Science.gov

Sample records for act afa trawl

  1. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) trawl limited access fisheries, except American Fisheries Act (AFA) vessels using... for vessels participating in the BSAI trawl limited access fishery, except American Fisheries Act...

  2. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... 2010 Pacific cod directed fishing allowance for AFA trawl catcher processors in the BSAI has been...) allocated to AFA trawl catcher processors in the BSAI is 3,467 metric tons (mt) as established by the...

  3. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the A season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl... cod TAC allocated to AFA trawl catcher-processors in the BSAI is 2,600 metric tons (mt) as...

  4. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl... cod TAC specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in the BSAI is 4,021 metric tons as established...

  5. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA trawl catcher/processors in the...

  6. 78 FR 15705 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; American Fisheries Act (AFA): Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA): Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... currently approved information collection. In response to the American Fisheries Act (AFA), NMFS developed a management program for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI) pollock to include a set of...

  7. 75 FR 6588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl... TAC allocated to the AFA inshore open access fishery in the BSAI is 2,762 metric tons (mt) as...://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/afa/afa_sf.htm . In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i),...

  8. 78 FR 25426 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act, Amendment 80 Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA), the Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, the Amendment 80 trawl fisheries in the Bering... Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) to the AFA, Aleutian... people who are knowledgeable about the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80, and...

  9. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA...

  10. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA...

  11. 78 FR 54629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act, Amendment 80 Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... under the American Fisheries Act (AFA), the Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, the Amendment 80 trawl...-Stevens Act) to the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80 Program, CDQ Program, and the... participation by people who are knowledgeable about the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80,...

  12. 75 FR 44927 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher vessels... CFR part 679. The 2010 Bering Sea pollock TAC allocated to the AFA inshore open access fishery in the....gov/sustainablefisheries/afa/10bsaicoopallocations.pdf . In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i),...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  17. 25 CFR 1000.409 - Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? 1000.409 Section 1000.409 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... § 1000.409 Does the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901) apply to a non-BIA, non-Indian program AFA? Yes, upon mutual agreement of the parties, an AFA may incorporate the Prompt Payment Act....

  18. 76 FR 47083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the.../processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in...

  19. The AfaR small RNA controls expression of the AfaD-VIII invasin in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Christophe; du Merle, Laurence; Lequeutre, Isabelle; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains carrying the afa-8 gene cluster are frequently associated with extra-intestinal infections in humans and animals. The afa-8 A to E genes determine the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath consisting of the AfaD-VIII invasin and the AfaE-VIII adhesin at the bacterial cell surface. This structure is thought to be required for host colonization. We characterized a new gene encoding the small RNA AfaR, which is transcribed in cis from the complementary strand of the 3′ untranslated region of the afaD messenger RNA, within the afaD–afaE intercistronic region. AfaR is a trans-acting Hfq-dependent antisense small RNA that binds the 5′ untranslated region of the afaD messenger RNA, initiating several ribonuclease E-dependent cleavages, thereby downregulating production of the AfaD-VIII invasin. AfaR transcription is dependent on σE, a member of the stress response family of extracytoplasmic alternative sigma factors. We found that the AfaR-dependent regulatory pathway was controlled by temperature, allowing the production of the AfaD-VIII invasin at temperatures above 37°C. Our findings suggest that the entry of afa-8-positive pathogenic E. coli strains into epithelial cells is tightly regulated by the AfaR small RNA. PMID:23563153

  20. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.92 - What funds may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What funds may not be included in an AFA? 1000.92 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.92 What funds may not be included in an AFA? Funds associated with programs prohibited from...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.248 - What is the Tribe's/Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... program included in an AFA? 1000.248 Section 1000.248 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium's role in a construction program included in an AFA? The Tribe/Consortium has the following role regarding a construction portion of an AFA: (a) Under the Act, the Indian Tribe/Consortium must...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.405 - Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of... AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.405 Are AFA funds non-Federal funds for the purpose of meeting matching requirements? Yes, self-governance AFA...

  15. Dra/AfaE adhesin of uropathogenic Dr/Afa+ Escherichia coli mediates mortality in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, K; Selvarangan, R; Hart, A; Pladzyk, R; Goluszko, P; Jafari, A; du Merle, L; Nowicki, S; Yallampalli, C; Le Bouguénec, C; Nowicki, B

    2005-11-01

    Escherichia coli bearing adhesins of the Dr/Afa family frequently causes urogenital infections during pregnancy in humans and has been associated with mortality in pregnant rats. Two components of the adhesin, Dra/AfaE and Dra/AfaD, considered virulence factors, are responsible for bacterial binding and internalization. We hypothesize that gestational mortality caused by Dr/Afa+ E. coli is mediated by one of these two proteins, Dra/AfaE or Dra/AfaD. In this study, using afaE and/or afaD mutants, we investigated the role of the afaE and afaD genes in the mortality of pregnant rats from intrauterine infection. Sprague-Dawley rats, on the 17th day of pregnancy, were infected with the E. coli afaE+ afaD and afaE afaD+ mutants. The clinical E. coli strain (afaE+ afaD+) and the afaE afaD double mutant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mortality rate was evaluated 24 h after infection. The highest maternal mortality was observed in the group infected with the afaE+ afaD+ strain, followed by the group infected with the afaE+ afaD strain. The mortality was dose dependent. The afaE afaD double mutant did not cause maternal mortality, even with the highest infection dose. The in vivo studies corresponded with the invasion assay, where the afaE+ strains were the most invasive (afaE+ afaD strain > afaE+ afaD+ strain), while the afaE mutant strains (afaE afaD+ and afaE afaD strains) seemed to be noninvasive. This study shows for the first time that the afaE gene coding for the AfaE subunit of Dr/Afa adhesin is involved in the lethal outcome of gestational infection in rats. This lethal effect associated with AfaE correlates with the invasiveness of afaE+ E. coli strains in vitro.

  16. Dra/AfaE Adhesin of Uropathogenic Dr/Afa+ Escherichia coli Mediates Mortality in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, K.; Selvarangan, R.; Hart, A.; Pladzyk, R.; Goluszko, P.; Jafari, A.; du Merle, L.; Nowicki, S.; Yallampalli, C.; Le Bouguénec, C.; Nowicki, B.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli bearing adhesins of the Dr/Afa family frequently causes urogenital infections during pregnancy in humans and has been associated with mortality in pregnant rats. Two components of the adhesin, Dra/AfaE and Dra/AfaD, considered virulence factors, are responsible for bacterial binding and internalization. We hypothesize that gestational mortality caused by Dr/Afa+ E. coli is mediated by one of these two proteins, Dra/AfaE or Dra/AfaD. In this study, using afaE and/or afaD mutants, we investigated the role of the afaE and afaD genes in the mortality of pregnant rats from intrauterine infection. Sprague-Dawley rats, on the 17th day of pregnancy, were infected with the E. coli afaE+ afaD and afaE afaD+ mutants. The clinical E. coli strain (afaE+ afaD+) and the afaE afaD double mutant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mortality rate was evaluated 24 h after infection. The highest maternal mortality was observed in the group infected with the afaE+ afaD+ strain, followed by the group infected with the afaE+ afaD strain. The mortality was dose dependent. The afaE afaD double mutant did not cause maternal mortality, even with the highest infection dose. The in vivo studies corresponded with the invasion assay, where the afaE+ strains were the most invasive (afaE+ afaD strain > afaE+ afaD+ strain), while the afaE mutant strains (afaE afaD+ and afaE afaD strains) seemed to be noninvasive. This study shows for the first time that the afaE gene coding for the AfaE subunit of Dr/Afa adhesin is involved in the lethal outcome of gestational infection in rats. This lethal effect associated with AfaE correlates with the invasiveness of afaE+ E. coli strains in vitro. PMID:16239563

  17. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.332 - Who may retrocede a program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? 1000.332 Section 1000.332 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL... EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.332 Who may retrocede a program in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.397 - Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any restrictions on how AFA funds may be spent? 1000.397 Section 1000.397 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.397 Are there any restrictions on how AFA...

  7. Sidescan-sonar mapping of benthic trawl marks on the shelf and slope off Eureka, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, A.M.; Boehlert, G.W.; Field, M.E.; Mason, J.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Dartnell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The abundance and orientation of trawl marks was quantified over an extensive portion (>2700 km2) of the Eureka, California, outer shelf and slope, an important commercial bottom trawling ground for such high-value species as rockfish, sole, and sablefish. Fishing logbook data indicate that the entire reporting area was trawled about one and a half times on an average annual basis and that some areas were trawled over three times annually. High-resolution sidescan-sonar images of the study area revealed deep gouges on the seafloor, caused by heavy steel trawl doors that act to weigh down and spread open the bottom trawls. These trawl marks are commonly oriented parallel to bathymetric contours and many could be traced for several kilometers. Trawl marks showed a quadratic relationship in relation to water depth, with the greatest number of trawl marks observed at ~400 m. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of trawl marks observed on the sidescan images and the number of annual trawl hours logged within reporting areas. This finding indicates that acoustic remote sensing is a promising independent approach to evaluate fishing effort on a scale consistent with commercial fishing activities. Bottom trawling gear is known to modify seafloor habitats by altering benthic habitat complexity and by removing or damaging infauna and sessile organisms. Identifying the extent of trawling in these areas may help determine the effects of this type of fishing gear on the benthos and develop indices of habitat disturbance caused by fishing activities.

  8. Pathogenesis of human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): current insights and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as "silent pathogens" with the capacity to emerge as "pathobionts" for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis.

  9. Pathogenesis of Human Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Expressing Afa/Dr Adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): Current Insights and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as “silent pathogens” with the capacity to emerge as “pathobionts” for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:25278576

  10. AFA Support for Research: Journals and Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.; Zarefsky, David

    2000-01-01

    Claims the American Forensic Association's (AFA) publications and conferences represent its principal commitment to research. Presents a review of the journals and conferences under AFA sponsorship. Reviews the strong commitment to research on the part of the AFA, particularly as it is manifested in the association's journal and in conferences.…

  11. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.180 - What is a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a successor AFA? 1000.180 Section 1000.180... § 1000.180 What is a successor AFA? A successor AFA is a funding agreement negotiated after a Tribe's... the AFA should generally use the terms of the existing AFA to expedite and simplify the exchange...

  16. 75 FR 52308 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Data Report (EDR) for the Catcher/ Processor non-AFA Trawl Sector. OMB Control Number: 0648-0564. Form... Fisheries Act (non-AFA) Trawl Catcher/processor Cooperative Program (Program). The Program established a limited access privilege program for the non-AFA trawl catcher/processor sector. The Amendment 80...

  17. 78 FR 9024 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle excluder devices... (77 FR 27411) that would require all skimmer trawls, pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly... trawls, pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly trawls) will be collectively referred to as...

  18. The afa-related gene cluster in necrotoxigenic and other Escherichia coli from animals belongs to the afa-8 variant.

    PubMed

    Gérardin, J; Lalioui, L; Jacquemin, E; Le Bouguénec, C; Mainil, J G

    2000-09-25

    Six hundred and nine necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli type 1 and 2 (NTEC1 and NTEC2) and non-NTEC isolated in Western and Southern Europe, North Africa and Canada from diseased calves, pigs, humans, poultry, and 55 isolated from asymptomatic calves were studied for the identification of afa-related sequences to the recently described afa-7 and afa-8 gene cluster variants from two bovine Escherichia coli (Lalioui et al., 1999). Colony hybridization and PCR assays for the afaD-7, afaE-7, afaD-8 and afaE-8 identified the afa-related sequences to the afa-8 gene cluster in most (67/79; 85%) of the E. coli positive with the Afa-f family probe and in 14 additional strains negative with the Afa-f probe. No E. coli was positive for the afa-7 gene cluster. The existence of afa-8 positive strains was thus confirmed among bovine E. coli and for the first time among porcine, poultry and human E. coli. Sequencing of the afaE-8 amplicon of nine strains from the different host species showed a high degree of conservation (>95% at the DNA level; >92% at the amino-acid level). The afa-8 gene cluster was more frequent in E. coli from diseased calves (18%) than from piglets (12%), humans (6%) and poultry (5%). Bovine NTEC2 (26%) were more frequently positive than NTEC 1 (20%) and non-NTEC (11%). E. coli isolated from asymptomatic calves were rarely positive: one NTEC2 (3%) and no non-NTEC. The afa-8 gene cluster was located on the Vir plasmid in 11/23 NTEC2, but no plasmid localization was detected in NTEC1 or non-NTEC.

  19. Adhesion to and invasion of HeLa cells by pathogenic Escherichia coli carrying the afa-3 gene cluster are mediated by the AfaE and AfaD proteins, respectively.

    PubMed

    Jouve, M; Garcia, M I; Courcoux, P; Labigne, A; Gounon, P; Le Bouguénec, C

    1997-10-01

    The afa-3 gene cluster, expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains, determines the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath composed of the AfaD and AfaE-III adhesins. The adherence to HeLa cells by recombinant HB101 strains producing both or only one of these two adhesins was investigated. Ultrastructural analyses of the interaction and gentamicin protection assays showed adherence to HeLa cells by HB101 producing both the AfaD and AfaE-III proteins and internalization of a subpopulation of the bacteria into the cells. The interactions of HeLa cells either with HB101 mutants producing AfaD or AfaE-III or with polystyrene beads coated with purified His6-tagged AfaD or His6-tagged AfaE-III proteins were studied. These experiments demonstrated that AfaE-III allows binding to HeLa cells and that AfaD mediates the internalization of the adherent bacteria. Ultrastructural analyses of the interaction of His6-AfaD-gold complexes with HeLa cells confirmed that AfaD is able to bind to the HeLa cell surface and indicated that it penetrates the cells via clathrin vesicles. These data demonstrate that the afa gene cluster is unique among bacteria, as alone it encodes both adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters encoding afimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli strains associated with diarrhea or septicemia in calves.

