similar in size and genetic organization to PAI I(AL862) and was inserted into the pheV gene. We investigated the insertion sites of afa-8-containing PAI in human and bovine pathogenic E. coli strains and found that this PAI preferentially inserted into the pheV gene.

  16. The visual ecology of fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2006-01-01

    With their eyes on long vertical stalks, their panoramic visual field and their pronounced equatorial acute zone for vertical resolving power, the visual system of fiddler crabs is exquisitely tuned to the geometry of vision in the flat world of inter-tidal mudflats. The crabs live as burrow-centred grazers in dense, mixed-sex, mixed-age and mixed-species colonies, with the active space of an individual rarely exceeding 1 m(2). The full behavioural repertoire of fiddler crabs can thus be monitored over extended periods of time on a moment to moment basis together with the visual information they have available to guide their actions. These attributes make the crabs superb subjects for analysing visual tasks and the design of visual processing mechanisms under natural conditions, a prerequisite for understanding the evolution of visual systems. In this review we show, on the one hand, how deeply embedded fiddler crab vision is in the behavioural and the physical ecology of these animals and, on the other hand, how their behavioural options are constrained by their perceptual limitations. Studying vision in fiddler crabs reminds us that vision has a topography, that it is context-dependent and pragmatic and that there are perceptual limits to what animals can know and therefore care about.

  17. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation

  18. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... provision to collect fees to recover the actual costs directly related to the management, data collection..., data collection, and enforcement of the Program. Section 313(j) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act provided..., data collection, and enforcement costs up to 3 percent of the ex-vessel value of crab harvested...

  19. Immunocompetent molecules and their response network in horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe crab hemocyte selectively responds to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which depends critically on the proteolytic activity of the LPS-responsive serine protease zymogen factor C. In response to stimulation by LPS, the hemocyte secretes several kinds of immunocompetent proteins. The coagulation cascade triggered by LPS or beta-1,3-D-glucans (BDG) results in the formation of coagulin fibrils that are subsequently stabilized by transglutaminase (TGase)-dependent cross-linking. Invading pathogens are recognized and agglutinated by lectins and then killed by antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, LPS-triggered hemocyte exocytosis is enhanced by a feedback mechanism in which the antimicrobial peptides serve as endogenous mediators. Factor C also acts as an LPS-sensitive complement C3 convertase. In addition, a sub-cuticular epidermis-derived protein forms a TGase-stabilized mesh at sites of injury. Horseshoe crabs have a sophisticated innate immune response network that coordinately effects pathogen recognition and killing, prophenoloxidase activation, complement activation and TGase-dependent wound healing.

  20. Systematic variations in microvilli banding patterns along fiddler crab rhabdoms.

    PubMed

    Alkaladi, Ali; How, Martin J; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-02-01

    Polarisation sensitivity is based on the regular alignment of dichroic photopigment molecules within photoreceptor cells. In crustaceans, this is achieved by regularly stacking photopigment-rich microvilli in alternating orthogonal bands within fused rhabdoms. Despite being critical for the efficient detection of polarised light, very little research has focused on the detailed arrangement of these microvilli bands. We report here a number of hitherto undescribed, but functionally relevant changes in the organisation of microvilli banding patterns, both within receptors, and across the compound eye of fiddler crabs. In all ommatidia, microvilli bands increase in length from the distal to the proximal ends of the rhabdom. In equatorial rhabdoms, horizontal bands increase gradually from 3 rows of microvilli distally to 20 rows proximally. In contrast, vertical equatorial microvilli bands contain 15-20 rows of microvilli in the distal 30 µm of the rhabdom, shortening to 10 rows over the next 30 µm and then increase in length to 20 rows in parallel with horizontal bands. In the dorsal eye, horizontal microvilli occupy only half the cross-sectional area as vertical microvilli bands. Modelling absorption along the length of fiddler crab rhabdoms suggests that (1) increasing band length assures that photon absorption probability per band remains constant along the length of photoreceptors, indicating that individual bands may act as units of transduction or adaptation; (2) the different organisation of microvilli bands in equatorial and dorsal rhabdoms tune receptors to the degree and the information content of polarised light in the environment.

  1. Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli infection in T84 cell monolayers induces increased neutrophil transepithelial migration, which in turn promotes cytokine-dependent upregulation of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Kansau, Imad; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are inflammatory bowel diseases thought to involve strains of Escherichia coli. We report here that two wild-type Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) strains, C1845 and IH11128, which harbor the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and the Dr hemagglutinin, respectively, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101, transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid to produce Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin, all induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in polarized monolayers of the human intestinal cell line T84 grown on semipermeable filters. We observed that after PMNL migration, expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the brush border-associated receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins, was strongly enhanced, increasing the adhesion of Afa/Dr DAEC bacteria. When examining the mechanism by which DAF expression was enhanced, we observed that the PMNL transepithelial migration induced epithelial synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta, which in turn promoted the upregulation of DAF.

  2. A comparative study of genetic variation between Chinese mitten crab ericheir sinensis and Hepu mitten crab E. hepuensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangdong, Liu; Xiumei, Zhang; Tianxiang, Gao; Dong, Lou

    2002-10-01

    Horizonal starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the biochemical genetic structure of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and Hepu mitten crab E. hepuensis. Sixteen putative enzyme-coding loci were examined for forty-nine chinese mitten crabs and thirty-eight Hepu mitten crabs. Nine loci, AAT-1 *, AAT-2 *, G3PDH *, GPI *, IDHP-1 *, IDHP-2 *, MDH-1 *, MDH-2 * and PGM *, are polymorphic in Chinese mitten crab, and seven, AAT-1 *, AAT-2 *, GPI *, IDHP-1 *, MDH-1 *, MDH-2 * and PGM *, are polymorphic in Hepu mitten crab. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the expected heterozygosity are 0.562 5 and 0.080 3 for Chinese mitten crab, and 0.437 5 and 0.075 4 for Hepu mitten crab. The Nei’s genetic distance between two species is 0.002 4.

  3. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries...

  4. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  5. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  6. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  7. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  8. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or...

  9. The Radio Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-20

    We present the results of a new, comprehensive investigation of the radio spectral index of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant. New data at 74 MHz are...thermal material in the Crab Nebula’s filaments. Apart from some possible renewed acceleration occurring in the wisps, the dominant accelerator of relativistic electrons in the Crab Nebula is the pulsar itself.

  10. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Table 2 Table 2 to Part 680—Crab Species Code Species code Common name Scientific name 900 Box Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Species Code 2 Table 2 to Part...

  11. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Table 2 Table 2 to Part 680—Crab Species Code Species code Common name Scientific name 900 Box Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Species Code 2 Table 2 to Part...

  12. Epithelial cells secrete interleukin-8 in response to adhesion and invasion of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli lacking Afa/Dr genes.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Arikawa, Kentaro; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli that sparsely adhere to human epithelial cells are known as diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), and the role of the Afa/Dr family of adhesins is now understood. Strains that do not possess Afa/Dr, however, comprise another group of DAEC, of which the pathogenicity remains unknown. The ability to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from intestinal epithelial cells might be a feature of enterovirulent bacteria. We previously found that some Afa/Dr DAEC strains induce IL-8 by stimulating epithelial cells with flagella. The present study examines whether non-Afa/Dr DAEC can induce IL-8 in epithelial cells (HEp-2, INT407, and T84). Among 21 strains, 11 (52%; 11/21) induced as much IL-8 as high inducer strains of Afa/Dr DAEC. Adhesion did not significantly differ between high and low inducers; therefore diffuse adhesion alone is probably insufficient to induce IL-8. It was shown that IL-8 induction and the number of intracellular bacteria directly correlated. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase, reduced both intracellular bacteria and IL-8 secretion. Motile strains were significantly more prevalent among high (10/11) than low (4/10) inducers. However, 4 low invasive strains hardly induced IL-8 despite their motility. In conclusion, some non-Afa/Dr DAEC invoke the induction of high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Unlike Afa/Dr DAEC, however, non-Afa/Dr strains may require invasion to cause strong induction. These non-Afa/Dr high inducers can be enteropathogenic for the cytokine-inducing properties.

  13. Development and Exploratory Scale-Up of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Magee, John H; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J; Santella, Michael L; Pint, Bruce A; Bei, Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the continued development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides and intermetallic precipitates. Efforts in fiscal year 2009 focused on the characterization and understanding of long-term oxidation resistance and tensile properties as a function of alloy composition and microstructure. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2(Mo,Nb) base Laves phase precipitates were used to interpret oxidation behavior. Of particular interest was the enrichment of Cr in the austenitic matrix phase by additions of Nb, which aided the establishment and maintenance of alumina. Higher levels of Nb additions also increased the volume fraction of B2-NiAl precipitates, which served as an Al reservoir during long-term oxidation. Ageing studies of AFA alloys were conducted at 750C for times up to 2000 h. Ageing resulted in near doubling of yield strength at room temperature after only 50 h at 750C, with little further increase in yield strength out to 2000 h of ageing. Elongation was reduced on ageing; however, levels of 15-25% were retained at room temperature after 2000 h of total ageing.