    PubMed

    Lalioui, L; Jouve, M; Gounon, P; Le Bouguenec, C

    1999-10-01

    The afa gene clusters, which encode proteins involved in adhesion to epithelial cells, from Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary and intestinal infections in humans have been characterized. Pathogenic isolates of bovine and porcine origin that possess afa-related sequences have recently been described. We report in this work the cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters from bovine isolates. Hybridization and sequencing experiments revealed that despite similarity in genetic organization, the afa-7 and afa-8 genes, and the well-characterized afa-3 operon expressed by human-pathogenic isolates, correspond to three different members of the afa family of gene clusters. However, like the afa-3 gene cluster, both the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters were found to encode an afimbrial adhesin (AfaE) and an invasin (AfaD). The AfaD peptides encoded by the three gene clusters were only 45% identical, but functional complementation experiments indicated that they belong to the same family of invasins. Hemagglutination and adhesion assays demonstrated that the AfaE-VII and AfaE-VIII adhesins bind to different receptors and that these receptors are not the human decay-accelerating factor recognized to be the receptor of all previously described AfaE adhesins. The AfaE-VIII adhesin is very similar to the M agglutinin of human-uropathogenic strains. We used PCR assays to screen 25 bovine strains for afaD and afaE genes of either the afa-7 or afa-8 gene cluster. The afa-8 gene cluster was highly prevalent in bovine isolates previously reported to carry afa-related sequences (23 of 24 strains), particularly in strains producing cytotoxic necrotizing factors (16 of 16 strains). The location of the afa-8 gene cluster on the plasmids or chromosome of these isolates suggests that it could be carried by a mobile element, facilitating its dissemination among bovine-pathogenic E. coli strains.

  1. 77 FR 18176 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... International Fisheries Agreement Clarification Act (IFACA) enacted into law on January 4, 2011, the Council and... part of a trip in these RGAs to use a haddock separator trawl, a Ruhle trawl, a rope trawl, longline... gear type), the rope trawl, and any other gears authorized by the Council in a management action...

  2. 75 FR 78172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... vessels (C/Ps) that are not specified in regulation as American Fisheries Act (AFA) vessels, referred to throughout this rule as non-AFA trawl C/Ps, and Amendment 80 cooperatives from the groundfish retention... the retention and utilization of groundfish caught by the non-AFA trawl C/ Ps and to respond...

  3. 76 FR 31881 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Act (AFA) vessels, and Amendment 80 cooperatives from the groundfish retention standard (GRS) program... retention and utilization of groundfish caught by the non-AFA trawl C/Ps and to respond to bycatch reduction... necessary to exempt non-AFA trawl C/Ps and Amendment 80 cooperatives from the minimum...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.90 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.90 What happens if an...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.148 - What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if an AFA expires before the effective date of the successor AFA? 1000.148 Section 1000.148 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Funding Agreements Reallocation, Duration, and Amendments § 1000.148 What happens if an AFA expires...

  14. 77 FR 27411 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... skimmer trawls, pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle... (butterfly trawls). For example, on May 8, 2009, NMFS published a notice of intent (NOI) to prepare an... (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing in Mississippi and Alabama state waters. Before the emergency...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  16. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  17. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  19. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  20. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  1. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  4. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  5. 50 CFR Table 41 to Part 679 - BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false BSAI Crab PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 41 Table 41 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels For the following crab species in...

  6. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  7. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  8. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels 40 Table 40 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels In the following target...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.428 - How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? 1000.428 Section 1000.428... Appeals § 1000.428 How may a Tribe/Consortium appeal a decision made after the AFA or compact or amendment to an AFA or compact has been signed? With the exception of certain decisions concerning...

  10. Characterization of AfaE adhesins produced by extraintestinal and intestinal human Escherichia coli isolates: PCR assays for detection of Afa adhesins that do or do not recognize Dr blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Lalioui, L; du Merle, L; Jouve, M; Courcoux, P; Bouzari, S; Selvarangan, R; Nowicki, B J; Germani, Y; Andremont, A; Gounon, P; Garcia, M I

    2001-05-01

    Operons of the afa family are expressed by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans and animals. The recently demonstrated heterogeneity of these operons (L. Lalioui, M. Jouve, P. Gounon, and C. Le Bouguénec, Infect. Immun. 67:5048-5059, 1999) was used to develop a new PCR assay for detecting all the operons of the afa family with a single genetic tool. This PCR approach was validated by investigating three collections of human E. coli isolates originating from the stools of infants with diarrhea (88 strains), the urine of patients with pyelonephritis (97 strains), and the blood of cancer patients (115 strains). The results obtained with this single test and those previously obtained with several PCR assays were closely correlated. The AfaE adhesins encoded by the afa operons are variable, particularly with respect to the primary sequence encoded by the afaE gene. The receptor binding specificities have not been determined for all of these adhesins; some recognize the Dr blood group antigen (Afa/Dr(+) adhesins) on the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) as a receptor, and others (Afa/Dr(-) adhesins) do not. Thus, the afa operons detected in this study were characterized by subtyping the afaE gene using specific PCRs. In addition, the DAF-binding capacities of as-yet-uncharacterized AfaE adhesins were tested by various cellular approaches. The afaE8 subtype (Afa/Dr(-) adhesin) was found to predominate in afa-positive isolates from sepsis patients (75%); it was frequent in afa-positive pyelonephritis E. coli (55.5%) and absent from diarrhea-associated strains. In contrast, Afa/Dr(+) strains (regardless of the afaE subtype) were associated with both diarrhea (100%) and extraintestinal infections (44 and 25% in afa-positive pyelonephritis and sepsis strains, respectively). These data suggest that there is an association between the subtype of AfaE adhesin and the physiological site of the infection

  11. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  13. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.276 - Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does FTCA apply to a self-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? 1000.276 Section 1000.276 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS...-governance AFA if FTCA is not referenced in the AFA? Yes, FTCA applies even if the AFA does not mention it....

  16. Pathogenesis of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2005-04-01

    Over the last few years, dramatic increases in our knowledge about diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) pathogenesis have taken place. The typical class of DAEC includes E. coli strains harboring AfaE-I, AfaE-II, AfaE-III, AfaE-V, Dr, Dr-II, F1845, and NFA-I adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC); these strains (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) allow binding to human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) (Afa/Dr(DAF) subclass) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (Afa/Dr(CEA) subclass). The atypical class of DAEC includes two subclasses of strains; the atypical subclass 1 includes E. coli strains that express AfaE-VII, AfaE-VIII, AAF-I, AAF-II, and AAF-III adhesins, which (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) do not bind to human DAF, and the atypical subclass 2 includes E. coli strains that harbor Afa/Dr adhesins or others adhesins promoting diffuse adhesion, together with pathogenicity islands such as the LEE pathogenicity island (DA-EPEC). In this review, the focus is on Afa/Dr DAEC strains that have been found to be associated with urinary tract infections and with enteric infection. The review aims to provide a broad overview and update of the virulence aspects of these intriguing pathogens. Epidemiological studies, diagnostic techniques, characteristic molecular features of Afa/Dr operons, and the respective role of Afa/Dr adhesins and invasins in pathogenesis are described. Following the recognition of membrane-bound receptors, including type IV collagen, DAF, CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, by Afa/Dr adhesins, activation of signal transduction pathways leads to structural and functional injuries at brush border and junctional domains and to proinflammatory responses in polarized intestinal cells. In addition, uropathogenic Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following recognition of beta(1) integrin as a receptor, enter epithelial cells by a zipper-like, raft- and microtubule-dependent mechanism. Finally, the presence of other, unknown virulence factors and the

  17. Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA) associated with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Ilikkan, Barbaros; Vural, Mehmet; Perk, Yildiz

    2002-01-01

    Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA) is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by single or multiple strands joining the upper and lower lids. Its etiology is unknown. A girl with a gestational age of 38 weeks is presented. It was interesting to find an association of AFA with hypoplasia of hair, eyelashes, eyebrows and nails and a karyotype of trisomy 18 in this case.

  18. The National Debate Tournament: A Test of the AFA's Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegelmueller, George; Baron, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Notes that for two decades issues related to the National Debate Tournament (NDT) consumed major portions of the American Forensic Association's (AFA) annual business meetings. Reviews the circumstances leading to the AFA's vote to sponsor the NDT; examines the association's role in overseeing the NDT; and judges the significance of the…

  19. Palladium complexes of 6-aminofulvene-2-aldiminate (AFA) ligands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Philip J; Collins, Anna; Haack, Peter; Parsons, Simon; Rahman, Mahmudur; Smith, Damian; White, Fraser J

    2010-02-14

    Bis(N,N'-2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-6-aminofulvene-2-aldimine (4) has been synthesised and characterised. The synthesis and characterisation of two zwitterionic Pd(ii) complexes [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(Me)DMAP] (1) and [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(N,N-dimethylbenzylamine-2-C,N)] (2) are reported. Activation of 1 and 2 for ethene polymerisation with Lewis acids such as BF(3) and B(C(6)F(5))(3) were not successful. Attempted synthesis of halide-bridged dimers of the form [(Ph(2)AFA)Pd(mu-X)](2) resulted in formation of bis-chelated complexes [(Cy(2)AFA)(2)Pd] (3) and [((t)Bu(2)AFA)(2)Pd] (5).

  20. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.137 - What funds are included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What funds are included in an AFA? 1000.137 Section 1000... are included in an AFA? Bureaus determine the amount of funding to be included in the AFA using the following principles: (a) 403(b)(2) programs. In general, funds are provided in an AFA to the...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.177 - What happens when the AFA is signed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when the AFA is signed? 1000.177 Section... Agreements § 1000.177 What happens when the AFA is signed? (a) After all parties have signed the AFA, a copy is sent to the Tribe/Consortium. (b) The Secretary forwards copies of the AFA to: (1) The...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.432 - To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is signed? 1000.432 Section 1000.432 Indians OFFICE OF THE... whom may a Tribe appeal a decision made before the AFA or an amendment to the AFA or compact is...

  15. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Figure 1 of part 660, subpart D. (ii) (6) Midwater (or pelagic) trawl gear. Midwater trawl gear must have... Luis, East San Lucia Bank, Point Conception, Hidden Reef/Kidney Bank (within Cowcod Conservation...

  16. 76 FR 76903 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... gear sectors to American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher/ processors and catcher/processors using... apportionment for AFA trawl catcher/processors apportionment and 750 mt to the B season apportionment for catcher/ processors using hook-and-line gear. The C season apportionment of the 2011 Pacific cod...

  17. 75 FR 10756 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Amendment 80 Economic Data Report for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... 80 Economic Data Report for the Catcher/Processor Non-AFA Trawl Sector AGENCY: National Oceanic and.../processor sector. The Amendment 80 economic data report (EDR) collects cost, revenue, ownership, and.../processor sector of the non-American Fisheries Act (non-AFA) Trawl Catcher/processor Cooperative...

  18. Recognition of the cellular beta1-chain integrin by the bacterial AfaD invasin is implicated in the internalization of afa-expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Plançon, Laure; Du Merle, Laurence; Le Friec, Sandrine; Gounon, Pierre; Jouve, Mabel; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2003-10-01

    The afa operons from Escherichia coli associated with extra-intestinal and intestinal infections have been characterized and the AfaD protein has been shown to be involved in the low internalization of laboratory strains expressing the afa-3 operon. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the AfaD invasin during the interaction of pathogenic E. coli with epithelial cells. We show that AfaD is implicated in the entry of a clinical isolate into both HeLa and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Once in the cytoplasm of these cells, the bacteria formed inclusions in which they were able to survive for at least 72 h. Internalization assays using polystyrene beads coated with His6-tagged purified AfaD (rAfaD) demonstrated that this invasin mediates entry into cells derived from various tissues (intestine and urothelium) that are targets for afa-positive strains. Consistent with the previous observation that an antibody blockade involving anti-alpha5beta1 integrin abolishes bacterial internalization, we show here that the entry of rAfaD-coated beads was dependent on the production and accessibility of beta1 integrins on the cells. The AfaD proteins belong to a family of invasins that are at least 45% identical. Despite their differences, the recombinant rAfaD-III and rAfaD-VIII proteins both bound to beta1 integrins. Our results suggest that beta1 integrin is a common receptor for AfaD invasins and that additional AfaD-type-specific receptors exist.

  19. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.86 - What types of programs may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of programs may be included in an AFA? 1000.86... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.86 What types of programs may be included in an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium may include in its AFA programs administered by BIA, without regard to the BIA agency or...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  5. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  6. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  13. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  18. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.178 - When does the AFA become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When does the AFA become effective? 1000.178 Section 1000... Agreements § 1000.178 When does the AFA become effective? The effective date is not earlier than 90 days after the AFA is submitted to the Congressional committees under § 1000.177(b)....

  20. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.244 Section 1000.244 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  3. 25 CFR 1000.82 - What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.82 What types of provisions must be included in a BIA AFA? Each AFA must specify the programs and it must also specify the applicable funding: (a) Retained by...

  4. The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, functions as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli by promoting lesions in tight junction of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guignot, Julie; Chaplais, Cécile; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Servin, Alain L

    2007-01-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are responsible for urinary tract and intestinal infections. Both in intestine and kidney, the epithelial cells forming epithelium are sealed by junctional domains. We provide evidence that the Secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, belonging to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs), acts as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr DAEC by promoting lesions in the tight junctions (TJs) of polarized epithelial Caco-2/TC7 cells. Southern blot analysis reveals that the prototype strains of the subclass-1 and subclass-2 typical Afa/Dr DAEC strains, hybridize with a sat probe. Using the wild-type IH11128 strain, the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 strain that expresses Sat, the recombinant E. coli that expresses both Dr adhesin and Sat, we report that Sat in monolayers of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells, induces rearrangements of the TJs-associated proteins ZO-1, ZO-3 and occludin, and increases the formation of domes as the result of an increase in the paracellular permeability without affecting the transepithelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers. Moreover, we observe that Sat-induced disassembly of TJs-associated proteins is dependent on the serine protease motif. Finally, an analysis of the prevalence of the sat gene in three collections of Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children with and without diarrhoea, and from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) shows that: (i) the sat gene is highly prevalent in UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains (88% positive), (ii) the sat gene is generally absent from Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children without diarrhoea (16% positive); whereas (iii) it is present in about half of the strains collected from the stools of children with diarrhoea (46% positive).

  5. The afimbrial adhesive sheath encoded by the afa-3 gene cluster of pathogenic Escherichia coli is composed of two adhesins.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M I; Gounon, P; Courcoux, P; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1996-02-01

    The afa-3 gene cluster determines the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath that is expressed by uropathogenic as well as diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli strains. It contains six genes (afaA-afaF), among which the afaE3 gene is known to code for the structural AfaE-III adhesin (previously designated AFA-III), whereas no role has yet been identified for the afaD gene product. The afa-3 gene cluster is closely related to the daa operon that codes for an adhesin, the F1845 adhesin, which is highly related to the AfaE-III adhesin; however, unlike the AfaE-III adhesin, F1845 is a fimbrial adhesin. Reported in this work is the construction of chimeras between the afa-3 and daa operons. Analyses of the phenotypes conferred by these afa-3/daa chimeric clusters allowed us to conclude that the biogenesis of a fimbrial or an afimbrial adhesin is fully determined by the amino acid sequence of the AfaE-III and F1845 adhesins. Moreover, the role of the AfaD product in the biosynthesis of the afimbrial sheath was assessed by immunogold and immunofluorescence experiments. The AfaD and the AfaE-III products were purified and used to raise rabbit and mouse antisera. Similar to AfaE-III, AfaD was found to be a surface-exposed protein as well as an adhesin; both AfaD and AfaE-III are concomittantly expressed by the bacterial cell. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the afimbrial adhesive sheath expressed by pathogenic E. coli is composed of two adhesins.