  14. A Comparison of Tabulation Methods at Two National Individual Events Tournaments: The AFA-NIET and the NFA IE Nationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Robert S.

    Comparing the manner in which contestants' scores were tabulated at both the 1985 American Forensic Association National Individual Events Tournament (AFA-NIET) and National Forensic Association Individual Events Nationals (NFA-IEN), a study (1) examined whether a correlation exists between contestants placing in the quarterfinals with five…

  15. H genome specific repetitive sequence, pEt2, of Elymus trachycaulus in part of Afa family of Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Sasakuma, T

    1998-02-01

    The H genome specific repetitive sequence of Elymus trachycaulus, pEt2, consists of three units of a 337-339 bp repeat aligned in tandem. The sequence is homologous to Afa-family sequences that are widely distributed in the genomes of Triticeae (Gramineae) species.

  16. Prevalence and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crab, 624 crab meat, and 624 environmental samples were tested by molecular and culture-based standard methods. Presumptive Liste...

  17. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Brown rock crab, red rock crab, and yellow crab

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.C. ); Winn, R.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Rock crab'' is the common name designating three similar species of edible crabs: brown rock crab (Cancer antennarius), red rock crab (C. productus), and yellow crab (C. anthonyi). The three species co-occur in shallow coastal waters throughout the Pacific Southwest region. The yellow crab is most common in southern California on sand substrate, and the red rock crab in northernmost areas on rock or gravel substrates; the brown rock crab occurs on rock or sand substrates in all areas. Rock crabs are sought commercially to fill an increasing market demand for whole crabs that approached 2 million pounds annually in 1986. Most of the catch comes from the region of Morro Bay south to Los Angeles, including the Channel Islands. Egg-bearing females are commonly found during winter, although they may occur throughout the year.Rock crabs go through five zoeal stages and one megalopal stage during a larval period that generally requires 90--120 days. Metamorphosis and settlement of the first crab stage is on either sand or rock, and crabs may reach maturity within 1--2 years. All three species are predators on a variety of shelled mollusks, but are also considered scavengers. They are a major food for many commercially and recreationally important fishes, as well as for the threatened southern sea otter, Enhydra lutris. 63 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Lingwood, C.; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  20. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  1. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant.

  2. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to the Electron Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    In order to improve the luminosity, two crab cavities have been installed in KEKB HER and LER [1]. Since there is only one crab cavity in each ring, the crab cavity generates a horizontally titled bunch along the whole ring. The achieved specific luminosity with crabbed bunch is higher, but it is not as high as that from beam-beam simulation [2]. One of the suspicions is the electron cloud. The electron cloud in LER (positron beam) may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This note briefly estimates the bunch shape distortion due to the electron cloud in KEKB LER.

  3. Green crab (Carcinus maenas) foraging efficiency reduced by fast flows.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Smee, Delbert L; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Predators can strongly influence prey populations and the structure and function of ecosystems, but these effects can be modified by environmental stress. For example, fluid velocity and turbulence can alter the impact of predators by limiting their environmental range and altering their foraging ability. We investigated how hydrodynamics affected the foraging behavior of the green crab (Carcinus maenas), which is invading marine habitats throughout the world. High flow velocities are known to reduce green crab predation rates and our study sought to identify the mechanisms by which flow affects green crabs. We performed a series of experiments with green crabs to determine: 1) if their ability to find prey was altered by flow in the field, 2) how flow velocity influenced their foraging efficiency, and 3) how flow velocity affected their handling time of prey. In a field study, we caught significantly fewer crabs in baited traps at sites with fast versus slow flows even though crabs were more abundant in high flow areas. This finding suggests that higher velocity flows impair the ability of green crabs to locate prey. In laboratory flume assays, green crabs foraged less efficiently when flow velocity was increased. Moreover, green crabs required significantly more time to consume prey in high velocity flows. Our data indicate that flow can impose significant chemosensory and physical constraints on green crabs. Hence, hydrodynamics may strongly influence the role that green crabs and other predators play in rocky intertidal communities.

  4. Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) Foraging Efficiency Reduced by Fast Flows

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth M.; Smee, Delbert L.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Predators can strongly influence prey populations and the structure and function of ecosystems, but these effects can be modified by environmental stress. For example, fluid velocity and turbulence can alter the impact of predators by limiting their environmental range and altering their foraging ability. We investigated how hydrodynamics affected the foraging behavior of the green crab (Carcinus maenas), which is invading marine habitats throughout the world. High flow velocities are known to reduce green crab predation rates and our study sought to identify the mechanisms by which flow affects green crabs. We performed a series of experiments with green crabs to determine: 1) if their ability to find prey was altered by flow in the field, 2) how flow velocity influenced their foraging efficiency, and 3) how flow velocity affected their handling time of prey. In a field study, we caught significantly fewer crabs in baited traps at sites with fast versus slow flows even though crabs were more abundant in high flow areas. This finding suggests that higher velocity flows impair the ability of green crabs to locate prey. In laboratory flume assays, green crabs foraged less efficiently when flow velocity was increased. Moreover, green crabs required significantly more time to consume prey in high velocity flows. Our data indicate that flow can impose significant chemosensory and physical constraints on green crabs. Hence, hydrodynamics may strongly influence the role that green crabs and other predators play in rocky intertidal communities. PMID:21687742

  5. Modeling Crabbing Dynamics in an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Castilla, Alejandro; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Satogata, Todd J.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2015-09-01

    A local crabbing scheme requires π/2 (mod π) horizontal betatron phase advances from an interaction point (IP) to the crab cavities on each side of it. However, realistic phase advances generated by sets of quadrupoles, or Final Focusing Blocks (FFB), between the crab cavities located in the expanded beam regions and the IP differ slightly from π/2. To understand the effect of crabbing on the beam dynamics in this case, a simple model of the optics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) including local crabbing was developed using linear matrices and then studied numerically over multiple turns (1000 passes) of both electron and proton bunches. The same model was applied to both local and global crabbing schemes to determine the linear-order dynamical effects of the synchro-betatron coupling induced by crabbing.

  6. Evolution of metabolomics profile of crab paste during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Juanjuan; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Crab paste is regularly consumed by people in the coastal area of China. The fermentation time plays a key role on the quality of crab paste. Here, we investigated the dynamic evolution of metabolite profile of crab paste during fermentation by combined use of NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that crab paste quality was significantly affected by fermentation. The quality change was manifested in the decline of lactate, betaine, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, trigonelline, inosine, adenosine diphosphate, and 2-pyridinemethanol, and in the fluctuation of a range of amino acids as well as in the accumulation of glutamate, sucrose, formate, acetate, trimethylamine, and hypoxanthine. Trimethylamine production and its increased level with fermentation could be considered as a freshness index of crab paste. These results contribute to quality assessment of crab paste and confirm the metabolomics technique as a useful tool to provide important information on the crab paste quality.

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Brown Rock Crab, Red Rock Crab, and Yellow Crab

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    distinguished by a slender abdomen and Two other large Cancer species, the Dungeness crab mature females by a broad abdomen that is often hirsute (C. magister...crab lives almost exclusively on animals often remained in one location for scveral days. sandy substrata; consequently the "rock crab" designation is... animals McConaugha, J.R. 1985. Nutrition and larval growth. of the Pacific coast. Dover Publications, New York. Pages 127-154 in A.M. Wenner, ed

  8. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., transport, land, sell, trade, or barter, up to 500 lb (226.8 kg) of red crab, or its equivalent in weight as... restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight. (i... recovery rate is 64 percent of a whole red crab, which is equal to the weight of red crab half...

  9. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., transport, land, sell, trade, or barter, up to 500 lb (226.8 kg) of red crab, or its equivalent in weight as... restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight. (i... recovery rate is 64 percent of a whole red crab, which is equal to the weight of red crab half...

  10. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Luke F.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. PMID:26108629

  11. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B

    2015-07-07

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour.

  12. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue.

  13. A HYPERSPECTRAL VIEW OF THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Binette, L. E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.c

    2010-05-15

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the H{beta}, [O III] {lambda}4959, {lambda}5007, H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}6548, {lambda}6584, and [S II] {lambda}6717, {lambda}6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Cadez et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/H{alpha}, [S II]/H{alpha}, and [S II] {lambda}6717 /[S II] {lambda}6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  14. The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Cinquilli, M.; Servoli, L.; Lacaprara, S.; Fanzago, F.; Dorigo, A.; Merlo, M.; Farina, F.; Fanfani, A.; Codispoti, G.; Bacchi, W.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U /CERN /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Trieste /Fermilab

    2008-01-22

    The CMS experiment will produce several Pbytes of data every year, to be distributed over many computing centers geographically distributed in different countries. Analysis of this data will be also performed in a distributed way, using grid infrastructure. CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) is a specific tool, designed and developed by the CMS collaboration, that allows a transparent access to distributed data to end physicist. Very limited knowledge of underlying technicalities are required to the user. CRAB interacts with the local user environment, the CMS Data Management services and with the Grid middleware. It is able to use WLCG, gLite and OSG middleware. CRAB has been in production and in routine use by end-users since Spring 2004. It has been extensively used in studies to prepare the Physics Technical Design Report (PTDR) and in the analysis of reconstructed event samples generated during the Computing Software and Analysis Challenge (CSA06). This involved generating thousands of jobs per day at peak rates. In this paper we discuss the current implementation of CRAB, the experience with using it in production and the plans to improve it in the immediate future.