  6. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.243 - What special provisions must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What special provisions must be included in an AFA that... must be included in an AFA that contains a construction program? An AFA that contains a construction program must address the requirements listed in this section. (a) The AFA must specify how the...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.87 - How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions performed, and responsibilities assumed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.87 How does the AFA specify the services provided, functions... AFA must specify in writing the services, functions, and responsibilities to be assumed by the...

  16. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): hitherto unrecognized pathogens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Servin, Alain L

    2006-03-01

    Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are currently considered to constitute a putative sixth group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, on the basis of their diffuse adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, the detection of afa/dra/daa-related operons encoding this adherence phenotype, and the mobilization of decay-accelerating factor, both commensal and pathogenic strains can be classified as Afa/Dr DAEC isolates. Furthermore, strains associated with diarrheal diseases and strains causing extra-intestinal infections can also be identified as Afa/Dr DAEC strains. Although several cell signaling events that occur after epithelial cells have been infected by Afa/Dr DAEC have been reported, the pathophysiological processes that allow intestinal and extra-intestinal infections to develop are not fully understood. This review focuses on the genetic organization of the afa/dra/daa-related operons and on the virulence factors that trigger cellular responses, some of which are deleterious for the host cells. Finally, this review suggests future lines of research that could help to elucidate these questions.

  17. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities. PMID:28233856

  18. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-02-24

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons' morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20(th) century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities.

  19. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities.

  20. Afa, a diffuse adherence fibrillar adhesin associated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rogéria; Ordoñez, Juana G; de Oliveira, Rosana R; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Baldwin, Thomas J; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    O55 is one of the most frequent enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O serogroups implicated in infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis showed that this serogroup includes two major electrophoretic types (ET), designated ET1 and ET5. ET1 corresponds to typical EPEC, whilst ET5 comprises strains with different combinations of virulence genes, including those for localized adherence (LA) and diffuse adherence (DA). Here we report that ET5 DA strains possess a DA adhesin, designated EPEC Afa. An 11.6-kb chromosomal region including the DA adhesin operon from one O55:H(-) ET5 EPEC strain was sequenced and found to encode a protein with 98% identity to AfaE-1, an adhesin associated with uropathogenic E. coli. Although described as an afimbrial adhesin, we show that both AfaE-1 and EPEC Afa possess fine fibrillar structures. This is the first characterization and demonstration of an Afa adhesin associated with EPEC.

  1. The effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messieh, S. N.; Rowell, T. W.; Peer, D. L.; Cranford, P. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of current knowledge on the effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed. The impact of trawling and dredging for fish and shellfish on marine habitats has recently attracted international attention among fisheries and environmental scientists. In Atlantic Canada, trawling and dredging are the principal methods of harvesting groundfish and scallops and ocean clams, respectively. It is estimated that fish trawlers and scallop dredges have swept tracks, cris-crossing the Canadian continental shelf, approximately 4.3 million km in length in 1985. In the past few years several studies were carried out by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe to assess the impacts of trawling and dredging but results were inconclusive. Some studies showed physical damage as well as biological effects, whereas others indicated that the adverse effects were not considered to be serious. Fishermen are not the only potential users of the resources of the continental shelf. There is an increasing demand for good-quality sand and gravel aggregate and the ocean seabed is being seen as a possible source. The eastern Canadian continental shelf also exhibits hydrocarbon potential and operational and accidental discharges are an environmental concern. Increased marine transportation and expansion of the fishing fleet have resulted in a greater need for harbour dredging. Dredging and dredge spoil disposal were controlled by the Ocean Dumping Control Act and now the Canadian Environmental Protection Act which places restrictions on the composition of material that can be disposed of in the sea. Nevertheless some harbours contain contaminant concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable limits. It is concluded that the impacts of human activities on the continental shelf seabed environment are inevitable and the long-term effects, while difficult to determine, must be assessed. The sub-lethal effects

  2. Immunocytochemistry of the AfaE adhesin and AfaD invasin produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains during interaction of the bacteria with HeLa cells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gounon, P; Jouve, M; Le Bouguénec, C

    2000-04-01

    We used a recent scanning electron microscope equipped with field emission gun and highly sensitive detectors to develop a fast and simple protocol for double immunogold staining using 10- and 15-nm gold particles. We used this approach to analyse the afimbrial adhesive sheath produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli interacting with the surface of epithelial cells. We demonstrated that AfaE adhesin and AfaD invasin were exposed at the bacterial surface during the interaction. This method could be easily and widely extended to the study of the early invasion process of many bacterial and viral pathogens, by immunocytochemical probing.

  3. Presence of pap-, sfa-, and afa-related sequences in necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from cattle: evidence for new variants of the AFA family.

    PubMed

    Mainil, J G; Jacquemin, E; Hérault, F; Oswald, E

    1997-07-01

    Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli (NTEC) are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in animals and human beings and produce Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) or 2 (CNF2). Fourty-three NTEC1, 42 NTEC2, and 32 CNF-negative isolates from cattle were tested by colony DNA hybridization, by plasmid DNA hybridization and by PCR assays for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the operons coding for fimbrial (PAP/PRS, SFA/FIC, and F17) and afimbrial (AFA/Dr) adhesins of extraintestinal E. coli. Most NTEC1 isolates hybridized with the PAP probes and either the SFA probe (37%) or the AFA probes (49%). Most NTEC2 isolates, in contrast, hybridized with the F17 probe (45%), the AFA probes (19%), or the F17 and AFA probes (22%). A probe-positive plasmid was identified in each of the 19 NTEC2 isolates studied. They all hybridized with the CNF2 toxin probe (Vir plasmids) and most of them with the F17 (6 plasmids) or AFA (7 plasmids) probes. PCR amplification was obtained with 6 of the 11 NTEC isolates tested for the papGII/prsG genes; with all 5 NTEC isolates tested for the sfa and related operons; but with none of the 18 NTEC isolates tested for the afa and related operons. pap-, sfa-, and afa-related sequences are thus present in NTEC isolates from cattle in addition to f17-related operons and may code for adhesins corresponding to specific colonization factors. f17- and afa-related sequences can be located on the Vir plasmids along with the cnf2 gene. Existence of new variants of the AFA/Dr family is evident from the negative results of this family-specific PCR assay.

  4. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... selective flatfish trawl net is provided as Figure 1 of part 660, subpart D. (ii) (6) Midwater (or pelagic... San Lucia Bank, Point Conception, Hidden Reef/Kidney Bank (within Cowcod Conservation Area...

  5. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.181 - How does the Tribe/Consortium initiate the negotiation of a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a successor AFA? 1000.181 Section 1000.181 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... negotiation of a successor AFA? Although a written request is desirable to document the precise request and... change in an existing program in the AFA, it should notify the other party of the change at the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.390 - How can a Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... help implement an AFA? 1000.390 Section 1000.390 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Tribe/Consortium hire a Federal employee to help implement an AFA? If a Tribe/Consortium chooses to hire... negotiated Federal benefit package that is paid for by the Tribe/Consortium out of AFA program funds; or...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... included in an AFA? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program may be included in an AFA? The Secretary and the Tribe/Consortium may negotiate to apply... to a construction part of an AFA. Absent a negotiated agreement, such provisions and...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.85 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that exceeds one year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a term that... Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.85 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA... availability of Congressional appropriations, a Tribe/Consortium may negotiate an AFA with a term that...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.249 - What is the Secretary's role in a construction program in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an AFA? 1000.249 Section 1000.249 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... construction program in an AFA? The Secretary has the following role regarding a construction program contained in an AFA: (a) Except as provided in § 1000.256, the Secretary may review and approve planning...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.91 - What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under an AFA? 1000.91 Section 1000.91 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.91 What funds must be transferred to a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? (a) At the option of the Tribe/Consortium, the Secretary must provide the following program...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.240 - What construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What construction programs included in an AFA are subject... in an AFA are subject to this subpart? (a) All BIA and non-BIA construction programs included in an AFA are subject to this subpart. This includes design, construction, repair, improvement,...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.278 - Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? 1000.278 Section 1000.278 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? No, subcontractors or subgrantees providing services to a Pub. L....

  2. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.182 - What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA? 1000.182 Section 1000.182 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Successor Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.182 What is the process for negotiating a successor AFA?...

  9. Evidence and Ethics in Individual Events: An Examination of an AFA-NIET Final Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronn-Mills, Daniel; Schnoor, Larry G.

    A study investigated the use of source citations and evidence in the final round of Informative Speaking at the 1998 American Forensic Association-National Individual Events Tournament (AFA-NIET). The "AFA Code of Forensics Program and Forensics Tournament Standards for College and Universities" was the framework for the analysis.…

  10. A new case of acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) syndrome with an expanded phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Savoia, A; Lomuto, M; Pellicano, R

    2000-07-01

    A patient presenting with the findings of Acromegaloid Facial Appearance (AFA) syndrome is reported. This case also shows pericardial effusion and skin lesions that both enlarge the spectrum of the phenotype and lump AFA syndrome with another proposed distinct condition [Irvine et al., (1996) J med Genet 33:972-974].

  11. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.81 - What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? 1000.81 Section 1000.81 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... is an annual funding agreement (AFA)? Annual funding agreements are legally binding and...

  14. Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA) Improves the Performance of Microtiter Plate ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Rudd, Edwin A; Laugharn, James A

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the use of Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA) technology to improve the performance of microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Experiments were performed with commercially available AFA instrumentation and off-the-shelf 96-well microtiter plate sandwich ELISAs. AFA was applied over a range of acoustic energies, temperatures, and durations to the antigen/antibody binding step of an ELISA for measuring HIV-1 p24 in tissue culture samples. AFA-mediated antigen/antibody binding was enhanced up to 2-fold over passive binding at comparable temperatures and was superior or comparable at low temperature (8-10 °C) to passive binding at 37 °C. Lower nonspecific binding (NSB), lower inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs), higher Z' factors, and lower limits of detection (LODs) were measured in AFA-mediated assays compared with conventional passive binding. In a more limited study, AFA enhancement of antigen/antibody binding and lower NSB was measured in an ELISA for measuring IGFBP-3 in human plasma. We conclude from this study that application of AFA to antigen/antibody binding steps in microtiter plate ELISAs can enhance key assay performance parameters, particularly Z' factors and LODs. These features render AFA-mediated binding assays potentially more useful in applications such as high-throughput screening and in vitro diagnostics than assays processed with conventional passive antigen/antibody binding steps.

  15. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl Rationalization... future trawl rationalization program under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP... participants in the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl rationalization program and announcing the databases...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.89 - Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during... Affairs Programs Determining What Programs May Be Included in An Afa § 1000.89 Can the terms and conditions in an AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in an AFA may...

  6. Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC).

    PubMed

    Berger, Cedric N; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Servin, Alain L; Kansau, Imad

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the molecular bases underlying the virulence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring the Afa/Dr family of adhesins. These adhesins recognize as receptors the GPI-anchored proteins CD55 (decay-accelerating factor, DAF) and CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). CD66e is a member of the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) family, comprising seven members. We analysed the interactions of Afa/Dr DAEC with the CEACAMs using CEACAM-expressing CHO and HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that only E. coli expressing a subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, named here Afa/Dr-I, including Dr, F1845 and AfaE-III adhesins, bound onto CHO cells expressing CEACAM1, CEA or CEACAM6. Whereas all the Afa/Dr adhesins elicit recruitment of CD55 around adhering bacteria, only the Afa/Dr-I subfamily elicits the recruitment of CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6. In addition, although CEACAM3 is not recognized as a receptor by the subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, it is recruited around bacteria in HeLa cells. The recruited CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6 around adhering bacteria resist totally or in part a detergent extraction, whereas the recruited CEACAM3 does not. Finally, the results show that recognition of CEA and CEACAM6, but not CEACAM1, is accompanied by tight attachment to bacteria of cell surface microvilli-like extensions, which are elongated. Moreover, recognition of CEA is accompanied by an activation of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and by a phosphorylation of ERM, which in turn elicit the observed cell surface microvilli-like extensions.

  7. 76 FR 24444 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... day-at- sea (DAS), to use selective gear (i.e., a haddock separator trawl, a Ruhle trawl, a rope.... That is, law enforcement multiplies the weight of fillets or parts of fish by 3 and adds that to the... Magnuson-Stevens Act, and other applicable law, subject to further consideration after public comment....

  8. AFA and F17 adhesins produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Bertin, Y

    1999-01-01

    AFA and F17 are afimbrial and fimbrial adhesins, respectively, produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals. F17-related fimbriae are mainly detected on bovine and ovine E. coli associated with diarrhoea or septicaemia. The F17-G adhesin subunits recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) receptors present on bovine intestinal cells. Some F17 subtypes also bind to GlcNAc receptors present on human uroepithelial and intestinal Caco-2 cells or to the laminin contained in the basement of mammalian membranes. F17 is often associated with other virulence factors (aerobactin, serum resistance, CNF2 toxin, K99, CS31A or AFA adhesins) on pathogenic E. coli. A cluster of only four genes is required to synthesize functional F17-related fimbrial structures. The hypothesis of multifunctional F17 fimbrial subunits is supported by the fact that: i) the N-terminal part of the adhesin subunit participates in receptor recognition, whereas the C-terminal part is required for biogenesis of the fimbrial filament; and ii) the interaction between structural and adhesin subunits seems to be crucial for the initiation of monomer polymerization. Recently, determinants related to the afa gene clusters from human pathogenic E. coli associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections were identified in strains isolated from calves and piglets with diarrhoea and septicaemia. Two afa-related gene clusters, designated afa-7 and afa-8, that encode afimbrial adhesins were cloned and characterized from bovine pathogenic E. coli. These animal afa gene clusters were plasmid and chromosome borne and were expressed by strains that produced other virulence factors such as CNF toxins, F17, PAP and CS31A adhesins. A high frequency of afa-8 and a low prevalence of afa-7 among bovine E. coli isolates were suggested by preliminary epidemiological studies. As with the human afa gene clusters, the animal ones encode an adhesive structure composed of two proteins: AfaE which

  9. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  10. 50 CFR 660.381 - Limited entry trawl fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Figure 1 of part 660, subpart G. (ii) (6) Midwater (or pelagic) trawl gear. Midwater trawl gear must have..., Point Sur Deep, Big Sur Coast/Port San Luis, East San Lucia Bank, Point Conception, Hidden...