  15. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  16. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    PubMed Central

    Vinuthinee, Naidu; Azreen-Redzal, Anuar; Juanarita, Jaafar; Zunaina, Embong

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. PMID:25678769

  17. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  18. Power coupler for the ILC crab cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Jenkins, R.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Bellantoni, Leo; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The ILC crab cavity will require the design of an appropriate power coupler. The beam-loading in dipole mode cavities is considerably more variable than accelerating cavities, hence simulations have been performed to establish the required external Q. Simulations of a suitable coupler were then performed and were verified using a normal conducting prototype with variable coupler tips.

  19. A Hyperspectral View of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Binette, L.

    2010-05-01

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the Hβ, [O III] λ4959, λ5007, Hα, [N II] λ6548, λ6584, and [S II] λ6717, λ6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Čadež et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [S II] λ6717 /[S II] λ6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  20. CRADA No. NFE-10-02715 Assessment of AFA Stainless Steels for Tube Products in Chemical Processing and Energy Production Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Epler, Mario; Magee, John H

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (Carpenter) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to assess material properties of several potential AFA family grades and explore the feasibility of producing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels in tubular form needed for many power generation and chemical process applications. Carpenter's Research Laboratory successfully vacuum melted 30 lb heats of seven candidate AFA alloy compositions representing a wide range of alloy content and intended application temperatures. These compositions were evaluated by ORNL and Carpenter R&D for microstructure, tensile properties, creep properties, and oxidation resistance. In parallel, additional work was directed toward an initial tube manufacture demonstration of a baseline AFA alloy. Carpenter successfully manufactured a 10,000 lb production heat and delivered appropriate billets to a partner for extrusion evaluation. Tube product was successfully manufactured from the baseline AFA alloy, indicating good potential for commercially produced AFA tubular form material.

  1. Burrow surveillance in fiddler crabs. I. Description of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Jan M; Zeil, J

    2003-11-01

    When defending resources, animals need to reliably detect and identify potential competitors. Animals that live at high population densities would be expected to be efficient in this aspect of resource defence since the time lost in false alarms could be substantial and the failure of identifying a competitor could be very costly. How does an animal decide whether another animal is or is not a threat to a resource or a territory? Fiddler crabs [Uca vomeris (McNeill)] operate from burrows that they guard and defend vigorously against other crabs. The crabs live in dense populations, with many animals inhabiting one square metre of mudflat. We describe here the behavioural responses of foraging crabs to repeated presentations of small crab-like dummies approaching their burrows. We explore the relationship between the probability and the timing of burrow defence responses, the crab's behavioural state, and the visual appearance and direction of approach of the dummies. We find that the probability of response of resident crabs is independent of the relative position of crab and dummy but is strongly affected by the dummy's position and movement direction relative to the crab's burrow. The critical stimuli are the dummy's distance from the crab's burrow and whether the dummy is moving towards the burrow or not. The response distance (dummy-burrow distance) increases with the crab's own distance from the burrow, indicating that the crabs modify their assessment of threat depending on their own distance away from the burrow. Differences in dummy size and brightness do not affect the probability or the timing of the response. We discuss these results in the context of fiddler crab social life and, in a companion paper, identify the visual and non-visual cues involved in burrow defence.

  2. Phoretic interaction between the kangaroo leech Marsupiobdella africana (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) and the cape river crab Potamonautes perlatus (Decapoda: Potamonautidae)☆

    PubMed Central

    Badets, Mathieu; Preez, Louis Du

    2013-01-01

    The South African leech Marsupiobdella africana is a temporary ectoparasite of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, has a phoretic association with a freshwater crab Potamonautes perlatus, and exhibits advanced parental care by incubating its offspring in a brood pouch. Because phoretic associations are usually regarded to favor the phoront’s dispersion, its occurrence within the biology of a parasitic species reflects an intimate context of interactions. In addition to phoresy, attachment to the crab may confer other advantages pertaining to offspring development and predator avoidance, dispersion and the parasitic life cycle. Two ponds where amphibian and crab hosts co-occur were sampled twice a month for a period of 1 year. The population dynamics of the leeches and their use of specific microhabitats as attachment sites on the crabs were also investigated. Results indicate a direct relationship between intra-specific variation in the sex ratio among captured crab hosts and the number of leeches recruited over time. The attachments to specific microhabitats on the hard surfaces of the host suggest a proximal proximate anti-predatory strategy. Finally, the importance of oxygen accessibility for the offspring development has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed a remarkable network of interactions linking all partners of this system raising the question as to whether the crabs merely act as a vehicle or play a role within the parasitic life cycle. PMID:24918071

  3. Ghost fishing activity in derelict blue crab traps in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Julie A; Alford, Amy B

    2014-02-15

    Derelict crab traps impact the coastal ecosystem through continued catch of target species and species of conservation, economic, or recreational importance. During volunteer-supported crab trap cleanups in 2012 and 2013, we quantified ghost fishing activity in derelict crab traps in coastal Louisiana through a citizen scientist program. Volunteers removed 3607 derelict traps during these events, and over 65% of traps analyzed by citizen scientists were actively ghost fishing. Additionally, volunteers identified 19 species enmeshed in derelict traps, including a combination of fresh and saltwater species. We also detected a significant difference in the number of blue crab in actively ghost fishing derelict traps across removal locations with estimated catches varying between 2.4 and 3.5 crabs/trap. Our instantaneous estimates of ghost fishing activity are greater than those previously thought in Louisiana, further justifying current derelict crab trap prevention and removal extension and outreach programs in Louisiana and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-06-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of marine algal toxins. In this study, the accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus were investigated. Crabs were fed with toxic blue mussels Mytilus edulis for 21 days and then depurated for 42 days. Toxins were extracted with methanol from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group) and from blue mussels for comparison. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of PTX-2, PTX-2 SA, 7- epi-PTX-2 SA, and PTX-12 were analyzed in two batches of toxic blue mussels and the crabs. A one-compartment model was applied to describe the depuration of PTXs. The half-life of PTXs was estimated to be 6-7.5 days. After depuration for 42 days, the amount of PTXs measured in the crab digestive glands was less than 1 μg/kg.

  5. Anthropological facial approximation in three dimensions (AFA3D): computer-assisted estimation of the facial morphology using geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Dutailly, Bruno; Charton, Jérôme; Santos, Frédéric; Desbarats, Pascal; Coqueugniot, Hélène

    2014-11-01

    This study presents Anthropological Facial Approximation in Three Dimensions (AFA3D), a new computerized method for estimating face shape based on computed tomography (CT) scans of 500 French individuals. Facial soft tissue depths are estimated based on age, sex, corpulence, and craniometrics, and projected using reference planes to obtain the global facial appearance. Position and shape of the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears are inferred from cranial landmarks through geometric morphometrics. The 100 estimated cutaneous landmarks are then used to warp a generic face to the target facial approximation. A validation by re-sampling on a subsample demonstrated an average accuracy of c. 4 mm for the overall face. The resulting approximation is an objective probable facial shape, but is also synthetic (i.e., without texture), and therefore needs to be enhanced artistically prior to its use in forensic cases. AFA3D, integrated in the TIVMI software, is available freely for further testing.

  6. Determination of key environmental factors responsible for distribution patterns of fiddler crabs in a tropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Mohammad; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Usup, Gires; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-01-01

    In tropical regions, different species of fiddler crabs coexist on the mangrove floor, which sometimes makes it difficult to define species-specific habitat by visual inspection. The aim of this study is to find key environmental parameters which affect the distribution of fiddler crabs and to determine the habitats in which each species was most abundant. Crabs were collected from 19 sites within the mudflats of Sepang-Lukut mangrove forest. Temperature, porewater salinity, organic matter, water content, carbon and nitrogen content, porosity, chlorophyll content, pH, redox potential, sediment texture and heavy metals were determined in each 1 m2 quadrate. Pearson correlation indicated that all sediment properties except pH and redox potential were correlated with sediment grain size. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that Uca paradussumieri was negatively correlated with salinity and redox potential. Sand dwelling species, Uca perplexa and Uca annulipes, were highly dependent on the abundance of 250 μm and 150 μm grain size particles in the sediment. Canonical Discriminative Analysis (CDA) indicated that variation in sediment grain size best explained where each crab species was most abundant. Moreover, U. paradussumieri commonly occupies muddy substrates of low shore, while U. forcipata lives under the shade of mangrove trees. U. annulipes and U. perplexa with the high number of spoon tipped setae on their second maxiliped are specialized to feed on the sandy sediments. U. rosea and U. triangularis are more common on muddy sediment with high sediment density. In conclusion, sediment grain size that influences most sediment properties acts as a main factor responsible for sediment heterogeneity. In this paper, the correlation between fiddler crab species and environmental parameters, as well as the interaction between sediment characteristics, was explained in order to define the important environmental factors in fiddler crab distributions.