  11. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...

  12. Size Selection of Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) in Trawls

    PubMed Central

    Krag, Ludvig A.; Herrmann, Bent; Iversen, Svein A.; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Krafft, Bjørn A.

    2014-01-01

    Trawlers involved in the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery use different trawl designs, and very little is known about the size selectivity of the various gears. Size selectivity quantifies a given trawl's ability to catch different sizes of a harvested entity, and this information is crucial for the management of a sustainable fishery. We established a morphological description of krill and used it in a mathematical model (FISHSELECT) to predict the selective potential of diamond meshes measuring 5–40 mm with mesh opening angles (oa) ranging from 10 to 90°. We expected the majority of krill to encounter the trawl netting in random orientations due to high towing speeds and the assumed swimming capabilities of krill. However, our results indicated that size selectivity of krill is a well-defined process in which individuals encounter meshes at an optimal orientation for escapement. The simulation-based results were supported by data from experimental trawl hauls and underwater video images of the mesh geometry during fishing. Herein we present predictions for the size selectivity of a range of netting configurations relevant to the krill fishery. The methods developed and results described are important tools for selecting optimal trawl designs for krill fishing. PMID:25105960

  13. Size selection of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in trawls.

    PubMed

    Krag, Ludvig A; Herrmann, Bent; Iversen, Svein A; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Krafft, Bjørn A

    2014-01-01

    Trawlers involved in the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery use different trawl designs, and very little is known about the size selectivity of the various gears. Size selectivity quantifies a given trawl's ability to catch different sizes of a harvested entity, and this information is crucial for the management of a sustainable fishery. We established a morphological description of krill and used it in a mathematical model (FISHSELECT) to predict the selective potential of diamond meshes measuring 5-40 mm with mesh opening angles (oa) ranging from 10 to 90°. We expected the majority of krill to encounter the trawl netting in random orientations due to high towing speeds and the assumed swimming capabilities of krill. However, our results indicated that size selectivity of krill is a well-defined process in which individuals encounter meshes at an optimal orientation for escapement. The simulation-based results were supported by data from experimental trawl hauls and underwater video images of the mesh geometry during fishing. Herein we present predictions for the size selectivity of a range of netting configurations relevant to the krill fishery. The methods developed and results described are important tools for selecting optimal trawl designs for krill fishing.

  14. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  15. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  16. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  17. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear This figure shows the location of elevating devices in the elevated section of modified nonpelagic trawl gear, as specified...

  19. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  20. The solution structure of the invasive tip complex from Afa/Dr fibrils.

    PubMed

    Cota, Ernesto; Jones, Celine; Simpson, Peter; Altroff, Harri; Anderson, Kirstine L; du Merle, Laurence; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain; Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Mardon, Helen; Matthews, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    Afa/Dr family of adhesins are produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains that are especially prevalent in chronic diarrhoeal and recurrent urinary tract infections. Most notably, they are found in up to 50% of cystitis cases in children and 30% of pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Afa/Dr adhesins are capped surface fibrils that mediate recognition of the host and subsequent bacterial internalization. Using the newly solved three-dimensional structure of the minimal invasive complex (AfaDE) combined with biochemical and cellular assays, we reveal the architecture of the fibrillar cap and identify a novel mode of synergistic integrin recognition.

  1. 78 FR 40103 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Amendment 80 Economic Data Report for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... 80 Economic Data Report for the Catcher/Processor Non-AFA Trawl Sector AGENCY: National Oceanic and... fishing sectors, and facilitates the formation of harvesting cooperatives in the catcher/processor sector of the Non-American Fisheries Act Trawl Catcher/Processor Cooperative Program (Program). The...

  2. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  3. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  4. 50 CFR 622.25 - Exemptions for Gulf groundfish trawling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.25 Exemptions for Gulf groundfish trawling. Gulf... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemptions for Gulf groundfish...

  5. 50 CFR 622.47 - Gulf groundfish trawl fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf groundfish trawl fishery. 622.47 Section 622.47 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH...

  6. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  7. 50 CFR 660.111 - Trawl fishery-definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-definitions. 660.111 Section 660.111 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast...

  8. 50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. 654.23 Section 654.23 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest...

  9. 50 CFR 622.47 - Gulf groundfish trawl fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... closure. (b) Other provisions of this part notwithstanding, a dealer in a Gulf state is exempt from the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf groundfish trawl fishery. 622.47... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH...

  10. Detection of pap-, sfa- and afa-specific DNA sequences in Escherichia coli strains isolated from extraintestinal material.

    PubMed

    Bogyiová, E; Kmetová, M; Biros, E; Siegfried, L

    2002-01-01

    P-fimbriae, S-fimbriae and AFA-adhesins are virulence factors responsible for adherence of Escherichia coli strains to extraintestinal host-cell surface. Detection of pap-, sfa- and afa-specific sequences performed by PCR revealed 74% pap+, 65% sfa+, and 8.3% afa+ strains in a group of 84 extraintestinal E. coli isolates. Detection in a group of fecal strains showed 29% pap+, 21% sfa+ and 4% afa+ strains. pap together with sfa were found as the most frequent combination (56%) among extraintestinal isolates probably due to localization of pap- and sfa-operons on a common pathogenicity island. The occurrence of afa-specific sequence among 56 urine strains was 11%, although no afa+ strain was detected among 28 gynecological isolates. No strains with detected adhesin operons were found among twenty (24%) extraintestinal E. coli strains.

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-01-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-12-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate

  13. Characterization of plasmid-borne afa-3 gene clusters encoding afimbrial adhesins expressed by Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal or urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguenec, C; Garcia, M I; Ouin, V; Desperrier, J M; Gounon, P; Labigne, A

    1993-12-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFA) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains and belong to a family of hemagglutinins recognizing the Dr blood group antigen as a receptor. This family so far includes AFA-I and AFA-III as well as the Dr and F1845 adhesins (B. Nowicki, A. Labigne, S. Moseley, R. Hull, S. Hull, and J. Moulds, Infect. Immun. 58:279-281, 1990). Reported in this work is the genetic organization of the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a uropathogenic E. coli strain (A30) which expressed a subtype of AFA designated AFA-III. The amino acid sequence of AFA-III was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the afaE3 gene and was found to be highly homologous to that of the Dr adhesin (98.1% identity). A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect the presence of afa-3 gene clusters in E. coli strains. Study of the genetic support of the afa-3 gene clusters in the strains which showed positive amplification revealed that they were always located on large, 100-kb plasmids whether the strains originated from patients with cystitis or with diarrhea. Moreover, the cloned afa-3 gene clusters from A30 and from the diarrhea-associated strain AL845 appeared to be carried by 9-kb plasmid regions which displayed a similar genetic organization. Chloramphenicol was reported to be a potent inhibitor of receptor binding by the Dr adhesin (Nowicki et al., Infect. Immun. 58:279-281, 1990). AFA-III expressed by strains AL845 and AL847 appeared to mediate, like the Dr adhesin, chloramphenicol-sensitive hemagglutination, whereas AFA-III produced by A30 conferred chloramphenicol-resistant adherence. A comparison of the sequences of these four proteins indicated that the amino acid at position 52 of the processed AFA could be part of the receptor-binding domain.

  14. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2014-11-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 9.1 million liters of diesel to land 342.3 million kilograms of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.023-0.031 l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 200-900% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 6.69 GgC to the atmosphere, between 2300 and 3300 tons CO2 per year.

  15. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2016-06-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 141.5millionl of diesel to land 342.3millionkg of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.36-0.48l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 316-1025% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 104.07GgC to the atmosphere, between 36,800-49,500tons CO2 per year.

  16. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  4. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  5. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  10. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  17. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  18. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  1. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  6. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  7. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  9. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  16. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47b Table 47b to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Mothership... Documentation No. AFA Permit No. Percent A season B season Annual Percent American Beauty 613847 1688 6.000...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.33 - What amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? 1000.33 Section 1000.33 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... amount of funding is to be removed from the Consortium's AFA for the withdrawing Tribe? When a Tribe withdraws from a Consortium, the Consortium's AFA must be reduced by the portion of funds attributable...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  1. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  3. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  7. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  14. 25 CFR 1000.30 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(b)(2) without having or negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1)? 1000.30 Section... Applicant Pool § 1000.30 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.401 - Can a Tribe/Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the term of the AFA? 1000.401 Section 1000.401 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN.../Consortium carry over funds not spent during the term of the AFA? This section applies to BIA programs... under an AFA, if the funds are to be expended in the succeeding fiscal year for the purpose for...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  17. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  19. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.465 - May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on... § 1000.465 May a Tribe/Consortium negotiate AFA provisions on conflicts of interest to take the place of this subpart? (a) A Tribe/Consortium and the Secretary may agree to AFA provisions, concerning...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.317 - Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AFA adversely affected by a reassumption action? 1000.317 Section 1000.317 Indians OFFICE OF THE....317 Is a Tribe's/Consortium's general right to negotiate an AFA adversely affected by a reassumption... negotiate an AFA for programs not affected by the reassumption....

  5. 25 CFR 1000.31 - May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA under section 403(c) without negotiating an AFA under section 403(b)(1) and/or section 403(b)(2)? 1000... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.31 May a Tribe/Consortium be selected to negotiate an AFA...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.98 - How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds to be included in an AFA? 1000.98 Section 1000.98 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.98 How does BIA determine a Tribe's/Consortium's share of funds to be included in an AFA? There are typically two methods for determining the amount of funds...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.210 - When does a non-BIA bureau use a public consultation process related to the negotiation of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... process related to the negotiation of an AFA? 1000.210 Section 1000.210 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... AFA? When required by law or when appropriate under bureau discretion, a bureau may use a public consultation process in negotiating an AFA....

  9. 25 CFR 1000.84 - Does a Tribe/Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? 1000.84 Section 1000.84 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT.../Consortium have the right to include provisions of Title I of Pub. L. 93-638 in an AFA? Yes, under Pub. L... AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.461 - What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conflict of interest arises under an AFA? 1000.461 Section 1000.461 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... What must a Tribe/Consortium do if an organizational conflict of interest arises under an AFA? This section only applies if the conflict was not addressed when the AFA was first negotiated. When a...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.101 - Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.101 Are all funds identified as Tribal shares always paid to the Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? No, at the discretion of the Tribe/Consortium, Tribal...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.275 - Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is it necessary for a self-governance AFA to include any... for a self-governance AFA to include any clauses about FTCA coverage? No, clauses about FTCA coverage are optional. At the request of Tribes/Consortia, self-governance AFA's shall include the...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.245 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? 1000.245 Section 1000.245 Indians OFFICE OF... Construction § 1000.245 May a Tribe/Consortium continue work with construction funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year? Yes, any funds remaining in an AFA at the end of the funding year may...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.402 - After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe/Consortium, can a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.402 After a non-BIA AFA has been executed and the funds transferred to a Tribe... AFA....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.96 - May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA... Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.96 May a Tribe/Consortium continue to negotiate an AFA pending an appeal of residual functions or amounts? Yes, pending appeal of...

  16. Metalloligands containing aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) ligands and their bimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Philip J; Rahman, Mahmudur; Parsons, Simon; Azhar, Muhammad R; White, Fraser J

    2013-02-28

    A simple and convenient route to η(5)-coordinated Ru and Rh aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) complexes is described. The metalloligands [Cp*Ru{η(5)-(Ph(2)AFAH)}][BF(4)] (3), [Cp*Ru{η(5)-(benzyl(2)AFAH)}][OTf] (7), [Cp*Rh{η(5)-(Cy(2)AFA)H}][BF(4)](2) (8) and [Cp*Rh{η(5)-(Cy(2)AFA)}][BF(4)] (9) have been synthesised and characterised. The basicity of 9 has been found to be significantly less than its neutral analogue and thus eliminates the need for a deprotonation step to ligate to a second metal in the κ(2)-N,N'-coordination mode. The reaction of 9 with a palladium precursor provides a mixed-metal complex [Cp*Rh(η(5)/κ(2)-Cy(2)AFA)PdCl(2)][BF(4)] (12). Cyclic voltammetry studies of the Ph(2)AFAH ligand shows an irreversible one electron oxidation peak at +1.0 V (vs. Fc/Fc(+)). Complex 3 shows an irreversible oxidation at +1.5 V and a reduction peak at -1.0 V. The oxidation of 3 occurs on the AFA ligand backbone whereas the structurally analogous neutral 1,2-bis(imidoyl)pentamethyl-ruthenocene shows reversible oxidation at the Ru center.

  17. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  1. Representational difference analysis between Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli and nonpathogenic E. coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Potard, Anne-Beatrice; Tinsley, Colin; Scaletsky, Isabel; Le Bouguenec, Chantal; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain L; Nassif, Xavier; Bernet-Camard, Marie-Francoise

    2002-10-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains harboring Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) have been associated with diarrhea and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The present work is the first extensive molecular study of a Afa/Dr DAEC strain using the representational difference analysis technique. We have searched for DNA sequences present in strain C1845, recovered from a diarrheagenic child, but absent from a nonpathogenic K-12 strain. Strain C1845 harbors part of a pathogenicity island (PAI(CFT073)) and several iron transport systems found in other E. coli pathovars. We did not find genes encoding factors known to subvert host cell proteins, such as type III secretion system or effector proteins. Several C1845-specific sequences are homologous to putative virulence genes or show no homology with known sequences, and we have analyzed their distribution among Afa/Dr and non-Afa/Dr clinical isolates and among strains from the E. coli Reference Collection. Three C1845-specific sequences (MO30, S109, and S111) have a high prevalence (77 to 80%) among Afa/Dr strains and a low prevalence (12 to 23%) among non-Afa/Dr strains. In addition, our results indicate that strain IH11128, an Afa/Dr DAEC strain recovered from a patient with a UTI, is genetically closely related to strain C1845.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.164 - Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into a compact? 1000.164 Section 1000.164 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.164 Can a Tribe/Consortium have an AFA without entering into...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.129 - Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? 1000.129 Section 1000.129 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1000.129 Are there any programs that may not be included in an AFA? Yes, section 403(k) of the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.408 - Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? 1000.408 Section 1000.408 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Tribe/Consortium use Federal supply sources in the performance of an AFA? A Tribe/Consortium and...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  3. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    Trawls are used extensively during fisheries abundance surveys to derive estimates of fish density and, in the case of acoustic-based surveys, to identify acoustically sampled fish populations. However, trawls are selective in what fish they retain, resulting in biased estimates of density, species, and size compositions. Selectivity of the midwater trawl used in acoustic-based surveys of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was evaluated using multiple methods. The effects of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimates and the stock assessment were evaluated for the Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock population. Selectivity was quantified using recapture, or pocket, nets attached to the outside of the trawl. Pocket net catches were modeled using a hierarchical Bayesian model to provide uncertainty in selectivity parameter estimates. Significant under-sampling of juvenile pollock by the midwater trawl was found, with lengths at 50% retention ranging from 14--26 cm over three experiments. Escapement was found to be light dependent, with more fish escaping in dark conditions. Highest escapement rates were observed in the aft of the trawl near to the codend though the bottom panel of the trawl. The behavioral mechanisms involved in the process of herding and escapement were evaluated using stereo-cameras, a DIDSON high frequency imaging sonar, and pocket nets. Fish maintained greater distances from the trawl panel during daylight, suggesting trawl modifications such as increased visibility of netting materials may evoke stronger herding responses and increased retention of fish. Selectivity and catchability of pollock by the midwater trawl was also investigated using acoustic density as an independent estimate of fish abundance to compare with trawl catches. A modeling framework was developed to evaluate potential explanatory factors for selectivity and catchability. Selectivity estimates were dependent on which vessel was used for the survey

  4. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... permits from the groundfish trawl fishery and associated corollary fisheries of Dungeness crab and pink... audited or reviewed financial statements, worksheets, tax returns, invoices, receipts, and other...