  7. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Miranda M.; Smee, Delbert L.

    2017-01-01

    By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging. PMID:28265512

  8. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  9. Interleukin-8 secretion by epithelial cells infected with diffusely adherent Escherichia coli possessing Afa adhesin-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Kentaro; Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli that adhere sparsely to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells are known as diffusely adherent E. coli(DAEC) and considered potentially diarrheagenic. The role of the afimbrial adhesive sheath (Afa)-identified originally as a uropathogenic factor-in diffuse adhesion is now understood. However, the role of DAEC in diarrheal disease remains controversial. Recently, ability to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from intestinal epithelial cells has been suggested as one of the properties of enterovirulent bacteria. In this study, we examined whether DAEC strains possessing Afa genes induced IL-8 in cultures of human carcinoma epithelial cells (e.g., HEp-2, Caco-2, and T84). Nineteen afa-positive DAEC strains were examined for their ability to induce IL-8 secretion, and only 7 strains (37%; 7/19) induced IL-8 as much as enteroaggregative E. coli did. No marked differences in adhesion were observed between high and low inducers. Diffusive adhesiveness itself is unlikely to be sufficient to induce IL-8. All high inducers were motile and others were nonmotile. Additional stimulation by flagella may be required to cause high levels of chemokine induction. Motility or presence of flagella can be an important criterion to predict DAEC diarrheagenicity at clinical laboratories.

  10. Gas Generation and Hold-Up in Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Process Streams Containing Anti-Foam Agent (AFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Stewart, Charles W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2007-06-29

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify defense wastes stored at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries that exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior. Such streams can accumulate hazardous quantities of thermally and radiolytically generated flammable gases. Experiments were performed in a bubble column to measure gas hold-up under various conditions to better understand flammable gas behavior in WTP processes. The two non-Newtonian slurries tested were kaolin-bentonite clay and a chemical surrogate of pretreated high-level waste (HLW) from Hanford Tank AZ-101. The addition of solutes, whether a salt or anti-foaming agent (AFA) decrease the bubble coalescence rate leading to smaller bubbles, lower bubble rise velocity and higher gas holdup. Gas holdup decreased with increasing yield stress and consistency. The impact of AFA on gas holdup in kaolin-bentonite clay was less than in simulated HLW, presumably because the AFA adsorbed onto the clay particles, rendering it unavailable to retard coalescence.

  11. Composition, Microstructure, and Water Vapor Effects on Internal/External Oxidation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Walker, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    A family of creep-resistant austenitic stainless steels based on alumina (Al2O3) scale formation for superior high-temperature oxidation resistance was recently identified. Results of long-term cyclic oxidation studies (100 h cycles and total exposure duration for up to 7500 h) from 650-800 aC in air and/or air with 10% water vapor for a series of 2.5, 3, and 4 wt.% Al AFA compositions, with varying levels of Nb and Ni additions, are presented. Water vapor was observed to enhance subscale Al consumption in the AFA alloys relative to dry air exposure, presumably via enhanced alumina scale cracking and reformation. Water vapor also increased the tendency for internal oxidation. Increased levels of Nb additions were found to significantly improve oxidation resistance, as were reactive element additions of Hf and Y. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2Nb base Laves phase precipitates were used to guide interpretation of oxidation behavior alloy composition trends in terms of two-phase oxidation theory, reservoir effect, and the third-element effect of Cr. The implications of these findings for the upper-temperature service limit for this new class of alloys and the potential for AFA alloy modification for increased service temperatures are discussed.

  12. A 150-million-year-old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Martin, Joel W; Haug, Carolin

    2015-03-09

    True crabs (Brachyura) are the most successful group of decapod crustaceans. This success is most likely coupled to their life history, including two specialised larval forms, zoea and megalopa. The group is comparably young, starting to diversify only about 100 million years ago (mya), with a dramatic increase in species richness beginning approximately 50 mya. Early evolution of crabs is still very incompletely known. Here, we report a fossil crab larva, 150 mya, documented with up-to-date imaging techniques. It is only the second find of any fossil crab larva, but the first complete one, the first megalopa, and the oldest one (other fossil ca. 110 mya). Despite its age, the new fossil possesses a very modern morphology, being indistinguishable from many extant crab larvae. Hence, modern morphologies must have been present significantly earlier than formerly anticipated. We briefly discuss the impact of this find on our understanding of early crab evolution.