  5. Tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences from Leymus racemosus and Psathyrostachys juncea (Poaceae)

    PubMed

    Nagaki; Kishii; Tsujimoto; Sasakuma

    1999-12-01

    Tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences of 340 bp are known to occur in wheat and related species of tribe Triticeae. We isolated six and three Afa-family sequences from Leymus racemosus and Psathyrostachys juncea, respectively, both of which are perennial species. The sequences account for 0.5% and 0.2% of L. racemosus and P. juncea genomes, respectively, and using in situ hybridization were located in subtelomeric and interstitial regions of L. racemosus chromosomes. These sequences are clustered with those of Elymus trachycaulus in the phylogenetic tree. Our findings indicate that the Afa-family sequences have been amplified at least twice in the lineage of L. racemosus, P. juncea, and E. trachycaulus.

  6. [Revised prevalence of afa+ Escherichia coli strains in acute pyelonephritis of children].

    PubMed

    Licznar, P; Eychenne, I; Azéma, C; Decramer, S; Bouissou, F; Fayet, O; Prère, M-F

    2003-10-01

    Two hundred E. coli strains isolated from children with pyelonephritis were investigated for the presence of six virulence factors. The used primers amplified adhesin pap and sfa, toxin haemolysin (hly) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer). For afimbrial adhesin, the previously used set of primers could not allow to detect the newly reported afa operons (Le Bouguenec et al., 2001). With a new set of primers specific for the afa operon family the prevalence of afa+ strains increased from 3.5% to 13.5%. Combinations of three or more factors in a same strain were found in 48.5%. Thirty two different urovirulent genotypes were observed; two strains contained the six studied factors.

  7. The impact of shrimp trawling and associated sediment resuspension in mud dominated, shallow estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.; Gill, Gary A.; Lehman, Ronald D.; Warnken, Kent W.

    2006-07-18

    To address the relative importance of shrimp trawling on seabed resuspension and bottom characteristics in shallow estuaries, a series of disturbance and monitoring experiments were conducted at a bay bottom mud site (2.5 m depth) in Galveston Bay, Texas in July 1998 and May 1999. Based on pre- and post-trawl sediment profiles of 7Be; pore water dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration; and bulk sediment properties, it was estimated that the trawl rig, including the net, trawl doors, and ‘‘tickler chain,’’ excavate the seabed to a maximum depth of approximately 1.5 cm, with most areas displaying considerably less disturbance. Water column profile data in the turbid plume left by the trawl in these underconsolidated muds (85e90% porosity; <0.25 kPa undrained shear strength) demonstrate that suspended sediment inventories of up to 85e90 mg/cm2 are produced immediately behind the trawl net; an order of magnitude higher than pre-trawl inventories and comparable to those observed during a 9e10 m/s wind event at the study site. Plume settling and dispersion caused suspended sediment inventories to return to pre-trawl values about 14 min after trawl passage in two separate experiments, indicating particles re-settle primarily as flocs before they can be widely dispersed by local currents. As a result of the passage of the trawl rig across the seabed, shear strength of the sediment surface showed no significant increase, suggesting that bed armoring is not taking place and the trawled areas will not show an increase in critical shear stress.

  8. Satellite-based quantification of the bottom trawling induced sediment resuspension over an entire shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, F. J.; Cheriton, O. M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of bottom trawling activities on continental shelves has been a topic of interest for both fishery resource studies and ecological impact studies for a while. However, the impact of demersal fishing gear was almost exclusively studied from a perspective of its effects on benthic fauna, but recently it has also attracted attention due to its profound impact on sediments. Here we present the first study to quantify the trawling-induced sediment resuspension effect by combining satellite-based spatial patterns of bottom trawling with quantitative measurements of induced sediment plumes. This study examined high-resolution GPS vessel monitoring data from one year (2011-2012) to quantify the sedimentary budget caused by bottom trawling activity for the entire NW Iberian shelf, an area that is widely affected by chronic (continuous and intensive) commercial bottom trawling and is exemplary for many other narrow shelves worldwide. By filtering the GPS data by vessel type, vessel speed, and geometry of the trawl path, we resolved geographically detailed bottom trawling activities with varying local trawling intensities depending both on legal restrictions and bedrock geomorphology. Initial results show that trawling-induced resuspended sediments mark a significant if not dominant factor for a source to sink sedimentary budget, as they are calculated to be approximately two times as large as fluvial sedimentary input to the shelf. Ultimately, these results not only allow for a trawling affected sediment budget but also significantly help with marine management decisions by allowing to predict the mobilization and transport of sediment caused by bottom trawling gear at the level of a specific fishing fleet or ecosystem.

  9. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) You must drag the trawl in a grid-like pattern as shown in the following table: For a— You must drag..., or manifold 600-foot-radius circle centered on the structure location. (b) You must trawl 100...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 250.1740, you must meet all of the requirements of this section. (a) You must drag the trawl in a grid... centered on the structure location. (b) You must trawl 100 percent of the limits described in paragraph...

  11. The effects of trawling on the benthic fauna of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rostad, T; Hansen, K L

    2001-12-01

    Four van Veen grab replicates where collected to sample macrofauna (organism retained on a 500 micron mesh sieve) at four stations in the Gulf of Nicoya, during October 24, 1997, January 16 and April 30, 1998. This information was used to search for any effects of trawling on the benthic fauna. Two stations where located in a trawled area, and two stations where in a protected area. Diversity (H') varied from 2.01 to 3.52 in the trawled area and from 2.13 to 2.78 in the protected area. Diversity was generally higher in the trawled area, and this was in contradiction to what we would have expected from other studies where the trend has been that trawling reduces diversity. Brittlestars and lancelets seemed to be the groups mostly harmed by the trawling, while amphipods where more abundant in trawled areas. The multivariate analyses did not reveal the patterns of faunal change as well as we hoped. This is surely because of our lack of more replicate samples. The multivariate analyses are easily confounded when few sites are analyzed. We have found differences in the type of fauna found in trawled and protected areas and, considering the differences in environmental variables in our stations and our lack of replication, this indicates that there are differences and a larger investigation is in order to reveal its magnitude.

  12. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  17. Trophic look at soft-bottom communities - Short-term effects of trawling cessation on benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannheim, Jennifer; Brey, Thomas; Schröder, Alexander; Mintenbeck, Katja; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2014-01-01

    The trophic structure of the German Bight soft-bottom benthic community was evaluated for potential changes after cessation of bottom trawling. Species were collected with van-Veen grabs and beam trawls. Trophic position (i.e. nitrogen stable isotope ratios, δ15N) and energy flow (i.e. species metabolism approximated by body mass scaled abundance) of dominant species were compared in trawled areas and an area protected from fisheries for 14 months in order to detect trawling cessation effects by trophic characteristics. At the community level, energy flow was lower in the protected area, but we were unable to detect significant changes in trophic position. At the species level energy flow in the protected area was lower for predating/scavenging species but higher for interface feeders. Species trophic positions of small predators/scavengers were lower and of deposit feeders higher in the protected area. Major reasons for trophic changes after trawling cessation may be the absence of artificial and additional food sources from trawling likely to attract predators and scavengers, and the absence of physical sediment disturbance impacting settlement/survival of less mobile species and causing a gradual shift in food availability and quality. Our results provide evidence that species or community energy flow is a good indicator to detect trawling induced energy-flow alterations in the benthic system, and that in particular species trophic properties are suitable to capture subtle and short-term changes in the benthos following trawling cessation.

  18. Effects of bottom trawling on the Ebro continental shelf sedimentary system (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanques, Albert; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    A monitoring effort to address the physical effects of bottom trawling was conducted on the Ebro prodeltaic mud belt during the RESPONSE project. The monitoring was carried out for 14 months covering periods of different trawling intensities and a close season for the trawling fleet. The seabed morphology was studied by side-scan sonar and sediment texture and organic carbon content were analysed. Suspended sediment vertical distribution was recorded by CTD+turbidity hydrographic profiles and sediment transport was computed using time series from moored turbidimeters and current meters. The results show that the seabed of the fishing ground is strongly affected by scraping and ploughing induced by bottom trawling. Part of the finer fraction of the prodeltaic mud resuspended by trawling is winnowed, increasing the silt content of the settling sediment and also near-bottom turbidity. Sediment resuspended by trawling is incorporated in the bottom nepheloid layer and transported across- and along-shelf, increasing sediment fluxes. Trawling also induces an increase in the organic carbon content in the bottom sediment. All these effects induced by trawling have occurred during the last few decades, changing natural conditions in the fishing ground.

  19. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 223—TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl ER15OC99.001...

  20. Distribution of Bottom Trawling Effort in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengmao; Jin, Shaofei; Zhang, Heng; Fan, Wei; Tang, Fenghua; Yang, Shenglong

    2016-01-01

    Bottom trawling is one of the most efficient fishing activities, but serious and persistent ecological issues have been observed by fishers, scientists and fishery managers. Although China has applied the Beidou fishing vessel position monitoring system (VMS) to manage trawlers since 2006, little is known regarding the impacts of trawling on the sea bottom environments. In this study, continuous VMS data of the 1403 single-rig otter trawlers registered in the Xiangshan Port, 3.9% of the total trawlers in China, were used to map the trawling effort in 2013. We used the accumulated distance (AD), accumulated power distance (APD), and trawling intensity as indexes to express the trawling efforts in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS). Our results show that all three indexes had similar patterns in the YS and ECS, and indicated a higher fishing effort of fishing grounds that were near the port. On average, the seabed was trawled 0.73 times in 2013 over the entire fishing region, and 51.38% of the total fishing grounds were with no fishing activities. Because of VMS data from only a small proportion of Chinese trawlers was calculated fishing intensity, more VMS data is required to illustrate the overall trawling effort in China seas. Our results enable fishery managers to identify the distribution of bottom trawling activities in the YS and ECS, and hence to make effective fishery policy. PMID:27855215

  1. 76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...This action implements revisions to the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program (program), a catch share program, and includes regulations that affect all commercial sectors (limited entry trawl, limited entry fixed gear, and open access) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action includes regulatory amendments to further implement......

  2. 50 CFR 660.337 - Trawl rationalization program - data collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.337 Trawl rationalization program - data collection... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl rationalization program - data collection requirements. 660.337 Section 660.337 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND...

  3. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.050...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.050...

  6. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.050...

  8. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  9. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  10. 77 FR 11412 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  11. 78 FR 18528 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  12. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  13. 77 FR 19147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  14. 78 FR 11790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  15. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective...

  16. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  17. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 48 hours. This action is...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the GOA under Sec. 679.21(d)(7)(i) on September 3, 2011...

  18. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  19. 76 FR 22057 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  20. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  1. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  2. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully... 679. NMFS prohibited directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the...

  3. 77 FR 19564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  4. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  5. 75 FR 3875 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  6. 76 FR 58414 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA715 Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject...

  7. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in...

  8. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  9. 76 FR 59922 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA729 Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject...

  10. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  11. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan. PMID:22707908

  12. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000-2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  13. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberle, Ferdinand K.J.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hanebuth, Till J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr− 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  14. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr- 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  15. Benthic microbial abundance and activities in an intensively trawled ecosystem (Thermaikos Gulf, Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Pusceddu, Antonio; Tselepides, Anastasios; Polychronaki, Thalia; Giannakourou, Antonia; Fiordelmondo, Carla; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Danovaro, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    Abundance of benthic bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates, extracellular enzymatic activities, bacterial C production, C mineralisation and sediment community oxygen consumption rates were measured in the Thermaikos Gulf (Northeastern Mediterranean), before (September 2001), and during intense trawling activities (October 2001 and February 2002). The biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter has revealed that bottom trawling had an effect on the trophic state of Thermaikos Gulf. Changes on the benthic microbial food web were also recorded, during the three sampling seasons. Even though trawling-induced sediment resuspension did not alter significantly the abundance of the microbial components, with the exception of the most impacted station, it determined changes regarding their relative importance. Thus, the ratios of bacterium to nanoflagellates and ciliate to nanoflagellates abundance increased in the trawled stations, causing a sudden increase in bacterial C production, in comparison to the non-trawled station. Four months later, the effects of trawling on the microbial food web were less evident, masked possibly by the drastic decrease in the water temperature. The results of the present work suggest that bottom trawling induces alteration of the sedimentological variables and can be considered as a factor affecting the function of the microbial food web in marine coastal ecosystems. These alterations cause faster mobilisation of organic C buried in the sediment and increase nutrient concentrations and availability in the system, thus inducing an effect that could lead to coastal eutrophication.

  16. Efficacy of a benthic trawl for sampling small-bodied fishes in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.P.; Barko, V.A.; Scheibe, J.S.; Hrabik, R.A.; Ostendorf, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study from 1998 to 2001 to determine the efficacy of a benthic trawl designed to increase species detection and reduce the incidence of zero catches of small-bodied fishes. We modified a standard two-seam slingshot balloon trawl by covering the entire trawl with a small-mesh cover. After completing 281 hauls with the modified (Missouri) trawl, we discovered that most fish passed through the body of the standard trawl and were captured in the cover. Logistic regression indicated no noticeable effect of the cover on the catch entering the standard portion of the modified trawl. However, some fishes (e.g., larval sturgeons Scaphirhynchus spp. and pallid sturgeon S. albus) were exclusively captured in the small-mesh cover, while the catch of small-bodied adult fish (e.g., chubs Macrhybopsis spp.) was significantly improved by use of the small-mesh cover design. The Missouri trawl significantly increased the number and species of small-bodied fishes captured over previously used designs and is a useful method for sampling the benthic fish community in moderate- to large-size river systems.

  17. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species.

  18. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.146 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA.../Consortium negotiate an AFA with a non-BIA bureau for which the performance period exceeds one year? Yes, subject to the terms of the AFA, a Tribe/Consortium and a non-BIA bureau may agree to provide for...

  4. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  5. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  7. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  9. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 47c Table 47c to Part 679—Percent of the AFA Inshore.... AFA Permit No. Percent A Season B Season Annual Percent AJ 599164 3405 0.6958 69 41 110 0.31...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.147 - Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can the terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? 1000.147 Section 1000.147 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...-BIA AFA be amended during the year it is in effect? Yes, terms and conditions in a non-BIA AFA may...

  12. Marine litter in bottom trawls off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-10-15

    Benthic marine litter along the Portuguese coast, was recorded in 14 trips on stern trawlers covering a distance of 2117 km and an area of 56.2 km(2), average depth range 90-349 m. 2034 items of marine litter were registered, 76% were plastics and 38.6% were originated from fishing related activities. Plastic was present in all the trawls and had the highest average density of all litter categories, 50 items km(-2). The highest density of marine litter (178.9 ± 64.0 items km(-2)) was found in the proximity of the Tagus river mouth, probably related to the high population density in the Lisbon metropolitan area. This study highlights the need to raise fishermen awareness for the adoption of good environmental practices that will contribute to the reduction of marine litter.

  13. Species and size selectivity of two midwater trawls used in an acoustic survey of the Alaska Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, Alex; Taylor, Kevin; Williams, Kresimir; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic-trawl (AT) survey methods are widely used to estimate the abundance and distribution of pelagic organisms. This technique relies on estimates of size and species composition from trawl catches along with estimates of the acoustic properties of these animals to convert measurements of acoustic backscatter into animal abundance. However, trawls are selective samplers, and if the catch does not represent the size and species composition of the animals in the acoustic beam the resulting abundance estimates will be biased. We conducted an experiment to quantify trawl selectivity for species encountered during an AT survey of the Alaska Arctic. The pelagic assemblage in this environment was dominated by small young-of-the-year (age-0) fishes and jellyfish, which may be poorly retained in trawls. A large midwater trawl (Cantrawl) and a smaller midwater trawl (modified Marinovich) were used during the survey. The Marinovich was equipped with 8 small-mesh recapture nets which were used to estimate the probability that an individual that enters the trawl is retained. In addition, paired hauls were made with the Cantrawl and Marinovich to estimate the difference in selectivity between the two trawls. A statistical model was developed to combine the catches of the recapture nets and the paired hauls to estimate the length-dependent selectivity of the trawls for the most abundant species (e.g., age-0 fishes and jellyfish). The analysis indicated that there was substantial size and species selectivity: although the modified Marinovich generally had a higher catch per unit effort, many of the animals encountered in this environment were poorly retained by both trawls. The observed size and species selectivity of the trawls can be used to select appropriate nets for sampling pelagic fishes, and correct survey estimates for the biases introduced in the trawl capture process.

  14. Orientation relationships of Laves phase and NiAl particles in an AFA stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, Geneva; Baker, Ian

    2015-12-01

    The alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, Fe-20Cr-30Ni-2Nb-5Al (in at. %) was solutionized at 1250 °C in order to obtain a fully austenitic microstructure and then aged for up to 1325 h at 800 °C to precipitate the Laves phase and B2-NiAl particles typically found in AFAs. This paper describes detailed analyses of the orientation relationships between these particles and the matrix which were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Four variants of the (1 1 1)m//(0 0 0 1)p, ?m//? orientation relationship proposed by Denham and Silcock (J. Iron Steel Inst. 207 (1969) p.582) were observed for the Laves phase, and six variants of the (1 1 1)m//(0 1 1)p, ?m//? Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship were observed for the B2-NiAl phase.

  15. Chronic and intensive bottom trawling impairs deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Bianchelli, Silvia; Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Masqué, Pere; Danovaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawling has many impacts on marine ecosystems, including seafood stock impoverishment, benthos mortality, and sediment resuspension. Historical records of this fishing practice date back to the mid-1300s. Trawling became a widespread practice in the late 19th century, and it is now progressively expanding to greater depths, with the concerns about its sustainability that emerged during the first half of the 20th century now increasing. We show here that compared with untrawled areas, chronically trawled sediments along the continental slope of the north-western Mediterranean Sea are characterized by significant decreases in organic matter content (up to 52%), slower organic carbon turnover (ca. 37%), and reduced meiofauna abundance (80%), biodiversity (50%), and nematode species richness (25%). We estimate that the organic carbon removed daily by trawling in the region under scrutiny represents as much as 60–100% of the input flux. We anticipate that such an impact is causing the degradation of deep-sea sedimentary habitats and an infaunal depauperation. With deep-sea trawling currently conducted along most continental margins, we conclude that trawling represents a major threat to the deep seafloor ecosystem at the global scale. PMID:24843122

  16. Dynamics of tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences in Triticeae, wheat-related species.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Sasakuma, T

    1998-08-01

    The Afa-family sequences in wheat-related species, Triticeae, are tandem repetitive sequences of 340 bp. All the analyzed Triticeae species carried the sequences in their genomes, though the copy numbers varied about 100-fold among the species. The nucleotide fragments amplified by PCR were cloned and sequenced, and their behavior in the evolution of Triticeae was analyzed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. The sequences in genomes with many copies of this family clustered at independent branches of the phylogenic tree, whereas the sequences in genomes with a few copies did not. This may suggest that Afa-family sequences had amplified several times in the evolution of Triticeae, each using a limited number of different master copies. In addition, the sequences of the A and B genomes of hexaploid common wheat indicated that the Afa-family sequences had not evolved in a concerted manner between the genomes. Furthermore, the sequences of each chromosome of the D genome of this species indicated that the sequences had amplified on all over the D-genome chromosomes in a short period.

  17. Increased rate of apoptosis and diminished phagocytic ability of human neutrophils infected with Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Brest, Patrick; Bétis, Frédéric; Cuburu, Nicolas; Selva, Eric; Herrant, Magali; Servin, Alain; Auberger, Patrick; Hofman, Paul

    2004-10-01

    The proinflammatory effect of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains have been recently demonstrated in vitro by showing that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transepithelial migration is induced after bacterial colonization of apical intestinal monolayers. The effect of Afa/Dr DAEC-PMN interaction on PMN behavior has been not investigated. Because of the putative virulence mechanism of PMN apoptosis during infectious diseases and taking into account the high level of expression of the decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the receptor of Afa/Dr DAEC on PMNs, we sought to determine whether infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains could promote cell apoptosis. We looked at the behavior of PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains once they had transmigrated across polarized monolayers of intestinal (T84) cells. Infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced PMN apoptosis characterized by morphological nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and a high level of annexin V expression. However, transmigrated and nontransmigrated PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains showed similar elevated global caspase activities. PMN apoptosis depended on their agglutination, induced by Afa/Dr DAEC, and was still observed after preincubation of PMNs with anti-CD55 and/or anti-CD66 antibodies. Low levels of phagocytosis of Afa/Dr DAEC strains were observed both in nontransmigrated and in transmigrated PMNs compared to that observed with the control E. coli DH5alpha strain. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that interaction of Afa/Dr DAEC with PMNs may increase the bacterial virulence both by inducing PMN apoptosis through an agglutination process and by diminishing their phagocytic capacity.

  18. Patterns of Dolphin Bycatch in a North-Western Australian Trawl Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Simon J.; Tyne, Julian A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel - one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day – the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) - the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  19. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  20. High resolution studies of the Afa/Dr adhesin DraE and its interaction with chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, David; Anderson, Kirstine L; Billington, Jason; Cota, Ernesto; Simpson, Peter; Urvil, Petri; Rabuzin, Filip; Roversi, Pietro; Nowicki, Bogdan; du Merle, Laurence; Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Matthews, Stephen; Lea, Susan M

    2004-11-05

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins are able to cause both urinary tract and diarrheal infections. The Afa/Dr adhesins confer adherence to epithelial cells via interactions with the human complement regulating protein, decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55). Two of the Afa/Dr adhesions, AfaE-III and DraE, differ from each other by only three residues but are reported to have several different properties. One such difference is disruption of the interaction between DraE and CD55 by chloramphenicol, whereas binding of AfaE-III to CD55 is unaffected. Here we present a crystal structure of a strand-swapped trimer of wild type DraE. We also present a crystal structure of this trimer in complex with chloramphenicol, as well as NMR data supporting the binding position of chloramphenicol within the crystal. The crystal structure reveals the precise atomic basis for the sensitivity of DraE-CD55 binding to chloramphenicol and demonstrates that in contrast to other chloramphenicol-protein complexes, drug binding is mediated via recognition of the chlorine "tail" rather than via intercalation of the benzene rings into a hydrophobic pocket.

  1. 77 FR 3956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    .../ Processors Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels operating as catcher/ processors using pot gear in the Western... as catcher/processors using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.301 - When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When may the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? 1000.301 Section 1000.301 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... the Secretary reassume a Federal program operated by a Tribe/Consortium under an AFA? The...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.143 - May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May the bureaus negotiate terms to be included in an AFA for non-Indian programs? 1000.143 Section 1000.143 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... an AFA for non-Indian programs? Yes, as provided for by section 403(b)(2) and 403(c) and as...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.123 - Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to such terms as the parties may negotiate? 1000.123 Section 1000... there non-BIA programs for which the Secretary must negotiate for inclusion in an AFA subject to...

  17. Spatial variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities in northern Sicily (Western Mediterranean): Contrasting trawled vs. untrawled areas.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Fanelli, E; D'Anna, G; Pipitone, C; Vizzini, S; Mazzola, A; Badalamenti, F

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the impact of bottom trawl fishing on the macrobenthic communities inhabiting the coastal terrigenous mud off the northern coast of Sicily (Western Mediterranean). Two intensely trawled gulfs were compared with two gulfs from which trawling has been excluded for 15 years. The results show a significant effect of trawling on the faunal assemblage and when comparing the mean biomass and the whole isotopic composition of the benthic communities. A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for total abundance, biomass, production/biomass ratio and diversity. Higher abundance and lower biomass were found in the untrawled areas, attributable to the presence of more numerous yet smaller individuals, possibly a consequence of more abundant larger predators that are not removed by trawling, and consequent higher predatory pressure on the benthic macrofauna. The SIMPER analysis evidenced a dominance of burrowing deposit feeding worms (Paraonidae and Cossuridae) in trawled areas, as a result of increased mechanical alteration and hence more organic matter available as food. In contrast, the response to trawling as drawn by the use of trophic markers (i.e., stable isotopes) was less clear. While δ(15)N of benthic taxa did not vary significantly between untrawled and trawled areas, δ(13)C was higher in trawled areas possibly due to high sediment resuspension and consequent intense microbial activity. Mixing models confirmed higher reliance to a detritus-based food web for benthic organisms in the trawled areas. Standard Ellipse Areas (SEAc) as a measure of community niche width were slightly larger in trawled areas, likely due to higher generalism triggered by alteration/removal of the original benthic community.

  18. afa-8 Gene cluster is carried by a pathogenicity island inserted into the tRNA(Phe) of human and bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Lalioui, L; Le Bouguénec, C

    2001-02-01

    We recently described a new afimbrial adhesin, AfaE-VIII, produced by animal strains associated with diarrhea and septicemia and by human isolates associated with extraintestinal infections. Here, we report that the afa-8 operon, encoding AfaE-VIII adhesin, from the human blood isolate Escherichia coli AL862 is carried by a 61-kb genomic region with characteristics typical of a pathogenicity island (PAI), including a size larger than 10 kb, the presence of an integrase-encoding gene, the insertion into a tRNA locus (pheR), and the presence of a small direct repeat at each extremity. Moreover, the G+C content of the afa-8 operon (46.4%) is lower than that of the E. coli K-12/MG1655 chromosome (50.8%). Within this PAI, designated PAI I(AL862), we identified open reading frames able to code for products similar to proteins involved in sugar utilization. Four probes spanning these sequences hybridized with 74.3% of pathogenic afa-8-positive E. coli strains isolated from humans and animals, 25% of human pathogenic afa-8-negative E. coli strains, and only 8% of fecal strains (P = 0.05), indicating that these sequences are strongly associated with the afa-8 operon and that this genetic association may define a PAI widely distributed among human and animal afa-8-positive strains. One of the distinctive features of this study is that E. coli AL862 also carries another afa-8-containing PAI (PAI II(AL862)), which appeared to be similar in size and genetic organization to PAI I(AL862) and was inserted into the pheV gene. We investigated the insertion sites of afa-8-containing PAI in human and bovine pathogenic E. coli strains and found that this PAI preferentially inserted into the pheV gene.

  19. Deciphering the lithological consequences of bottom trawling to sedimentary habitats on the shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Baasch, Benjamin; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Widespread bottom trawling on the NW Iberian shelf causes chronic sediment and habitat disturbance. The few studies that have investigated vessel-modified sedimentary-structure and texture of the seabed have typically classified their results as being either impacted by trawling or not. This study indicates that bottom trawling can result in a sequence of vastly different effects to the lithology of seabed sediment, which have in turn different ecological consequences. Here, we combined very high-resolution spatial bottom-trawling data with sedimentological (grain size, porosity) and geochemical datasets (excess 210Pb, 3D petroleum fingerprinting) to study sediment disturbance, including sorting and mixing. Our results were used to develop five conceptual disturbance scenarios: minimal seabed effects, sediment overturning, complete sediment mixing, sediment grading and layering, and loss of sediment. Considering that bottom trawling is a widespread and growing global fishing technique, such impacts need to be considered in the management of habitat conservation as well as in the reconstruction of late Holocene climate history from shallow-water deposits, not just on the NW Iberian shelf, but also globally.

  20. Trawling disturbance on the isotopic signature of a structure-building species, the sea urchin Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Irusta, José M.; Preciado, Izaskun; López-López, Lucia; Punzón, Antonio; Cartes, Joan E.; Serrano, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Bottom trawling is one of the main sources of anthropogenic disturbance in benthic habitats with important direct and indirect effects on the ecosystem functional diversity. In this study, the effect of this impact on a structure-building species, the sea urchin Gracilechinus acutus, was studied in the Central Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) comparing its isotopic signature and additional population descriptors across different trawling pressures. Trawling disturbance had a significant effect on the studied descriptors. In trawling areas, this urchin showed significantly lower values of biomass and mean size and significantly higher values of fullness index. Moreover, the trawling disturbance effect was also significant in the isotopic signature of G. acutus. Urchins inhabiting untrawled areas showed significant lower values of δ15N than urchins dwelling areas under trawling pressure. The urchins' isotopic enrichment increased along the species ontogeny regardless of the trawling effort level. Stable isotope analyses are a suitable tool to detect trawling disturbance on the trophic pathways but do not suffice to explain these changes, especially if there is a lack of baseline information.