  13. Crab Crossing Schemes and Studies for Electron Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y. Derbenev, V. Morozov, A. Castilla, G.A. Krafft, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang, J.R. Delayen

    2011-09-01

    This report shows our progress in crab crossing consideration for future electron-ion collider envisioned at JLab. In this design phase, we are evaluating two crabbing schemes viz., the deflecting and dispersive. The mathematical formulations and lattice design for these schemes are discussed in this paper. Numerical simulations involving particle tracking through a realistic deflecting RF cavity and optics illustrate the desired crab tilt of 25 mrad for 1.35 MV. Evolution of beam propagation are shown which provides the physical insight of the crabbing phenomenon.

  14. Prevalence, characterization and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Parveen, Salina; Rippen, Thomas; Luchansky, John B; Call, Jeffrey E; Tamplin, Mark L; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2012-09-01

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crabs, 624 cooked crab meat (crab meat) and 624 environmental samples were tested by standard methods. Presumptive Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.5% of raw crabs, 10.8% of crab meat, and 69.5% of environmental samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% of raw crabs, 0.2% of crab meat, and 2.1% of environmental samples. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the ten antibiotics tested. Eight different serotypes were found among 76 L. monocytogenes isolates tested with the most common being 4b, 1/2b and 1/2a. Automated EcoRI ribotyping differentiated 11 ribotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates. Based on ribotyping analysis, the distribution of the ribotypes in each processing plant had a unique contamination pattern. A total of 92 ApaI and 88 AscI pulsotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates were found and distinct pulsotypes were observed in raw crab, crab meat and environmental samples. Ribotypes and serotypes recovered from crab processing plants included subtypes that have been associated with listeriosis cases in other food outbreaks. Our findings suggest that molecular methods may provide critical information about sources of L. monocytogenes in crab processing plants and will augment efforts to improve food safety control strategies such as targeting specific sources of contamination and use of aggressive detergents prior to sanitizing.

  15. Effects and mechanism of action of naphthalene, a petroleum-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on black pigment dispersion in the salt marsh fiddler crab, UCA pugilator

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    At a concentration of approximately 8 ppm, naphthalene inhibited circadian black pigment dispersion in the integumentary chromatophores of the fiddler crab no matter what the initial state of the black pigment. The inhibition was concentration dependent. Naphthalene was not toxic to fiddler crabs under these conditions at any concentration up to 16.69 ppm. No chemically induced phase shift in the circadian rhythm of naphthalene exposed crabs occurs. In addition there is no difference in the mean black chromatophore index at midnight between control and naphthalene exposed crabs, indicating that the release of black pigment concentrating hormone (BPCH) is not being influenced by naphthalene. The only possibility remaining is that naphthalene must interfere with some aspect of the control of BPDH release by NE. Exposure to naphthalene does not inhibit black pigment dispersion when crabs are placed on a black background or kept on a black background throughout the experiment. This argues against naphthalene acting to inhibit the synthesis of NE, or to promote its metabolism, since NE is involved in adaptation to a black background. Naphthalene, therefore, must act to prevent the release of BPDH by interfering with some aspect of the presynaptic control of BPDH release by NE.

  16. Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika

    2012-09-01

    Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

  17. Pulsating Radio Sources near the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Staelin, D H; Reifenstein, E C

    1968-12-27

    Two new pulsating radio sources, designated NP 0527 and NP 0532, were found near the Crab Nebula and could be coincident with it. Both sources are sporadic, and no periodicities are evident. The pulse dispersions indicate that 1.58 +/- 0.03 and 1.74 +/- 0.02 x 10(20) electrons per square centimeter lie in the direction of NP 0527 and NP 0532, respectively.

  18. Multiband observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Bykov, A. M.; Castelletti, G. M.; Dubner, G. M.; Kargaltsev, O. Yu; Pavlov, G. G.

    2017-01-01

    Results of simultaneous imaging of the Crab Nebula in the radio (JVLA), optical (HST), and X-ray (Chandra) bands are presented. The images show a variety of small-scale structures, including wisps mainly located to the north-west of the pulsar and knots forming a ring-like structure associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. The locations of the structures in different bands do not coincide with each other.

  19. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  20. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day. CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. The new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service. Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.