  1. SUMMER FISH COMMUNITY OF THE COASTAL NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: CHARACTGERIZATION OF A LARGE-SCALE TRAWL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the trawled fish assemblage collected during 1992 - 1994 at 119 locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The 367 collection sites were located adjacent to five states and represented seven estuarine categories. Fish were collected using an otter trawl durin...

  2. Trawling-induced alterations of deep-sea sediment accumulation rates during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Paradis, S.; Masque, P.; Martin, J.; Juan, X.; Palanques, A.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial bottom trawling causes direct physical disturbance of the marine sedimentary environments by scraping and ploughing the seabed, generating periodic resuspension of surface sediments. However, the quantification of the sediment that is removed by trawling and exported across the continental margin remains largely unaddressed, and the preservation of the signal of such impacts in the geological record have been mostly overlooked. The analysis of sediment cores collected along the Catalan margin (NW Mediterranean) has allowed evaluating the contribution of this anthropogenic activity to the present-day sediment dynamics. Sediment cores at intensively trawled sites are characterized by over-consolidated sediments with lower 210Pb surface concentrations and inventories that indicate widespread erosion of recent sedimentary deposits. In turn, combined 210Pb and 137Cs chronologies indicate a significant increase of sediment accumulation rates within submarine canyon environments since the 1970s, coincidently with a strong impulse in the industrialization of the trawling fleets of this region. Two sampling sites that exhibited high sediment accumulation rates (0.6-0.7 cm/y) were reoccupied 1-2 decades after the first studies and revealed a second and even larger increase of sediment accumulation rates (>2 cm/y) occurring at the beginning of the XXI century. This recent change has been attributed to a preferential displacement of the trawling fleet towards fishing grounds surrounding submarine canyons and, also, to technical improvements in trawling vessels, presumably related to financial subsidies provided to the fishing sector. The alteration of sediment accumulation rates described in this continental margin may occur in many regions of the World's oceans given the wide geographical distribution of this human activity, and therefore, it could represent a potential marker of the Anthropocene in deep-sea environments.

  3. Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli infection in T84 cell monolayers induces increased neutrophil transepithelial migration, which in turn promotes cytokine-dependent upregulation of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Kansau, Imad; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are inflammatory bowel diseases thought to involve strains of Escherichia coli. We report here that two wild-type Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) strains, C1845 and IH11128, which harbor the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and the Dr hemagglutinin, respectively, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101, transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid to produce Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin, all induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in polarized monolayers of the human intestinal cell line T84 grown on semipermeable filters. We observed that after PMNL migration, expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the brush border-associated receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins, was strongly enhanced, increasing the adhesion of Afa/Dr DAEC bacteria. When examining the mechanism by which DAF expression was enhanced, we observed that the PMNL transepithelial migration induced epithelial synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta, which in turn promoted the upregulation of DAF.

  4. Epithelial cells secrete interleukin-8 in response to adhesion and invasion of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli lacking Afa/Dr genes.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Arikawa, Kentaro; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli that sparsely adhere to human epithelial cells are known as diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), and the role of the Afa/Dr family of adhesins is now understood. Strains that do not possess Afa/Dr, however, comprise another group of DAEC, of which the pathogenicity remains unknown. The ability to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from intestinal epithelial cells might be a feature of enterovirulent bacteria. We previously found that some Afa/Dr DAEC strains induce IL-8 by stimulating epithelial cells with flagella. The present study examines whether non-Afa/Dr DAEC can induce IL-8 in epithelial cells (HEp-2, INT407, and T84). Among 21 strains, 11 (52%; 11/21) induced as much IL-8 as high inducer strains of Afa/Dr DAEC. Adhesion did not significantly differ between high and low inducers; therefore diffuse adhesion alone is probably insufficient to induce IL-8. It was shown that IL-8 induction and the number of intracellular bacteria directly correlated. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase, reduced both intracellular bacteria and IL-8 secretion. Motile strains were significantly more prevalent among high (10/11) than low (4/10) inducers. However, 4 low invasive strains hardly induced IL-8 despite their motility. In conclusion, some non-Afa/Dr DAEC invoke the induction of high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Unlike Afa/Dr DAEC, however, non-Afa/Dr strains may require invasion to cause strong induction. These non-Afa/Dr high inducers can be enteropathogenic for the cytokine-inducing properties.

  5. Development and Exploratory Scale-Up of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Magee, John H; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J; Santella, Michael L; Pint, Bruce A; Bei, Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the continued development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides and intermetallic precipitates. Efforts in fiscal year 2009 focused on the characterization and understanding of long-term oxidation resistance and tensile properties as a function of alloy composition and microstructure. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2(Mo,Nb) base Laves phase precipitates were used to interpret oxidation behavior. Of particular interest was the enrichment of Cr in the austenitic matrix phase by additions of Nb, which aided the establishment and maintenance of alumina. Higher levels of Nb additions also increased the volume fraction of B2-NiAl precipitates, which served as an Al reservoir during long-term oxidation. Ageing studies of AFA alloys were conducted at 750C for times up to 2000 h. Ageing resulted in near doubling of yield strength at room temperature after only 50 h at 750C, with little further increase in yield strength out to 2000 h of ageing. Elongation was reduced on ageing; however, levels of 15-25% were retained at room temperature after 2000 h of total ageing.

  6. A Comparison of Tabulation Methods at Two National Individual Events Tournaments: The AFA-NIET and the NFA IE Nationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Robert S.

    Comparing the manner in which contestants' scores were tabulated at both the 1985 American Forensic Association National Individual Events Tournament (AFA-NIET) and National Forensic Association Individual Events Nationals (NFA-IEN), a study (1) examined whether a correlation exists between contestants placing in the quarterfinals with five…

  7. H genome specific repetitive sequence, pEt2, of Elymus trachycaulus in part of Afa family of Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Sasakuma, T

    1998-02-01

    The H genome specific repetitive sequence of Elymus trachycaulus, pEt2, consists of three units of a 337-339 bp repeat aligned in tandem. The sequence is homologous to Afa-family sequences that are widely distributed in the genomes of Triticeae (Gramineae) species.

  8. Use of a fishery-independent trawl survey to evaluate distribution patterns of subadult sharks in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the utility of a fishery-independent trawl survey for assessing a potential multispecies shark nursery in Georgia's nearshore and inshore waters. A total of 234 subadult sharks from six species were captured during 85 of 216 trawls. Catch rates and size distributions for subadult sharks and the ratio of neonates to juveniles were consistent among areas. The highest concentrations of subadult sharks occurred in creeks and sounds. Species composition varied among areas. The Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae was the most abundant species in sound and nearshore stations, whereas the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo was the most abundant species in creeks. The aggregate of other species occurred with higher frequency in the sounds and nearshore. Sampling characteristics of the trawl survey were compared with those from a fishery-independent longline survey of subadult sharks to assess the similarity of the two gears. A total of 193 subadult sharks from seven species were captured during 57 of 96 longline sets, whereas 52 subadults from four species were captured during 20 of 48 trawls. Selectivity and efficiency differed between the two gears. The trawl had lower catch rates, caught smaller sharks, and encountered a different suite of species than the longline. General seasonal trends in relative abundance also differed between the two gears; the longline showed an increasing trend in abundance, whereas the trawl showed a stable trend. Although trawls were not found to be efficient for sampling subadult sharks from most species, they can be a useful source of supplemental data.

  9. A ‘Simple Anterior Fish Excluder’ (SAFE) for Mitigating Penaeid-Trawl Bycatch

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew J.; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2015-01-01

    Various plastic strips and sheets (termed ‘simple anterior fish excluders’−SAFEs) were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels) were compared against a control (no SAFE) on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE (‘continuous plastic’) was subsequently tested (against a control) on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity. PMID:25837892

  10. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  14. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... swinging or fanning of the tail.” (2) (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will...

  15. Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Nick; Pantus, Francis; Welna, Andrzej; Butler, Alan

    2008-09-01

    A suite of management options for a prawn trawl fishery in Torres Strait, Australia was assessed for impacts on the benthic fauna using a dynamic management strategy evaluation approach. The specification of the management options was gained through consultation with stakeholders. Data for the model was drawn from several sources: the fleet data from fishery logbooks and satellite vessel monitoring systems, benthic depletion rates from trawl-down experiments, benthic recovery rates from post-experiment recovery monitoring studies, and benthic distribution from large-scale benthic surveys. Although there were large uncertainties in the resulting indicators, robust measures relevant to management were obtained by taking ratios relative to the status quo. The management control with the biggest effect was total effort; reducing trawl effort always led to increases in benthic faunal density of up to 10%. Spatial closures had a smaller benefit of up to 2%. The effect of closing a set of buffer zones around reefs to trawling was indistinguishable from the status quo option. Closing a larger area, however, was largely beneficial especially for sea cucumbers. When the spatial distributions of fauna prior to fishing were accounted for, fauna with distributions positively correlated with effort improved relative to those negatively correlated. The reduction in prawn catch under effort reduction scenarios could be ameliorated by introducing temporal closures over the full-moon period.

  16. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... swinging or fanning of the tail.” (2) (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will...

  17. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  18. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  19. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  20. 76 FR 54887 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... non-groundfish trawl fishery for pink shrimp because regulations do not specify a requirement to... for the state to be able to collect excise taxes and fees. The ex-vessel value will be also used in... revenue and tax purposes as required by the states. Even though the first receiver site license...

  1. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...This action revises several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations in response to a court order requiring the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. Additionally, NMFS......

  2. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  5. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Jørgensen, Ole Ankjær; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188–918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic habitats. This relates

  6. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Jørgensen, Ole Ankjær; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic habitats. This relates

  7. Sensitivity of macrobenthic secondary production to trawling in the English sector of the Greater North Sea: A biological trait approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Coggan, R. C.; Eggleton, J.; Diesing, M.; Stephens, D.

    2014-01-01

    Demersal trawling constitutes the most significant human impact on both the structure and functioning of coastal seabed fauna. While a number of studies have assessed the impacts of trawling on faunal community structure and the degree to which different taxa are vulnerable to trawling, few have focused on how these impacts affect important ecological functions of the seabed. In this study, we use biological trait analysis (BTA) to assess the relative sensitivity of benthic macrofauna to trawling, in both the short- and long-term, and use this information to describe the spatial variation in sensitivity of secondary production for the Greater North Sea (GNS). Within the GNS, estimates of total production varied by almost three orders of magnitude, from 1.66 kJ m- 2 y- 1 to 968.9 kJ m- 2 y- 1. Large-scale patterns were observed in the proportion of secondary production derived from trawling-sensitive taxa. In the southern North Sea, total production is predominantly governed by taxa with low sensitivity to trawling, whereas production is relatively trawling-sensitive in the northern North Sea and western English Channel. In general, the more sensitive and productive regions are associated with poorly-sorted, gravelly or muddy sediments, while the less sensitive and less productive regions are associated with well-sorted, sandy substrates. These relationships between production sensitivity and environmental features are primarily due to variations in long-term recovery; total production of most assemblages is highly sensitive to the direct impacts of trawling. We discuss the implications of these findings for management 1decisions to improve the environmental sustainability of trawling.

  8. Using marine reserves to manage impact of bottom trawl fisheries requires consideration of benthic food-web interactions.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, P Daniël; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; van Kooten, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely used to protect exploited fish species as well as to conserve marine habitats and their biodiversity. They have also become a popular management tool for bottom trawl fisheries, a common fishing technique on continental shelves worldwide. The effects of bottom trawling go far beyond the impact on target species, as trawls also affect other components of the benthic ecosystem and the seabed itself. This means that for bottom trawl fisheries, MPAs can potentially be used not only to conserve target species but also to reduce impact of these side effects of the fishery. However, predicting the protective effects of MPAs is complicated because the side effects of trawling potentially alter the food-web interactions between target and non-target species. These changes in predatory and competitive interactions among fish and benthic invertebrates may have important ramifications for MPAs as tools to manage or mitigate the effects of bottom trawling. Yet, in current theory regarding the functioning of MPAs in relation to bottom trawl fisheries, such predatory and competitive interactions between species are generally not taken into account. In this study, we discuss how food-web interactions that are potentially affected by bottom trawling may alter the effectiveness of MPAs to protect (1) biodiversity and marine habitats, (2) fish populations, (3) fisheries yield, and (4) trophic structure of the community. We make the case that in order to be applicable for bottom trawl fisheries, guidelines for the implementation of MPAs must consider their potential food-web effects, at the risk of failing management.

  9. How Many Fish Need to Be Measured to Effectively Evaluate Trawl Selectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan; Sala, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide practitioners working with trawl selectivity with general and easily understandable guidelines regarding the fish sampling effort necessary during sea trials. In particular, we focused on how many fish would need to be caught and length measured in a trawl haul in order to assess the selectivity parameters of the trawl at a designated uncertainty level. We also investigated the dependency of this uncertainty level on the experimental method used to collect data and on the potential effects of factors such as the size structure in the catch relative to the size selection of the gear. We based this study on simulated data created from two different fisheries: the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) trawl fishery and the Mediterranean Sea multispecies trawl fishery represented by red mullet (Mullus barbatus). We used these two completely different fisheries to obtain results that can be used as general guidelines for other fisheries. We found that the uncertainty in the selection parameters decreased with increasing number of fish measured and that this relationship could be described by a power model. The sampling effort needed to achieve a specific uncertainty level for the selection parameters was always lower for the covered codend method compared to the paired-gear method. In many cases, the number of fish that would need to be measured to maintain a specific uncertainty level was around 10 times higher for the paired-gear method than for the covered codend method. The trends observed for the effect of sampling effort in the two fishery cases investigated were similar; therefore the guidelines presented herein should be applicable to other fisheries. PMID:27560696

  10. How Many Fish Need to Be Measured to Effectively Evaluate Trawl Selectivity?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Bent; Sistiaga, Manu; Santos, Juan; Sala, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide practitioners working with trawl selectivity with general and easily understandable guidelines regarding the fish sampling effort necessary during sea trials. In particular, we focused on how many fish would need to be caught and length measured in a trawl haul in order to assess the selectivity parameters of the trawl at a designated uncertainty level. We also investigated the dependency of this uncertainty level on the experimental method used to collect data and on the potential effects of factors such as the size structure in the catch relative to the size selection of the gear. We based this study on simulated data created from two different fisheries: the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) trawl fishery and the Mediterranean Sea multispecies trawl fishery represented by red mullet (Mullus barbatus). We used these two completely different fisheries to obtain results that can be used as general guidelines for other fisheries. We found that the uncertainty in the selection parameters decreased with increasing number of fish measured and that this relationship could be described by a power model. The sampling effort needed to achieve a specific uncertainty level for the selection parameters was always lower for the covered codend method compared to the paired-gear method. In many cases, the number of fish that would need to be measured to maintain a specific uncertainty level was around 10 times higher for the paired-gear method than for the covered codend method. The trends observed for the effect of sampling effort in the two fishery cases investigated were similar; therefore the guidelines presented herein should be applicable to other fisheries.

  11. Impacts of trawling on benthic macro-fauna and -flora of the Spencer Gulf prawn fishing grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Ib; Hammett, Zoe; Lauer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The overall effects of trawling on benthic habitats and their assemblages are dependent on the distribution and intensity of trawl effort. The benthic habitats of the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are subjected to known variable levels of trawling disturbance recorded from fisher's logbooks. These habitats have not been quantitatively investigated. The aim of the study was firstly to characterise the macro-faunal and -floral assemblages and secondly, to comparatively assess trawl impact by testing the null hypothesis of no differences between five sites exposed to different intensity of trawl effort. The distribution and abundance of benthic macro-fauna and -flora were studied at two sampling resolutions by using beam trawl sampling (˜10,000 m 2) and underwater stereophotography (˜4.5 m 2) at five sites with different levels of trawl disturbance (effort). The results showed that the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are characterised by sandy sediments with a low content of silt and clay, with the exception of one site with very fine gravel. Biomass, abundance and cover of macro-fauna and -flora were generally low throughout, but with large differences among sites. Biomass, abundance and cover were found to be negatively correlated to both trawl hours from 1994-1998 and during the period of study. ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses using biomass, abundance and percentage cover as variables showed significant differences between sites with eight species or taxonomic groups contributing more than 10% to the observed similarity within sites. The two northern sites were dominated by sponges and the bearded mussel, Trichomya hirsutus, and the southern hammer oyster, Malleus meridianus. Other species that contributed to the similarity within sites were the ascidian, Polycarpa viridis, mobile epifauna (the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and the western king prawn, Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus) and demersal fish species (Degens leatherjacket, Thamnaconus

  12. CRADA No. NFE-10-02715 Assessment of AFA Stainless Steels for Tube Products in Chemical Processing and Energy Production Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Epler, Mario; Magee, John H

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (Carpenter) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to assess material properties of several potential AFA family grades and explore the feasibility of producing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels in tubular form needed for many power generation and chemical process applications. Carpenter's Research Laboratory successfully vacuum melted 30 lb heats of seven candidate AFA alloy compositions representing a wide range of alloy content and intended application temperatures. These compositions were evaluated by ORNL and Carpenter R&D for microstructure, tensile properties, creep properties, and oxidation resistance. In parallel, additional work was directed toward an initial tube manufacture demonstration of a baseline AFA alloy. Carpenter successfully manufactured a 10,000 lb production heat and delivered appropriate billets to a partner for extrusion evaluation. Tube product was successfully manufactured from the baseline AFA alloy, indicating good potential for commercially produced AFA tubular form material.

  13. Influence of bottom trawling on sediment resuspension in the `Grande-Vasière' area (Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengual, Baptiste; Cayocca, Florence; Le Hir, Pierre; Draye, Robin; Laffargue, Pascal; Vincent, Benoit; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Sea trials were performed on two zones with different fishing efforts on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay (`Grande-Vasière' area of muddy sand) in order to assess particulate matter resuspension and seabed disturbances (i.e., penetration, reworking, grain size changes) induced by different types of trawls. Optical and acoustic measurements made in the water column indicate a significant trawling-induced resuspension mainly due to the scraping action of doors. It manifests as a highly dynamic turbid plume confined near the seabed, where suspended sediment concentrations can reach 200 mg l-1. Concentration levels measured behind an "alternative" configuration (trawls with jumper doors instead of classical doors penetrating the sediment) are significantly lower (around 10-20 mg l-1), which indicates a potential limiting impact regarding the seabed. Grain size analyses of the surficial sediment led to highlight a potential reworking influence of bottom trawling. On the intensively trawled zone, this reworking manifests as an upward coarsening trend in the first 5 cm of the cores. A significant decrease in mud content (30 %) has been also witnessed on this zone between 1967 and 2014, which suggests an influence on the seabed evolution. The geometric analysis of bottom tracks (4-5-cm depth, 20-cm width) observed with a benthic video sledge was used to compute an experimental trawling-induced erosion rate of 0.13 kg m-2. This erosion rate was combined with fishing effort data, in order to estimate trawling-induced erosion fluxes which were then compared to natural erosion fluxes over the Grande-Vasière at monthly, seasonal and annual scales. Winter storms control the annual resuspended load and trawling contribution to annual resuspension is in the order of 1 %. However, results show that trawling resuspension can become dominant during the fishing high season (i.e., until several times the natural one in summer). In addition, the contribution of trawling

  14. Improving the design of acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification, with an application to Lake Michigan prey fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.V.; Argyle, R.L.; Fleischer, G.W.; Curtis, G.L.; Stickel, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable estimates of fish biomass are vital to the management of aquatic ecosystems and their associated fisheries. Acoustic and midwater trawl surveys are an efficient sampling method for estimating fish biomass in large bodies of water. To improve the precision of biomass estimates from combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys, sampling effort should be optimally allocated within each stage of the survey design. Based on information collected during fish surveys, we developed an approach to improve the design of combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification. Geographic strata for acoustic surveying and depth strata for midwater trawling were defined using neighbor-restricted cluster analysis, and the optimal allocation of sampling effort for each was then determined. As an example, we applied this survey stratification approach to data from lakewide acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of Lake Michigan prey fishes. Precision of biomass estimates from surveys with and without geographic stratification was compared through resampling. Use of geographic stratification with optimal sampling allocation reduced the variance of Lake Michigan acoustic biomass estimates by 77%. Stratification and optimal allocation at each stage of an acoustic and midwater trawl survey should serve to reduce the variance of the resulting biomass estimates.

  15. Anthropological facial approximation in three dimensions (AFA3D): computer-assisted estimation of the facial morphology using geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Dutailly, Bruno; Charton, Jérôme; Santos, Frédéric; Desbarats, Pascal; Coqueugniot, Hélène

    2014-11-01

    This study presents Anthropological Facial Approximation in Three Dimensions (AFA3D), a new computerized method for estimating face shape based on computed tomography (CT) scans of 500 French individuals. Facial soft tissue depths are estimated based on age, sex, corpulence, and craniometrics, and projected using reference planes to obtain the global facial appearance. Position and shape of the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears are inferred from cranial landmarks through geometric morphometrics. The 100 estimated cutaneous landmarks are then used to warp a generic face to the target facial approximation. A validation by re-sampling on a subsample demonstrated an average accuracy of c. 4 mm for the overall face. The resulting approximation is an objective probable facial shape, but is also synthetic (i.e., without texture), and therefore needs to be enhanced artistically prior to its use in forensic cases. AFA3D, integrated in the TIVMI software, is available freely for further testing.

  16. Vertical distribution of fish biomass in Lake Superior: Implications for day bottom trawl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Hrabik, T.R.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Holbrook, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the biases in sampling methodology is essential for understanding the limitations of abundance and biomass estimates of fish populations. Estimates from surveys that rely solely on bottom trawls may be particularly vulnerable to bias if pelagic fish are numerous. We evaluated the variability in the vertical distribution of fish biomass during the U.S. Geological Survey's annual spring bottom trawl survey of Lake Superior using concurrent hydroacoustic observations to (1) test the assumption that fish are generally demersal during the day and (2) evaluate the potential for predictive models to improve bottom trawl–determined biomass estimates. Our results indicate that the assumption that fish exhibit demersal behavior during the annual spring bottom trawl survey in Lake Superior is unfounded. Bottom trawl biomass (BBT) estimates (mean ± SE) for species known to exhibit pelagic behavior (cisco Coregonus artedi, bloater C. hoyi, kiyi C. kiyi, and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax; 3.01 ± 0.73 kg/ha) were not significantly greater than mean acoustic pelagic zone biomass (BAPZ) estimates (6.39 ± 2.03 kg/ha). Mean BAPZ estimates were 1.6- to 4.8-fold greater than mean BBT estimates over 4 years of sampling. The relationship between concurrent BAPZ and BBT estimates was marginally significant and highly variable. Predicted BAPZ estimates using cross-validation models were sensitive to adjustments for back-transforming from the logarithmic to the linear scale and poorly corresponded to observed BAPZ estimates. We conclude that statistical models to predict BAPZ from day BBT cannot be developed. We propose that night sampling with multiple gears will be necessary to generate better biomass estimates for management needs.

  17. USGS Lake Erie East Harbor bottom trawl data series, 1961-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The USGS Lake Erie Biological Station’s East Harbor sampling program began in 1961 with the commissioning of the research vessel Musky II. It is the longest known continuous trawl survey in Lake Erie. In addition to spanning over 50 years, the data series is unique for three prominent design elements: 1) sampling was conducted at three depth strata; 2) replicate trawl samples were collected at each depth stratum; and 3) sampling was conducted during both day and night. Unlike other trawl series collected in Lake Erie, and throughout the Great Lakes, the East Harbor program is the only one to combine these sampling practices in a single survey. In 2012, the original vessel used since the inception of the East Harbor program, the research vessel Musky II, was retired and replaced with a larger research vessel, Muskie. The change in vessel necessitated change in the trawl net and all of the rigging and hardware needed to tow it (LEBS, 2013). This effectively ended the time series of data, which were collected with the exact same vessel and sampling gear for 51 years. This historical data set has proven valuable for testing hypotheses about long-term ecological change and the impacts of non-native species invasions in the Great Lakes. Further, at various times through history it provided accurate predictions of recruitment for species, such as Yellow Perch, that support some of the most valuable fisheries in the Great Lakes. For future scientific endeavors, and to ensure this work is available to the public, we present here the entire data set from 1961 through 2011.

  18. Deep-sea ecosystem response to bottom trawling impacts: changes in sediment bioturbation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Martin, J.; Masque, P.; Mecho, A.; Company, J. B.; Palanques, A.

    2015-12-01

    Studies conducted in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) evidence that trawling activities along the canyon flanks cause resuspension and transport of sediments towards the canyon axis. The analysis of a sediment core collected at 1750 m in 2002 showed a doubling of the sediment accumulation rate since the 1970s, coincident with the rapid industrialization of the local trawling fleet. This occurred along with a change from bioturbated texture to well-preserved sedimentary layering, interpreted as depositional pulses of trawling-induced sediment gravity flows. The good preservation of these structures was explained as a temporary hampering of biological mixing, resulting from suffocation of bioturbating fauna. The same canyon area was revisited a decade later (2011) and new data are consistent with the sedimentary regime shift during the 1970s, but also suggest that the accumulation rate during the last decade is even greater than expected, approaching ~2.4 cm/y (compared to ~0.25 cm/y pre-1970s). The X-radiograph image from the 2011 sediment core also indicates that bioturbation, if hampered in the 2002 core, has been reactivated later. Various ichnofabrics observable in the 2011 core testify to a diverse bioturbating fauna, including a scolitia resulting from the burrowing activity of an endobenthic echinoid. Remotely operated vehicle images collected along the canyon axis seafloor evidenced a large presence and densities of the burrowing sea urchin Brissopsis lyrifera. This species has also been found in high densities in the neighbor Blanes canyon axis, while it was absent from the adjacent open slope. However, historical data indicate that B. lyrifera was present in high numbers in the slope region in previous decades, suggesting that trawling activities have modified the distribution of this burrowing species and that the canyon environment is currently functioning as refuge area that offers a suitable environment for their proliferation.

  19. Impact of natural (storm) and anthropogenic (trawling) sediment resuspension on particulate organic matter in coastal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusceddu, A.; Grémare, A.; Escoubeyrou, K.; Amouroux, J. M.; Fiordelmondo, C.; Danovaro, R.

    2005-12-01

    In order to assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension on quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability of particulate organic matter (POM), two field investigations were carried out in two shallow coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. In the Gulf of Lions, we investigated the impact of a storm resuspension of sediment, whereas in the Thermaikos Gulf we investigated the impact of bottom trawling. Resuspension in the Gulf of Lions determined the increase of sedimentation rates, modified the composition of the organic fraction of settling particles and decreased the labile fraction of POM, as indicated by a drop in the enzymatically hydrolysable amino acid fraction. The increase in the refractory fraction, following short-term storm-induced resuspension, increased also the contribution of glycine and decreased the contribution of aspartic acid contents to the total amino acid pools. Trawling activities in Thermaikos Gulf determined a significant increase in suspended POM concentrations and important changes in its biochemical composition. After trawling, the protein to carbohydrate ratio decreased (as a result of a major input of sedimentary carbohydrates at the water-sediment interface) and the fraction of enzymatically hydrolysable biopolymeric C decreased by ≈30%, thus reducing the bioavailability of resuspended organic particles. Results of the present study indicate that changes in suspended POM, induced by storms and trawling activities, can have similar consequences on benthic systems and on food webs. In fact, the potential benefit of increased organic particle concentration for suspension feeders, is depressed by the shift of suspended food particles towards a more refractory composition.

  20. Interleukin-8 secretion by epithelial cells infected with diffusely adherent Escherichia coli possessing Afa adhesin-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Kentaro; Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli that adhere sparsely to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells are known as diffusely adherent E. coli(DAEC) and considered potentially diarrheagenic. The role of the afimbrial adhesive sheath (Afa)-identified originally as a uropathogenic factor-in diffuse adhesion is now understood. However, the role of DAEC in diarrheal disease remains controversial. Recently, ability to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from intestinal epithelial cells has been suggested as one of the properties of enterovirulent bacteria. In this study, we examined whether DAEC strains possessing Afa genes induced IL-8 in cultures of human carcinoma epithelial cells (e.g., HEp-2, Caco-2, and T84). Nineteen afa-positive DAEC strains were examined for their ability to induce IL-8 secretion, and only 7 strains (37%; 7/19) induced IL-8 as much as enteroaggregative E. coli did. No marked differences in adhesion were observed between high and low inducers. Diffusive adhesiveness itself is unlikely to be sufficient to induce IL-8. All high inducers were motile and others were nonmotile. Additional stimulation by flagella may be required to cause high levels of chemokine induction. Motility or presence of flagella can be an important criterion to predict DAEC diarrheagenicity at clinical laboratories.